Tools for Teaching in the Block
Publication Year: 2009
This book provides teachers with a four-phase lesson planning framework and numerous teaching strategies to build higher-level thinking skills and increase student learning in extended class periods.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Preparing to Teach the Adolescent Learner
- The Adolescent Learner: A Profile
- What can Teachers do to Facilitate Adolescent Learning?
- A Method to Facilitate Adolescent Learning
- The First Steps: Curriculum Mapping and Lesson Planning
- Curriculum Mapping
- The Process of Curriculum Mapping
- Lesson Plan Formats
- Chapter Summary
- Blackline Masters
- Chapter 2: Tools for Teaching in the Block
- What are the Tools?
- What Constitutes a Brain-Compatible Classroom?
- The History of Cooperative Learning
- The Framework for Cooperative Learning
- Effective Strategies for Cooperative Learning
- Jigsaw Groups
- Reciprocal Teaching
- Student Teams Achievement Divisions (STAD)
- Group Investigation Strategy
- Multiple Intelligence Theory
- What are the Eight Intelligences?
- Effective Questioning Techniques
- Constructing Good Questions
- Questioning Strategies
- Question-Answer Relationship (QAR) Strategy
- Questioning the Author
- Socratic Questioning
- Graphic Organizers
- Types of Graphic Organizers
- Structured Note Taking
- Chapter Summary
- Blackline Masters
- Chapter 3: Entice the Learner
- The First Phase: Enticement
- Strategies and Activities to Use to Entice the Learner
- Brain Writing
- Carousel Brainstorming
- Exclusion Brainstorming
- A Variation on the Think-Pair-Share Strategy
- Give One-Get One
- Three Step Interview
- Hooks and Bridges
- Mind's Eye
- Story Impressions
- Problematic Perspectives
- Character Quotes
- Anticipation Guides
- True or False
- Vocabulary Strategies to Entice the Learner
- Knowledge Rating
- Possible Sentences
- Chapter Summary
- Blackline Masters
- Chapter 4: Enlighten the Learner
- The Second Phase: Enlightenment
- Strategies and Activities to Use to Enlighten the Learner
- Direct Instruction of a Minilesson
- Audio Presentations/Videotapes/CD-ROM Presentations
- Interactive Lectures
- Paired Discussions
- Send a Problem
- Learning Centers/Learning Stations
- Chapter Summary
- Chapter 5: Engage the Learner
- The Third Phase: Engagement
- Strategies and Activities to Use to Engage the Learner
- Strategies for Monitoring the Reading
- Strategies for Guiding the Reading
- Guided Note Taking
- Reader's Questions
- 5W Model
- Extended Anticipation Guide
- Magnet Summaries
- Sketch to Stretch
- Jot Charts
- Pyramid Diagram
- Three Level Guide
- Chapter Summary
- Blackline Masters
- Chapter 6: Extend the Learner
- The Fourth Phase: Extension
- Strategies and Activities to Use to Extend the Learner
- Learning Journals and Logs
- Double-Entry Journal
- Grand Conversations
- Instructional Conversations
- Poster Session
- Save the Last Word for Me
- Extended Format Responses
- One Minute Papers
- Creative After-Learning Strategies
- The ABC Summary
- Biography Poem
- Biography Cinquain
- Fact Acrostic
- Employing Different Perspectives
- The Human Graph
- Perspective Cubing
- Discussion Web
- Reflective Lesson Log
- 3-2-1 for Expository Text
- 3-2-1 for Narrative or Biographical Text
- 1-2-3-4 Strategy
- Thinking at Right Angles
- What? So What? Now What?
- Chapter Summary
- Blackline Masters
- Chapter 7: Enact the Learning
- The Culmination: Enactment
- Strategies and Activities to use in Each Phase of the Lesson Plan Format
- Lesson Ideas for Content Area Disciplines
- Lesson Idea for English
- Lesson Idea for Language Arts
- Lesson Idea for Science
- Lesson Idea for Social Studies
- Lesson Idea for Mathematics
- Lesson Idea for Health
- Lesson Idea for Family and Consumer Education
- Lesson Idea for Business and Technology
- Lesson Idea for Foreign Language
- Lesson Idea for Fine Arts
- Some Parting Thoughts
- Chapter Summary
This book is dedicated to my husband, Arthur, who supported every page with patience and understanding when dinner was late, the house was a mess, and the laundry piled up while I wrote, revised, and wrote some more. Thanks, Art!
Copyright © 2009 by Corwin
All rights reserved. When forms and sample documents are included, their use is authorized only by educators, local school sites, and/or noncommercial or nonprofit entities that have purchased the book. Except for that usage, no part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Tools for teaching in the block/Roberta L. Sejnost.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4129-5712-0 (cloth)
ISBN 978-1-4129-5713-7 (pbk.)
