Treating Secondary Victims: Intervention with the Nonoffending Mother in the Incest Family

Books

Virginia C. Strand

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Dedication

    This book is dedicated to the hundreds of mothers of sexually abused children who have shared their lives with me and from whom I have learned most of what I know about the experiences of the nonoffending mothers of sexually abused children.

    Acknowledgments

    I want to thank a number of people without whose support this book would not have been possible. First, I thank Mary Ann Quanta, dean of the Graduate School of Social Service at Fordham University, for her trust in the process and her practical assistance in granting me course reduction to help the development of the book along. I also want to express my great appreciation to my friends and colleagues who read all or part of the manuscript and provided invaluable feedback and encouragement. They are (in alphabetical order) the following: Barbara Bernstein, Steve Forrester, Valerie Homan, Kenneth Lau, and Pat Lemp. Finally, special gratitude is due to Melinda Schneider, without whose tireless patience in tracking down references and typing endless revisions, this effort would not have come to fruition. Again, thanks to you all.

  • References

    Abbott, B. R.(1995). Some family considerations in assessment and case management of intrafilial child sexual abuse. In T. Ney (Ed.), True and false allegations of child sexual abuse: Assessment and case management (pp. 260–274). New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Abel, G. G., Becker, J. V., Cunningham-Rathner, J., Rouleau, J., Kaplan, M., & Reich, J.(1984). The treatment of child molesters. (Available from SBC-TM, 722 West 168th Street, Box 17, New York, NY 10032)
    Abel, G. G., Becker, J. V., Murphy, W. D., & Flanagan, B.(1981). Identifying dangerous child molesters. In R. B. Stuart (Ed.), Violent behavior. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Abel, G. G., Gore, D. K., Holland, C. L., Camp, N., Becker, J. V., & Rathner, J.(1989). The measurement of cognitive distortions in child molesters. Annals of Sex Research, 2, 135–153.
    Abel, G. G., Mittelman, M. S., Becker, J. V., & Djenderedjian, A.(1978). Differentiating sexual aggressiveness with penile measures. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 5, 315–332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009385487800500404
    Adams-Tucker, C.(1980). A socioclinical overview of 28 sex-abused children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 5, 361–367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2881%2990020-X
    Adoption and Safe Families Act. (1997). PL (105–89) of 1997
    Alpert, J.(1995). Sexual abuse recalled. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
    American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
    Anderson, L. M., & Shafer, G.(1979). The character-disordered family: A community treatment model for family abuse. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 49(3), 436–445. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1979.tb02626.x
    Apel, S.(1989). Custodial parents, child sexual abuse and the legal system: Beyond contempt. American University Law Review, 38(Spring), 491–529.
    Armsworth, M. W., & Holaday, M.(1993). The effects of psychological trauma on children and adolescents. Journal of Counseling and Development, 72, 49–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1993.tb02276.x
    Austin, W.(2000). Refugee experiences and Southeast Asain women's mental health. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 22(2), 164–166.
    Awad, G. A., & McDonough, H.(1991). Therapeutic management of sexual abuse allegations in custody and visitation disputes. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 45(1), 113–123.
    Barnard, C. P.(1983). Alcoholism and incest: Improving diagnostic comprehensiveness. International Journal of Family Therapy, 5(2), 136–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00924440
    Barrett, M., Trepper, T. S., & Fish, L. S.(1990). Feminist-informed family therapy or the treatment of intrafamily child sexual abuse. Journal of Family Psychology, 4(2), 151–166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.4.2.151
    Becker, J.(1990). Treating adolescent sex offenders. Professional Psychological Research and Practice, 21, 362–365. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.21.5.362
    Beitchman, J.H., Zucker, K.J., Hood, J.E., da Costa, G.A., & Akman, D.(1991). A review of short-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 15(4), 537–556. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2891%2990038-F
    Benjamin, J.(1984). The convergence of psychoanalysis and feminism: Gender identity and autonomy. In C. M. Brody (Ed.), Women therapists working with women (pp. 37–45). New York: Springer.
    Berliner, L., & Conte, J. R.(1990). The process of victimization: The victim's perspective. Child Abuse & Neglect, 14(1), 29–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2890%2990078-8
    Berliner, L., & Wheeler, J. R.(1987). Treating the effects of sexual abuse on children. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 415–434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626058700200407
    Berliner, L., & Wheeler, J. R.(1992). A review of the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 16(1), 101–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2892%2990011-F
    Birns, B., & Meyer, S. K.(1993). Mothers' role in incest: Dysfunctional women or dysfunctional theories. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 2(3), 127–135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J070v02n03_13
    Blake-White, J., & Kline, C. M.(1985). Treating the dissociative process in adult victims of childhood incest. Social Casework, 66(7), 394402.
    Bloch, J. R.(1991). Assessment and treatment of multiple personality and dissociative disorders. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press.
    Blush, G. J., & Ross, K. L.(1987). Sexual allegations in divorce: The SAID syndrome. Conciliation Courts Review, 25(1), 1–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.174-1617.1987.tb00155.x
    Boney-McCoy, S., & Finkelhor, D.(1996). Is youth victimization related to trauma symptoms and depression after controlling for prior symptoms and family relationships? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(6), 1406–1416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.64.6.1406
    Bowen, G. L., & Richman, J. M.(1991). The willingness of spouses to seek marriage and family counseling services. Journal of Primary Prevention, 11(4), 277–293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01325165
    Boyd-Franklin, N.(1989). Black families in therapy. New York: Guilford.
