Transforming the European Nation-State: Dynamics of Internationalization

Books

Kjell Goldmann

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Sage Politics Texts

    Series Editor

    IAN HOLLIDAY

    City University of Hong Kong

    SAGE Politics Texts offer authoritative and accessible analyses of core issues in contemporary political science and international relations. Each text combines a comprehensive overview of key debates and concepts with fresh and original insights. By extending across all main areas of the discipline, SAGE Politics Texts constitute a comprehensive body of contemporary analysis. They are ideal for use on advanced courses and in research.

    Published titles:

    The Politics of Central Europe

    Attila Ágh

    The New Politics of Welfare

    Bill Jordan

    Rethinking Green Politics

    John Barry

    Democracy and Democratization

    John Nagle and Alison Mahr

    International Political Theory

    Kimberly Hutchings

    Politics and Society in South Africa

    Daryl Glaser

    Theorizing European Integration

    Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Local Governance in Western Europe

    Peter John

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    List of Figures and Tables

    Figures
    • 2.1 A Model of Internationalization 25
    • 2.2 Internationalization: Five Typesl of Dynamics 50
    • 3.1 Three Approaches to the Study of Internationalization and the Nation-State 60
    • 7.1 A Model of Accountability 146
    • 8.1 A Revised Model of Internationalization 179
    • 8.2 Internationalization as a Decision-Making Problem 183
    Tables
    • 1.1 Foreign Trade Quotas of Four European Countries, 1950–92 13
    • 1.2 Foreign Investment Quotas of Four European Countries, 1960–95 13
    • 1.3 Foreign Trade Quotas, 1996 14
    • 1.4 Foreign Share of the Film Market in Four European Countries, 1955–92 15
    • 1.5 Per Cent Foreigners in Four European Countries, 1955–94 15
    • 3.1 Internationalization and the Nation-State: Six Issues 71
    • 4.1 Difference of Opinion Between the Elite and the Public About the Eu in the Mid-1990s 77
    • 4.2 Conceptions of Identity, April-May 2000 99
    • 5.1 The National View of the Nation: Framework of Analysis 108
    • 7.1 Internationalization from Three Democratic Points of View 143

    List of Abbreviations

    ASEANAssociation of South East Asian Nations
    BBCBritish Broadcasting Corporation
    BVerfGBundesverfassungsgericht
    CAPCommon Agricultural Policy
    CEUCouncil of the European Union
    CNNCable News Network
    COREPERCommittee of Permanent Representatives
    CSCEConference on Security and Co-operation in Europe
    DSBDispute Settlement Body
    DUPIDansk Udenrigspolitisk Institut
    ECEuropean Community
    ECJEuropean Court of Justice
    ECSCEuropean Coal and Steel Community
    ECTSEuropean Credit Transfer System
    EDUEuropean Drug Unit
    EEAEuropean Environmental Agency
    EEBEuropean Environmental Bureau
    EECEuropean Economic Community
    EFTAEuropean Free Trade Area
    EPEuropean Parliament
    ERMExchange Rate Mechanism
    EUEuropean Union
    EuropolEuropean Police Office
    GATTGeneral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
    GDPGross Domestic Product
    ICOinternational criminal organization
    IGOintergovernmental organization
    InterpolInternational Criminal Police Organization
    MCAmonetary compensatory amount
    MDFHungarian Democratic Forum
    MLGmulti-level governance
    NAFTANorth American Free Trade Agreement
    NATONorth Atlantic Treaty Organization
    NGOnongovernmental organization
    OECDOrganization for Economic Co-operation and Development
    OEECOrganization for European Economic Co-operation
    OKorganisierte Kriminalität
    OSCEOrganization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
    QMVqualified majority voting
    RTERadio Telefís Éireann
    SEATEuropean office of the Friends of the Earth
    TEUTreaty on European Union
    TREVITerrorisme, radicalisme et violence internationale
    UKUnited Kingdom
    UNUnited Nations
    UNEPUnited Nations Environment Programme
    USUnited States
    USSRUnion of Soviet Socialist Republics
    WCDWorld Commission on Dams
    WTOWorld Trade Organization
    WWFWorldwide Fund for Nature

    Preface

    The transformation this book is concerned with is internationalization, which is widely seen as a fundamental challenge to state, nation, and democracy. The aim of the book is to identify key issues in this regard rather than to argue a particular thesis. This is fitting when we are dealing with a relatively new phenomenon, such as the radical internationalization of what used to be domestic politics. We are uncertain about how to conceptualize it, there is not much systematic evidence to depart from, and, to cite Stanley Hoffmann's distinction in a 1960s text, the need is for ‘theory as a set of questions’ more than for ‘theory as a set of answers’.

    Empirically, the focus of the book is on Europe, arguably the most internationalized region of the entire world. No attempt is made to review the process of European integration, the structure of European institutions, or recent events in European politics; there is no lack of books doing this. However, European examples are used throughout to illustrate the argument ranging from the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union and the dissemination of fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear power reactor to Hungarian identity and Irish television. The relation between empirical illustration and conceptual argument is discussed in detail in Chapter 1, as is the notion of theory as questions rather than answers.

    A German colleague has tried to persuade me to abstain from using the concept of nation-state, since he thinks it leads to hopeless complexity and contradiction. A Danish colleague has advised me to speak about globalization instead of internationalization, because it sells better. My reasons for doing otherwise are given in Chapters 3 and 1, respectively.

    The focus on defining concepts and unresolved issues rather than on drawing substantial conclusions has provoked contradictory reactions among those commenting on this work while in progress. One cannot avoid being dissatisfied when the only conclusion drawn on the basis of a complex argument is that the matter needs further study, I have been told. I have also been told, however, that the openness of the argument is deceptive and that in fact the book is replete with controversial propositions.

    True, I have chosen to emphasize what we do not know. This is because I believe that there is presently an insufficient basis for bold generalization about the dynamics and implications of the radical internationalization of politics. Those who would have preferred a bolder approach should ponder what lesson there is to learn from the failure of political scientists at the time to anticipate the imminent, peaceful end of the Cold War; almost all theory, in strategic studies as well as in peace research, was to the opposite effect. If one's object is prescriptive and not only descriptive, which is the case in this book, it is doubly important to avoid making strong claims that cannot be substantiated.

    It is also true, however, that assertions about what the main issues are imply that other things are not. It is impossible to define key concepts – internationalization, state, nation, etc. – with any degree of precision without excluding some matters from further consideration, just as it is impossible to argue that some relations between them are of especial significance without implying that others are not. Seen in this way, what is offered in this book is more than ‘a set of questions’. Those who think that this is going too far and that more should have been kept open, including the meaning of key concepts, have reason to consider what they think social-scientific research is for.

