Travel and Tourism


Richard Sharpley

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  • Glossary

    AcculturationWhen two cultures come into contact, one gradually takes on the characteristics of the other.
    Adventure tourismTourism that involves exciting, new or adventurous experiences or activities.
    AlienationA sense of placelessness, of not belonging, of meaninglessness in modern society.
    All-inclusiveA holiday where all services, facilities and entertainment are included in the price.
    AllocentricAllocentric refers to tourists who are outgoing, adventurous, risk-takers.
    Alternative tourismA term that collectively describes forms of tourism that are an alternative to mass tourism.
    AnomieSee alienation.
    ArchitecturalVisual pollution created by the building of
    pollutioninappropriate structures, such as large, multistorey hotels, that do not fit with local styles and scale.
    Augmented productThe additional or ‘value-added’ benefits of a product or service beyond the ‘core’ product.
    AuthenticityUsually meaning genuine or real, in tourism it refers to places or events that are ‘traditional’ (i.e. pre-modern/undeveloped) or certain types of travel experiences.
    Backward linkagesWhere the development of tourism stimulates other sectors of the destination economy, such as farming/food production.
    Barriers to travel and tourismFactors, such as wars, terrorism, health scares and so on, that act to limit the growth of tourism.
    Business travelTravel undertaken for the purpose of conducting business.
    CabotageThe right of an airline based in one country to operate between two other countries.
    Chain hotelA hotel that is part of a larger group, either through direct ownership or an alliance arrangement, such as franchising or management contracts.
    Chain of distributionThe chain along which a product passes, from the producer to the consumer.
    ClassificationThe classifying of accommodation providers by the facilities provided (e.g. number of en-suite bathrooms), but not by the quality.
    ClustersGroups of businesses related by product or markets that work together for mutual benefit.
    CommodificationCultural objects or events not normally available for sale are commodified when they are purchased by tourists; they become a tourism commodity consumed by tourists for a price.
    Consumer cultureThe practice of consumption (buying or having things) has a cultural significance as well as fulfilling utilitarian needs. Usually, it is associated with creating self-identity or status.
    Core productThe basic or main product, such as a seat on a plane or a room in a hotel.
    Critical massThe volume or number of attractions necessary to ensure a constant and appropriate flow of tourists to a destination.
    CTOCaribbean Tourism Organization, which promotes tourism to the Caribbean, and collects and disseminates research data.
    Cultural impactsThe long-term impacts on a destination society's culture or way of life.
    Dark tourismTourism to sites or attractions that are associated with death and disaster.
    Day tripperA tourist on a day visit from home.
    Demand curveGraph that depicts the relationship between the price and demand for a good or service. Typically, as the price rises, demand falls and vice versa.
    Democratisation of tourismThe process whereby travel and tourism has been transformed from an exclusive activity into one increasingly available to the masses.
    DeregulationThe process within the USA of removing restrictive trade practices and increasing competition within the airline sector.
    Directional sellingTravel retailers favouring or promoting their parent company's products.
    DisintermediationThe removal or leap-frogging of intermediaries (wholesalers/retailers) in the chain of distributionbetween producers and customers.
    Domestic tourismTourists travelling/taking holidays in their own country.
    Dynamic packagingThe process whereby customers create their own package holiday from flights, accommodation and services sold on the same website.
    Economic impactsThe economic costs and benefits to the destination of developing tourism.
    EcotourismA contentious term that describes tourism in natural areas, which is mutually beneficial to the environment, local communities and tourists themselves.
    EdutainmentA form of experience where education is combined with entertainment.
    Ego-enhancementA motivational factor characterised by the need to feel better about oneself; to achieve personal reward from the tourism experience.
    Elasticity of demand/supplyThe responsiveness of demand or supply to changes in price.
    Environmental impactsThe positive and negative consequences of tourism on the destination's physical environment.
    E.tailingRetailing utilising information technology, specifically the Internet.
    E.tourismA term that collectively refers to the use of information and communication technologies in tourism.
    ExcursionistA tourist on a brief trip not involving an overnight stay. Typically, the term refers to on-shore trips by cruise ship passengers.
    Five freedomsThe freedoms necessary for international airlines to operate on specified routes.
    Flagship attractionThe major attraction at a destination, which supports the development of other, smaller attractions and associated facilities for tourists.