    Bradshaw, C. K.(1994). Asian and Asian American women: Historical and political considerations in psychotherapy. In L. Comas-Diaz & B. Greene (Eds.), Women of color: Integrating ethnic and gender identities in psychotherapy. New York: Guilford.
    Brandler, S., & Roman, C. P.(1991). Group work: Skills and strategies for effective interventions. New York: Haworth.
    Breese, P., Steams, G., & Bess, B. H.(1986). Allegations of child sexual abuse in child custody disputes. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 56(4), 560–569. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1986.tb03488.x
    Brende, J. O.(1983). A psychodynamic view of character pathology in Vietnam combat veterans. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 47, 193–216.
    Brende, J. O., & McCann, I. L.(1984). Regressive experiences in Vietnam veterans: Their relationship to war, post-traumatic stress symptoms andrecovery. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 14, 57–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00956736
    Brende, J. O., & Parson, E. R.(1985). Vietnam veterans: The road to recovery. New York: Plenum.
    Brickman, E.(1993). Final report: Child sexual abuse public policy study. New York: Victim Services.
    Briere, J.(1987). Post sexual abuse trauma: Data and implications. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2(4), 367–379. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626058700200403
    Briere, J.(1996). Therapy for adults molested as children: 2nd Edition. New York: Springer.
    Briere, J.(1992). Child abuse trauma. NewburyPark, CA: Sage.
    Briere, J.(1997a). Psychological assessment of adult posttraumatic stress. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10267-000
    Briere, J.(1197b). Treating adults serverely abused as children: The self-trauma model. In D.A. Wolfe, B. McMahon, & R. D. Peters (Eds.). Child abuse: New direction in treatment and prevention across the life span. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452231938
    Briere, J., & Runtz, M.(1986). Adolescent acting out and childhood history of sexual abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1(3), 326–333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626086001003005
    Brodsky, A. M., & Hare-Mustin, R.(1980). Psychotherapy and women: Priorities for research. In A. M. Brodsky & R. Hare-Mustin (Eds.), Women and psychotherapy (pp. 385–410). New York: Guilford.
    Brody, C.(1984). Women therapists working with women. New York: Springer.
    Burgess, A.(1987). Child molesting: Assessing impact in multiple victims (Part I). Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 1, 33–39.
    Cammaert, L. P.(1988). Nonoffending mothers: A new conceptualization. In L. E. A. Walker (Ed.), Handbook on sexual abuse of children: Assessment and treatment issues (pp. 309–323). New York: Springer.
    Campbell, R., Raja, S., & Grinig, P.L.(1999). Training mental health professionals on violence against women. Journals of Interpersonal Violence, 14(10), 1003–1013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626099014010001
    Caplan, P. J., & Hall-McCorquodale, I. H.(1985). Mother-blaming in major clinical journals. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 55(3), 345–353. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1985.tb03449.x
    Carnes, P.(1983). The sexual addiction. Minneapolis, MN: CompCare.
    Carter, B.(1993). Child sexual abuse: Impact on mothers. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work, 8(1), 72–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088610999300800106
    Casement, P. J.(1986). Countertransference and interpretation. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 22(4), 548–559.
    Chatters, L. M., Taylor, R. J., & Neighbors, H. W.(1989). Size of informal helper network mobilized during a serious personal problem among Black Americans. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 51, 667–676. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/352166
    Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act. PL (93–247), 1974.
    Chin, J. L.(1983). Diagnostic consideration in working with Asian Americans. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 53(1), 100–109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1983.tb03354.x
    Chodorow, N.(1978). The reproduction of mothering. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Ciottone, R. A., & Madonna, J. M.(1996). Play therapy with sexually abused children: A synergistic clinical-devdopmental approach. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
    Clark, C. A., O'Neil, M. R., & Laws, D. R.(1981). A comparison of intrafamilial sexual and physical abuse. In M. Cook & K. Howells (Eds.), Adult sexual interest in children (pp. 3–39). New York: Academic Press.
    Cohen, J. A., & Mannarino, A. P.(1998). Interventions for sexually abused children: Initial and outcome findings. Child Maltreatment, 3(1), 17–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077559598003001002
    Cole, W.(1992). Incest perpetrators: Their assessment and treatment. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 15(3), 689–701.
    Collings, S., & King, M.(1994). Ten-year follow-up of 50 patients with bulimia nervosa. British Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 80–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.164.1.80
    Comas-Diaz, L.(1989). Culturally relevant issues and treatment implications for Hispanics. In D. R. Koslow & E. Salett (Eds.), Crossing cultures in mental health (pp. 31–48). Washington, DC: Society for International Education Training and Research.
    Comas-Diaz, L.(1994) (Eds.). Women of color. Integrating ethnic and gender identities in psychotherapy. New York: Guilford.
    Conte, J.(1984). Progress in treating the sexual abuse of children. Social Work29(3), 258–263.
    Conte, J., & Berliner, L.(1981). Sexual abuse of children: Implications for practice. Social Casework, 62(10), 606–606.
