The Work-Family Interface: An Introduction
Publication Year: 2014
This brief and accessible title integrates contemporary scholarly research with compelling vignettes to make it appealing to both instructors and undergraduate audiences. While focused on the United States in respect to its target audience and emphasis, it contains considerable international data that compares and contrasts social policies adopted in Europe and elsewhere. In so doing, it shows both the strengths and the limitations of the approaches used in the U.S. This title is the only single source that summarizes the origins of work–family concerns, the diversities of needs and experiences, the impact of tensions on the family front, the consequences of tensions for employers, and different types of policies that can make meaningful differences not only in the lives of employees, but also potentially in ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Origins of Contemporary Work-Family Dilemmas
- When Work Separated from Family: The Household Economy Transitions to the Industrial Economy
- When Family and Work Were Defined as Separate Spheres: The Husband/Breadwinner–Wife/Homemaker Economy
- Where We Are Now: Most Every Adult Should Work Outside the Home
- Useful Concepts
- Issues to Ponder
- Mini Project
- Chapter 2: Diversity of Work, Family, and Work-Family Arrangements
- Diverse Values and Preferences
- Diverse Employment
- Industry/Occupation/Job Variation
- Work Availability and Schedules
- Risk and Insecurity
- Diverse Families
- Kinship Structures
- Caregiving Structures
- Families in the Life Course
- Useful Concepts
- Issues to Ponder
- Mini Project
- Chapter 3: Individual and Family Frontiers: Personal Responses to Strained Schedules
- Dominant Culture Metaphors of Connecting Work and Family
- Work-Family Conflict, Spillover, and Segmentation
- How People and Families Respond to Work-Family Conflict
- Doing without
- Repace and Resequence
- Redefine Expectations
- Useful Concepts
- Issues to Ponder
- Mini Project
- Chapter 4: Employer Frontiers: Organizational Intransigence and Promising Practices
- The Dual Agenda: Establishing Positive Outcomes for Families and Employers
- Availability and Use of Employer-Provided Family-Responsive Policies and Practices
- Process of Organizational Change: Moving from Awareness to Action
- Rethinking the Scheduling of Work
- Flexible Work in Multinational Organizations
- Useful Concepts
- Issues to Ponder
- Mini Project
- Chapter 5: Global Perspectives on the Work-Family Interface: International Comparative Analysis and Transnational Relationships
- International Comparative Analysis of Work and Family Relationships
- Intersections of Culture and Policy: National Approaches to Support Care Work
- Family Leave
- Financial Supports for Care Work
- Entitlements That Help Facilitate Integration in the Paid Labor Force
- Three Societal-Level Approaches to Reconciling Work-Family Strains
- Approach 1: Emancipate Caregivers from the Need to Work Outside the Home
- Approach 2: Emancipate Workers from Caregiving
- Approach 3: Provide Dual Supports
- Family Well-Being in International Comparative Perspective
- Transnational Concerns
- Transnational Families
- Useful Concepts
- Issues to Ponder
- Mini Project
- Chapter 6: Work-Family Interface as a National Priority
- What Governments Can Do
- Making the Case and Understanding Resistance
- Useful Concepts
- Issues to Ponder
- Mini Projects
[Page ii]For Phyllis Moen, who has taught me, and so many others, so much.
Copyright © 2014 by SAGE Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Stephen Sweet has received permission to use all author photos shown in this text.
SAGE Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd.
3 Church Street
#10-04 Samsung Hub
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Sweet, Stephen A.
The work-family interface : an introduction / Stephen A. Sweet.
p. cm.—(Contemporary family perspectives)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4522-6878-1 (pbk. : alk. paper)
1. Work and family. 2. Work and family—United States. 3. Labor policy. 4. Family policy. I. Title.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
13 14 15 16 17 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquisitions Editor: David Repetto
Editorial Assistant: Lauren Johnson
Production Editor: Brittany Bauhaus
Copy Editor: Mark Bast
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Proofreader: Annie Lubinsky
Indexer: Diggs Publication Services, Inc.
Cover Designer: Janet Kiesel
Marketing Manager: Erica DeLuca
Permissions Editor: Karen Ehrmann
- Exhibit 1.1 Men's and Women's Labor Force Participation Rates (Age 16 and Older): United States 1940–2010
- Exhibit 1.2 Employment Configurations of Married Couples: United States 2010
- Exhibit 2.1 Charlotte—A Work-Centric Professor
- Exhibit 2.2 Bill—A Manufacturing Worker Who Is neither Work Centric nor Family Centric
- Exhibit 2.3 Devon—A Family-Centric Child Care Employee
- Exhibit 4.1 Percentages of American Employers Who Make Flexible Work Arrangements Available to Some, Most, or All Employees
- Exhibit 4.2 Some Promising Scheduling Practices Identified Among Award-Winning Health Care Sector Employers
- Exhibit 5.1 Family Leave Entitlements in Developed Countries
- Exhibit 5.2 Summary Rankings of Child Well-Being in Developed Economies
- Exhibit 5.3 Google's Public Data Resources Offer Opportunities to Compare Indicators of Well-Being Across Societies
- Exhibit 6.1 Government Public Expenditure as Percentage of GDP: International Comparisons 2005
Series Preface[Page ix]
Contemporary Family Perspectives
Stephen Sweet is an associate professor of sociology at Ithaca College and a visiting scholar at the Sloan Center on Aging & Work at Boston College. He has studied work and family issues for over 15 years, focusing on concerns such as the linked careers of dual earners, job insecurity, life course transitions, flexible work arrangements, productivity, and international variation in family supportive practices.
In this volume, The Work–Family Interface: An Introduction, Sweet argues that work and family institutions have the potential to be harmonized, but current arrangements commonly pit the interests of caregivers against those of employers (and visa versa). Compounding the problem is the intense commitment expected from caregivers and employees—roles commonly combined in the lives of contemporary workers. Throughout this book, Sweet illustrates how better understandings of work on the home front and work in the paid economy can be used to identify the sources of strains. These understandings are used to identify the most promising policies to address critical issues confronting workers, their families, their employers, and their communities.
The Work–Family Interface begins with an examination of the historical origins of contemporary dilemmas, showing how problems in the present result from predetermined cultural and institutional orientations. After providing this background, the next chapter reveals the diversity of work-family arrangements—focusing on a life course perspective that decenters analysis away from the archetypical traditional and dual-earner family arrangements. Sweet then reveals the strategies that families currently use [Page x]to respond to work-family tensions and conflicts and the effect these paths have on lives and careers. The following chapter then looks at work-family tensions from the perspective of employers and how workplaces are responding to the needs of the changed workforce, such as by implementing flexible work schedules. Although this book focuses primarily on conditions in the United States, the fourth chapter shows the promise (as well as some not so positive implications) of following the approaches adopted in other countries. These international comparative analyses reveal that policy is largely determined by cultural values that sway collective responses to work-family tensions. The lessons learned elsewhere, as well as the increasing reliance on transnational production, indicate that effective harmonization of family requires establishing supports that enable families to provide and/or locate care. In addition, it requires establishing regulation within the work sphere—especially in respect to job security, work hours, and compensation. The final chapter concludes an assessment of the prospects for making work-family concerns a priority and suggests six national initiatives—advanced through the engagement of government—that can help reconcile work and family tensions.
