The Sociology of the Professions


Keith M. Macdonald

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page


    To Eric Norman Macdonald: true professional and great amateur


    We trust our health to the physician; our fortune and sometimes our life and reputation to the lawyer and attorney. Such confidence could not safely be reposed in people of a very mean or low condition. Their reward must be such, therefore, as may give them that rank in society which so important a trust requires. The long time and great expense which must be laid out in their education, when combined with this circumstance, necessarily enhance still further the price of their labour.

    (AdamSmith, Wealth of Nations, BK 1 Ch. 10)


    The announcement of death of the sociology of the professions now appears every bit as exaggerated as the report of his own death seemed to Mark Twain, when he read of it in the newspapers; but at the time, the supposed demise of that branch of sociology had the warrant of a content analysis of American sociological journals (as well as the French journal Sociologie du Travail), which was then compared with similar studies that had been carried out some years earlier (Smigel, 1954; Smigel et al., 1963). The viewpoint therefore carried considerable weight, and although the criticism was raised that Hall's method had limited him to an inappropriate sample and that there was plenty of material being published elsewhere, if he only looked for it (Macdonald and Ritzer, 1988), it certainly seemed as though some sort of change had come over the sociology of occupations.

    What now seems likely is that the decline of interest in the professions in the principal journals of sociology in America was a consequence of the major shift in theoretical orientation, particularly in American sociology, from the structural functionalist orthodoxy of the 1960s, to a much more pluralistic scene, in which action-based theory in a variety of forms played an important part. The change was of consequence for the sociology of the professions, because this topic had played an important role in the functionalist depiction of modern society: while work and occupations in general were ethically neutral, the professions were seen as being ethically positive and (as will be seen in the Chapter 1) embodiments of the ‘central values’ of the society. The father figure of functionalism, Emile Durkheim, had written on professional ethics (1957), while the doyen of mid-century structural-functionalism, Talcott Parsons, had also made important contributions to the topic. At the same time the preoccupation with legal-rational bureaucracy (an action-based idea that had been hi-jacked by the structuralist opposition!), provoked a concern that the values of professionalism were in danger of being seriously restricted by the ‘Iron Cage’ of bureaucracy.

    With the demise of functionalism, the professions left the centre of the sociological stage – or so it would appear from Hall's study quoted above. It would probably be more accurate to see the sociological enterprise as becoming multi-centred, rather than dominated by one paradigm, with the result that professionalism became no longer a topic ancillary to a central theoretical theme, but part of a number of areas of interest, that combined theoretical and empirical material. Amongst these are social stratification, the state, the social division of labour, and patriarchy as well as the continuation (with rather different emphases from those of the 1960s) of the interest in professional ethics and the relationship between professionalism and bureaucracy. Most important, however, was the removal of the professions from their privileged position in the sociological order of things: with this shift in emphasis from structure to action the sociological question changed from ‘What part do the professions play in the established order of society?’ to ‘How do such occupations manage to persuade society to grant them a privileged position?’

    An account of this sea-change is the starting point for the present work (Chapter 1), and in particular the emergence of a conceptual framework which has as its central feature the notion of a ‘professional project’. This approach is concerned with the ways in which the possessors of specialist knowledge set about building up a monopoly of their knowledge and, on this basis, establish a monopoly of the services that derive from it. This draws on a mainly Weberian tradition, especially the concepts of ‘exclusion’ and ‘social closure’ as mechanisms whereby the social standing of a group is achieved and maintained. The work of Larson (1977) in developing this approach and applying it to the achievement of monopoly of services based on the exclusive use of a particular field of ‘scientific’ knowledge, is particularly important. The relevance of these ideas for the study of social stratification is then pursued in Chapter 2.

    Chapter 3 widens the scope of the study by comparing the historical development of professions in four Western cultures – Britain, the United States of America, France and Germany. The objective is to draw attention to the variety of ways in which professions have developed and to the crucial place of the state and political culture in any explanation of this variation. At the same time this material is intended to meet the criticism raised by some sociologists, that the lack of development of professionalism on Anglo-American lines, in for example Germany and Scandinavia, casts serious doubt on the utility, and even the validity of the ‘professional project’ as a concept for societal and intercultural analysis.

    No monopoly can be obtained and guaranteed in a modern society (nor probably in any other) without the active cooperation of the state – or at the least, a very benign neglect. Chapter 4 therefore builds on the foregoing cross-cultural comparison and examines the relation between the state and professional occupations and in particular the nature of the ‘regulative bargain’ that exists between them. This term refers to the almost inevitable consequence that a bid for monopoly will, if successful, elicit from the state the imposition of a number of restrictions and requirements. The particular examples considered are those of medicine, accountancy and architecture in Britain.

    A special case of exclusion is the way in which male professionals have excluded women – a theme that is taken up in Chapter 5. The concept of the professional project is not only valuable in exploring the exercise of patriarchal power, but it is equally useful in understanding the attempts of professional groups with female membership to advance their cause in an inherently hostile environment.