    Conte, J., & Schuerman, J. R.(1987). The effects of sexual abuse on children: A multidimensional view. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2(4), 380–390.
    Coulson, K. W., Wallis, S., & Clark, H.(1994). The diversified team approach in the treatment of incest families. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 13(2), 19–43.
    Courtois, C.(1988). Healing the incest wound: Adult survivors in therapy. New York: Norton.
    Courtois, C.(1992). The memory retrieval process in incest survivor therapy. Journal of Child Sex Abuse, 7(1), 15–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J070v01n01_02
    Dadds, M., Smith, M., & Webber, Y.(1991). An exploration of family and individual profiles following father-daughter incest. Child Abuse & Neglect15(4), 575–586. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2891%2990041-B
    Davies, J.(1998). Safety planning with battered women. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452232034
    Deblinger, E., Hathaway, C. R., Lippmann, J., & Steer, R.(1993). Psychosocial characteristics and correlates of symptom distress in non-offending mothers of sexually abused children. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 8(2), 155–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626093008002001
    Deblinger, E., & Heflin, A.(1996). Treating sexually abused children and their non-offending parents. Rockville, MD: Launch.
    Deblinger, E., Stauffer, L., & Landsberg, C.(1994). The impact of a history of child sexual abuse on maternal response to allegations of sexual abuse concerning her child. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 3(3), 67r–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J070v03n03_05
    Dejong, A.(1988). Maternal responses to the sex of a child. Pediatrics, 81, 14–20.
    Dejong, P., & Miller, S. D.(1995). How to interview for client strengths. Social Work, 40(6), 729–736.
    DelPo, E. & Koontz, M. A.(1991). Group therapy with mothers of incest victims. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 5(2), 64–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9417%2805%2980018-4
    Derogatis, L. R.(1983). The SCL-90-R: Administration scoring and procedures manual-IL. Baltimore, MD: Clinical Psychometric Research.
    DeYoung, M.(1994). Women as mothers and wives in paternally incestuous families: Coping with role conflict. Child Abuse & Neglect18(1), 73–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2894%2990097-3
    Dinnerstein, D.(1977). The mermaid and the minotaur. New York: Harper & Row.
    Eist, H. I., & Mandel, A. U.(1968). Family treatment of ongoing incest behavior. Family Process, 7, 216–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1968.00216.x
    Elbow, M., & Mayfield, J.(1991). Mothers of incest victims: villains, victims or protectors? Families in Society, 72(2), 78–86.
    Elliott, D. M., & Briere, J.(1995). Posttraumatic stress associated with delayed recall of sexual abuse: A general population study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8, 629–642http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.2490080407
    Erikson, E. H.(1963). Childhood and society (2nd ed.). New York: Norton.
    Erikson, E. H.(1968). Identity, youth and crisis. New York: Norton.
    Ethical issues in the legal representation of children (special issue). (1996). Fordham Law Review, 64(4)
    Everson, M. D., Hunter, W. M., Runyon, D. K., Edelsohn, G. A., & Coulter, M. L.(1989). Maternal support following disclosure of incest. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 39(2), 197–207.
    Faller, K. C.(1988a). Child sexual abuse: An interdisciplinary manual for diagnosis, case management, and treatment. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Faller, K. C.(1988b). The myth of the collusive mother: Variability in the functioning of mothers of victims of intrafamilial sexual abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 3(2), 190–196.
    Faller, K. C.(1989). Why sexual abuse? An exploration of the intergenerational hypothesis. Child Abuse & Neglect, 13, 543–548. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2889%2990058-6
    Faller, K. C.(1991). Possible explanations for child sexual abuse allegations in divorce. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61(1), 86–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079227
    Faller, K. C, Corwin, D. L., & Olafson, E.(1993). Literature review: Research on false allegations of sexual abuse in divorce. The Advisor, 6(3), 7–10.
    Farber, N. B.(1989). The significance of aspirations among unmarried adolescent mothers. Social Service Review, 63(4), 518–532. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/603725
    Fausto-Sterling, A.(1985). Myths of gender. New York: Basic Books.
    Feinauer, L. L., Mitchell, J., Harper, J. M., & Dane, S.(1996). The impact of hardiness and severity of childhood sexual abuse on adult adjustment. American Journal of Family Therapy, 24(3), 206–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01926189608251034
    Finkelhor, D.(1979). Sexually victimized children. New York: Free Press.
    Finkelhor, D.(1989). Child sexual abuse: New theory and research. New York: Free Press.
    Finkelhor, D., & Browne, A.(1985). The traumatic impact of child sexual abuse: A conceptualization. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 55(4), 530–541. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1985.tb02703.x
    Finkelhor, D., Gelles, R., Hotaling, G., & Straus, M.(1983). The dark side of families. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Finkelhor, D., & Yllo, K.(1985). Thelicenseto rape: Sexual abuse of wives. New York: Free Press.
    Fish, V., & Faynik, C.(1989). Treatment of incest families with the father temporarily removed: A structural approach. Journal of Strategic and Systemic Therapies, 8(4), 53–63.
    Fredrickson, R.(1992). Repressed memories: A journey to recovery from sexual abuse. New York: Fireside.
    Freeman-Longo, F., Bird, S., Stevenson, W., & Fiske, J.(1995). Nationwide survey of treatment programs and models. Branden, VT: Safer Society.