    Those kind enough to read the manuscript in whole or in part include Lisbeth Aggestam, Hans Agné, Jens Bartelson, Kjell Engelbrekt, Maria Hellman, Arie Kacowicz, Tommy Möller, Lucas Pettersson, and Jacob Westberg. Their comments invariably proved helpful, as were those of the series editor Ian Holliday. Parts of the argument were tested at a workshop organized by the European Commission in September 1999, at presentations given at Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin, which I had the opportunity to visit in October-November 1999, the Departments of Political Science or equivalents at Göteborg University, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, and Trinity College, Dublin, and the Department of International Relations at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, where I was a Lady Davis Visiting Professor in March-April 2000. Special thanks are due to participants in a Master's level course in European Studies given at Stockholm University in the Fall of 2000 for their interest and ideas.

    Parts of Chapter 2 draw on a paper published in the European Journal of International Relations (vol. 3, no. 3, 1997). An early version of the thoughts leading on to Chapter 3 may be found in Lauri Karvonen and Krister Ståhlberg (eds), Festschrift for Dag Anckar (Åbo Akademi University Press, 2000).

    KjellGoldmannStockholm

    Epigraph

    I do not believe in a separate national identity. We are human beings more than anything else, citizens of this planet, our identity is actually formed by interaction with the external world. It is rather for others to recognize the advantages that we may have and to participate in this way in establishing our identity. But a Czech identity, possibly even as a programme, is something I cannot imagine …I am convinced that the significance of the nation-state will decline in the long term. Instead the significance of regional and state-like associations will grow…. I believe that the nation-state is merely an evolutionary phase – for some earlier, for others later, that is inevitably losing ever more of its importance. In the future the state will rather become an administrative department in the global order and in no way the object of a national cult.

    President VaclavHavel, Der Tagesspiegel, 25 October 1999 (author's translation)
  • References

