Tourism and Tourism Spaces

Books

Gareth Shaw & Alan M. Williams

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part One: Production, Regulation and Competition

    Part Two: Consumption, Experience and Commodification

    Part Three: Constructing and Reconstructing Tourism Places and Spaces

  • Copyright

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    List of Boxes

    • 1.1 Competing Theories of Globalization 6
    • 1.2 Tourism and the Cultural Turn in Economic Analysis: Asian Tourism and Migration 15
    • 2.1 Handicraft Production and Tourism: Two Faces of Commodification in Malta 29
    • 2.2 Sex Tourism in South-East Asia 39
    • 2.3 The Mode of Regulation: Tourism in State Socialist Societies 41
    • 2.4 The Eclectic Theory of Multinationals 45
    • 3.1 Small Firms and the Informal Sector 60
    • 3.2 The Extent of Tourism Globalization: Air Travel, Hotels and Tour Operators 64
    • 3.3 Work Orientation, Tourism and Migration 71
    • 3.4 Gender and Tourism Labour-Market Segmentation 75
    • 3.5 Tourism and Migration in the Balearic Islands 78
    • 4.1 Competition and Collaboration: Thomson 84
    • 4.2 Competition within Existing and Changing Paradigms: Budget Airlines 88
    • 4.3 Rick Stein's Padstow: the Re-Creation of Tourism Place 92
    • 4.4 Informal business networks: the Finnish community in Lake Worth 98
    • 4.5 Tour Operators in the Aegean: Consequences of Supplier Strategie 101
    • 4.6 The Sheraton Hotel, Lombok: Supplier Relationships 103
    • 4.7 The Museum District 104
    • 4.8 Airlines' Strategic Alliances: Internal and External Drivers 107
    • 5.1 New Forms of Flexible Holiday Packages Offered in the UK 128
    • 6.1 The ‘Authentic’ Spain 141
    • 6.2 Motivations of Ecotourists: the Canadian Case 155
    • 6.3 In Search of the Ultimate Beach: The Consequences of Alex Garland's The Beach on Thailand 157
    • 6.4 Institutionalizing the Drifter: An Example of a Backpacker Tour Company 157
    • 6.5 Evolutionary Patterns of Domestic Tourism in Selected Developing Countries 160
    • 7.1 The Impact of Visitor Numbers on Central Venice 172
    • 7.2 Negotiating the Commodification of Local Culture: Festivals and Rituals 177
    • 7.3 Residents' Perceptions of and Adjustments to Tourists in South Devon Resorts, England 181
    • 8.1 Product Cycles and the bUsiness Cycle 192
    • 8.2 Working for McDonald's: Reasons for Low Unionization 197
    • 8.3 Local Economic Linkages: Resort Hotels in Indonesia 201
    • 8.4 Tourism Interest Groups in England 205
    • 8.5 Critical Factors in the Effectiveness of Collaboration 208
    • 8.6 From Growth Machine to Growth Management: Whistler 213
    • 9.1 Ibiza and the Marketing of the Club Scene 224
    • 9.2 The Structure of a Mega-Resort: Cancún, Mexico 228
    • 9.3 Main Characteristics of the Operation and Control of Large Hotels in Mexican Resorts 230
    • 9.4 Market Segments and English Seaside Resorts 235
    • 10.1 Singapore's Haw Par Villa: A Cultural Theme Park 249
    • 10.2 The Themed Mega-Mall: The Mall of America 253
    • 10.3 The Eden Project as a Themed Attraction 257
    • 10.4 Tolkien's Lord of the Rings and the Theming of New Zealand's Tourism Places 259