    Friedrich, W. N.(1990). Psychotherapy of sexually abused children and their families. New York: Norton.
    Friedrich, W. N.(1991). Casebook of sexual abuse treatment. New York: Norton.
    Fullilove, M. T.(1993). Violence, trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder among women drug users. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 6(4), 533–543. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.2490060409
    Gardner, R. A.(1987). The parental alienation syndrome and the differentiation between fabricated and genuine child sexual abuse. Creskill, NJ: Creative Therapeutics.
    Gelinas, D. J.(1983). The persisting negative effects of incest. Psychiatry, 46, 312–332.
    Gelinas, D. J.(1987). Family therapy: Characteristic family constellation and basic therapeutic stance. In S. Sgroi (Ed.), Vulnerable populations: Evaluation and treatment of sexually abused children and adult survivors (pp. 25–49). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Gelles, R., & Straus, M.(1988). Intimate violence: The causes and consequences of abuse in the American family. New York: Touchstone.
    Giarretto, H.(1992). Integrated treatment of child abuse and neglect. Palo Alto, CA: Science Behavioral Books.
    Gil, E.(1991). The healing power of play. New York: Guilford.
    Gil, E., & Johnson, T. L.(1993). Sexualized children. Rockville, MD: Launch.
    Gil, E., & Johnson, T. L.(1996). Treating abused adolescents. New York: Guilford.
    Gilgun, J.(1984, Fall). Does the mother know? Alternatives to blaming mothers for child sexual abuse. Response, pp. 2–4.
    Gilligan, C.(1982). In a different voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Gomes-Schwartz, B. (Ed.). (1990). Child sexual abuse: The initial effects. NewburyPark, CA: Sage.
    Goodwin, J.(1988). Post-traumatic symptoms in abused children. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 1(4), 475–488. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.2490010407
    Gordon, M.(1989). The family environment of sexual abuse: A comparison of natal and stepfather abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 13(1), 121–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2889%2990035-5
    Green, A. H., Coupe, P., Fernandez, R., & Stevens, B.(1995). Incest revisited: Delayed post-traumatic stress disorder in mothers following the sexual abuse of their children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19(10), 1275–1282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2895%2900084-L
    Groth, A. N.(1979). Men who rape: The psychology of the offender. New York: Plenum.
    Gutheil, T. G., & Avery, N. C.(1977). Multiple overt incest as family defense against loss. Family Process, 16, 105–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1977.00105.x
    Gutierrez, L. M.(1990). Working with women of color: An empowerment perspective. Social Work, 35(2), 149–153.
    Hagood, M. M.(1991). Group art therapy with mothers of sexually abused children. Arts in Psychotherapy, 18(1), 17–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0197-4556%2891%2990004-T
    Halfon, N.(1990). Continuum of care models. Crack and other addictions: Old realities and new challenges for child welfare. In Proceedings of a symposium and policy recommendations, March 12–13, 1989. Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America.
    Harper, K. V., & Lantz, J.(1996). Cross-cultural practice. Chicago: Lyceum.
    Hartmann, H.(1958). Ego psychology and the problem of adaptation. New York: International Universities Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/13180-000
    Haskett, M. E., Nowlan, N. P., Hutchinson, J. S., & Whitworth, J. M.(1991). Factors associated with successful entry into therapy in childhood sexual abuse cases. Child Abuse & Neglect, 15(4), 467–476. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2891%2990030-H
    Helper, P. L., Quesda, G. M., & Chalfant, H. P.(1983). Class perceptions of disordered behavior and suggestions fortherapy: A tri-cultural comparison. Sociology of Health & Illness, 5(2), 196–207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep10491523
    Herman, J. L.(1981). Father-daughter incest. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Herman, J. L.(1992). Trauma and recovery. New York: Basic Books.
    Hewitt, S. K.(1991). Therapeutic management of preschool cases of alleged but unsubstantiated sexual abuse. Child Welfare, 70(1), 59–67.
    Hewitt, S. K.(1999). Assessing allegations of sexual abuse in preschool children. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452220505
    Hines, P. M.(1989). The family life cycle of poor Black families. In B. Carter & M. McGoldrick (Eds.), The changing life cycle (pp. 515–544). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Hooks, B.(1989). Talking back, thinking feminist, thinking Black. Boston: South End.
    Horowitz, M. J.(1975). Intrusive and repetitive thoughts after experimental stress. Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 1457–1468. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1975.01760290125015
    Horowitz, M. J.(1976). Stress response syndromes. New York: Jason Aronson.
    Horowitz, M. J.(1979). Psychological response to serious life events. In V. Hamilton & D. M. Warburton (Eds.), Human stress and cognition: An information processing approach (pp. 235–263). New York: John Wiley.
    Horton, A. L., Johnson, B. L., Roundy, L. M., & Williams, D. (Eds.). (1990). The incest perpetrator. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Humphreys, C.(1992). Disclosure of child sexual assault: Implications for mothers. Australian Social Work, 45(3), 27–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03124079208550152
    in re Gatdt.3Z7 USA(1967).
    James, B.(1989). Treating traumatized children. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Janoff-Bulman, R.(1986). The aftermath of victimization: Rebuilding shattered assumptions. In C. R. Figley (Ed.), Trauma and its wake: The study and treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (pp. 15–36). New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Janoff-Bulman, R.(1992). Shattered assumptions: Toward a new psychology of trauma. New York: Free Press.