A unique feature of this book is the use of original short-essay insights by 23 different family scholars. These insights, with accompanying photos of the authors, introduce the reader to diverse family scholars and their areas of study within the fields of work and family. The authors of these essays provide additional perspectives on work-family issues that enhance one's understanding of families in the United States and globally. Another unique feature of this volume is the mini projects located at the end of each chapter, which guide readers to apply the concepts they have learned.
The Work–Family Interface: An Introduction is appropriate for use in any class concerned with family structure, social inequality, and how employment affects families. Courses relating to human resource or talent management can also benefit from the book's careful consideration of the new workforce and the business case for flexible work. This book is a valuable resource to teachers and students in beginning and advanced courses in sociology, family studies, labor studies, women's studies, global studies, social work, public policy, and other disciplines. It also finds an audience among any person interested in comparative family studies or those who work in various human services fields, including human development, social work, education, counseling, health services, and the government. This last statement is particularly true for social service employees who work with families and other care workers. This volume can help them to better grasp the critical tensions that arise from the competing demands of families and employment.
Author Preface[Page xi]
A wealth of information exists on work and family concerns, revealing insights that were not present a few short decades ago. Compelling monographs provide rich ethnographic accounts of the challenges confronting specific groups of workers (i.e., contingent workers, flight attendants, women executives) and specific types of families (i.e., those entering retirement, young parents, those in poverty, those with children with special needs). Reports detail business-related concerns, such as how to make flexible work arrangements available and how to benchmark successes in managing work-family concerns. Social policies designed to ease work-family tensions—such as those that focus on family leave entitlements, access to childcare, and workplace protections—have been extensively studied. There are histories of change in the workplace and in the home, revealing the resonating effects that these changes have across institutions. Handbooks provide detailed treatment of concerns related to research, policy, and practice in the work-family field. And collections of resources—especially those provided through the online Work and Family Researchers Network (http://://workfamily.sas.upenn.edu/)—enable one to locate a remarkable amount of information on specific concerns.
What is lacking, however, is a brief overview of the core concepts and issues central to the work-family area of inquiry, a primer that explains what “work-family” is and why work-family concerns are important to multiple stakeholders. This book intends to fill this gap by directing readers' attention to various ways of thinking about work-family connections and how these observations inform social policy. One concern is the variation in the ways work-family arrangements are configured and how perceptions of those configurations have shifted over time. Another concern is the way work affects family lives and how families strategically adapt to shifting opportunity structures and expectations. Equally important are the interests of employers, how they understand the impact of family on their operations, and how organizations are responding to the needs of a changed [Page xii]workforce. And as these concerns are identified, attention is directed to the interests of society itself and the policies and practices that shape lives on and off the job.
This book reveals the complex ways that work and family lives intersect, with a particular attention focused on employment and families in the United States, but as that country is compared and connected to other societies. By focusing on core concepts central to the different visions of the work-family interface, and by presenting issues to ponder, this book sets out to provide readers with the insights needed to locate work-family linkages. Beyond that, it is designed to provide guidance to help clarify stances on the best strategies to resolve concerns—not only as they exist in one's own complex life but also in the lives of others.
I thank series editor Susan Ferguson and David Repetto at Sage for inviting me to write this book, as well as for their helpful guidance. Judi Casey and Jerry Jacobs generously allowed me to use many definitions of work-family concepts as presented in the glossary of the Work and Family Researchers Network. I also greatly appreciate the willingness of leading scholars to compose brief summaries of their contributions to the field that are included in insight boxes throughout this book. These scholars include Anne Bardoel, Judi Casey, Kathleen Christensen, Shannon Davis, Laura den Dulk, Carla Freeman, Ellen Galinsky, Kathleen Gerson, Lonnie Golden, Janet Gornick, Joseph Grzywacz, Linda Haas, Brad Harrington, Jody Heymann, Erin Kelly, Ellen Ernst Kossek, Mila Lazarova, Phyllis Moen, Birgit Pfau-Effinger, Marcie Pitt-Catsouphes, Allison Pugh, Julie Rosenzweig, and Sarah Winslow. Bhavani Arabandi provided many helpful suggestions. Devon Ritz assisted in editing the manuscript, and Chelsea Russo assisted in composing graphic designs. Kevin Cahill, Suzanne Lawler, and Jacqueline James identified many promising practices of employers, as well as the logistical challenges of implementing these ways of working, and I am grateful that they allowed me to abstract some of their research. I also thank my students, who have helped me clarify strategies of explaining and presenting the ideas present in this book. Ithaca College generously granted me release time from teaching responsibilities, which greatly eased the process of writing. Data presented on flexible work arrangements and career insecurities originate from my earlier work at the Cornell Employment and Family Careers Institute and from my ongoing work at The Sloan Center on Aging & Work at Boston College, with support from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.
The author and SAGE would also like to acknowledge the contributions of the following reviewers:
- Christopher Solario, Chemeketa Community College
- David Maume, University of Cincinnati [Page xiv]
- Janet Puls, Missouri Baptist University
- Melanie Deffendall, Delgado Community College
- Michele Lee Kozimor-King, Elizabethtown College
- Mirelle Cohen, Olympic College
- Patricia E. Literte, California State University, Fullerton
- Ryan Orr, Millersville University
- Yvonne Vissing, Salem State University
- Yvonne Moody, Chadron State College
And on the home front, a hearty thanks to my wife, Jai, for taking the lead while I worked early in the mornings and on weekends (but never at night!) and to our children, Arjun and Nisha, for being so fun and responsible.
More than any other set of institutions, workplaces and families shape and give meaning to lives. While one intuitively knows that jobs affect family life, and family life affects work, American culture has ingrained the idea that work and family concerns are largely disconnected. For example, a person “goes to work” and “comes home to family.” But on reflection, it is apparent that many problems experienced in the workplace can be directly traced to problems in the family. Or conversely, many problems experienced in the family can be directly traced to problems in the workplace. A few illustrations should more than suffice to illustrate some of the tensions.
- Becca is a single mother. She could be a dependable administrative assistant but is frequently absent or late to work because she cannot locate quality childcare that is affordable on her modest income. As a consequence, she relies on a combination of relatives and friends to watch her 3-year-old daughter Zoe.
- Charlene is a lawyer and has aspirations of becoming partner in her firm. She has been told (both directly and indirectly) that if she has children the prospects for achieving this goal are slim to nil.
- Jacob is 9 years old. He lives in a dangerous neighborhood and returns home to an empty house every day after school. He is expected to fix his own snack, do his homework, and help clean the house before his parents come home from their jobs. He is not allowed to have friends in the house alone.
- Imelda is a domestic worker living in Dubai, where she cleans and tends to the children of her employers. She has three young children that she has left behind in the Philippines in the care of her husband Tamir. She sends money home to her family and visits them usually once per year.
- Tom has been in a relationship with Keith for 10 years, but only a few of his coworkers know much about this dimension of his personal life. Keith has been diagnosed with terminal cancer, and Tom is so distracted by worry that his work is suffering. As a domestic partner, Keith is not included in Tom's employer-provided health insurance plan (which does cover married partners). [Page xvi]
- Peter's aging mother lives 100 miles away from his home. During Peter's last visit, it became apparent that his mother needs personal assistance. Peter is going to need to take time away from his job in order to provide immediate care, as well as locate a suitable senior residential environment for her relocation. Because Peter has only worked for his employer for less than 3 months, he wonders what will happen when he requests this time off.
