Tourism Development Revisited: Concepts, Issues and Paradigms


Edited by: Babu. S Sutheeshna, Sitikantha Mishra & Bivraj Bhusan Parida

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
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    List of Tables

    • 7.1 Bedspaces in Rural Lodgings at a Municipal Level in Andalucía: Transition Matrix 2000–03 110
    • 7.2 Distribution of Municipalities by Per Capita Income and Number of Rural Lodging Establishments, 2000 112
    • 7.3 Distribution of Municipalities by Per Capita Income and Number of Rural Lodging Establishments, 2003 112
    • 12.1 Regional Share of International Tourist Arrivals, 1950–2004 178
    • 12.2 Regional Share of International Tourist Receipts, 1950–2004 179
    • 13.1 World's Top Tourism Destinations by International Tourist Arrivals 202
    • 13.2 Changes in Arrivals and Expenditure between 1990 and 2000 by Country Group 202
    • 13.3 The 20 Fastest Growing Developing Country Destinations in Terms of Visitor Arrivals between 1990 and 2000 203
    • 13.4 Developing Countries Ranked According to Their Tourism Industry's Contribution to Their GDP between 1990 and 1999 204
    • 13.5 The Top Four Export Sectors in Developing Countries 205
    • 13.6 Developing Countries with the Highest Levels of Employment in the Tourism Sector (in Percentage) 205
    • 13.7 Selected Developing Countries Ranked According to TPI and TII, 2004 206
    • 13.8 Selected Developing Countries Ranked According to TIR, 2004 207
    • 13.9 Developing Countries Ranked According to International Tourist Arrivals and HDI, 2004 207
    • 13.10 Emerging Trends in Tourism 209
    • 15.1 China's Travel Trade: 1996–2003 227
    • 15.2 Division Structure of China's Travel Trade Prior to October 1996 232
    • 15.3 Division Structure of China's Travel Trade after October 1996 234
    • 16.1 Year-wise Arrival of Domestic and Foreign Tourists in Rajasthan 246
    • 16.2 Income Distribution Pattern of Artisan Households 247
    • 16.3 Share of Artisan Income in Total Household Income 247
    • 16.4 Average Peak-Lean Ratio of Income According to Income Group 248
    • 16.5 Location-wise Operational Mode of Artisan Households 249
    • 16.6 Distribution of Artisan Households Based on Operational Status and Income Level 249
    • 16.7 Education Levels of the Artisans According to Income Group 250
    • 16.8 Education Levels of the Artisans According to Operational Status 250
    • 16.9 Artisans Reporting Problem in Availing Credit Facility 251
    • 16.10 Direct Sales to Tourists as Proportion of Total Sales 252
    • 16.11 Indicators of Employment Generation 252
    • 17.1 Impacts of Simulations of AuD 636 Million Increase in Tourism on New South Wales and Rest of Australia in the Short Run, 2000–01 264
    • 17.2 Changes in Industry Output and Employment in New South Wales, 2000–01 265
    • 17.3 Comparison of Economic Impacts of a Special Event Using Input–Output and CGE Models (Total Shock AuD 51.25 Million) 267
    • 18.1 Selected Hotels in Mainland China and Hong Kong 277
    • 18.2 Included Website Dimensions, Attributes and Their Weights 279
    • 18.3 Performance of Mainland China Hotel Websites 280
    • 18.4 Performance of Hong Kong Hotel Websites 281
    • 18.5 Comparison of the Performance of the Websites of Hotels in Hong Kong and Mainland China 282
    • 19.1 International Tourist Arrivals: World and India 290
    • 19.2 International Tourist Receipts: World and India 291
    • 19.3 Room Capacity in Various Categories—India 295
    • 19.4 Domestic and Foreign Tourist Movements within States 297
    • 19.5 Population Density, Tourist Density and Intensity—India, 2001 299
    • 20.1 Variance Explained by the Three Components of Holiday Attachment 314
    • 20.2 Factors Constituting Holiday Attachment 315
    • 20.3 Reliability Analysis (Alpha) for the Scale 316