    Aggestam, L., Engelbrekt, K., Wagnsson, L. and Winnerstig, M. (2000) Europeisk säkerhetspolitik. Lund: Studentlitteratur.
    Ágh, A. (1998) The Politics of Central Europe. London, Sage.
    Ahnfelt, E. and From, J. (1996) Politisamarbeid og europeisk integrasjon. Fremveksten av justis- og innenrikssamarbeid i EU, Europol og Schengen. Oslo: Ad notam Gyldendal.
    Allen, D. (1996) ‘Cohesion and Structural Adjustment’, in H.Wallace and W.Wallace (eds), Policy-Making in the European Union,
    3rd edn
    . Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Almond, G. A. and Verba, S. (1963) The Civic Culture. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Andersen, S. S. and Eliassen, K. A. (1996) ‘EU-Lobbying: Between Representativity and Effectiveness’, in S. S.Andersen and K. A.Eliassen (eds), The European Union: How Democratic Is It?London/Thousand Oaks/New Delhi: Sage.
    Anderson, B. (1991) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism,
    revised edn
    . London/New York: Verso.
    Anderson, J. J. and Goodman, J. B. (1993) ‘Mars or Minerva? A United Germany in a Post-Cold War Europe’, in R. O.Keohane, J. S.Nye and S.Hoffmann (eds), After the Cold War: International Institutions and State Strategies in Europe, 1989–1991. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Andeweg, R. B. and Irwin, G. A. (1993) Dutch Government and Politics. London: Macmillan.
    Annan, K. A. (1999) ‘Two Concepts of Sovereignty’. The Economist, 18 September.
    Appadurai, A. (2000) ‘The Grounds of the Nation-State: Identity, Violence and Territory’, in K.Goldmann, U.Hannerz and C.Westin (eds), Nationalism and Internationalism in the Post-Cold War Era. London/New York: Routledge.
    Ardy, B. (1999) ‘Agricultural, Structural Policy, the Budget and Eastern Enlargement of the European Union’, in K.Henderson (ed.), Back to Europe: Central and Eastern Europe and the European Union. London: UCL Press.
    Arnstberg, K.-O. (1989) Svenskhet: den kulturförnekande kulturen. Malmö: Carlssons.
    Axelrod, R. (1984) The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books.
    Axtmann, R. (1998) ‘Globalization, Europe and the State: Introductory Reflections’, in R.Axtmann (ed.), Globalization and Europe: Theoretical and Empirical Investigations. London/Washington: Pinter.
    Banchoff, T.1999. ‘German Identity and European Integration’, European Journal of International Relations, vol. 5, no. 3, 259–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1354066199005003001
    Barbrook, R. (1992) ‘Broadcasting and National Identity in Ireland’, Media, Culture and Society, vol. 14, 203–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344392014002005
    Bartelson, J. (1995) A Genealogy of Sovereignty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511586385
    Bartelson, J. (2000) ‘Three Concepts of Globalization’, International Sociology, vol. 15, no. 2, 180–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0268580900015002003
    Beisheim, M., Dreher, S., Walter, G., Zangl, B. and Zürn, M. (1999) Im Zeitalter der Globalisierung? Thesen und Daten zur gesellschaftlichen und politischen Denationalisierung. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft
    Beloff, M. (1955) Foreign Policy and the Democratic Process. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press.
    Bingen, D. (1992) ‘Demokratisierung und Nationalismus in Poland’, in M.Mommsen (ed.), Nationalismus in Osteuropa: Gefahrvolle Wege in die Demokratie. Munich: Verlag C. H. Beck.
    Blake, G. (2000) ‘State Borders in a Globalising World: Observations on Form and Function’, conference on ‘The Changing World Political Map: Geopolitics at the End of the Twentieth Century’. Beer Sheva: Ben Gurion University of the Negev.
    Bloom, W. (1990) Personal Identity, National Identity and International Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511558955
    Bluhm, T. (1973) Building an Austrian Nation. New Haven/London: Yale University Press.
    Breitenmoser, S. (1995) ‘Die Europäische Union zwischen Völkerrecht und Staatsrecht’, Zeitschrift für aüslandisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht, vol. 55, no. 4, 951–92.
    Breuilly, J. (1993) Nationalism and the State,
    2nd edn.
    Manchester: Manchester University Press and Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
    BRUstats (1998) Brussels: Brussels Airport International.
    BRUtrends (1992–98) (8 vols). Brussels: Brussels Airport International.
    Cardiff, D. and Scannell, P. (1987) ‘Broadcasting and National Unity’, in J.Curran, A.Smith and P.Wingate (eds), Impacts and Influences: Essays on Media Power in the Twentieth Century. London: Methuen.
    Carlsnaes, W. (1993) ‘Sweden Facing the New Europe: Whither Neutrality?’, European Security, vol. 2, no. 1, 71–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09662839308407111
    Castells, M. (1997) The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture. Volume II. The Power of Identity. Malden: MA, and Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
    Cesarani, D. and Fulbrook, M. (1996) Citizenship, Nationality and Migration in Europe. London/New York: Routledge.
    Clark, I. (1997) Globalization and Fragmentation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English (1990)
    8th edn.
    Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Crawford, B. (1996) ‘Explaining Defection from International Cooperation: Germany's Unilateral Recognition of Croatia’, World Politics, vol. 48, no. 4, 482–521. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/wp.1996.0015
    Crick, B. (1995) ‘The Sense of Identity of the Indigenous British’, New Community, vol. 21, no. 1, 167–81.
    Csaba, L. (1998) ‘Mitteleuropa auf dem Weg zum EU-Beitritt,’ in H.-J.Wagener and H.Fritz (eds), Im Osten was Neues. Aspekte der EU-Ostweiterung. Bonn: Verlag J.H.W. Dietz Nachfolger.
    Csepeli, G. (1991) ‘Competing Patterns of National Identity in Post-Communist Hungary’, Media, Culture and Society, vol. 13, 325–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344391013003004
    Csepeli, G. (1997) National Identity in Contemporary Hungary. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Curran, J. (1998) ‘Crisis of Public Communication: A Reappraisal’, in T.Liebes and J.Curran (eds), Media, Ritual and Identity. London/New York: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203450796
    Curtin, D. M. (1997) Postnational Democracy: The European Union in Search of a Political Philosophy. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.
    Czempiel, E.-O. (1999) ‘Europa und die Atlantische Gemeinschaft’, Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, vol. 49, no. 1–2, 12–21.
    Dahl, R. A. (1989) Democracy and Its Critics. New Haven/London: Yale University Press.
    Dahl, R. (1999) ‘Kan internationella organisationer vara demokratiska?’, in Bör demokratin avnationaliseras?Stockholm: Statens Offentliga Utredningar.
    Dahlgren, P. (1995) Television and the Public Sphere: Citizenship, Democracy and the Media. London/Thousand Oaks/New Delhi: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446250617
    Deutsch, K. W. et al. (1957) Political Community and the North Atlantic Area. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Doyle, M. W. (1986) ‘Liberalism and World Politics’, American Political Science Review, vol. 80, no. 4, 1151–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1960861
    Doty, R. L. (1996) ‘Immigration and National Identity: Constructing the Nation’, Review of International Studies, vol. 22, no. 3, 235–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0260210500118534
    DUPI (1997) Greenland During the Cold War: Danish and American Security Policy 1945–68. Copenhagen: Danish Institute of International Affairs.
    Easton, D. (1953) The Political System: An Inquiry into the State of Political Science. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
    Easton, D. (1965) A Systems Analysis of Political Life. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