Concerns such as these are all too familiar, and it would be surprising if readers could not list numerous ways that their jobs (or those of their parents, children, or spouse) interfered with their family lives, or how their family lives have interfered with careers. And yet, all too often the hyphen that connects work to family, and family to work, is framed only in the negative, with a sole focus on institutional tensions. In many ways, because both institutions are so heavily reliant upon one another, each contributes to the other domain as well. Again, a few illustrations can establish the merits of this observation.
- Steve is a professor who gets great satisfaction from teaching students and engaging in research. He comes home with interesting stories to tell his wife and children (well, at least he thinks they are interesting).
- Jack and Susan operate a family business that has been remarkably successful. They now have a vacation home and ample resources to provide their children with many enriching activities.
- Doris and Jennifer met while working at the same company. They started first as coworkers, then as friends, then as lovers, and now as life partners. They are considering adopting a child.
- Brad, now retired, volunteers at a local elementary school. Even though he does not get paid, he considers this his “job” and takes great pleasure in helping children learn. He says, “This is my second act, the job I always wanted but never could have allowed myself to have.”
- Silas and Karen have three children, one with special needs. Silas's job requires him to put in long hours, and Karen is the primary caretaker in the home. While not the life they had planned, Silas's career has flourished, in part, because Karen's work in the home has enabled him to devote himself to his job without distraction. They both believe this “traditional arrangement” has been best for their children.
- Michelle is an independent contractor who does copyediting for a publisher. Her job has lots of flexibility, and she is able to select how many projects she wishes to work on. During the winter months she takes on many projects so that during the summer she can work less and visit her sister (who lives three states away). During these visits, she takes care of her sister's children while her sister continues to work in a job that does not offer this type of flexibility.
[Page xvii]As these cases illustrate, work can be a source of rewards that are essential to family success. Work enhances people's social networks, makes them interesting, and integrates them into activities that are often vital to the maintenance and reproduction of society. The same can be said of family and what it does for the capacity to work.
Those lucky to have ideal family situations and ideal jobs arguably “have it all.” and yet even when one has what he or she hopes for in the home and in the workplace, sometimes the two institutions chafe against one another. Both the workplace and the family are “greedy institutions” and expect intense and undivided commitment (Coser, 1974). While maybe manageable in one domain or the other, the combined demands that each institution places on people can be unbearably heavy. The weights of these burdens are influenced not only by the amount of effort involved, but also by how tasks are synchronized. And social processes place unequal strains on the basis of gender and life stage. The results are binds that can force hard choices to select family over career, career over family, or perhaps other sacrifices such as job and family over community involvement or personal interests (Hochschild, 1997; Moen & Roehling, 2005; Stone, 2007).
What are the consequences of these hard choices? As discussed in the chapters that follow, for workers outcomes can be diminished health, financial hardship, career compromise, ambivalence, and dissatisfaction. For their spouses, children, parents, and neighbors, the outcomes of these choices can create absences that affect the quality of support received and even threaten family stability. For employers, outcomes can result in undependable and distracted workers, as well as undermine the capacity to recruit, retain, and develop talent. And for society writ large, these outcomes can limit collective attachments to work and family such that reproductive rates fall, marginalized members are left without care, and social inequalities are exacerbated. Ultimately the hope is for work-family arrangements that do not require hard choices. Achieving this objective requires not only understanding the social structures that define the arenas in which work and family roles are performed, but also the cultural templates—the deeply embraced values and beliefs—that shape personal and societal expectations.
To illuminate the concerns of multiple stakeholders, the chapters that follow focus on different ways of understanding work-family connections, different types of structural arrangements, and the implications for workers, their families, their employers, and their societies. The goal is not to provide an exhaustive overview of the many concerns identified, but rather to highlight the existence of the work-family interface and implications of different [Page xviii]ways of thinking about, or structuring, that interface. Within each chapter, readers will find contributions composed by leading scholars in the work-family field, describing the implications of their major insights. In addition to referenced definitions of important work and family concepts, the book concludes with direction on how to find more information on relevant work and family scholarship, policy, and practice. Throughout, readers will learn of concepts and perspectives central to work-family scholarship and policy analysis. Each chapter concludes with a mini project, an activity that can be performed in a short amount of time to further illuminate how work-family connections may relate to one's own life and perspectives.
One of the most important contributions of work-family scholarship is a reconsideration of taken-for-granted cultural and structural configurations, addressing the question of “how did the current arrangements emerge?” Chapter 1 considers work-family configurations from a historical perspective, identifying how many current concerns resulted from shifts in the culture and structure of society over time. Suggested in the chapter is that in society today most everyone is expected to work. And yet, policies and expectations remain grounded in old (and sometimes flawed) ways of connecting work and family. The result is that many current work-family arrangements rub against outdated institutional practices and expectations. This leads to the insight that contemporary work-family concerns originate as a consequence of structural and cultural lags, or of enduring failures to recognize the limitations of institutionalized practices.
Who is the typical worker, and what is the typical family? Answering this question presents numerous challenges, as contemporary workforces and households are remarkably variable. And yet, having some sense of the lives of particular classes of workers and families is a central concern in identifying both the challenges present today and the most promising means of addressing those challenges. Chapter 2 considers the constellations of work-family arrangements present among different members of society. Drawing attention to how the needs and capacities to work and provide care fluctuate throughout the life course, the importance of addressing diversity is shown as an essential strategy in reconciling work and family tensions. Because the world is not “one size fits all” (and few would wish for such an arrangement) this requires policies and practices that enable people to fit work and family in customizable arrangements.
How are workers responding to work-family tensions in their lives? To answer this question, Chapter 3 turns to the issue of personal and family adaptive strategies, the ways that people respond to work-family tensions and the consequences for life quality. This chapter focuses on concerns of agency, the ways that people make tough choices and the consequences these [Page xix]choices have on their lives. On the one hand, this chapter affirms the remarkable resilience of working families and that even when tensions are considerable, so are the creative responses to resolving these strains. On the other hand, many of the responses result in less than happy trade-offs. Revealing the cost associated with work-family conflict—especially as incurred on the family front—is critical to identifying what needs to change.
Work-family tensions not only negatively affect families, they also undermine business success. To identify the magnitude of these implications, Chapter 4 focuses on the employer side of the work-family equation, considering the reasons why employers should consider their workers' family concerns when designing jobs and work expectations. When employers adopt promising practices, such as advancing flexible work arrangements, it has the potential to create positive returns such as increased employee commitment. However, there are reasons why many employers are not attentive to their employees' lives off the job, leading to a conclusion that self-interest may guide some employers to reconsider job designs, but it will not necessarily guide all workplaces to become family friendly.
The globalization of work presents even further challenges, as it operates (to a considerable extent) beyond the confines of what any individual nation state might dictate. Adding to the complexity are huge variations in both the quality of work opportunities in any locale and the expectations of workers themselves. Chapter 5 focuses on the issue of cross-national variation in work-family contexts, as well as the impact that transnational trade, labor flows, and production have on the work-family interface. As industries and workers themselves move across national boundaries, increased complexities are emerging in the establishment of a global economy that is truly family friendly. While globalization may ease work-family strains in some societies, it can paradoxically do this by exacerbating strains in other societies. When work and family concerns are understood solely as domestic issues, the implications for those who move to find work, or who labor for absentee employers, remain hidden from policy initiatives.