    List of Figures

    • 4.1 Tourism in the Colonial Era 67
    • 4.2 Tourism and Colonialism 72
    • 7.1 Rural Tourism Demand in Spain and Andalucía (Over Nights) 108
    • 7.2 Rural Tourism Bedspaces Dynamics in Andalucía: Non-Parametric Bivariate Density, 2000–03 111
    • 8.1 Tourism in Mallorca 122
    • 8.2 Moai at Ahu Tongariki, Easter Island 127
    • 8.3 Handicraft Market, Easter Island 127
    • 8.4 Jamestown, St. Helena 128
    • 8.5 Downed Argentine Aircraft from 1982 Conflict, West Falkland 129
    • 8.6 Gentoo Penguins, East Falkland 130
    • 11.1 Reconstruction of the Tourist Product Value 164
    • 11.2 The Virtuous Cycle of User-based Interactive Learning 168
    • 13.1 International Tourist Arrivals, 1950–2020 201
    • 15.1 Structure of Travel Trade in the UK 229
    • 15.2 Comparing Production Costs and Governing Costs 231
    • 16.1 Domestic Tourists Over Time 242
    • 16.2 Arrival of International Tourists 242
    • 16.3 Foreign Exchange Earning 243
    • 19.1 Major Ports of Disembarkation—India 293

    List of Maps

    • 7.1 Bedspaces in Rural Houses by Municipalities, 2000 108
    • 7.2 Bedspaces in Rural Houses by Municipalities, 2003 109
    • 8.1 Mallorca and the Spanish Coast 121
    • 8.2 St. Helena, Easter Island and the Falkland Islands 124
    • 19.1 Index of Tourist Intensity 2001 301


    As written by many, writing an acknowledgement for a volume of diverse nature is indeed a challenge. Not because it requires scientific temper or difficulty in identifying the individuals and institutions involved, but it has more to do with the variety and the degree of such involvement and contributions in the successful completion of this project. We are then emotionally bound to begin from the conception stage and our personal acknowledgement first go to Prof M.H. Qureshi of the Center for Study of Regional Development, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi; Prof Jafar Jafari, former Editor-in-chief of the Annals of Tourism Research; and Prof T.V Singh, Editor-in-chief of the Tourism Recreation Research for expressing their firm views about the project theme and coverage. We have very much appreciated their reflections, especially of Prof Singh that ‘the canvas of the project is little broad’. Then, considering the complexity and diversity of the thematic area of tourism development and the core objectives with which the project was begun, it was felt appropriate to retain the framework initially conceived.

    Indeed, it would not have been possible to achieve the objectives of the project without the encouraging response from the distinguished contributors in the beginning and subsequently contributing scholarly chapters in their respective domain of scholarship. Their timely cooperation at every stage in the progress of the project has immensely contributed in making this volume worth reading for the targeted audience. We would like to thank all of them immensely in partnering in our endeavour and appreciate their receptiveness to our views and suggestions. Then, what made the project moving and eventually turning into a reality was the wholehearted interest evinced by Response Books in the theme. Its management, especially the editorial team has been very prompt and extended all support. They deserve a special mention here and we thank them sincerely for ensuring a quality production.

    Though we have many other personalities whose services/cooperation are to be thanked and acknowledged, we would like to restrict to very few names due to space constraints. Individually, the editors would like to thank Muktar Ahmed, Personal Assistant at the Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management, Eastern Regional Centre at Bhubaneshwar for excellent secretarial assistance. They would also like to thank their faculty colleagues and staff members for cooperation. It would then be incomplete if we do not thank each other for agreeing to the views expressed in this volume since we belong to different disciplinary domains, and have strong positions on tourism development.

    Finally, it would be unfair if we did not acknowledge the role our family members because they have shared a large part of our responsibility, even if it was indirect in nature. In fact, we have taken a more than fair share of our times due to them, especially of the children. Babu fondly remembers his inspiring mother, wife Rekha who has shouldered a great responsibility of taking care of the family, and his children Gouri and Sambhu for their undertsanding, even if they are small. Mishra wishes to express his gratitude to the amazingly accommodative nature of his wife, Hillolini, and sons Amartya and Amulya. Whereas, Parida acknowledges the role of his wife, Prachi, and son, Nikhilesh, for lightening the hectic days while working on the project. Together, we dedicate this volume to our mothers.