    Eckstein, H. (1975) ‘Case Study and Theory in Political Science’, in F. L.Greenstein and N. W.Polsby (eds), Handbook of Political Science. Vol. 7: Strategies of Inquiry. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Elster, J. (ed.) (1998) Deliberative Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139175005
    Ember, C. R., Ember, M. and Russett, B. M. (1992) ‘Peace Between Participatory Polities: A Cross-Cultural Test of the “Democracies Rarely Fight Each Other” Hypothesis’, World Politics, vol. 44, no. 4, 573–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2010488
    Eriksen, E. O. (2000) ‘Deliberative Supranationalism in the EU’, in E. O.Eriksen and J. E.Fossum (eds), Democracy in the European Union: Integration through Deliberation?London/New York: Routledge.
    Eurobarometer (2000) no. 53. Brussels: European Union <http://europa.eu.int/comm/dg10/epo/eb/eb53/eb53.html>
    Farrell, R. B. (1969) The Making of Canadian Foreign Policy. Scarborough, Ont.: Prentice-Hall.
    Ferguson, Y. H. and Mansbach, R. W. (1989) The State, Conceptual Chaos, and the Future of International Relations Theory. Boulder, CO and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
    Flenley, P. (1996) ‘From Soviet to Russian Identity: The Origins of Contemporary Russian Nationalism and National Identity’, in B.Jenkins and S. A.Sofos (eds), Nation and Identity in Contemporary Europe. London/New York: Routledge.
    Fletcher, G. (1997) ‘The Case for Linguistic Self-Defense’, in R.McKim and J.McMahan (eds), The Morality of Nationalism. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Friedman, B. M. (1999) ‘The Power of the Electronic Herd’, The New York Review of Books, vol. 46, no. 12, 40–4.
    Fuchs, D. and Klingemann. H.-D. (forthcoming) ‘Eastward Enlargement of the European Union and the Identity of Europe’, in G.Amato and J.Batt (eds), The Long-Term Implications of EU Enlargement: The Nature of the New Border. Florence: Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute.
    Fulbrook, M. (1999) German National Identity after the Holocaust. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Gellner, E. (1983) Nations and Nationalism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Gellner, E. (1994) ‘Nationalism and Modernization’, in J.Hutchinson and A. D.Smith, (eds), Nationalism. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.
    George, S. (1993) ‘The British Government and the Maastricht Agreement’, in A. W.Cafruny and G. G.Rosenthal (eds), The State of the European Community: The Maastricht Debates and Beyond. Harlow: Longman.
    Gill, S. (ed.) (1997) Globalization, Democratization and Multilateralism. Tokyo/New York/Paris: United Nations University Press.
    Gilland, K. (2001) ‘Identity, Independence and Influence: National Views in the Republic of Ireland’, in K.Goldmann and K.Gilland (eds), Nationality and Europeanisation: Identity and Independence in Four EU Countries. Stockholm: Department of Political Science, Stockholm University.
    Glenny, M. (1993) The Fall of Yugoslavia. London: Penguin Books.
    Glover, J. (1997) ‘Nations, Identity, and Conflict’, in R.McKim and J.McMahan (eds), The Morality of Nationalism. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Godson, R. and Olson, W. J. (1995) ‘International Organized Crime’, Transaction, vol. 32, no. 2, 18–29.
    Goldmann, K. (1994) The Logic of Internationalism: Coercion and Accommodation. London/New York: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203422984
    Goldmann, K. (1997) Politikens internationalisering och den politiska kulturen: en pilotstudie. Stockholm: Department of Political Science, Stockholm University (unpublished).
    Goldmann, K. (2001). ‘In Lieu of the Swedish Model’, in K.Goldmann and K.Gilland (eds), Nationality and Europeanisation: Identity and Independence in Four EU Countries. Stockholm: Department of Political Science, Stockholm University.
    Goldmann, K., Berglund, S. and Sjöstedt, G. (1986) Democracy and Foreign Policy: The Case of Sweden. Aldershot: Gower Publications.
    Goldmann, K. and Gilland, K. (eds) (2001) Nationality and Europeanisation: Identity and Independence in Four EU Countries. Stockholm: Department of Political Science, Stockholm University.
    Goldmann, K. and Sjöstedt, G. (eds) (1979) Power, Capabilities, Interdependence: Problems in the Study of International Influence. London/Beverly Hills: Sage.
    Goodin, R. E. and Klingemann, H. D. (eds) (1996) A New Handbook of Political Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Gow, J. (1991) ‘Deconstructing Yugoslavia’, Survival, vol. 33, no. 4, 291–311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00396339108442599
    Gow, J. (1999) ‘Security and Democracy: the EU and Central and Eastern Europe’, in K.Henderson (ed.), Back to Europe: Central and Eastern Europe and the European Union. London: UCL Press.
    Gowa, J. S. (1999) Ballots and Bullets: The Elusive Democratic Peace. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Gower, J. (1999) ‘EU Policy to Central and Eastern Europe’, in K.Henderson (ed.), Back to Europe: Central and Eastern Europe and the European Union. London: UCL Press.
    Grabbe, H. and Hughes, K. (1999) ‘Central and East European Views on EU Enlargement: Political Debates and Public Opinion’, in K.Henderson (ed.), Back to Europe: Central and Eastern Europe and the European Union. London: UCL Press.
    Greenwood, J. (1997) Representing Interests in the European Union. London: Macmillan.
    Griffiths, R. T. (1995) ‘The European Integration Experience’, in K.Middlemas, Orchestrating Europe: The Informal Politics of European Union 1973–1995. London: Fontana Press.
    Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia (1997) Danbury, CT: Grolier Ineractive Inc.
    Gutjahr, L. (1994) German Foreign and Defence Policy after Unification. London: Pinter Publishers.
    Haas, E. (1958) The Uniting of Europe: Political, Social, and Economic Forces 1950–1957. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
    Habermas, J. (1994) ‘Three Normative Models of Democracy’, Constellations, vol. 1, no. 1, 1–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8675.1994.tb00001.x
    Habermas, J. (1995) Diskurs, rätt och demokrati. Gothenburg: Daidalos.
    Hannum, H. (1990) Autonomy, Sovereignty, and Self-Determination: The Accommodation of Conflicting Rights. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Håstad, E. (1956) Den svenska utrikesdebatten om FN och alliansfrihet. Stockholm: Kooperativa förbundets bokförlag. Also inSweden and the United Nations. New York: Manhattan.
    Hedetoft, U. (1993) ‘National Identity and Mentalities of War in Three EC Countries’, Journal of Peace Reseach, vol. 30, no. 3, 281–300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022343393030003004
    Held, D. (1995) Democracy and the Global Order: From the Modern State to Cosmopolitan Governance. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Held, D. (1996) Models of Democracy,
    2nd edn.
    Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Held, D. and McGrew, A. (1993) ‘Globalization and the Liberal Democratic State’, Government and Opposition, vol. 28, no. 2, 261–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-7053.1993.tb01281.x
    Helmreich, J. E. (1976) Belgium and Europe: A Study in Small Power Diplomacy. The Hague: Mouton.
    Herd, G. P. (1999) ‘The Baltic States and EU Enlargement’, in K.Henderson (ed.), Back to Europe: Central and Eastern Europe and the European Union. London: UCL Press.
    Hobsbawm, E. J. (1992) Nations and Nationalism since 1780,
    2nd edn
    . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Hoffmann, S. (1960) Contemporary Theory in International Relations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Hoffmann, S. (1981) Duties Beyond Borders. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.
    Hoffmann, S. (1990) ‘La France dans le nouvel ordre européen’, Politique étrangère, vol. 55, no. 3, 503–12.