    Jasinski, J. L., & Williams, L. M.(1998). Partner violence: A comprehensive review of 20 years of research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Johnson, T. C.(1988). Child perpetrators: Children who molest other children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 12(2), 219–230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2888%2990030-0
    Johnson, T. C.(1989). Female child perpetrators: Children who molest other children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 13(2), 571–586. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2889%2990061-6
    Jones, D. L.(1979). African-American clients: Clinical practice issues. Social Work, 24(2), 112–118.
    Jones, D. P. H., & McGraw, J. M.(1987). Reliable and fictitious accounts of sexual abuse to childern. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 27–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626087002001002
    Jordan, J. V.(1996). Women's growth in diversity. New York: Guilford.
    Jordan, J. V., Kaplan, A., Miller, J. B., Stiver, I. P., & Surrey, J. L.(1991). Women's growth in connection. New York: Guilford.
    Justice, B., & Justice, R.(1979). The broken taboo: Sex in the family. New York: Human Sciences.
    Kaufman, L., Peck, A. L., & Taguri, C. K.(1954). The family constellations and overt incestuous relations between father and daughter. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 24(2), 266–277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1954.tb02017.x
    Kempe, C. H., Silverman, F., Steele, B., Droegemueller, W., & Silver, H.(1962). The battered child syndrome. Journal of the American Medical Association, 181, 17–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1962.03050270019004
    Kendall-Tackett, K. A., Williams, L. M., & Finkelhor, D.(1993). Impact of sexual abuse on children: A review and synthesis of recent empirical studies. Psychological Bulletin, 113(1), 164–180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.113.1.164
    Kinard, E. M.(1996). Social support, competence, and depression in mothers of abused children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 66(3), 449–462. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0080195
    Kirkwood, C.(1993). Leaving abusive partners. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Kleinman, A. M., & Lin, T. Y.(1981). (Eds.), Normal and deviant behavior in Chinese culture. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: D. Reidel.
    Kliman, J.(1994). The interweaving of gender, class and race in family therapy. In M. P. Mirkin (Ed.), A guide to feminist family therapy (pp. 164–189). New York: Guilford.
    Knight, R.(1989). An assessment of the concurrent validity of a child molester typology. Journal of Interpersonal Violence4(2), 131–150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626089004002001
    Knight, R., Carter, D. L., & Prentky, R. A.(1989). A system for the classification of child molesters: Reliability and application. Journal of Interpersonal Violence4(1), 3–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626089004001001
    Knopp, F. H.(1984). Retraining adult sex offenders: Methods and models (Rev. ed.). Syracuse, NY: Safer Society Programs of the New York State Society of Churches.
    Kohut, H.(1977). The restoration of the self. New York: International Universities Press.
    Kolko, D. J., Moser, J. T., & Weldy, S. R.(1988). Behavioral emotional indicators of sexual abuse in child psychiatric inpatients: A controlled comparison with physical abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 12, 519–541. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2888%2990070-1
    Koopman, C, Gore-Felton, C, & Spiegel, D.(1997). Acute stress disorder symptons among female sexual abuse survivors seeking treatment. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse Volume, 6(3), 65–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J070v06n03_05
    Krystal, H.(1978). Trauma and affects. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 33, 81–187.
    Kulka, R. A., Veroff, J., & Douvan, E.(1979). Social class and the use of professional help for personal problems: 1957 and 1976. Journal of Health & Social Behavior, 20(1), 2–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136474
    Lang, R., Pugh, G., & Langevin, R.(1988). Treatment of incest and pedophile offenders: A pilot study. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 6, 239–255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bsl.2370060207
    Larson, N. R., & Maddock, J. W.(1986). Structural and functional variables in incest family systems: Implications for assessment and treatment. Journal of Psychotherapy and the Family, 2(2), 27–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J287v02n02_04
    Lauterbach, D., & Vrana, S.(1996). Three studies on the reliability and validity of a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder. Assessment, 3(1), 17–25.
    Lee, E.(1997). Overview: The assessment and treatment of Asian families. In E. Lee (Ed.). Working with Asian Families. New York; Guilford Press, pp. 3–36.
    Leifer, M., Shapiro, J. P., & Kassem, L.(1993). The impact of maternal history and behavior upon foster placement and adjustment in sexually abused girls. Child Abuse & Neglect, 17(6), 755–766. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2808%2980006-3
    Levin, A. E.(1992). Group work with parents in the family foster care system: A powerful method of engagement. Child Welfare, 71(5), 457–473.
    Leitenberg, H., Greenwald, E., & Cado, S.(1992). A retrospective study of long-term methods of coping with having been sexually abused during childhood. Child Abuse & Neglect, 16, 399–407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2892%2990049-W
    Lindberg, H. W., & Distad, L. J.(1985). Post-traumatic stress disorder in women who experienced childhood incest. Child Abuse & Neglect, 9, 329–334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2885%2990028-6
    Lipovsky, J. A., Saunders, B. E., & Murphy, S. M.(1989). Depression, anxiety, and behavior problems among victims of father-child sexual assault and nonabused siblings. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 4(4), 452–468. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626089004004005
    Loevinger, J., & Wessler, R.(1970). Measuring ego development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Lorenzo, M. K., & Adler, D. A.(1984). Mental health services for Chinese in a community mental health center. Social Casework, 65(10), 600–614.