    SutheeshnaBabu. S, Panaji, Goa
    SitikanthaMishra, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh
    BivrajBhusan Parida, Bhubaneswar, Orissa
  • About the Editors and Contributors


    Sutheeshna Babu. S is Reader at the Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management Gwalior and now holds the post of Nodal Officer of the National Institute of Watersports, Goa. Prior to this, he has worked as Chairperson of the Department of Tourism, Institute of Management Studies, Ghaziabad, U.P., India. Dr Babu is also the editor of the UNECAP promoted Asia-Pacific Education and Training Institutes in Tourism (APETIT) Newsletter. His main publications include conference proceedings and articles in journals and edited books. Tourism development issues and policy research remain his main areas of research.

    Sitikantha Mishra, PhD, is the Director of the Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management (IITTM), Gwalior, Ministry of Tourism, Government. of India. He has been working as Professor in Business Studies for last two decades. Prof. Mishra is also Vice-President UNECAP promoted Asia-Pacific Education and Training Institutes in Tourism (APETIT). He has authored many articles in national and international journals, and wrote three books on themes related to tourism planning and marketing. Prof. Mishra is also member of the Working Committee on Technical Education for the 11th Five Year Plan, constituted by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India. His main areas of interest are strategic management, financial management and tourism planning.

    Bivraj Bhusan Parida, D Lit., is Reader at the Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management, Bhubaneswar. Prior to this, he taught at the Department of Management, Burdwan University, West Bengal and also headed the department. He has a dual post-graduate in economics and management, and has obtained the Doctorate and D Lit. in Management with marketing as the focus area. In addition to publishing seminar/conference papers, Dr Parida also has published in leading journals and co-authored a book on tourism marketing. His areas of interests are marketing themes, and he specialises in Customer Relationship Management (CRM) applications in tourism.


    Sue Broad was a PhD student at the University of Newcastle when she undertook this research. She has since founded ACHIEVE Life Transformation, a coaching, education and training company based in Brisbane, Australia, which specialises in assisting individuals to produce exceptional results and create the life of their dreams.

    Peter M. Burns is Professor of International Tourism and Development at the School of Service Management and is also Director of CENTOPS. Prior to this, he was Head of Leisure, Hospitality and Tourism at the University of Luton. Professor Burns is a consultant anthropologist specialising in strategic policy making for sustainable human development and identifying solutions to tourism's human impacts. He has extensive international experience working with communities to help them achieve better education, participation and training through the use of tourism development and income generation. He has authored numerous papers on sustainable tourism and has many internationally acclaimed publications to his credit.

    Richard Butler is Professor of International Tourism at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland. Prior to this, he taught at the University of Western Ontario and the University of Surrey. He is past President of the International Academy for the Study of Tourism and of the Canadian Association of Leisure Studies. He has produced 11 books and many journal articles on tourism. His main areas of interest are the destination development process, the impacts of tourism, and tourism in remote areas and islands.

    Michael F. Christie is the Director of a pedagogical development centre at Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden. He is also Professor and Head of the Centre for Competence and Knowledge Building in Higher Education in the same university. He has a longstanding interest in the training of tourist guides and in the benefits of educational tourism. He has been active in attempts to promote the concept of a ‘global classroom’ in which tourists are students and well-trained guides their teachers.

    Catherine Cheung is Lecturer at the School of Hotel and Tourism Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University. She has worked in many hotels in Hong Kong, Taiwan and Australia prior to joining The Hong Kong Polytechnic University in 1994.

    Larry Dwyer, PhD, is Qantas Professor of Travel and Tourism Economics at the University of New South Wales, Australia. He has published widely in the areas of tourism economics, management and policy. Dwyer also has undertaken an extensive number of consultancies for public and private sector tourism organisations within Australia, and for international agencies including the World Tourism Organization. Some of his notable associations include member of the International Academy for the Study of Tourism and the International Advisory Board of the Business Enterprises for Sustainable Tourism Education Network (BESTEN), and coordinator of the Sustainable Destinations research programme of The Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre in Australia. He is founding member of the International Association for Tourism Economics and is on the editorial boards of 13 international tourism journals.

    Peter Forsyth has been Professor of Economics at Monash University since 1997, and prior to this he was at the University of New England, Australian National University and the University of New South Wales. He has done extensive research on air transport, including on international aviation regulation and Australian domestic air transport. He has published several papers on airport regulation, and is the co-editor of a book on this subject, Regulation of Airports: Recent Developments in Australasia, North America and Europe (2004). His recent work, supported by the Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre, involved using computable general equilibrium models to assess the economic impacts of tourism, including events, and in analysing tourism and aviation policy issues. He has co-edited International Handbook on the Economics of Tourism (2006) with Larry Dwyer.