    Hoffmann, S. (1993) ‘French Dilemmas and Strategies in the New Europe’, in R. O.Keohane, J. S.Nye and S.Hoffmann (eds), After the Cold War: International Institutions and State Strategies in Europe, 1989–1991. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Hoffmann-Riem, W. (1987) ‘National Identity and Cultural Values: Broadcasting Safeguards’, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, vol. 31, no. 1, 57–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08838158709386645
    Hollis, M. and Smith, S. (1990) Explanation and Understanding in International Relations. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Holmes, M. (1994) ‘Symbols of National Identity and Sport: The Case of the Irish Football Team’, Irish Political Studies, vol. 9, 81–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07907189408406525
    Holsti, K. (1970) ‘National Role Conceptions in the Study of Foreign Policy’, International Studies Quarterly, vol. 14, no. 3, 233–309. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3013584
    Holsti, K. (2000) ‘From Khartoum to Quebec: Internationalism and Nationalism within the Multi-community state’, in K.Goldmann, U.Hannerz and C.Westin (eds), Nationalism and Internationalism in the Post-Cold War Era. London/New York: Routledge.
    Holsti, O. and Sullivan, J. D. (1969) ‘National-International Linkages: France and China as Non-Conforming Alliance Members’, in J. N.Rosenau (ed.), Linkage Politics. New York: Free Press.
    Hroch, M. (1993) ‘From National Movement to the Fully-formed Nation: The Nation-building Process in Europe’, New Left Review, No. 198, 3–20.
    Inglehart, R. (1990) Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Society. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Jachtenfuchs, M. (1998) ‘Democracy and Governance in the European Union’, in A.Føllesdal and P.Koslowski (eds), Democracy and the European Union. Berlin: Springer.
    Jacobsson, K. (1999) Så gott som demokrati. Om demokratifrågan i EU-debatten. Umeå: Boréa Bokförlag.
    Jamieson, A. (1997) ‘Weltregierung Mafia?’, Internationale Politik/Europa-Archiv, vol. 52, no. 12, 27–33.
    Jenkins, B. and Copsey, N. (1996) ‘Nation, Nationalism and National Identity in France’, in B.Jenkins and S. A.Sofos (eds), Nation and Identity in Contemporary Europe. London/New York: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203208915
    Jenkins, B. and Sofos, S. A. (eds) (1996) Nation and Identity in Contemporary Europe. London/New York: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203208915
    Jensen, P. H. (1994) ‘The Czernobyl Accident in 1986: Causes and Consequences’, Aarhus: Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus.
    Jiru, R., Ryba, J. and Voldrich, L. (1999) ‘La conscience identitaire tchèque’, Historiens & Géographes, No. 366, 339–44.
    Johansson, A. W. (1997) ‘Neutrality and Modernity: The Second World War and Sweden's National Identity’, in S.Ekman and N.Edling (eds), War Experience, Self Image and National Identity: The Second World War as Myth and History. Stockholm: The Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation & Gidlunds Förlag.
    Johnson, S. P. and Corcelle, G. (1995) The Environmental Policy of the European Communities,
    2nd edn.
    London/The Hague/Boston: Kluwer Law International.
    Jönsson, C. (1984) Superpower: Comparing American and Soviet Foreign Policy. London: Pinter.
    Judt, T. (1999) ‘Is There a Belgium?’, The New York Review of Books, vol. 46, no. 19, 49–53.
    Kaiser, K. (1971) ‘Transnational Relations as a Threat to the Democratic Process’, International Organization, vol. 3, no. 25, 706–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300026400
    Kant, I. (1796) Zum ewigen Frieden. Königsberg: Nicolovius.
    Kavanagh, D. (1972) Political Culture. London: Macmillan.
    Kegley, C.W. and Wittkopf, E. R. (1989) World Politics. London: Macmillan.
    Kellner, D. (1998) ‘Globalization and the Postmodern Turn’, in R.Axtmann (ed.), Globalization and Europe: Theoretical and Empirical Investigations. London/Washington: Pinter.
    Keohane, R. O. (1989) International Institutions and State Power: Essays in International Relations Theory. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Keohane, R. O. (1993) ‘Sovereignty, Interdependence and International Institutions’, in L. B.Miller and M. J.Smith (eds), Ideas & Ideals: Essays on Politics in Honor of Stanley Hoffmann. Boulder/San Francisco/Oxford: Westview Press.
    Keohane, R. O. and Nye, J. S. Jr. (1977) Power and Interdependence: World Politics in Transition. Boston: Little, Brown.
    Kielmansegg, P. G. (1996) ‘Integration und Demokratie,’ in M.Jachtenfuchs and B.Kohler-Koch (eds), Europäische Integration. Opladen: Leske und Budrich.
    Kohler-Koch, B. (1999) ‘A Constitution for Europe?’, Arbeitspapiere: Mannheimer Zentrum für Europäische Sozialforschung, no. 8.
    Körmendy, L., Majoros, I., Miklósi, L. and Gradvohl, P. (1999) ‘Identité nationale et histoire en Hongrie: l'impact des mutations politiques récentes’, Historiens et Géographes, No. 366, 219–28.
    Kramer, H. (1993) ‘The European Community's Response to the “New Eastern Europe”’, Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. 31, no. 2, 213–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5965.1993.tb00458.x
    Krämer, L. (1993) European Environmental Law: Casebook. London: Sweet & Maxwell.
    Krasner, S. D. (1999) Sovereignty: Organized Hypocricy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Krause, E. (1997) Nationalismus und demokratischer Neubeginn: Nationale Identität und postkommunistischer Transformationsprozess am Beispiel Ungarns. Neuried: Ars Una.
    Krause, G. (1998) ‘Prespektiven der Internationalen OK-Bekämpfung’, Kriminalistik, vol. 52, no. 1, 12–16.
    Kreile, M. (1999) ‘Globalisierung und europäische Integration’, in W.Merkel and A.Busch (eds), Demokratie in Ost und West. Für Klaus von Beyme. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
    Kreile, M. (1999a) ‘Die Osterweiterung der Europäischen Union’, in W.Weidenfeld (ed.), Europa-Handbuch. Bonn: Bertelsmann Stiftung.
    Krulic, J. (1992) ‘L'ex Yougoslavie en 1991. L'année politique: l'éclatement’, in Notes et études documentaires. L'europé centrale et orientale. Paris: Documentation française.
    Laitin, D. D. (1995) ‘The Civic Culture at 30’, American Political Science Review, vol. 89, no. 1, 168–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2083085
    Lane, J.-E. (1991) ‘Interpretations of the Swedish Model’, in J.-E.Lane (ed.), Understanding the Swedish Model. London: Frank Cass.
    Lange, C. L. (1919) Histoire de l'internationalisme. Kristiania: H. Aschehoug.
    Laursen, F. and Vanhoonacker, S. (eds) (1992) The Intergovernmental Conference on Political Union: Institutional Reforms, New Policies and International Identity of the European Community. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff.
    Levy, J. S. (1989) ‘The Causes of War: A Review of Theories and Evidence’, in P. E.Tetlock (ed.), Behavior, Society, and Nuclear War, Vol. 1. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Lichtenberg, J. (1997) ‘Nationalisms, For and (Mainly) Against’, in R.McKim and J.McMahan (eds), The Morality of Nationalism. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Lindbeck, A. (1989) ‘Policy Autonomy vs Policy Coordination in the World Economy’, in H.Tson Söderström (ed.), One Global Market. Stockholm: SNS.
    Lindberg, L. N. (1963) The Political Dynamics of European Economic Integration. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
    London, C. and Llamas, M. (1995) EC Law on Protection of the Environment and the Free Movement of Goods. London: Butterworths.
    Lundgren, N. and Söderström, H. T. (1995) ‘Kronförsvaret hösten 1992: var det värt sitt pris?’, in L.Calmfors et al., Ekonomisk politik: en vänbok till Assar Lindbeck. Stockholm: SNS Förlag.
    McCarthy, P. (1993) ‘France Looks at Germany, or How to Become German (and European) while Remaining French’, in P.McCarthy (ed.), France-Germany, 1983–1993: The Struggle to Cooperate. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    McDonough, P. (1994) Review of L. Diamond, ‘Political Culture and Democracy in Developing Countries’, American Political Science Review, vol. 88, no. 3, 777–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2944846