    MacFarlane, K. (Ed.). (1986). Sexual abuse of young children. New York: Guilford.
    Machotka, P., Pittman, F., & Flomenhaft, S.(1967). Incest as a family affair. Family Process, 6(1), 98–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1967.00098.x
    Marshall, H.(1991). The social construction of motherhood: An analysis of childcare and parenting manuals. In A. Phoenix, A. Woollett, & E. Lloyd (Eds.), Motherhood: Meanings, practices and ideologies (pp. 66–85). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Marshall, W., & Anderson, D.(1996). An evaluation of the benefits of relapse prevention programs with sex offenders. Sexual Abuse: Journal of Research and Treatment, 8, 209–221.
    Marshall, W., & Barbaree, H.(1988). An outpatient treatment program for child molesters. Annuals of the New York Academy of Science, 528, 205–213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1988.tb42074.x
    Massat, C. R., & Lundy, M.(1998). “Reporting costs” to nonoffending parents in cases of intra-fa-milial child sexual abuse. Child Welfare, 78(4), 371–388.
    Mayer, A.(1988). Sex offenders: Approaches to under standing and management. Holmes Beach, FL: Learning Publications.
    McCann, I. L., & Pearlman, L. A.(1990). Psychological trauma and the adult survivor. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    McKinley, V.(1987). Group therapy as a treatment modality of special value for Hispanic patients. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 37(2), 255–268.
    McLeer, S. V., Deblinger, E., Atkins, M. S., Foa, E. B., & Ralphe, D. L.(1988). Post-traumatic stress disorders in sexually abused children: A prospective study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 138, 119–125.
    McLeer, S. V., Deblinger, E., Henry, D., & Orvaschel, H.(1992). Sexually abused children at high risk for PTSD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31(5), 875–879. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199209000-00015
    Meiselman, K.(1978). Incest. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Menicucci, L. D., & Wermuth, L.(1989). Expanding the family systems approach: Cultural class, developmental and gender influences in drug abuse. American Journal of Family Therapy, 17(2), 129–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01926188908250759
    Miller, A.(1984). Thou shalt not be aware: Society's betrayal of the child. New York: Farrar, Straus, & Giroux.
    Miller, J. B.(1983). The construction of anger in women and men. Wellesley, MA: Stone Center for Developmental Services & Studies, Wellesley College.
    Mills, L.(1996). Empowering battered women transnationally: The case for postmodern interventions. Social Work, 41(3), 261–268.
    Minuchin, P., Colapinta, J., & Minuchin, S.Working with families of the poor. New York: Guilford.
    Minuchin, S.(1974). Families and family therapy. Boston: Harvard University Press.
    Moore, K. A., Simms, M. C, & Betsey, C. I.(1986). Choice and circumstance: Racial differences in adolescent sexuality and fertility. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.
    Morrison, N. C, & Clavenna-Valleroy, J.(1998). Perceptions of maternal support as related to self-concept and self report of depression in sexually abused female adolescents. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 7(1), 23–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J070v07n01_02
    Mowrer, C.(1987, Spring). The family worker and the incestuous family: Integrating Levels of understanding: Part 2. Implications for risk assessment and treatment. Prevention Report, pp. 1–3.
    Mrazek, P., & Mrazek, D.(1981). Sexually abused children and their families. New York: Pergamon.
    Myer, J. L.(1992). Legal issues in child abuse and neglect. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452225562
    Myer, M. H.(1985). A new look at mothers of incest victims. Journal of Social Work and Human Sexuality, 3(2–3), 47–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J291v03n02_04
    Neighbors, H. W., & Jackson, J. S.(1984). The use of informal and formal help: Four patterns of illness behavior in the Black community:American Journal of Community Psychiatry, 12, 629–644. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00922616
    Newberger, C. M., Gremy, I. M., Waternaux, C. M., & Newberger, E. H.(1993). Mothers of sexually abused children: Trauma and repair in longitudinal perspective. AmericanJournal of Ortbopsychiatry, 63(1), 92–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079398
    Nichols-Casebolt, A. M.(1988). Black families headed by single mothers: Growing numbers of increasing poverty. Social Work, 33, 306–313.
    O'Connell, M. A.(1986). Reuniting incest offenders with their families. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1(3), 374–386. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626086001003009
    Ofshe, R.(1994). Making monsters. New York: Scribner.
    Palmer, R.(1997). Assessment and treatment of incest families. In B. K. Schwartz & H. R. Celline (Eds.), The sex offender (Vol. 2, pp. 18.1–18.12). Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute.
    Palombo, J.(1983). Borderline conditions: A perspective from self-psychology. Clinical Social Work Journal, 11(4), 323–338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00755899
    Parson, E. R.(1988). Post-traumatic self disorders: Theoretical and practical considerations in psychotherapy of Vietnam war veterans. In J. P. Wilson, Z. Hareel, & B. Kahana (Eds.), Human adaptation to extreme stress: From the Holocaust to Vietnam (pp. 245–284). New York: Plenum.