    Babu P. George is Assistant Professor (Tourism Management), College of Business, University of Southern Mississippi. Earlier, he was associated with the Department of Tourism at Pondicherry University as a full-time faculty. He had also lectured at the Faculty of Management Studies of Goa University for almost three years from where he obtained his PhD degree. He has contributed to a number of internationally reputed research journals in the area of marketing. He is also on the editorial boards of a few Indian journals. He has got two books on tourism to his credit. His present research interests include application of postmodernist perspectives in the conduct of social research, especially in the area of information and communication technologies (ICT) in tourism.

    Thiep Van Ho is senior economic modeller at the Sustainable Tourism CRC Centre for Tourism Economics and Policy Research in Australia. He has published many articles in international journals, working papers, technical reports and monographs, in the areas of tourism economics, input–output analysis and tourism satellite accounts. His recent work has involved using computable general equilibrium models to assess the economic impacts of tourism. He was an economic consultant for ACIL Tasman Consultancy in Australia, working on global dynamic computable general equilibrium modeling. He is also an associate of the Centre of Policy Studies, Monash University.

    Rob Law is Associate Professor of Information Technology at School of Hotel and Tourism Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University. He has a doctorate in Computer Science from the University of Regina. Prior to his joining The Hong Kong Polytechnic University in 1995, has worked in the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology, University of Regina and Bell Northern Research/Northern Telecom in Canada. Dr Law is an Internet Editor/Guest Editor/Editorial Board Member of 12 academic journals and a referee for 18 other research journals. In addition, he is on the committees of about 50 international conferences.

    Lingyun Zhang is Associate Dean of The Academy of Tourism Development, Beijing Second Foreign Language University. His involvement with tourism industry spans for almost 20 years. This diverse experience enables him to understand the complexity and multi-faceted nature of tourism industry. He has published several journal articles and books on topics like tourism economy, tourist attraction, tourist destination and competitiveness of tourist firms.

    Kevin D. Lyons is Senior Lecturer in the School of Economics, Policy, and Tourism at the University of Newcastle, Australia, and is a Research Associate with the Centre for Full Employment and Equity at the University of Newcastle, Australia. Dr Lyons' research examines professional preparation and employability in the leisure and tourism industries, and the relationships between leisure and tourism and life and career trajectories. He has recently conducted research on the role of volunteer tourism and cultural exchange as career enhancing pursuits.

    María Cruz Mayorga-Toledano is Profesor Colaborador at the Department of Private Law of the University of Málaga (Spain), and teaches at the Faculty of Economics and the School of Tourism of the Malaga University, since 1994. Her research interests lie principally in the legal regulation of tourism, especially in the rural segment. She has participated in several research projects about the legal regulation of tourism firms in Andalucía and published various articles related to the Spanish legal regulation of tourism.

    Miguela M. Mena is Assistant Professor at the University of the Philippines Asian Institute of Tourism (UPAIT). She obtained her PhD in Tourism Management from the School of Hotel and Tourism Management, Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Her main research interests focus on international tourism in developing countries, destination competitiveness, destination policy and planning, destination management and marketing, and measurement of domestic tourism.

    Antonio Fernández-Morales is Professor Titular de Universidad at the Department of Applied Economics (Statistics and Econometrics) of the University of Málaga (Spain) since 1994. He teaches at the Faculty of Economics and the School of Tourism of Malaga University. His main current research interests are related to rural tourism and seasonality in tourism. He has published several scientific articles and two textbooks on statistical techniques for tourism analysis.

    Dripto Mukhopadhyay has more than 15 years of experience in applied economic research. Presently, he is working as Head of the Research Division (North & Eastern region) at Indian Council for Market Research (ICMR), New Delhi. Prior to this, he worked at National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER), New Delhi for more than a decade as project leader and lead researcher. He has contributed widely in national and international publications. Mr Mukhopadhyay was sponsored by University Grant Commission (UGC) as Senior Scholar at Jawaharlal Nehru University and obtained M. Phil. Degree from the same university in urban analysis. He was a scholar under the auspices of the International Visitors Programme sponsored by the Government of United States. His research interests are industry analysis, consumer research, demand forecasting, impact analysis, tourism development, and urban and regional planning.