    Fordist productionA method of mass production ‘invented’ by Henry Ford, characterised by high set-up costs, low unit costs, standardized products and production, and the production line.
    GDSGlobal distribution system, a worldwide computer-based reservation system.
    GradingThe qualitative assessment of the facilities and services provided by an accommodation establishment (e.g. its star rating).
    Grand TourA circuit of Europe undertaken by the wealthy during the 17th and 19th centuries.
    Heritage attractionsAttractions that represent or are related to a destination's social, cultural or natural history.
    Horizontal integrationIntegration within the same sector of the tourism industry (at the same level in the chain of distribution).
    Hospitality industryThe industry that embraces hotels (lodging) and catering (the provision of food, drink and, where relevant, entertainment).
    Hotel consortiumA group of independent hotels that work together for economies of scale in marketing and purchasing.
    Hub-and-spoke systemsInternational airlines fly out of major (hub) airports; they also fly shorter, usually domestic routes (spokes) into the hub as feeders for international flights.
    Inclusive tourAlso called a package tour, where two or more elements of a holiday are included in the total price.
    Independent hotelA hotel that is not part of a chain but that may belong to a consortium.
    InseparabilityA characteristic of a service, whereby the production and consumption of a service cannot be separated.
    IntermediariesMiddle-men’ in the tourism chain of distribution, between producers (hotels, airlines, etc.) and consumers (tourists). Tour operators and travel agents are intermediaries.
    International developmentThe process of socio-economic development at the global level.
    International tourismTourism that involves travel across national borders.
    International tourism receiptsThe spending of international tourists measured at the destinational, regional, national or international level.
    International tourist arrivalsThe number of international tourists visiting a destination or country.
    InversionFor tourists, the temporary reversal of their normal life.
    Island tourismTourism that occurs to and on islands.
    ITCInclusive tour by charter flight.
    ITXInclusive tour by scheduled flight.
    Least developed countriesThe forty or so poorest countries in the world.
    LiberalisationThe process within Europe of removing restrictive trade practices and increasing competition within the airline sector.
    LiminalityWhere tourists have passed through the threshold of their normal lives to an existence where normal rules or routines are temporarily suspended.
    Load factorsThe proportion of an aircraft's seats that must be sold to break even. Charter flights or low-cost airlines have much higher load factors than scheduled flights.
    Long haulFlights that are over four hours in duration.
    LudicForms of tourist behaviour that can be described as play, usually unrestricted by conventional social rules of the tourist's home society.
    Macro-economicsThe study of the total effects of economic phenomena affecting the local, national or international economy.
    Marine tourismA form of special-interest tourism related to an interest in the sea and marine life.
    Market segmentationThe practice of dividing markets into subgroups.
    Market segmentsSubgroups of total markets that share similar characteristics.
    Marketing mixOften referred to as the four ‘Ps’, the marketing mix represents the variables that businesses manipulate to achieve their marketing objective.
    Mass tourismThe movement of large numbers of tourists to holiday destinations, most commonly associated with summer-sun package tourism.
    Micro-economicsEconomic analysis at the level of the individual people or businesses.
    MultiplesLarge travel agency chains (as distinct from independent travel retailers) often owned by a tour operator.
    Multiplier effectThe extent to which the value of direct tourist expenditure is multiplied by successive indirect and induced expenditure in the destination.
    National tourist boardUsually a public sector organisation that has the responsibility for marketing and developing a county's tourism sector.
    New touristContrasted with the mass package tourist, the new tourist is more adventurous, environmentally aware, flexible, quality conscious and so on.
    Occupancy levelThe measure of the number/proportion of a hotel's rooms or beds that are sold either at a point in time or averaged over a period.
    Opportunity costsA term in economics referring to the potential cost of rejecting one course of action in favour of another.
    Package tourA holiday that is a combination of two or more elements, typically transport and accommodation.
    PATAThe Pacific Asia Tourism Association, which promotes tourism in the Pacific Asia region as well as providing information, undertaking research and supporting education and training in tourism.
    PeriodicityA term to describe different levels of demand over a period, such as a week.
    Physical carrying capacityThe capacity of a destination, attraction or facility to absorb tourists.
    Place marketingThe process of identifying a place as a ‘place product’ and promoting it to meet visitors’ needs.
    Pleasure peripheryThe tourist receiving countries that are increasingly distant from the main (‘core’) tourism-generating countries.