    Pellegrin, A., & Wagner, W. G.(1990). Child sexual abuse: Factors affecting victims' removal from home. Child Abuse & Neglect, 14(1), 53–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2890%2990080-D
    Pelton, L. H.(1985). The social context of child abuse and neglect. New York: Human Sciences.
    Peterson, R. F., Basta, S. M., & Dykstra, T. A.(1993). Mothers of molested children: Some comparisons of personality characteristics. Child Abuse & Neglect, 17(3), 409418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2893%2990064-C
    Phoenix, A., & Woollett, A.(1991). Motherhood: Social construction, policies and psychology. In A. Phoenix, A. Woollett, & E. Lloyd (Eds.), Motherhood: Meanings, practices and ideologies (pp. 13–27). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Pierce, R., & Pierce, L.(1985). The sexually abused child: A comparison of male and female victims. Child Abuse & Neglect, 9, 191–199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2885%2990011-0
    Pithers, W.(1988). Relapse prevention in a practitioner's guide to treating the incarcerated male sexual offender (pp. 123–140). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Prentky, R., & Burgess, A.(1990). Rehabilitation of child molesters: A cost benefit analysis. American Journal of Ortbopsychiatry, 60, 108–117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079197
    Prochaska, J. D., Declementa, C. C, & Norcross, J. C.(1992). In search of how people change: Applications to addictive behaviors. American Psychologist, 47(9), 1102–1114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.47.9.1102
    Report of the President's Commission on Mental Health. (1978). Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office.
    Rhodes, A. & Goering, P.(1998). Gender differences in the use of out patient mental health services. In B. L. Levin, A. K. Blanch (Eds). Women's mental health services, (pp. 19–33). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Ruderman, E.(1986). Gender-related themes of women psychotherapists in their treatment of women patients. Clinical Social Work Journal, 14(2), 103–126.
    Russell, D. E. H.(1984). Sexual exploitation: Rape, child sexual abuse and workplace harassment. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Russell, D. E. H.(1986). The secret trauma: Incest in the lives of girls and women. New York: Basic Books.
    Russell, D. E. H.(1990). Rape in marriage. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
    Saleebey, D.(1997). The strengths perspective in social work practice. New York: Longman.
    Salter, A. C.(1988). Treating child sex offenders and victims: A practical guide. NewburyPark, CA: Sage.
    Sato, M.(1980). Concept of shame and the mental health of Pacific Asian Americans. Exploration in Ethnic Studies, 3(1), 3–11.
    Saunders, J. E., Arata, C. M., & Kilpatrick, D. G.(1990). Development of a crime-related post-traumatic stress disorder scale for women within the Symptom Checklist-90—Revised. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 3(3), 439–448. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.2490030312
    Schwartz, B. K., & Cellini, H. R.(1995). The sex offender. (Vol. 1). Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute.
    Schwartz, B. K., & Cellini, H. R.(1997). The sex offender (Vol. 2). Kingston, NJ: Civic Research Institute.
    Sgroi, S.(1984). Handbook of clinical intervention in child sexual abuse. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Sgroi, S.(1988). Vulnerable populations: Education and treatment of sexually abused children and adult survivors. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Sirles, E. A., & Franke, P. J.(1989). Factors influencing mothers' reactions to intrafamily sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 13(1), 131–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2889%2990036-7
    Smith, T., & Wolfe, R.(1988). A treatment model for sexual aggression. Journal of Social Work and Human Sexuality, 7, 149–164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J291v07n01_11
    Steen, C, & Monnette, B.(1989). Treating adolescent sex offenders in the community. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
    Stern, S. B., & Azar, S. T.(1998). Integrating cognitive strategies into behavioral treatment for abusive parents and families with aggressive adolescents. Clinical Child & Psychology and Psychiatry, 3(3), 387–403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1359104598033005
    Stiver, I.(1991). Beyond the Oedipus complex: Mothers and daughters. In J. V. Jordan, A. G. Kaplan, J. B. Miller, I. P. Stiver, & J. L. Surrey (Eds.), Women's growth in connection (pp. 97–121). New York: Guilford.
    Strand, V.(1990). Treatment of the mother in the incest family: The beginning phase. Clinical Social Work Journal, 18(4), 353–366. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00754836
    Strand, V.(1991). Mid-phase treatment issues with the mother in the incest family. Clinical Social Work Journal, 19(4), 377–389. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00757440
    Straus, M. A.(1989). The national family violence surveys. In M. A. Straus & R. J. Gelles (Eds.), Physical violence in American families. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
    Sue, S., & McKinney, H.(1975). Asian Americans in the community men-tal health care system. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 45, 111–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1975.tb01172.x
    Sue, S., & Morishima, J.(1982). The mental health of Asian Americans: Contemporary issues in identifying and treating mental problems. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Sue, D. W., & Sue, D.(1999). Counseling the culturally different: Theory and Practice. (3rded.). New York: John Wiley and sons.
    Summit, R., & Kryso, J.(1978). Sexual abuse of children: A clinical spectrum. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 48, 237–251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1978.tb01312.x
    Surrey, J. C.(1991). The “self-in-relation”: A theory of women's development. In J. V. Jordan, A. G. Kaplan, J. B. Miller, I. P. Stiver, & J. L. Surrey (Eds.), Women growth in connection (pp. 51–66). New York: Guilford.