1. Block scheduling (Education) 2. High school teaching. 3. Teenagers—Education. I. Title.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
09 10 11 12 13 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquisitions Editor: Cathy Hernandez
Editorial Assistant: Sarah Bartlett
Production Editor: Cassandra Margaret Seibel
Copy Editor: Cate Huisman
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Proofreader: Susan Schon
Indexer: Jean Casalegno
Cover Designer: Michael Dubowe
The movement toward the use of “block schedules,” with the main goal of increasing the traditional class period of 45–50 minutes to an extended period of up to 90 minutes, has caused apprehension among many middle and high school teachers. Although good reasons are provided for going to a block schedule, some teachers, already concerned about being able to “reach” an increasingly diverse student population, feel unprepared to teach in longer time periods. Teachers wonder: “Students have a hard enough time sitting for 50 minutes; how can I expect them to sit for 90 minutes?” or “I am not sure I can be creative enough for 90 minutes.”
Many teachers, committed to reaching all students in their classroom, are searching for ways to best use these new extended periods of time. Rather than merely extending what they had been doing for 50 minutes or simply adding busy work to fill up the time allotments that have been created, teachers want to ensure that they use additional time to actually increase student learning. This book presents research-based best practices and offers a lesson plan format, as well as content area strategies, that enable teachers to increase learning by more effectively integrating reading, writing, and critical thinking into a 90-minute block of instructional time. These strategies are grounded in the theory of multiple intelligences and brain-based research, which can be applied in every classroom, no matter what the subject or grade level. Examples and blackline masters for implementing the strategies are included in this book to assure immediate transfer to all content area classrooms.
Chapter 1 (Preparing to Teach the Adolescent Learner) paints a picture of adolescent learners and their instructional needs. The chapter details methods to best facilitate adolescent learning, including extending the teaching time in the classroom from the usual 45–50 minutes to an extended period of 90 minutes. In order to assure that effective instruction takes place during this extended period of time, the concept of comprehensive curriculum mapping and organized lesson planning is discussed and examples of curriculum maps and 90-minute lesson plans are provided.
Chapter 2 (Tools for Teaching in the Block) presents specific techniques that will most effectively and efficiently help teachers deliver the curriculum and lessons they will teach. Specifically, this chapter provides a discussion and examples of (1) cooperative learning strategies, (2) brain-compatible [Page x]learning strategies, (3) effective questioning techniques and strategies, and (4) the use of graphic organizers.
Chapter 3 (Entice the Learner) discusses the first phase of the block schedule lesson plan format and provides teachers with strategies to prepare students for learning by fostering recall of their prior knowledge, helping them to set a purpose for reading and learning, teaching them the vocabulary necessary for understanding, and arousing their interest in and motivation for learning.
Chapter 4 (Enlighten the Learner) presents the second phase of the block schedule lesson plan format. In essence, this chapter suggests strategies teachers may use to help students find the information necessary to allow them to proceed to phase three. Specific strategies presented in this chapter are considered in two categories, teacher-centered strategies and teacher-student interactive strategies.
Chapter 5 (Engage the Learner) presents the elements of the third phase of the block schedule lesson plan format. In this chapter, teachers are presented strategies and instructional frameworks—such as study guides, note-taking formats, and graphic organizers—that encourage students to actively interact with and process what they have learned by making predictions, keeping their purpose for reading in mind, self-monitoring their understanding, and making connections between what they are learning (new knowledge) and what they already know (old knowledge). These strategies are presented in two categories: strategies for monitoring learning and strategies for guiding learning.
Chapter 6 (Extend the Learner) presents the final phase of the block schedule time format. During this phase students clarify, reinforce, and extend what they have learned by organizing the information they have gathered and using their critical thinking skills to synthesize, analyze, and evaluate it. In addition, in this phase students have an opportunity to reflect on their learning in order to clarify their understanding, setting them upon the road to lifelong learning. Strategies to accomplish this are the highlight of this chapter.
Chapter 7 (Enact the Learning) provides readers with a summary of the four-phase lesson plan format as well as a listing of the strategies and activities that are appropriate for use in each phase. In addition, a series of lesson ideas for a range of content area disciplines is presented.
I wish to thank my colleagues at the Kane County, Illinois, Regional Office of Education and the teachers who teach in Kane County, Illinois, who called my attention to the need to write a book to help teachers effectively teach in a block schedule.Publisher's Acknowledgments
Corwin gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following reviewers:
- Michael A. Baker
- Eighth Grade Science Teacher/TAG Coordinator, Memorial Middle School, Albany, OR
- Jeremy Jones
- Assistant Professor of Education, Athens State University College of Education, Athens, AL
- Eve Lindsay
- Seventh Grade Teacher, Monroe Middle School, San Jose, CA
- Paul Mack
- Associate Professor of Education, Maryville University, St. Louis, MO
- Barbara Meyer
- Associate Professor, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Illinois State University, Normal, IL
About the Author
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