The Tourist Gaze 3.0


John Urry & Jonas Larsen

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Epigraph

    ‘Don't leave home without the 3rd edition! With new chapters and rigorous restructuring, this classic guide to critical tourism studies becomes even more useful to scholars and students across the social sciences and humanities. The Tourist Gaze 3.0 takes us on a detailed tour of the major concepts and approaches to one of the world's largest culture industries. With fresh insights and new materials, this collaboratively written revision will immediately become required reading for those who pay attention to the world of travel, mobility, and visual culture.’

    Caren Kaplan, Professor, Cultural Studies/Science and Technology Studies, UC Davis

    ‘The original Tourist Gaze was a classic, marking out a new land to study and appreciate. This new edition extends into fresh areas with the same passion and insight of the object. Even more essential reading!’

    Nigel Thrift, Vice-Chancellor, Warwick University

    ‘The first edition of The Tourist Gaze was a landmark in the theoretical development of tourism studies, and it inspired waves of research and often fierce debates that have reverberated over the following two decades. This new edition of the book is not only thoroughly revised but has also been given renewed cutting edge, particularly by the addition of chapters on risk and on digital photography. At the same time, our understanding of the tourist gaze has been reframed and broadened by the infusion of ideas about mobility and embodiment, making this book an essential read for every tourism scholar.’

    Allan Williams, Professor of Tourism Management, School of Management, University of Surrey

    ‘A great classic remade to capture the lives of tourists in the 21st century. For two decades The Tourist Gaze has been one of the most influential books in tourist research. This new and thoroughly reworked version meets the challenges of a changing world of tourism and engages the lively contemporary debates in the field.’

    Orvar Löfgren, Professor of European Ethnology at the University of Lund

    ‘This thoroughly updated edition of John Urry's seminal contribution to tourist studies will engage a whole new generation of scholars. The extensive addition of new material absorbs and expands upon new insights from within this shifting field of study to develop an enhanced understanding of the tourist gaze. The fresh input of Jonas Larsen adds a renewed vibrancy to the debates which are, as ever, communicated in a brisk, inclusive and lucid fashion, and will ensure that The Tourist Gaze book retains its relevance for students and academics across the world.’

    Tim Edensor, Reader in Cultural Geography, Manchester Metropolitan University

    The Tourist Gaze has been the most influential book on tourism in the last twenty years. This extensively revised edition serves to remind us both why the original was so important and engages with the massive developments in the literature it helped to spawn. The impressive updating in response to theoretical debates is matched only by the response to the profound shifts in tourism itself, its markets, technologies and organisation, which indicates how much value still lies in the arguments made.’

    Mike Crang, Reader in Geography, Durham University

    Theory, Culture & Society

    Theory, Culture & Society caters for the resurgence of interest in culture within contemporary social science and the humanities. Building on the heritage of classical social theory, the book series examines ways in which this tradition has been reshaped by a new generation of theorists. It also publishes theoretically informed analyses of everyday life, popular culture and new intellectual movements.

    EDITOR: Mike Featherstone, Nottingham Trent University


    Roy Boyne, University of Durham

    Nicholas Gane, University of York

    Scott Lash, Goldsmiths College, University of London

    Roland Robertson, University of Aberdeen

    Couze Venn, Nottingham Trent University


    The Theory, Culture & Society book series, the journals Theory, Culture & Society and Body &’ Society, and related conference, seminar and postgraduate programmes operate from the TCS Centre at Nottingham Trent University. For further details of the TCS Centre's activities please contact:

    The TCS Centre

    School of Arts and Humanities

    Nottingham Trent University

    Clifton Lane, Nottingham, NG11 8NS, UK



    Recent volumes include:

    Education and Cultural Citizenship

    Nick Stevenson

    Inhuman Nature

    Nigel Clark

    Race, Sport and Politics

    Ben Carrington

    Intensive Culture

    Scott Lash

    The Media City

    Scott McQuire


    View Copyright Page

    List of Figures

    • 1.1 The tourist gaze in Bali, Indonesia 9
    • 1.2 Informal township, Soweto 26
    • 1.3 1950s American cars re-forming the place-image of Cuba 27
    • 6.1 The Venetian experience, Las Vegas 121
    • 6.2 ‘New Orleans’ at the Trafford Centre, Manchester 131
    • 6.3 The Little Mermaid in Shanghai Expo 2010 134
    • 6.4 The restoration of colonial Havana 136
    • 6.5 United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC 138
    • 7.1 Gazing on the screen 182
    • 7.2 Mobile phone photography 183
    • 8.1 Sightseeing and soundscapes 200
    • 8.2 Performing the family gaze 210
    • 8.3 The collective gaze performed on a guided tour 212

    About the Authors

    John Urry graduated with a BA/MA in Economics and a PhD in Sociology from Cambridge. He has since worked at Lancaster University where he has been Head of Department, Founding Dean of the Social Sciences Faculty and University Dean of Research. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, Founding Academician, UK Academy of Social Sciences, Member (1992) and Chair RAE Panels (1996, 2001). He has published 40 books and special issues his work is translated into 18 languages, and he has lectured in 30 countries. He is currently Director of the Centre for Mobilities Research at Lancaster. Recent books include: Mobilities (Polity, 2007); After the Car (Polity, 2009); Mobile Lives (Routledge, 2010); Climate Change and Society (Polity, 2011) as well as The Tourist Gaze 3.0 (Sage, 2011).

    Jonas Larsen is a senior lecturer in Geography at Roskilde University, Denmark. He is interested in mobility, tourism and media. He has published many articles in tourism, geography and mobility journals and co-authored Performing Tourist Places (Ashgate, 2004); Mobilities, Networks, Geographies (Ashgate, 2006) and Tourism, Performance and the Everyday: Consuming the Orient (Routledge, 2010).