    Post-touristPostmodern tourists, who seek variety and who view tourism as a game.
    Primary dataOriginal information generated by research.
    PrincipalsProducers within the travel industry, including airlines, hotels and attractions.
    Pro-poor tourismTourism development that purposefully contributes to the socio-economic improvement of the word's poorer societies.
    PsychocentricThe opposite of allocentric, psychocentrics are inwardly focused, unadventurous and risk-averse.
    Pull factorsCharacteristics of a destination that pull tourists towards choosing it for a holiday.
    Push factorsPersonal, psychological factors or needs that push or motivate tourists to participate in tourism.
    Reference groupA social group against which an individual measures himself/herself, or judges his/her own values and behaviour.
    RegressionThe return to a child-like existence, to nature or to innocence.
    Religious tourismA form of tourism that is undertaken wholly or partly for religious reasons.
    Room ratesThe prices charged for a hotel room. These are often lower than the ‘rack rate’ (the published price for a room).
    Rural tourismTourism that occurs in rural areas/the countryside, and is traditionally considered to be rural in character.
    SeasonalityRecurring, and usually regular, fluctuations in the demand for tourism to a particular destination.
    Secondary dataInformation that already exists in the public domain. Service industry A business that ‘produces’ services as opposed to physical goods.
    Short haulFlights that are up to four hours in duration.
    Short take-off and landing (STOL)Aircraft that are able to use short runways, usually at airports close to urban centres.
    SMEsSmall-to medium-sized enterprises.
    Social impactsThe immediate positive and negative consequences of tourism development on destination societies.
    Societal marketingAn approach to marketing that reflects an organisation's social and environmental responsibility.
    Special interest tourismTourism that is motivated by a specific activity, interest or hobby.
    Sport tourismTourism involving participation in or attendance at sporting events.
    Staged authenticityRituals, events, shows and other performances that appear authentic but are artificially constructed or staged out of context for the benefit of tourists.
    Strategic allianceWhere two or more businesses, such as airlines, collaborate to gain competitive advantage.
    Strategic driftThe loss of focus or direction experienced by organisations that do not have a strategy.
    Supply curveA graph that depicts the relationship between the cost and supply of a product or service.
    Sustainable tourism developmentTourism that, ideally, contributes positively to the sustainable socio-economic development of the destination.
    SymbiosisA mutually beneficial relationship between, for example, tourism and the destination environment.
    Total tourism productThe complete tourism experience from leaving home to returning.
    Tourism demand processThe process through which tourists select, experience and evaluate tourism.
    Tourism development modelsDifferent conceptual models of how tourism may be developed.
    Tourism industryThe organisations and businesses that collectively provide or facilitate tourism experiences.
    Tourism satellite accountA measure of the total economic contribution of tourism (direct and indirect) to a country's economy.
    Tourism systemThe concept of tourism as an interlinking system involving three regions: the generating, transit and destination regions.
    Tourist motivationThe process by which an individual's needs are translated into goal-oriented behaviour; the trigger that starts the tourism demand process.
    Tourist typologiesCategorisations of tourists based upon different parameters.
    Travel advisoryOfficial government advice on the safety of travel to destinations.
    Travel career ladderAs tourists become more experienced, they ‘climb the ladder’ of tourism, seeking different, more adventurous or individual experiences.
    Urban-rural continuumA term that refers to the increasing ‘rurality’ of the countryside the more distant it lies from the urban fringe.
    Urban tourismTourism that occurs in towns and cities.
    VALSValues and Lifestyle Scale, a market segmentation model based on people's needs, wants and attitudes.
    Vertical integrationIntegration between organisations higher up (backwards) or further down (forwards) the chain of distribution.
    Visitor managementThe process of managing the behaviour of tourists to minimise their negative impact on the destination environment.
    Wine tourismA type of special interest tourism that is motivated by an interest in wine.
    World Tourism OrganizationThe world's leading tourism organisation, entrusted by the United Nations with the development and promotion of tourism.
    World Travel and Tourism CouncilAn organisation whose members are chief executives of major travel and tourism businesses and which works to promote the economic benefits of tourism development.
    Yield managementMaximising revenue from the sale of hotel rooms, flights or holidays by raising or lowering the price according to demand.
    Youth tourismAll forms of tourism undertaken by young people, typically the 15–24 age group.


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