    Machill, M. (1998) ‘Euronews: the First European News Channel as a Case Study for Media Industry Development in Europe and for Spectra of Transnational Journalism Research’, Media, Culture and Society, vol. 20, 427–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344398020003005
    Maczonkai, M. (1996) ‘Attitudes towards the European Union in Hungary’, in F.Mádl and C.Müller-Graff (eds), Hungary: From Europe Agreement to a Member Status in the European Union. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft.
    Magnusson, K. (1993) ‘Den bosniska tragedin’, Världspolitikens dagsfrågor, no. 12.
    Magnusson, K. (1997) ‘Nittio dagar som skakade Serbien’, Världspolitikens dagsfrågor, no. 3.
    Majone, G. (1996) Regulating Europe. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203439197
    Malcolm, N. (1994) ‘The New Russian Foreign Policy’, The World Today, February, 28–32.
    March, J. G. and Olsen, J. P. (1989) Rediscovering Institutions. New York: Free Press.
    March, J. G. and Olsen, J. P. (1996) ‘Institutional Perspectives on Political Institutions’, Governance, vol. 9, no. 3, 247–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0491.1996.tb00242.x
    Marks, G. and McAdam, D. (1996) ‘Social Movements and the Changing Structure of Political Opportunity in the European Union’, in G.Marks, F. W.Scharpf, P. C.Schmitter and W.Streeck (eds), Governance in the European Union. London/Thousand Oaks/New Delhi: Sage.
    Marks, G., Hooghe, I. and Blank, K. (1996) ‘European Integration from the 1980s: State-Centric v. Multi-level Governance’, Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. 34, no. 3, 341–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5965.1996.tb00577.x
    Marks, G., Nielsen, F., Rey, L. and Salk, J. (1996) ‘Competencies, Cracks and Conflicts: Regional Mobilization in the European Union’, in G.Marks, F. W.Scharpf, P. C.Schmitter and W.Streeck (eds), Governance in the European Union. London/Thousand Oaks/New Delhi: Sage.
    Marquand, D. (1995) ‘After Whig Imperialism: Can There Be a New British Identity?’, New Community, vol. 21, no. 1, 183–93.
    Martial, E. (1992) ‘Italy and European Political Union’, in F.Laursen and S.Vanhoonacker (eds), The Intergovernmental Conference on Political Union: Institutional Reforms, New Policies and International Identity of the European Community. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff.
    Mazey, S. and Richardson, J. (1996) ‘EU Policy-Making: a Garbage Can or an Anticipatory and Consensual Policy Style?’, in Y.Mény, P.Muller and J.-L.Quermonne (eds), Adjusting to Europe. London/NewYork: Routledge.
    Meinecke, F. (1908) Weltbürgertum und Nationalstaat. Munich/Berlin: R Oldenburg.
    Mény, Y., Muller, P. and Quermonne, J.-L. (1996) ‘Introduction’, in Y.Mény, P.Muller and J.-L.Quermonne (eds), Adjusting to Europe. London/New York: Routledge.
    Messerlin, P. A. (1993) ‘The Association Agreements between the EC and Central Europe: Trade Liberalization vs. Constitutional Failure?’, Acta Oeconomica, vol. 45, no. 1–2, 119–44.
    Meyer, J., Boli, J., Thomas, G. and Ramirez, F. (1997) ‘World Society and the Nation-State’, American Journal of Sociology, vol. 103, no. 1, 144–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/231174
    Middlemas, K. (1995) Orchestrating Europe: The Informal Politics of the European Union 1973–95. London: Fontana Press.
    Mill, J. S. (1991) On Liberty and Other Essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Millard, F. (1999) ‘Polish Domestic Politics and Accession to the European Union’, in K.Henderson (ed.), Back to Europe: Central and Eastern Europe and the European Union. London: UCL Press.
    Miller, D. (1995) On Nationality. Oxford: Clarendon Press
    Miller, D. (1995a) ‘Reflections on British National Identity’, New Community, vol. 21, no. 1, 153–66.
    Milward, A. S. (1992) The European Rescue of the Nation-State. London/New York: Routledge.
    Milward, A. S. and Sørensen, V. (1993) ‘Interdependence or Integration? A National Choice’, in A. S.Milward, F. M. B.Lynch, F.Romero, R.Ranieri and V.Sørensen, The Frontier of National Sovereignty: History and Theory 1945–1992. London/New York: Routledge.
    Moravcsik, A. (1993) ‘Preferences and Power in the European Community: A Liberal Intergovernmentalist Approach’, Journal of Common Market Studies, vol. 31, no. 4, 473–524. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5965.1993.tb00477.x
    Moravcsik, A. (1998) The Choice for Europe: Social Purpose and State Power from Messina to Maastricht. London: UCL Press.
    Morgenthau, H. J. (1961) Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace,
    3rd edn
    . New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
    Morgenthau, H. J. (1985) Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace,
    6th edn rev.
    by K. W.Thompson. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
    Morrison, C. E. (1998) ‘Overview’, in C. E.Morrison and H.Soesastro (eds), Domestic Adjustments to Globalization. Tokyo/New York: Japan Center for International Exchange.
    Mörth, U. (1996) Vardagsintegration – La vie quotidienne – i Europa. Stockholm: Department of Political Science, Stockholm University.
    Mouritzen, H. (1993) ‘The Two Musterknaben and the Naughty Boy: Sweden, Finland and Denmark in the Process of European Integration’, Cooperation and Conflict, vol. 28, no. 4, 373–402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0010836793028004003
    Müller, H. (1992) ‘German Foreign Policy after Unification’, in P. B.Stares (ed.), The New Germany and the New Europe. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
    Nathanson, S. (1997) ‘Nationalism and the Limits of Global Humanism’, in R.McKim and J.McMahan (eds), The Morality of Nationalism. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Nergelius, J. (1998) Amsterdamfördraget och EU:s institutionell maktbalans. Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB.
    Neumann, I. B. (1996) ‘Self and Other in International Relations’, European Journal of International Relations, vol. 2, no. 2, 139–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1354066196002002001
    Neutralitetspolitikkommissionen (1994) Om kriget kommit…. Stockholm: Statens offentliga utredningar.
    Nicolaïdis, K. (1993) ‘East European Trade in the Aftermath of 1989: Did International Institutions Matter?’, in R. O.Keohane, J. S.Nye and S.Hoffmann (eds), After the Cold War: International Institutions and State Strategies in Europe, 1989–1991. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Norris, R. S., Arkin, W. M. and Burr, W. (1999) ‘Where They Were’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, vol. 55, no. 6, 26–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.2968/055006011
    Nye, J. S. Jr. (1986) Nuclear Ethics. New York: Free Press.
    Oeter, S. (1995) ‘Souveränität und Demokratie als Probleme in der ‘Verfassungsentwicklung’ der Europäischen Union’. Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht, vol. 55, no. 3, 659–712.
    Offe, C. (1999) ‘How Can We Trust Our Fellow Citizens?’, in M. E.Warren (ed.), Democracy and Trust. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Oommen, T. K. (1997) Citizenship and National Identity: From Colonialism to Globalism. New Delhi/Thousand Oaks/London: Sage.
    Österdahl, I. (1998) Threat to the Peace: The Interpretation by the Security Council of Article 39 of the UN Charter. Uppsala: Iustus förlag.
    Østerud, Ø. (1994) Hva er nasjonalisme?Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
    Østerud, Ø. (1997) ‘Nasjon’, in Ø. Østerud, K.Goldmann and M. N.Pedersen (eds), Statsvitenskapelig Lexikon. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
    Østerud, Ø. (1997a) ‘EU-building and Nationbuilding: Dimensions of a European Dilemma’. Copenhagen: Danish Institute of International Affairs, Working Papers 1997/13.
    Parekh, B. (1995) ‘The Concept of National Identity’, New Community, vol. 21, no. 2, 255–68.