    Tamraz, D. N.(1996). Non-offending mothers of sexually abused children: Comparison of opinions and research. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 5(4), 75–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J070v05n04_05
    Tarasoff v. Regents of University of California. 529 P. 2nd 553 (1974).
    Taubman, S.(1984). Incest in context. Social Work, 29(1), 35–40.
    Taylor, M.(1999). Changing what has gone before: The enhancement of an inadequate psychology through the use of an Afrocentric-feminist perspective with African American women in therapy. Psychotherapy, 36(2), 170–179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0087731
    Thoennes, N., & Tjaden, P. G.(1990). The extent, nature, and validity of sexual abuse allegations in custody/visitation disputes. Child Abuse & Neglect, 14(2), 151–163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2890%2990026-P
    Timmons-Mitchell, J., Chandler-Holtz, D., & Semple, W. E.(1996). Post-traumatic stress symptoms in mothers following children's reports of sexual abuse: An exploratory study. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 66(3), 463–467. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0080196
    Trepper, T., & Barrett, M. J.(1986). Treating incest: A multimodal systems perspective. Journal of Psychotherapy and the Family, 2(2), 5–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J287v02n02_02
    Trepper, T., & Barrett, M. J.(1989). Systemic treatment of incest: A therapeutic handbook. New York: Brunel/Mazel.
    Tsui, A. M.(1985). Psychotherapeutic considerations in sexual counseling for Asian immigrants. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 22, 357–362. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0085515
    Van Den Bergh, N.(1995). Feminist practice in the 21st century. Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers Press.
    Van der Kolk, B. A., McFarlane, A. C, & Weisaeth, L.(1996). (Eds.). Traumatic stress: The effects of overwhelming experience on mind, body, and society. New York: Guilford
    Van der Kolk, B. A., & Fisler, R. E.(1994). Childhood abuse and neglect and loss of self-regulation. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 58(2), 145–168.
    Van der Veer, G.(1998). Counseling and therapy with refugees and victims of trauma.
    (3rd Ed.)
    New York: John Wiley and Sons.
    Vander Mey, B.J., & Neff, R. L.(1986). Incest as child abuse: Research and applications. New York: Praeger.
    Vander Mey, B. J., & Neff, R. L.(1988). The sexual victimization of male children: A review of previous research. Child Abuse & Neglect, 12, 61–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2888%2990008-7
    Vargas, L. A., & Willis, D. J.(1994). New directions in the treatment of ethnic minority children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23, 2–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp2301_1
    Wagner, W. G.(1991). Depression in mothers of sexually abused vs. mothers of non-abused children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 15, 99–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2891%2990094-T
    Walker, L. E.(1985). Feminist therapy with victims/survivors of interpersonal violence. In L. B. Rosewater & L. E. Walker (Eds.), Handbook of feminist therapy (pp. 201–214). New York: Springer.
    Walker, L. E. (Ed.). (1988). Handbook on sexual abuse of children: Assessment and treatment issues (pp. 309–323). New York: Springer.
    Walters, M., Carter, B., Papp, P., & Silverstein, O.(1988). The invisible web. New York: Guilford.
    Wattenberg, E.(1985). In a different light: A feminist perspective on the role of the mother in father-daughter incest. Child Welfare, 64, 203–211.
    Weinberg, S. K.(1955). Incest behavior. New York: Citadel.
    Wells, L.(1981). Family pathology and father-daughter incest. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 42, 197–302.
    Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S.(1992). Overcoming the odds: High risk children from birth to adulthood. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    White, R. W.(1974). Strategies of adaptation: An attempt at systemic description. In G. Coelho, D. Hamburg, & J. Adams (Eds.), Copingand adaptation (pp. 47–68). New York: BasicBooks.
    Williams, O. J., & Becker, R. L.(1994). Domestic partner abuse treatment programs and cultural competence: The results of a national survey. Violence and Victims, 9(3), 287–296.
    Wilson, M. K.(1995). A preliminary report on ego development in non-offending mothers of sexually abused children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19(4), 511–518. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2895%2900001-O
    Woollett, A.(1991). Having children: Accounts of childless women and women with reproductive problems. In A. Phoenix, A. Woollett, & E. Lloyd (Eds.), Motherhood: Meanings, practices and ideologies (pp. 47–65). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Wyatt, G. E., & Mickey, M. R.(1987). Ameliorating the effects of child sexual abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2(4), 403–414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626058700200406
    Wyatt, G. E., & Powell, G. J.(1988). The lasting effects of child sexual abuse. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Yalom, I. D.(1985). The theory and practice of group psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.
    Zuelzer, M. B., & Reposa, R. E.(1983). Mothers in incestuous families. International Journal of Family Therapy, 5(2), 98–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00924437

    About the Authors

    Virginia C. Strand, MSW., is Associate Professor at Fordham University Graduate School of Social Service, as well as the director of Children FIRST, a research and training institute that supports programs focused on enhancing intervention with children and their families. She continues to maintain a psychotherapy practice specializing in the assessment and treatment of sexually abused children and their family members and has worked directly for more than 20 years with nonoffending mothers. Prior to coming to Fordham University in 1988, she supervised specialized treatment programs for incest victims and their families at two different mental health clinics, one in New York and one in Minnesota. She currently lives in White Plains, New York.


    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website