    Peter Mason is Professor of Tourism Management and Head of the Tourism, Leisure and Sport Management Department, University of Bedfordshire (previously University of Luton), UK. He has worked at universities in the UK and New Zealand and has extensively researched on tourism impacts, planning and management for the past 20 years, with a particular focus on visitor management issues. He is the author of three books and has over 50 refereed publications.

    Nina Rao retired in 2005 as the Head of the Department of Tourism, College of Vocational Studies, University of Delhi. She is one of the leading academics in tourism in India and her critical analysis of tourism has won her both national and international recognition. She serves on different committees in tourism and her contribution to EQUATIONS, a tourism-advocacy platform in India, as one of its leading faces is noteworthy. As a tourism critic, her research concerns include conceptual issues and development problems particularly human rights and gender issues.

    Stephen A. Royle is Reader in Geography and Director, Centre of Canadian Studies at Queen's University Belfast. He obtained PhD from Leicester University and is member of many national and international committees like Council of British Geography (COBRIG), EUGEO and the European Society for Geography. He has published many journal and book articles, and wrote many books. An inveterate traveller himself, he has a deep fascination for small islands and visited 583 islands in 63 countries and territories. Incidentally, many of his scholarly contributions are in the field of island development.

    Anders Sørensen, an anthropologist, is Associate Professor at Center for Leisure Management Research, CEUS-School of Business, Nykøbing F., Denmark. In addition, he manages TourismLab, a tourism knowledge bureau. His research interests include backpacker tourism, tourism and the informal sector, tourist guidebooks, tourism in peripheral areas, and tourism and society.

    Rochelle Spencer is a Postdoctoral Research Scholar in the Center for Research at Macquairie University, Sydney. She is a graduate in Anthropology and undertakes interdisciplinary research, with underpinning in the anthropology of tourism. An avid traveller herself, she has deep passion for community development and worked with leading NGOs. She has presented papers in many important seminars and conferences.

    Ray Spurr is Director of the Australian Sustainable Tourism CRC (STCRC) Centre for Tourism Economics and Policy Research (CTEPR) and a Senior Research Fellow at the University of New South Wales (UNSW). He has been the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) Policy Adviser Asia/Pacific since 1996; a member of the World Tourism Organization's Leadership Forum of Advisers and Chairman of the OECD Tourism Committee (1993–95). He has published extensively in the field of measuring the economic impacts of tourism.

    Yeoryios Stamboulis received his B. Eng in Production and Management Engineering from the Technical University of Crete, Hania. He went on to receive his MSc in Management of Technology and his D.Phil. in Science and Technology from the Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex, UK. His research interests include management, strategy and policy for innovation and technology, systems thinking and systems dynamics, and strategic management and development strategy.

    John Urry has been associated with the University of Lancaster in various capacities including Dean of Research (1994–98) and Chair of HEFCE's RAE Panel (1996–2001). In the early years of his academic career, his research interests were on the sociology of power and revolution. Subsequently, his focus has shifted to urban and regional research, particularly on the relationship between society and space. His research on tourism is praiseworthy, especially his efforts to connect contemporary western societies, consumer services and tourist related services. The economic, social, environmental and cultural implications of such developments can be seen in The Tourist Gaze and other publications.

    Stephen Wearing is an Associate Professor at the University of Technology (UTS), Sydney. He received his PhD from Charles Sturt University, Australia and his doctoral research focussed on sustainable/alternative forms of tourism. He has taught at Wageningen University, (Netherlands), Newcastle and Macquarie (Australia) universities and received the UTS excellence in teaching award in 2000. He is Fellow of Parks and Leisure Australiasia and editor of its journal. He has published many books and articles in international journals. His major research interests are ecotourism, community-based and volunteer tourism; environmentalism; sociology of leisure and tourism; and protected area management.

    Xiaoqiu Ma is Marketing Manager, MICE Department, China Travel Service (CTS) Head Office, and is involved with the tourism industry for over 10 years. With an MS degree on e-Tourism from the University of Surrey, UK, and an MA degree on International Relations from the University of Flinders, Australia, she is well-informed of the latest tourism development trends internationally.

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