    I am very grateful for the advice, encouragement and assistance of the following, especially those who have provided me with tourist gems from around the world: Paul Bagguley, Nick Buck, Peter Dickens, Paul Heelas, Mark Hilton, Scott Lash, Michelle Lowe, Celia Lury, Jane Mark-Lawson, David Morgan, Ian Rickson, Chris Rojek, Mary Rose, Peter Saunders, Dan Shapiro, Rob Shields, Hermann Schwengel, John Towner, Sylvia Walby, John Walton and Alan Warde. I am also grateful to professionals working in the tourism and hospitality industry who responded to my queries with much information and advice. Some interviews reported here were conducted under the auspices of the ESRC Initiative on the Changing Urban and Regional System. I am grateful to that Initiative in first prompting me to take holiday-making ‘seriously’.

    JohnUrryLancaster, December 1989

    Preface to the Second Edition

    This new edition has maintained the structure of the first edition except for the addition of a new chapter (8) on ‘Globalising the Gaze’. The other seven chapters have been updated in terms of data, the incorporation of relevant new studies and some better illustrations. I am very grateful for the extensive research assistance and informed expertise that has been provided by Viv Cuthill for this new edition. I am also grateful to Mike Featherstone for originally prompting a book on tourism, and Chris Rojek who suggested this second edition as well as for collaboration on our co-edited Touring Cultures.

    Over the past decade I have supervised various PhDs at Lancaster on issues of tourism, travel and mobility. I have learnt much from these doctorates and especially from the conversations about the ongoing work. I would especially like to thank the following, some of whom commented very helpfully on Chapter 8: Alexandra Arellano, Javier Caletrio, Viv Cuthill, Saolo Cwerner, Monica Degen, Tim Edensor, Hernan Gutiérrez Sagastume, Juliet Jain, Jonas Larsen, Neil Lewis, Chia-ling Lai, Richard Sharpley, Jo Stanley and Joyce Yeh. I have also benefited from many discussions with the MA students who have taken my ‘Tourist Gaze’ module over the past decade.

    Lancaster colleagues with whom I have discussed these topics (some also making very helpful comments on Chapter 8) include Sara Ahmed, Gordon Clark, Carol Crawshaw, Bülent Diken, Anne-Marie Fortier, Robin Grove-White, Kevin Hetherington, Vincent Kaufmann, Phil Macnaghten, Colin Pooley, Katrin Schneeberger and Mimi Sheller.

    Working on graduate matters in the Sociology Department with Pennie Drinkall and Claire O'Donnell has been a pleasure over the past few years.

    JohnUrryLancaster, April 2001

    Preface to 3.0

    The world of tourism is in constant flux and tourism theory needs to be on the move to capture such changes. This third edition of The Tourist Gaze radically restructures, reworks and expands the two first editions to make this book relevant for tourism researchers, students, planners and designers in the twenty-first century. There are many changes to the first two editions. Jonas Larsen, as co-author, has brought fresh eyes on the book. The original chapters have been thoroughly updated. Outdated data and studies have been deleted, new studies and theoretical concepts have been incorporated and the concept of the tourist gaze receives more theoretical consideration, including its ‘darker’ sides. Three new chapters examine the tourist gaze in relation to photography and digitisation, recent analyses of embodied performances within tourism theory and research, and the various risks of tourism, including global warming and peak oil, that problematise the desirability and future of the globalising tourist gaze.

    We are very grateful for the inspiration, help and assistance in producing this new edition of The Tourist Gaze. We would particularly like to thank Jørgen Ole Bærenholdt, Monika Büscher, Javier Caletrio, Beckie Coleman, Anne Cronin, Viv Cuthill, Monica Degen, Kingsley Dennis, Pennie Drinkall, Tim Edensor, Michael Haldrup, Kevin Hannam, Allison Hui, Michael Hviid Jacobsen, Juliet Jain, Jennie Germann Molz, Mette Sandbye, Mimi Sheller, Rob Shields, David Tyfield, Amy Urry, Tom Urry, Sylvia Walby and Laura Watts. Photos were taken by Amy Urry and ourselves.



    ‘To remain stationary in these times of change, when all the world is on the move, would be a crime. Hurrah for the Trip – the cheap, cheap Trip.’ (Thomas Cook in 1854, quoted in Brendon, 1991: 65)

    ‘A view? Oh a view! How delightful a view is!’ (Miss Bartlett, in A Room with a View, Forster, 1955: 8, orig. 1908)

    ‘[T]he camera and tourism are two of the uniquely modern ways of defining reality.’ (Horne, 1984: 21)

    ‘For the twentieth-century tourist, the world has become one large department store of countrysides and cities.’ (Schivelbusch, 1986: 197)

    ‘It's funny, isn't it, how every traveller is a tourist except one's self?’ (an Edwardian skit, quoted in Brendon, 1991: 188)

    ‘Since Thomas Cook's first excursion train it is as if a magician's wand had been passed over the face of the globe.’ (The Excursionist, June 1897, quoted in Ring, 2000: 83)

    ‘[The tourists] pay for their freedom; the right to disregard native concerns and feelings, the right to spin their own web of meanings. … The world is the tourist's oyster … to be lived pleasurably – and thus given meaning.’ (Bauman, 1993: 241)

    ‘Going by railroad, I do not consider travelling at all; it is merely being “sent” to a place, and no different from being a parcel.’ (John Ruskin, quoted in Wang, 2000: 179)

    ‘Wow, that's so postcard!’ (Visitor seeing Victoria Falls, quoted in Osborne, 2000: 79)

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