    Parzymies, S. (1992) ‘La Pologne et la Communauté européenne’, Politique étrangère, vol. 57, no. 2, 387–93.
    Pedersen, M. N. (1996) ‘Euro-parties and European Parties: New Arenas, New Challenges and New Strategies’, in S. S.Andersen and K. A.Eliassen (eds), The European Union: How Democratic Is It?London/Thousand Oaks/New Delhi: Sage.
    Pfaff, W. (2000) ‘Despite Global Changes, National Sovereignty Remains King’, International Herald Tribune, 30 March, 6.
    Phinnemore, D. (1999) ‘The Challenge of EU Enlargement: EU and CEE Perspectives’, in K.Henderson (ed.), Back to Europe: Central and Eastern Europe and the European Union. London: UCL Press.
    Pöggeler, F. (ed.) (1995) National Identity and Adult Education: Challenge and Risk. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
    Ponsonby, A. (1915) Democracy and Diplomacy. London: Methuen.
    Price, M. E. (1995) Television, the Public Sphere, and National Identity. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Putnam, R. D. (1988) ‘Diplomacy and Domestic Politics: The Logic of Two-Level Games’, International Organization, vol. 42, no. 3, 427–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300027697
    Ramet, S. P. (1991) ‘War in the Balkans’, Foreign Affairs, vol. 71, no. 4, 79–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/20045311
    Ramsbotham, O. and Woodhouse, T. (1996) Humanitarian Intervention in Contemporary Conflict: A Reconceptualization. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Ray, J. L. (1995) Democracy and International Conflict: An Evaluation of the Democratic Peace Proposition. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.
    Ray, L. (1999) ‘Measuring Party Orientations Towards European Integration: Results from an Expert Survey’, European Journal of Political Research, vol. 36, no. 2, 283–306.
    Redmond, J. (1993) ‘The Wider Europe: Extending the Membership of the EC’, in A. W.Cafruny and G. G.Rosenthal (eds), The State of the European Community: The Maastricht Debates and Beyond. Harlow: Longman.
    Reinprecht, C. (1996) Nostalgie und Amnesie: Bewertungen von Vergangenheit in der tschechischen Republik und in Ungarn. Vienna: Verlag für Gesellschaftskritik.
    Richardson, L. (1993) ‘British State Strategies after the Cold War’, in R. O.Keohane, J. S.Nye and S.Hoffmann (eds), After the Cold War: International Institutions and State Strategies in Europe, 1989–1991. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Rieger, E. (1996) ‘The Common Agricultural Policy: External and Internal Dimensions’, in H.Wallace and W.Wallace (eds), Policy-Making in the European Union,
    3rd edn
    . Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Risse, T., Engelmann-Martin, D., Knopf, H.-J. and Roscher, K. (1999) ‘To Euro or Not to Euro? The EMU and Identity Politics in the European Union’, European Journal of International Relations, vol. 5, no. 2, 147–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1354066199005002001
    Roberts, A. (1999) ‘NATO's “Humanitarian War” over Kosovo’, Survival, vol. 41, no. 3, 102–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00396339912331342943
    Roberts, G. and Edwards, A. (1991) A New Dictionary of Political Analysis. London: Edward Arnold.
    Robertson, A. (1992) National Prisms and Perceptions of Dissent: The Euromissile Controversy Reflected in Opinion and the News in the UK and FRG 1980–83. Stockholm: Department of Political Science: Stockholm University.
    Robertson, A. (1999) ‘Medierna och internationaliseringen’, in K.Goldmann, J.Hallenberg, B.Jacobsson, U.Mörth and A.Robertson, Politikens internation-alisering. Lund: Studentlitteratur.
    Robertson, A. and Hellman, M. (1997) Identity in the News of Europe: Looking for Traces of Identification Processes in British, French, German and Swedish Television News. ECPR Joint Sessions of Workshops, Bern.
    Rosenau, J. N. (1997) Along the Domestic-Foreign Frontier: Exploring Governance in a Turbulent World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511549472
    Ross, A. (1948) Varför demokrati?Stockholm: Tidens förlag.
    Rucht, D. (1993) ‘“Think Globally, Act Locally”? Needs, Forms and Problems of Cross-national Cooperation among Environmental Groups’, in J. D.Liefferink, P. D.Lowe and A. P. J.Mol (eds), European Integration and Environmental Policy. London/New York: Belhaven Press.
    Rühl, L. (1992) ‘Die Interessenlage der Bundesrepublik: “Nationale” oder “Multilaterale” Interessenbestimmung’, in K.Kaiser and H. W.Maull (eds), Die Zukunft der deutschen Aussenpolitik. Bonn: Forschungsinstitut der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Auswärtige Politik eV.
    Russett, B. M. (1990) Controlling the Sword: The Democratic Governance of National Security. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Safran, W. (1991) ‘State, Nation, National Identity, and Citizenship: France as a Test Case’, International Political Science Review, vol. 12, no. 3, 219–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019251219101200303
    Scharpf, F. W. (1996) ‘Negative and Positive Integration in the Political Economy of European Welfare States’, in G.Marks, F. W.Scharpf, P. C.Schmitter and W.Streeck, (eds), Governance in the European Union. London/Thousand Oaks/New Delhi: Sage.
    Scharpf, F. W. (1996a) ‘Politische Optionen im vollendeten Binnenmarkt’, in M.Jachtenfuchs and B.Kohler-Koch (eds), Europäische Integration. Opladen: Leske and Budrich.
    Scharpf, F. W. (1999) Governing in Europe: Effective and Democratic?Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198295457.001.0001
    Schauer, H. (1997) ‘Nationale und europäische Identität. Die unterschiedlichen Auffassungen in Deutschland, Frankreich und Grossbritannien’, Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, No. 10, 3–13.
    Schlesinger, P. (1978) Putting ‘Reality’ Together: BBC News. London: Constable.
    Schlesinger, P. (1993) ‘Wishful Thinking: Cultural Politics, Media, and Collective Identities in Europe’, Journal of Communication, vol. 43, no. 2, 6–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1993.tb01258.x
    Schlesinger, P. (1994) Europeanisation, the Media and Collective Identity: A Position Paper for the Arena Board Meeting, 20–21 June.
    Schlesinger, P. (1997) ‘From Cutural Defence to Political Culture: Media, Politics and Collective Identity in the European Union’, Media, Culture & Society, vol. 19, 369–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344397019003005
    Schlesinger, P. (1999) ‘Changing Spaces of Political Communication: The Case of the European Union’, Political Communication, vol. 16, no. 3, 263–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/105846099198622
    Schmidt, P. (1993) ‘French Security Policy Ambitions’, Aussenpolitik,
    English edn
    , vol. 44, no. 4, 335–43.
    Schmitt, H. and Thomassen, J. (2000) Dynamic Representation: The Case of European Integration. Mannheim: Mannheimer Zentrum für Europäische Sozialforschung.
    Schmitter, P. C. (1996) ‘Examining the Present Euro-Polity with the Help of Past Theories’, in G.Marks, F. W.Sharpf, P. C.Schmitter and W.Streeck (eds), Governance in the European Union. London/Thousand Oaks/New Delhi: Sage.
    Schmitter, P. C. (1998) ‘Is It Really Possible to Democratize the Euro-Polity?’, in A.Føllesdal and P.Koslowski (eds), Democracy and the European Union. Berlin: Springer.
    Schnapper, D. (1994) ‘The Debate on Immigration and the Crisis of National Identity’, West European Politics, vol. 17, no. 2, 127–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01402389408425018
    Schütz, H.-J. (1977) ‘Probleme der Anwendung der KSZE-Schlussakte aus Völkerrechtlicher Sicht’, in J.Delbrück, N.Ropers and G.Zellentin (eds), Grünbuch zu den Volgewirkungen der KSZE. Cologne: Verlag Wissenschaft und Politik.
    Shepsle, K. A. (1989) ‘Studying Institutions: Some Lessons from the Rational Choice Approach’, Journal of Theoretical Politics, vol. 2, no. 1, 131–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0951692889001002002
