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Atypical Sexual Differentiation
Atypical sexual differentiation
Introduction

Under ordinary circumstances each step in the sexual differentiation process is contingent upon and consistent with the former. In intersex conditions, there are incongruities between one or more steps in sexual differentiation (chromosomal, gonadal, hormonal, or genital). At a certain point the development deviates from the normal male or female route (Table 3.1). Prevalence figures for intersex conditions are not known. Depending on the definition of intersex, population estimates range from 0.1 to 2% (Blackless et al., 2000).

TABLE 3.1 Chromosomes, Gonads, Sex Hormones, and Genital Structures in Men, Women, and Some Intersex Conditions

At fertilization, when chromosomal sex is established, an unusual chromosome configuration may develop. Examples of such configurations are karyotypes of 47,XXY (Klinefelter Syndrome, KS) or 45,XO (Turner ...

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