The final chapter considers societal objectives in addressing discord in the work-family interface, as informed by observations that family adaptation and business adaptation are going to have, at best, only partial success in advancing harmonization. Chapter 6 identifies the role governments can play in structuring the arena in which work and family interact. Proactive government engagement in work regulation, incentivizing behaviors, provision of resources, and other directives can positively affect the capacities to engage in work and to provide care. However, policies intersect with culture in complex ways, such that no single society can be demonstrated as having “figured out” how to reconcile work and family tensions. The question left [Page xx]to readers is what type of society they wish the United States to be, and the text challenges them to frame their perspective in respect to what has been demonstrated as achievable (but not without costs) elsewhere.
This book is written primarily to help Americans understand what they should expect from themselves, their families, their employers, and their society. It also is intended to help clarify personal roles in moving society in directions that hold the greatest promise. For these reasons, the focal point of the work-family interface is the United States. This is not to move attention away from the needs of workers and families in other societies. I offer no pretense that answers to any of the concerns presented are easily resolved, but they certainly can be resolved much more effectively than they currently are. Finding the paths will require trade-offs, compromise on the part of both workers and employers, and a rebalancing of commitment to collective interests. But above all, it will require an openness to see what needs to be changed, the knowledge to know what has the potential to work, and the political will to move change forward. This book is written to help advance those objectives.
Further Exploration[Page 129]
One of the strengths of work-family scholarship is that it draws upon the insights of multiple disciplines, including sociology, psychology, business, economics, history, gender/family studies, demography, anthropology, and law. However, because many library search tools are discipline specific, conventional means of locating work-family research can leave many stones unturned.
For those interested in developing expertise in work and family concerns, I recommend two handbooks that consider in detail issues of disciplinary focus, research design, and practice.
- Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie, Ellen Kossek, and Stephen Sweet. 2006. The Work and Family Handbook: Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives, Methods and Approaches. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
- Korabik, Karen, Donna Lero and Denise Whitehead. 2008. Handbook of Work-Family Integration: Research, Theory and Best Practices. New York: Academic Press.
In addition to these books, those interested in specific concerns related to work and family can benefit by accessing the resources developed by the Work and Family Researchers Network (formerly the Sloan Work and Family Research Network). WFRN provides a wealth of resources (http://://workfamily.sas.upenn.edu), including the Work and Family Encyclopedia with an in-depth analysis of key concerns central to work-family inquiry, a glossary of relevant concepts that far surpasses the limited number of definitions provided in this book, and identification of key work-family scholars. The WFRN provides many teaching-related resources, such as course syllabi and class activities for those interested in teaching work-family concepts, and it offers presentations of business-related solutions to work-family concerns, including descriptions of employers who have reconfigured their work designs. The WFRN also supplies current information on work-family conferences, events, and recent news, as well as identifies scholarly research.
References[Page 131]2010. “Denmark Starts to Trim Its Admired Safety Net.”New York Times, August 16, B1. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/17/business/global/17denmark.html?pagewanted=all..2001. “Family-Supportive Work Environments: The Role of Organizational Perceptions.”Journal of Vocational Behavior58: 414–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.2000.1774.2003. “Family Clocks: Timing Parenthood.” Pp. 49–59 in It's About Time: Career Strains, Strategies, and Successes, edited by P.Moen. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.and .2004. Emerging Adulthood: The Winding Road from the Late Teens Through the Twenties. New York: Oxford University Press..2007. “Afterword: Aging out of care: Toward realizing the possibilities of emerging adulthood.”New Directions for Youth Development113: 151–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/yd.207.2002. “Rituals of the Workplace.”Work and Famly Research Network Encyclopedia. http://workfamily.sas.upenn.edu/wfrn-repo/object/kz4cq542lr76qf4w..2010. “Is Balancing Work and Family a Sustainable Metaphor?”Journal of Feminist Family Therapy13: 5–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J086v13n02_02.2006. “Work-Family Interventions and Experiments: Workplaces, Communities, and Society.” Pp. 651–64 in The Work and Family Handbook: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, Methods, and Approaches, edited by M.Pitt-Catsouphes, E. E.Kossek, and S.Sweet. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., , , and .2007. “Self-Scheduling for Hospital Nurses: An Attempt and Its Difficulties.”Journal of Nursing Management15: 72–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2934.2006.00633.x, , and .2002. The Supreme Court in the Intimate Lives of Americans: Birth, Sex, Marriage, Childrearing, and Death. New York: New York University Press..2010a. “After Suicides, Scrutiny of China's Grim Factories.”New York Times, June 6. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/07/business/global/07suicide.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0..2010b. “A Night at the Electronics Factory.”New York Times, June 19. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/20/weekinreview/20barboza.html.. [Page 132]2000. “Reduced-Hours Employment: The Relationship between Difficulty of Trade-Offs and Quality of Life.”Work and Occupations27: 168–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0730888400027002003and .2009. “Usable Flexibility, Employee's Concerns About Elders, Gender, and Job Withdrawal.”The Psychologist-Manager Journal12: 50–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10887150802665356, , , and .2008. “After-School Care and Work-Life Issues.”Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia. http://workfamily.sas.upenn.edu/wfrn-repo/object/1ly6y4r8t0ah0l36., , , and .1999. “Scaling Back: Dual-Earner Couples' Work-Family Strategies.”Journal of Marriage and the Family61: 995–1007. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/354019and .2010. “Separate Spheres: Institutionalizing an Ideology.”Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia. http://workfamily.sas.upenn.edu/wfrn-repo/object/u71875ti9x9dy6k5..2006. All Together Now: Common Sense for a Fair Economy. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler..2004. Starting in Our Own Backyards: How Working Families Can Build Community and Survive the New Economy. New York: Routledge..2011. “Families and Elder Care in the Twenty-First Century.”Future of Children21: 117–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/foc.2011.0018and .2000. Does it Take a Village? Community Effects on Children, Adolescents, and Families. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.and .2006. “Caregiving and Wage-Earning: A Historical Perspective on Work and Family.” Pp. 73–98 in The Work and Family Handbook: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, Methods and Approaches, edited by M.Pitt-Catsouphes, E. E.Kossek, and S.Sweet. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.and .2005. “The Effects of Work-Family Conflict and Family-Work Conflict on Nonattendance Behaviors.”Journal of Business Research58: 919–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2003.11.005, , and .2006. “Immigrants and the Economics of Hard Work.”New York Times, April 2, WK 3..2008. Blue Zones: Lessons for Living Longer from the People Who've Lived the Longest. New York: National Geographic Press..2005. “Work-Life Balance and the Effective Management of Global Assignees.” Pp. 121–46 in Work and Family: An International Research Perspective, edited by S.Poelmans. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.and .2008. “Interpreting After the Largest ICE Raid in US History: A Personal Account.”New American Media. http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2008/07/14/opinion/14ed-camayd.pdf..2008. Talent on Demand: Managing Talent in an Age of Uncertainty. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press..2009. Making Marriage Work: A History of Marriage and Divorce in the Twentieth-Century United States. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.. [Page 133]1999. “Three Jobs, Two People.”Washington Post, June 2, A21.and .Chronicle of Higher Education. 2010. “Chronicle of Higher Education Almanac.”http://chronicle.com/section/Almanac-of-Higher-Education/463.College Board. 2011. Trends in College Pricing 2011. http://trends.collegeboard.org/college_pricing.2002. “If You Build It They Will Come: Parental Use of On-Site Child Care Centers.”Population Research and Policy Review21: 241–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1019549012617, , and .2000. The Way We Never Were: American Families and the Nostalgia Trap. New York: Basic Books..1974. Greedy Institutions: Patterns of Undivided Commitment. New York: Free Press..2001. The Price of Motherhood. New York: Henry Holt..2002. “Successful Adaptation in the Later Years: A Life Course Approach to Aging.”Social Psychology Quarterly65: 309–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3090105and .2004. Work-Family Challenges for Low-Income Parents and Their Children. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.and .2006. “Ethnography and Working Families.” Pp. 367–86 in The Work and Family Handbook: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, Methods and Approaches, edited by M.Pitt-Catsouphes, E. E.Kossek, and S.Sweet. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum..2006. “Family-Friendly Organizations? Work and Family Programs in the 1990s.”Work and Occupations33: 191–223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0730888405280446and .2009. “Gender Ideology: Components, Predictors, and Consequences.”Annual Review of Sociology35: 87–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-soc-070308-115920and .2003. “Boundary/Border Theory and Work-Family Integration.”Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia. http://workfamily.sas.upenn.edu/wfrn-repo/object/6uq9g6l9xc25a61t..1999. Halving It All: How Equally Shared Parenting Works. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press..1983. “The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields.”American Sociological Review48: 147–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095101and .2003. “Symposium: The Effect of Work-Family Policies on Employees and Employers.”Industrial Relations42: 139–45.and .2012. “THE IECONOMY: In China, the Human Costs Are Built into an iPad.”New York Times, January 25. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/26/business/ieconomy-apples-ipad-and-the-human-costs-for-workers-in-china.html?pagewanted=all.and .2003. “If You Can Use Them: Flexibility Policies, Organizational Commitment, and Perceived Performance.”Industrial Relations42: 145–67..Economic Policy Institute. 2002. “EPI Issue Guide: Living Wage.”http://www.liunabuildsamerica.org/files/reports/LivingWageIssueGuide.pdf.Economist. 2012. “Economics A-Z.”http://www.economist.com/economics-a-to-z.[Page 134]1986. “Military Times and Turning Points in Men's Lives.”Developmental Pathology22: 233–45..1987. Divide and Conquer: Responsible Security for America's Poor. New York: Ford Foundation..2009. “On Motivated Role Selection: Gender Beliefs, Distant Goals, and Career Interest.”Psychology of Women Quarterly33: 235–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2009.01493.xand .2004. “Work and Family Life Balance: The Impact of the 35 Hour Laws in France.”Work, Employment and Society18: 551–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0950017004045550and .2006. “Legislatures, Agencies, Courts, and Advocates: How Laws Are Made, Interpreted, and Modified.” Pp. 627–51 in The Work and Family Handbook: Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives, Methods and Approaches, edited by M.Pitt-Catsouphes, E. E.Kossek, and S.Sweet. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.and .2004. “Anticipating Work and Family: Exploring the Associations Among Gender-Related Ideologies, Values, and Behaviors in Latino and White Families in the United States.”Journal of Social Issues60: 755–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-4537.2004.00384.x, , and .1963. The Feminine Mystique. New York: Norton..2001. “Caring for Infants and Toddlers.”The Future of Children11: 62–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/16028101999. Ask the Children: What America's Children Really Think About Working Parents. New York: William Morrow..1998. The National Study of the Changing Work Force. New York: Families and Work Institute.and .1999. Weaving Work and Motherhood. Philadelphia: Temple University Press..2001. “Children of the Gender Revolution: Some Theoretical Questions and Findings from the Field.” Pp. 446–61 in Restructuring Work and the Life Course, edited by V. W.Marshall, W. R.Heinz, H.Krueger, and A.Verma. Toronto: University of Toronto Press..2011. “Rethinking Families and Community: The Color, Class and Centrality of Extended Kin Ties.”Sociological Forum26: 1–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1573-7861.2010.01222.x.2006. “Marriage: The Good, The Bad, and the Greedy.”Contexts5: 16–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/ctx.2006.5.4.16and .2006. “Parents and Their Young Adult Children: Transitions to Adulthood.”Child Welfare85: 853–66.and .1998. Family Friend or Foe? Working Time, Flexibility, and the Fair Labor Standards Act. Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute..2001a. “Flexible Work Schedules: What Are We Trading to Get Them?”Monthly Labor Review, March: 50–66..2001b. “Flexible Work Schedules: Which Workers Get Them?”American Behavioral Scientist44: 1157–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00027640121956700. [Page 135]2005. “Overemployment in the US: Which Workers Face Downward Constrained Hours.” Pp. 209–34 in Decent Working Time: New Trends, New Issues, edited by Y.Boulin, J.Lallement, J.Messenger, and F.Michon. New York: International Labor Organization..2009. “Flexible Daily Work Schedules in the U.S. Jobs: Formal Introductions Needed?”Industrial Relations48: 27–54..1999. The Changing Transition to Adulthood: Leaving and Returning Home. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452234014and .2001. “Helping Out the Kids: Expectations about Parental Support in Young Adulthood.”Journal of Marriage and Family63: 727–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2001.00727.x, , and .2003. Families that Work: Policies for Reconciling Parenthood and Employment. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.and .2009. “Custodial Mothers and Fathers and Their Child Support: 2007.” Current Population Reports P60-237, edited by U.S. C. Bureau. Washington, D.C..2004. “Immigration, Culture, and Child Labor in the United States, 1880–1920.”Journal of Interdisciplinary History34:355–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3116845and .2007. “Child Labor: A Historical Perspective.”Work-Family Encyclopediahttp://wfnetwork.bc.edu/encyclopedia_entry.php?id=6335&area=academics.and .1985. “Sources of Conflict between Work and Family Roles.”Academy of Management Review10: 76–88.and .2003. “Work-Family Linkages.”Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia. http://workfamily.sas.upenn.edu/wfrn-repo/object/is5jc110dr1wn4q9.and .2011. “Wage Protection for Home Care Workers.”New York Times, October 15, B2. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/16/business/wage-protection-planned-for-home-care-workers.html..1996. “Gender Ideology and Perceptions of the Fairness of the Division of Household Labor: Effects on Marital Quality.”Social Forces74: 1029–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sf/74.3.1029.2008. “Schedule Flexibility and Stress: Linking Formal Flexible Arrangements and Perceived Flexibility to Employee Health.”Community, Work & Family11: 199–214.and .2008. “Work-Family Experiences and Physical Health: A Summary and Critical Review.”Work and Family Encyclopediahttp://wfnetwork.bc.edu/encyclopedia_entry.php?id=6410&area=All.and .2011. “Fathers' Rights to Paid Parental Leave in the Nordic Countries: Consequences for the Gendered Division of Leave.”Community, Work & Family14: 179–97.and .2006. The Great Risk Shift: The Assault on American Jobs, Families, Health Care and Retirement and How You Can Fight Back. New York: Oxford University Press..2001. Work-Lifestyle Choices in the Twenty-First Century. New York: Oxford.. [Page 136]2002. “Lifestyle Preferences as Determinants of Women's Differentiated Labor Market Careers.”Work and Occupations29: 428–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0730888402029004003.1982. Family Time and Industrial Time: The Relationship Between the Family and Work in a New England Industrial Community. New York: Cambridge University Press..1978. Amoskeag. New York: Pantheon Books.and .2012. “Work and Family in the Context of a Feminist Policy Agenda.” Work and Family Researchers Network Conference Presentation, June 16. New York..2001. “Tag-Team Parenting: Costs and Benefits of Utilizing Nonoverlapping Shift Work in Families with Young Children.”Families in Society82: 410–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1606/1044-3894.185.2008. “Statutory Routes to Workplace Flexibility in Cross-National Perspective.”Institute for Women's Policy Research, Washington, D.C.and .2000. The Widening Gap: Why America's Working Families Are in Jeopardy and What Can Be Done About It. New York: Perseus..2010. Raising the Global Floor: Dismantling the Myth that We Can't Afford Good Working Conditions for Everyone. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.and .2004. “Bringing a Global Perspective to Community, Work, and Family.”Community, Work & Family7: 247–71., , and .1997. The Time Bind: When Work Becomes Home and Home Becomes Work. New York: Metropolitan Books..1999. “The Nanny Chain.”American Prospect11: 32–36..2000. “Global Care Chains and Emotional Surplus Value.” Pp. 130–46 in Global Capitalism, edited by W.Hutton and A.Giddens. New York: The New Press..1980. “The Transition to Adulthood as a Career Contingency.”American Sociological Review45: 261–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/20951251986. “The Transition to Adulthood.”Annual Review of Sociology12: 109–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.12.080186.000545and .2009. “Commuter Couples and Distance Relationships: Living Apart Together.”Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia. http://workfamily.sas.upenn.edu/wfrn-repo/object/kb4p09ba3ur8c8di..2007. “Gendered Career Paths: A Life Course Perspective on the Return to School.”Sex Roles56: 85–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11199-006-9150-8, , and .2006. “Employer Willingness to Permit Phased Retirement: Why Are Some More Willing Than Others?”Industrial and Labor Relations Review59: 525–46.and .2008. “Global Care Crisis: A Problem of Capital, Care Chain, or Commons.”American Behavioral Scientist52: 405–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002764208323513, , and . [Page 137]1991. Masters to Managers. New York: Columbia University Press..2006. “Replacing the Undocumented Work Force.” Center for American Progress. http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/immigration/news/2006/04/04/1905/replacing-the-undocumented-work-force..2009. “Precarious Work, Insecure Workers: Employment Relations in Transition.”American Sociological Review74: 1–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000312240907400101.2007. “Work Orientation and Wives' Employment Careers: An Evaluation of Hakim's Preference Theory.”Work and Occupations34: 430–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0730888407307200.2010. “Mattering and Wives' Perceived Fairness of the Division of Household Labor.”Social Science Research39: 976–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2010.04.004and .2010. “Doing More with Less? Flexible Working Practices and the Intensification of Work.”Human Relations63: 83–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726709349199and .2003. “The Strange History of Employer-Sponsored Child Care: Interested Actors, Uncertainty, and the Transformation of Law in Organizational Fields.”American Journal of Sociology109: 606–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/379631.2006. “Managing Flexible Work Arrangements in US Organizations: Formalized Discretion or ‘Right to Ask.’”Socio-Economic Review4:379–416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ser/mwl001and .2008. “Getting There from Here: Research on the Effects of Work-Family Initiatives on Work-Family Conflict and Business Outcomes.” Pp. 305–49 in The Academy of Management Annals (Volume 2), edited by J.Walsh and A.Brief. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19416520802211610, , , , , ,.2011. “Changing Workplaces to Reduce Work-Family Conflict: Schedule Control in a White-Collar Organization.”American Sociological Review76: 265–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003122411400056, , and .2005. Restoring the American Dream: A Working Families' Agenda for America. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press..2006. “A Multilevel Examination of Work-Life Practices: Is More Always Better?”Journal of Management Issues18: 232–53., , , and .2006. “The Business Case: Managerial Perspectives on Work and Family.” Pp. 611–26 in The Work and Family Handbook: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, Methods, and Approaches, edited by M.Pitt-Catsouphes, E. E.Kossek, and S.Sweet. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.and .2012. “Work-Family Boundary Management Styles in Organizations: A Cross-Level Model.”Organizational Psychology Review2: 152–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2041386611436264and .2004. “Flexibility Enactment Theory: Flexibility Type, Control, and Boundary Management for Work and Family Effectiveness.” Pp. 233–50 in Work and Life Integration: Organizational, Cultural and Individual Perspectives, edited by E. E.Kossek and S.Lambert. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., , and . [Page 138]1999. “Bridging the Work-Family Policy and Productivity Gap.”Community, Work & Family2: 7–32.and .2011. “The State Intervenes in the Battle of the Sexes: Causal Effects of Paternity Leave.”Social Science Research40: 1611–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2011.06.011and .2006. “Consumers in Charge of Care: The Dutch Personal Budget and its Impact on the Market, Professionals, and the Family.”European Societies8: 385–401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616690600822006.2005. “French Family Values.”New York Times, July 29, 1. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/07/29/opinion/29krugman.html..2011. “Developments in Spousal Power Relations: Are We Moving Toward Equality?”Marriage & Family Review47: 419–35..1984. “The Life Cycle of the Japanese Family.”Journal of Marriage and the Family46: 191–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/351877.2012. The New Feminist Agenda: Defining the Next Revolution for Women, Work, and Family. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green..1980. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.and .2008. “Individual Differences: Factors Affecting Employee Utilization of Flexible Work Arrangements.”Journal of Vocational Behavior73: 107–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2008.02.004, , and .2009. “Making a Difference for Hourly Employees.” Pp. 169–96 in Work-Life Policies That Make a Real Difference for Individuals, Families, and Organizations, edited by A.Crouter and A.Booth. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute Press..1995. Haven in a Heartless World: The Family Besieged. New York: Norton..2010. “Gender, Care Work, and the Complexity of Family Membership in Japan.”Gender and Society24: 647–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0891243210382903.2012. “Expenditures on Children by Families, 2011.”U.S. Department of Agriculture, Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion. Miscellaneous Publication No. 1528-2011..2002. “Intergenerational Ambivalence: Further Steps in Theory and Research.”Journal of Marriage and Family64: 585–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2002.00585.x.2005. “The Structure of the Life Course: Classic Issues and Current Controversies.” Pp. 3–24 in The Structure of the Life Course: Standardized? Individualized? Differentiated? Advances in Life Course Research, vol. 9. New York: Elsevier..2009. “Configurations of Gender Inequality: The Consequences of Ideology and Public Policy.”British Journal of Sociology60: 693–719. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-4446.2009.01271.x.2011. “Rethinking the Paradox: Tradeoffs in Work-Family Policy and Patterns of Gender Inequality.”Community, Work & Family14: 159–77..2006. “A Welfare State Paradox: State Interventions and Women's Employment Opportunities in 22 Countries.”American Journal of Sociology111: 1910–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/499912and . [Page 139]2006. “Understanding the Diversity of Families in the 21st Century and Its Impact on the Work Family Area of Study.” Pp. 41–72 in The Work-Family Handbook: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, Methods and Approaches, edited by M.Pitt-Catsouphes, E. E.Kossek, and S.Sweet. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.2003. A Dictionary of Sociology in Politics and Social Sciences. New York: Oxford..2009. “Delayed Childbearing: More Women Are Having First Child Later in Life,” edited by U.S Department of Health and Human Services.and .2010. “Workplace Flexibility as an Organizational Response to the Aging of the Workforce: A Comparison of Nonprofit and For-Profit Organizations.”Journal of Social Service Research36: 68–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01488370903333645and .1999. “Dual-Science-CareerCouples.”http://physics.wm.edu/~sher/survey.pdf.and .1998. “The Time Bind.”Monthly Review49: 1–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.14452/MR-049-09-1998-02_1.1968. Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: The Free Press..1977. “Institutional Organizations: Formal Structure as Myth and Ceremony.”American Journal of Sociology83: 340–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/226550and .2005. Worlds Apart: Measuring International and Global Inequality. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press..2002. “Understanding Organizational Adaptation to Change: The Case of Work-Family Issues.”Human Resource Planning13: 91–107., , and .2007. “Carework.”Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, edited by G.Ritzer. New York: Blackwell. http://www.sociologyencyclopedia.com/public..2008. “Not So Big Jobs and Retirements: What Workers (and Retirees) Really Want.”Generations31: 31–36..2011. “Does Enhancing Work-Time Control and Flexibility Reduce Turnover? A Naturally Occurring Experiement.”Social Problems58: 69–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/sp.2011.58.1.69, , and .2005. The Career Mystique. Boulder, CO: Rowman & Littlefield.and .2006. “Converging Divergences in Age, Gender, Health, and Well-Being: Strategic Selection in the Third Age.” Pp. 127–44 in Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences, edited by R.Binstock and L.George. New York: Elsevier Academic Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-012088388-2/50011-0and .2002. “Two Careers, One Employer: Couples Working for the Same Corporation.”Journal of Vocational Behavior61: 466–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.2002.1886and .2004. “From ‘Work-Family’ to ‘Flexible Careers': A Life Course Reframing.”Community, Work & Family7: 209–26.and .2004. “Embedded Career Clocks: The Case of Retirement Planning.” Pp. 237–68 in Advances in Life Course Research. New York: Elsevier/JAI Press., , and . [Page 140]2003. “Success.” Pp.133–52 in It's About Time: Couples and Careers, edited by P.Moen. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press., , and .2003. Feminism Without Borders: Decolonizing Theory, Practicing Solidarity. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/9780822384649.2005. “The Adoption of Family-Friendly Practices in Family-Owned Firms.”Community, Work & Family8: 237–49.and .1995. Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950–1980. New York: Basic Books..2011. “Flexibility Implementation to a Global Workforce: A Case Study of Merck and Company, Inc.”Community, Work & Family14: 249–56..2002. Unequal Freedom: How Race and Gender Shaped American Citizenship and Labor. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press..2006. Working Couples Caring for Children and Aging Parents: Effects on Work and Well-Being. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.and .1996. Home and Work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226581477.001.0001.2002. “Fair Labor Standards Act.”Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia. http://workfamily.sas.upenn.edu/wfrn-repo/object/h3pe33en5d9zq4kp..2001. “Trends; Fighting Sleep on the Job? Join the Crowd.”New York Times, February 7. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/02/07/jobs/trends-fighting-sleep-on-the-job-join-the-crowd.html..2009. “Organizational Work-Life Initiatives: Context Matters—France Compared to the UK and the US.”Community, Work & Family12: 159–78..Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2010. http://www.oecd.org/statistics.2010. Freelancing Expertise: Contract Professionals in the New Economy. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press..Paid Family Leave Coalition. 2001. “Bargaining Fact Sheet: Family Leave and Expanding the Family and Medical Leave Act.”http://workfamily.sas.upenn.edu/glossary/f/family-leave-definitions.1999. “The Rhythm of Work: Health Effects of Women's Work Dynamics.”Social Forces77: 1141–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sf/77.3.1141and .2000. “Social Roles as Process: Caregiving Careers and Women's Health.”Journal of Health and Social Behavior41: 91–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2676362and .2009. “The Effects of Time-Spacial Flexibility and New Working Conditions on Employees' Work-Life Balance: The Dutch Case.”Community, Work & Family12: 279–97., , and .2004. Development of Culture, Welfare States and Women's Employment in Europe. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.. [Page 141]2011. “Differences in Women's Employment Patterns and Family Policies: Eastern and Western Germany.”Community, Work & Family14: 217–32.and .1978. The External Control of Organizations. New York: Harper & Row.and .1977. “The Dual Labor Market and its Implications.” Pp. 91–95 in Problems in Political Economy, edited by D.Gordon. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath..2008a. “Life Course Patterns of Career-Priorizing Decisions and Occupational Attainment in Dual-Earner Couples.”Work and Occupations35: 127–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0730888408315543.2008b. “Career Prioritization in Dual-Earner Couples.”Work and Family Encyclopedia. http://wfnetwork.bc.edu/encyclopedia_entry.php?id=6473&area=All.2005. “Work-Family Relations in Transnational Perspective: A View from High-Tech Firms in India and the United States.”Social Problems52: 122–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/sp.2005.52.1.122and .2000. “Nonstandard Work Schedules and Marital Instability.”Journal of Marriage and the Family62: 93–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.00093.x2003a. Working in a 24/7 Economy: Challenges for American Families. New York: Russel Sage Foundation.2003b. “Race-Ethnic and Gender Differences in Nonstandard Work Shifts.”Work and Occupations30: 412–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07308884032560552008. “270 Illegal Immigrants Sent to Prison in Federal Push.”New York Times, May 24. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/24/us/24immig.html?pagewanted=all..2009. Longing and Belonging: Parents, Children, and Consumer Culture. Los Angeles: University of California Press..2009. “Identity Work and the ‘Unemployed’ Worker: Age, Disability and the Lived Experience of the Older Unemployed.”Work, Employment and Society23: 102–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0950017008099780and .2002. “Long-Distance Relationships in Dual-Career Commuter Couples: A Review of Counseling Issues.”The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families10: 398–404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/106648002236758.2008. “The Relationship of Pereived Flexibility, Supportive Work-Life Policies, and Use of Formal Flexible Arrangements and Occasional Flexibility to Employee Engagement and Expected Retention.”Community, Work & Family11: 183–97., , , , and .1998. Gender Vertigo: American Families in Transition. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.2003. “Spillover.” Pp. 101–21 in It's About Time: Couples and Careers, edited by P.Moen. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press., , and .1991. Waiting for the Weekend. New York: Viking.. [Page 142]2006. It Takes a Family: Conservatism and the Common Good. New York: Intercollegiate Studies Institute..2008. Dual-Career Academic Couples: What Universities Need to Know. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press., , and .1998. The Corrosion of Character: The Personal Consequences of Work in the New Capitalism. New York: W.W. Norton..1993. “The Standard North American Family: SNAF as an Ideological Code.”Journal of Family Issues14: 50–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192513X930140010052002. Crossing the Great Divide: Worker Risk and Opportunity in the New Economy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press..2006. “Using Focus Groups to Study Work and Family.” Pp. 435–50 in The Work and Family Handbook: Multidisciplinary Perspectives, Methods and Approaches, edited by M.Pitt-Catsouphes, E. E.Kossek, and S.Sweet. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum..2011. “Child Care and Elder Care Regimes in Japan.”Journal of Comparative Social Welfare27: 133–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17486831.2011.567018and .2003. “Recovery, Work Engagement, and Proactive Behavior: A New Look at the Interface Between Nonwork and Work.”Journal of Applied Psychology88: 518–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.3.518.1997 . All Our Kin: Strategies for Survival in a Black Community. New York: Basic Books.Statistics Bureau of Japan. 2012. “Statistical Handbook of Japan,” edited by Statistics Bureau of Japan. Tokyo B. o. Japan.2007. “Examining the ‘Neglected Side of the Work-Family Interface’: Antecedents of Positive and Negative Family-to-Work Spillover.”Journal of Family Issues28: 242–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192513X06294548, , , and .2006. “A Legal Perspective on Family Issues at Work.” Pp. 309–26 in The Work and Family Handbook: Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives and Approaches, edited by M.Pitt-Catsouphes, E. E.Kossek, and S.Sweet. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.and .2007. Opting Out? Why Women Really Quit Careers and Head Home. Los Angeles: University of California Press..2006. “Danish Home Care Policy and the Family: Implications for the United States.”Journal of Aging and Social Policy18: 27–42.and .2005. “A Question of Justice: Disparities in Employees' Access to Flexible Schedule Arrangements.”Journal of Family Issues26: 866–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192513X05277554, , and .2011. “Anticipated and Unanticipated Consequences of Work-Family Policy: Insights from International Comparative Analyses.”Community, Work & Family14: 117–18..2008. “The Interlocking Careers of Older Workers and Their Adult Children.”Boston: Boston Center on Aging and Work.and . [Page 143]“Are Women Less Invested in Their Work? Explaining Gender Differences in Career Centrality.”, , , and . Under Review.2013. Changing Contours of Work: Jobs and Opportunities in the New Economy 2nd Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press., , , and .2012. “Gender Differences in Career Centrality: Explaining Variation in Industry and National Contexts.” Gender, Work and Organization Conference, June 28, 2012, Keele University, Staffordshire, UK., , , and .2004. “Intimate Academics: Coworking Couples in Two Universities.”Innovative Higher Education28: 252–74.and .2006. “Advancing a Career Focus on Work and Family: Insights from the Life Course Perspective.” Pp. 189–208 in The Work and Family Handbook: Multi-Disciplinary Perspectives, Methods and Approaches, edited by M.Pitt-Catsouphes, E. E.Kossek, and S.Sweet. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.and .2007. “Integrating Educational Careers in Work and Family: Women's Return to School and Family Life Quality.”Community, Work & Family10: 233–52.and .2011. “Dual Earners Preparing for Job Loss: Agency, Linked Lives and Resilience.”Work and Occupations20: 1–36.and .2007. “Dual Earners in Double Jeopardy: Preparing for Job Loss in the New Risk Economy.” Pp. 437–61 in Workplace Temporalities, vol. 17, Research in the Sociology of Work, edited by B.Rubin. New York: Elsevier., , and .2005. “Selecting and Assessing the Family-Friendly Community: Adaptive Strategies of Middle Class Dual-Earner Couples.”Family Relations54: 596–606. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3729.2005.00344.x, , and .2004. “The Family-Friendly Community and Its Life Course Fit for Dual-Earner Couples.”Journal of Marriage and Family66: 281–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2004.00020.x, , and .2011. “Family Policies in Developed Countries: A ‘Fertility Booster’ with Side Effects.”Community, Work & Family14: 197–216.and .1967. “Time, Work-Discipline, and Industrial Capitalism.”Past and Present38: 56–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/past/18.104.22.1680. “Interpersonal Aspects of Justice in Workplace Flexibility.” In Work and Family Encyclopedia. http://wfnetwork.bc.edu/encyclopedia_entry.php?id=16766&area=All. Sloan Work and Family Research Network..1982. Good Wives: Image and Reality in the Lives of Women in Northern New England 1650–1750. New York: Oxford University Press..UNICEF. 2007. “Child Poverty in Perspective: An Overview of Child Well-Being in Rich Countries.”United Nations Children's Fund, Florence, Italy.United Nations. 2011. Statistics and Indicators on Women and Men. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/indwm.U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2010. “A Profile of the Working Poor, 2008,” edited by U.S. Dept. of Labor. Washington D.C.[Page 144]U.S. Census. 2011. The 2011 Statistical Abstract. http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/2011/2011edition.html.U.S. Census. 2012. The 2012 statistical abstract. http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab.U.S. Department of Labor. 2012. “Wage and Hour Division Family Medical Leave Act.”http://www.dol.gov/whd/fmla.2009. “Compressed Workweek Schedules.”Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia. http://workfamily.sas.upenn.edu/wfrn-repo/object/rz3n1a87f29m9d6u..2003. The Two-Income Trap: Why Middle-Class Mothers and Fathers Are Going Broke. New York: Basic Books.and .2005. “Crossover of Stress and Strain Between Spouses.”Work and Family Encyclopedia. http://workfamily.sas.upenn.edu/wfrn-repo/object/lh6ru90gc27io7tf..2008. “Use of Formal and Informal Work-Family Policies on the Digital Assembly Line.”Work and Occupations36: 327–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0730888408316393, , and .2000. Unbending Gender: Why Family and Work Conflict and What to Do About It. New York: Oxford University Press..2007. “Legal Professions and Job Demands: Implications for Work/Life Balance.”Sloan Work-Family Encyclopedia. http://workfamily.sas.upenn.edu/wfrn-repo/object/ps3xp23bf1p07d8x..1987. The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press..2003. “Family-Friendly Management in Great Britain: Testing Various Perspectives.”Industrial Relations42: 221–50., , and .2012. World Development Indicators. http://www.google.com/publicdata/explore?ds=d5bncppjof8f9..World Health Organization. 2010. “The World Health Report.”Geneva, Switzerland.2007. “Transnational Families.”Sloan Work and Family Encyclopedia. http://workfamily.sas.upenn.edu/wfrn-repo/object/be4md-40po6iq2g3x..
About the Author[Page 150]
Stephen Sweet is an associate professor of sociology at Ithaca College and visiting scholar at the Sloan Center on Aging & Work at Boston College. His books include Changing Contours of Work (2013, 2008), Work and Family Policy: International Comparative Perspectives (2012), The Work and Family Handbook: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Methods, and Approaches (2005), Teaching Work and Family: Strategies, Activities, and Syllabi (2006), College and Society: An Introduction to the Sociological Imagination (2001), and Data Analysis with SPSS: A First Course in Applied Statistics (2011, 2008, 2003, 1998). He served as coeditor of the Work and Family Encyclopedia (2007–2010), and his studies on work, family, community, and inequality appear in a variety of publications, including Work and Occupations, Women's Studies Quarterly, Generations, Research in the Sociology of Work, Sex Roles, Family Relations, New Directions in Life Course Research, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Journal of Marriage and the Family, Innovative Higher Education, Journal of College Student Development, Community, Work, and Family, Popular Music and Society, and International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters. His articles on teaching and curriculum development have been published in Teaching Sociology, Critical Pedagogy in the Classroom, and Excellent Teaching in the Excellent University. in addition to his research and teaching responsibilities, he serves as the director of the Sloan Early Career Work and Family Scholars Program. His current research focuses on issues relating to implementation of flexible work arrangements and the factors that shape dentification with work.