    Shue, H. (1997) ‘Eroding Sovereignty: The Advance of Principle’, in R.McKim and J.McMahan (eds), The Morality of Nationalism. New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Sieber, U. (1998) ‘Internationale Organisierte Kriminalität’, Kriminalistik, vol. 52, no. 2, 97–102.
    Silberner, E. (1946) The Problem of War in Nineteenth Century Economic Thought. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Simon, G. (1997) ‘Auf der Suche nach der “Idee für Russland”’, Osteuropa, vol. 47, no. 12, 1169–90.
    Simon, G. (1997a) ‘Die Identität Russlands und die Internationale Politik’, Aussenpolitik, vol. 48, no. 3, 245–56.
    Sitzler, K. (1992) ‘Ungarn: Im Spannungsfeld von Demokratie und Geschichte’, in M.Mommsen (ed.), Nationalismus in Osteuropa: Gefahrvolle Wege in die Demokratie. München: Verlag C. H. Beck.
    Siune, K. and Svensson, P. (1993) ‘The Danes and the Maastricht Treaty: The Danish EC Referendum of June 1992’, Electoral Studies, vol. 12, no. 2, 99–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0261-3794%2893%2990012-9
    Sjöstedt, G. (1997) Ekonomisk säkerhet: en dold integrationskraft i den europeiska unionen?Stockholm: ÖCB.
    Skak, M. (1992) ‘Post-Communist Foreign Policies: Initial Observations’, Cooperation and Conflict, vol. 27, no. 3, 277–300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0010836792027003003
    Smith, A. D. (1986) The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Smith, A. D. (1992) ‘Nationalism and the Historians’, International Journal of Comparative Sociology, vol. 33, no. 1–2, 58–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002071529203300105
    Smith, A. D. (1995) ‘Gastronomy or Geology? The Role of Nationalism in the Reconstruction of Nations’, Nations and Nationalism, vol. 1, no. 1, 3–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1354-5078.1995.00003.x
    Smith, M. J. (1992) ‘Liberalism and International Reform’, in T.Nardin and D. R.Mapel (eds), Traditions of International Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Snyder, J. (1990) ‘Averting Anarchy in the New Europe’, International Security, vol. 14, no. 1, 5–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2538749
    Spillman, L. (1997) Nation and Commemoration: Creating National Identities in the United States and Australia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511520938
    Stanners, D. and Bourdeau, P. (eds) (1995) Europe's Environment. Copenhagen: European Environment Agency.
    Stern, E. (1999) Crisis Decision-making: A Cognitive Institutional Approach. Stockholm, Department of Political Science, Stockholm University.
    Stevenson, N. (1995) Understanding Media Culture: Social Theory and Mass Communication. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221310
    Streeck, W. (1996) ‘Neo-Voluntarism: A New European Social Policy Regime?’, in G.Marks, F. W.Scharpf, P. C.Schmitter and W.Streeck (eds), Governance in the European Union. London/Thousand Oaks/New Delhi: Sage.
    Sturesjö, Ö. (1992) ‘Jugoslavien – konflikt utan slut’, Världspolitikens dagsfrågor, no. 7–8.
    Szablowski, G. J. (1993) ‘Governing and Competing Elites in Poland’, Governance, vol. 6, no. 3, 341–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0491.1993.tb00151.x
    Tamir, Y. (1993) Liberal Nationalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Tamir, Y. (1995) ‘The Enigma of Nationalism’, World Politics, vol. 47, no. 3, 418–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0043887100016440
    Tamir, Y. (2000) ‘Who's Afraid of a Global State?’, in K.Goldmann, U.Hannerz and C.Westin (eds), Nationalism and Internationalism in the Post-Cold War Era. London/New York: Routledge.
    Teichman, J. (1986) Pacifism and the Just War: A Study in Applied Philosophy. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Tesón, F. R. (1997) Humanitarian Intervention: An Inquiry into Law and Morality,
    2nd edn.
    Irvington-on-Hudson, NY: Transnational Publishers.
    Therborn, G. (2000) ‘Globalizations: Dimensions, Historical Waves, Regional Effects, Normative Governance’, International Sociology, vol. 15, no. 2, 151–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0268580900015002002
    Thomassen, J. and Schmitt, H. (1999) ‘Issue Congruence’, in H.Schmitt and J.Thomassen (eds), Political Representation and Legitimacy in the European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0198296614.001.0001
    Thompson, J. B. (1995) The Media and Modernity: A Social Theory of the Media. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Uhlig, C. (1997) ‘Nationale Identitätskonstruktion für ein postsowjetisches Russland’, Osteuropa, vol. 47, no. 12, 1191–206.
    Vernet, D. (1992) ‘The Dilemma of French Foreign Policy’, International Affairs, vol. 68, no. 4, 655–64.
    Vertzberger, Y. Y. I. (1990) The World in Their Minds: Information Processing, Cognition, and Perception in Foreign Policy Decision-making. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Vital, D. (1968) The Making of British Foreign Policy. London: George Allen and Unwin.
    Wagnsson, C. (2000) Russian Political Language and Public Opinion on the West, NATO and Chechnya. Stockholm: Department of Political Science, Stockholm University.
    Wallace, H. (1999) ‘European Policies and Polities’, in Governance and Citizenship in Europe: Some Research Directions. Brussels: European Commission (EUR 19313).
    Wallace, W. (1971) Foreign Policy and the Political Process. London: Macmillan.
    Wallace, W. (1999) ‘Europe after the Cold War: Interstate Order or post-Sovereign Regional System?’, Review of International Studies, vol. 25, Special Issue (‘The Interregnum: Controversies in World Politics 1989–1999’), 201–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0260210599002016
    Weiler, J. H. H. (2000) ‘To Be a European Citizen: Eros and Civilization’, in K.Goldmann, U.Hannerz and C.Westin (eds), Nationalism and Internationalism in the Post-Cold War Era. London/New York: Routledge.
    Weiss, L. (1998) The Myth of the Powerless State: Governing the Economy in a Global Era. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Weiss, L. (1999) ‘Globalization and National Governance: Antinomies or Interdependence?’, Review of International Studies, vol. 25, Special Issue (‘The Interregnum: Controversies in World Politics 1989–1999’), 59–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0260210599000595
    Wester, R. (1992) ‘The Netherlands and European Political Union’, in F.Laursen and S.Vanhoonacker (eds), The Intergovernmental Conference on Political Union: Institutional Reforms, New Policies and International Identity of the European Community. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
    Whipple, T. D. (1991) After the Velvet Revolution: Václav Havel and the New Leaders of Czechoslovakia Speak Out. New York: Freedom House.
    Williams, P. and Savona, E. U. (1996) The United Nations and Transnational Organized Crime. London: Frank Cass.
    Winkelmann, I. (ed.) (1994) Das Maastricht-Urteil des Bundesverfassungsgerichts vom 12. Oktober 1993. Dokumentation des Verfahrens mit Einführung. Berlin: Duncker & Humbolt.
    Wiseman, J. (1998) Global Nation? Australia and the Politics of Globalisation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511552250
    Wolters, J. (1997) ‘Verbrechensbekämpfung – Eine europäische Sache?’, Kriminalistik, vol. 51, no. 2, 86–91.
    Worre, T. (1993) ‘Folkeafstemningen om den europæiske unionstraktat 2. juni 1992’, in B. N.Thomsen (ed.), The Odd Man Out? Danmark og den Europæiske integration 1948–1992. Odense: Odense Universitetsforlag.
    Woyke, W. (1985) Erfolg durch Integration – Die Europapolitik der Beneux-Staaten von 1947 bis 1969. Bochum: Studienverlag Dr N. Brockmeyer.
    Zachert, H.-L. (1995) ‘Die international organisierte Kriminalität’, Internationale Politik/Europa-Archiv, vol. 50, no. 2, 3–10.
    Zürn, M. (1998) Regieren jenseits des Nationalstaates. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
    Zürn, M. (2000) ‘Democratic Governance Beyond the Nation-State’, European Journal of International Relations, vol. 6, no. 2, 183–221.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website