    List of Figures

    • 1.1 Tourism, globalization and national regulation 9
    • 2.1 Idealized forms of tourism commodification 26
    • 2.2 The globalization of tourism 43
    • 2.3 Tourism and the hollowing out of the state 47
    • 3.1 Tourism micro-firms: context, goals and operations 57
    • 3.2 Tourism transnational companies: context, goals and operations 61
    • 3.3 Average earnings in tourism: percentage of average non-managerial earnings, 1999 67
    • 3.4 Downwards pressures on tourism wages 68
    • 3.5 Sources of labour flexibility in tourism 73
    • 3.6 Stages in the evolution of tourism-migration relationships: an idealized model 77
    • 4.1 Operating costs of selected European airlines 89
    • 4.2 Competition within changing paradigms (disruptive competition) 90
    • 4.3 Rick Stein's enterprises in Padstow 93
    • 4.4 Supply linkages: the trade-off between risk and internalizing linkages 100
    • 5.1 Ecotourism as a continuum of paradigms 123
    • 5.2 The links between new forms of tourism 123
    • 5.3 Poon's ‘new’ and ‘old’ tourists 129
    • 6.1 The hedonic motivational model 143
    • 6.2 The travel career-ladder 148
    • 6.3 Organized backpacker route 158
    • 6.4 Domestic and international tourist flows in Thailand 162
    • 7.1 The components of culture 170
    • 7.2 Stages in cultural commodification 175
    • 8.1 Tourism places: trajectories of change 188
    • 8.2 Tourism product cycles: contrasting examples 191
    • 8.3 The tourism resort cycle 192
    • 8.4 Tourism planning approaches and interest groups 209
    • 9.1 Zones of control and pleasure in the seaside resort 217
    • 9.2 The geography of Cancún, Mexico 229
    • 9.3 Market segments and visitor potential for English seaside resorts 236
    • 10.1 Major themes and attractions in Las Vegas 250
    • 10.2 A typology of themed environments 255
    • 10.3 The construction of themed literary places 259
    • 10.4 Theming tourism places in New Zealand 260
    • 10.5 Major Millennium-funded visitor attraction projects 264

    List of Tables

    • 1.1 Tourism and co-presence 2
    • 1.2 Perspectives on tourism opportunities, risks and constraints 10
    • 2.1 Hegemonic structures: Fordism/Keynesianism versus neo-Fordism/neo-Liberalism 32
    • 2.2 Fordist versus post-Fordist production in tourism 34
    • 2.3 The state and the regulation of tourism 37
    • 2.4 The globalization of tourism 44
    • 2.5 Macro-regional tourism regulation: two contrasting examples 49
    • 3.1 Typology of transnational companies by international orientation 63
    • 3.2 Tourism-work orientation 70
    • 4.1 Principal objectives of airlines' strategic partnerships 106
    • 4.2 Comparison of scale economies achievable by hotel chains and different types of consortia 108
    • 5.1 Characteristics of mass tourism 115
    • 5.2 Characteristics of post-Fordist tourism consumption 116
    • 5.3 Characteristics of visitors to heritage attractions identified in selected British studies 121
    • 5.4 Socio-demographic characteristics of visitors to Meadowhall Shopping Mall (Sheffield) 127
    • 5.5 Typologies of ecotourists 129
    • 5.6 Mowforth's typology of ecotourists 130
    • 6.1 Types of authenticity in the tourist experience 136
    • 6.2 Viewpoints concerning authenticity and the tourist experience under constructivism 137
    • 6.3 The reflections of tourists visiting heritage sites in the UK 138
    • 6.4 Tourist motivation literature as integrated into a functional framework 146
    • 6.5 Sociocultural inversions associated with tourist experiences 150
    • 6.6 Main characteristics of the post-tourist 159
    • 7.1 Dann's identification of types of paradise in holiday brochures 168
    • 7.2 Ryan's typology of conditions for crimes against tourists 173
    • 7.3 Stages of cultural collision and intercultural interactions with local residents 174
    • 7.4 Main characteristics of pseudo-cultural events 176
    • 7.5 Suggested causal influences on residents' opinions of tourism 179
    • 8.1 Application of the resort lifecycle to the Algarve 194
    • 8.2 Different forms of foreign direct investment in Vietnam 202
    • 8.3 Approaches to tourism planning 210
    • 9.1 Changing levels of international tourism undertaken by British residents, 1955–75 221
    • 9.2 Major threats to British seaside resorts 233
    • 9.3 Changing market share of English seaside holidays, 1973–98 234
    • 9.4 Examples of resort restructuring strategies 239
    • 9.5 Major reports on the regeneration of English coastal resorts 241
    • 10.1 Contrasting environments of the theme park and daily life 245
    • 10.2 Examples of disparities in the development of cultural-heritage attractions and the role of local agencies 262
    • 10.3 Tourist arrivals in Bilbao before and after the opening of the Guggenheim Museum 265

    Acknowledgements

    The authors would like to give their thanks to the following people at the University of Exeter: Terry Bacon and Sue Rouillard for their cartographic skills in drawing all the diagrams, and Cathy Aggett for all the long hours she spent at the word processor.

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