    If the state is the omnipresent external feature of the professional project, the sine qua non of its internal structure is knowledge. The origins of any profession lie in the existence of an area of knowledge which those who possess it are able to isolate from social knowledge generally, and establish a special claim to. As important as retaining control of it, is its development and presentation to society as the special province of the members, who alone can be trusted to use it in an ethical manner. The way that this constitutes part of the professional project is the subject matter of Chapter 6, together with a consideration of the way that the social influence of a profession varies according to the nature of its knowledge base.

    Finally, Chapter 7 draws these themes together to present a synthetic model of the professional project and illustrates its practical applicability to empirical cases.

    The theme of this book is therefore a consideration of the ‘professional project’ as a means of understanding and explaining professions and professionalization. It is a concept that comes from the ‘Chicago School’ of American sociology, and more particularly its Symbolic Interactionist tradition; and from the action orientation to be found in the work of Max Weber. Both schools of thought emphasize ‘action’, with how things get done in society and a concern with the social construction of reality. Glaser and Strauss (1965) convey this idea by saying that this kind of sociologist wants answers to the question ‘What is going on here?’, while Larson (1977: xii), paraphrasing Everett C. Hughes, asks ‘What do professions actually do to negotiate and maintain their special position?’; and Abbott (1988: 310) declares that ‘Case studies of professions are both the raw material of theory and the audience that [gives] thumbs up or down.’ It is this kind of sociological work that will be attempted in what follows.

    Before proceeding further, I must acknowledge a debt to my colleagues at the University of Surrey, who for years have listened patiently to my seminars on professions and who have responded helpfully. Thanks are especially due to Martin O'Brien and Nigel Fielding, who read and commented on earlier versions of Chapters 3 and 4 respectively. Crucial to my decision to pursue this topic was George Ritzer (University of Maryland) who, (some years ago now!) provided both general encouragement and the particular stimulus of asking me to collaborate with him on The Sociology of the Professions – Dead or Alive? But neither he nor my other colleagues are responsible for the shortcomings in what follows.

  • Bibliography

    Abbott, A. (1988) The System of the Professions. London: University of Chicago Press.
    Abbott, P. and Wallace, C. (1990) The Sociology of the Caring Professions. London: The Falmer Press.
    Abel, R. (1979) ‘The rise of professionalism’, British Journal of Law and Society, 6: 82.
    Abel-Smith, B. and Stevens, R. (1967) A History of the Nursing Profession. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    Abercrombie, N. and Urry, J. (1983) Capital, Labour and the Middle Classes. London: George Allen & Unwin.
    Abercrombie, N., Hill, S. and Turner, B.S. (1988) The Penguin Dictionary of Sociology, (
    2nd edn
    ). Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Acker, J. (1989) ‘The problem with patriarchy’, Sociology, 23(2): 235–40.
    Adams, D. (1979) The Hitch-Hiker's Guide to the Galaxy. London: Pan.
    Armstrong, D. (1983) Political Anatomy of the Body. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Armstrong, D. (1987) ‘Bodies of knowledge: Foucault and the problem of human anatomy’, in G.Scambler (ed.), Sociological Theory and Medical Sociology. London: Tavistock.
    Arney, W.R. (1982) Power and the Profession of Obstetrics. London: University of Chicago Press.
    Arnstein, W.L. (1973) ‘The survival of the Victorian aristocracy’, in F.C.Jaher (ed.), The Rich, the Weil-Born and the Powerful. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
    Atkinson, P. and Delamont, S. (1990) ‘Professions and powerlessness: female marginality in the learned occupations’, Sociological Review, 38(1): 90–100.
    Badie, B. and Birnbaum, P. (1983) The Sociology of the State. London: University of Chicago Press.
    Baudrillard, J. (1977) Oublier Foucault. Paris: Editions Galilee.
    Becker, H.S. (1970) Sociological Work. Chicago: Aldine.
    Becker, H.S., Greer, B., Hughes, E.C. and Strauss, A.L. (1961) Boys in White. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    BerlantJ.L. (1975) Professions and Monopoly: a Study of Medicine in the United States and Great Britain. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Beshers, J. (1962) Urban Social Structure. New York: The Free Press.
    Birnbaum, P. (1988) States and Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Blau, P. (1955) The Dynamics of Bureaucracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Bledstein, B.J. (1976) The Culture of Professionalism. New York: Norton.
    Boreham, P. (1983) ‘Indetermination: professional knowledge, organization and control’, Sociological Review, 31(4): 693–718.
    Bottomore, T.B. and Rubel, M. (1963) Karl Marx: Selected Writings.
    2nd edn.
    Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Bourdieu, P. (1973) ‘Cultural reproduction and social reproduction’, in R.Brown, (ed.), Knowledge, Education and Cultural Change. London: Tavistock, pp. 71–112.
    Bourdieu, P. (1984) Distinction. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Bourdieu, P. and Passeron, J.C. (1977) Reproduction in Education, Society and Culture. London: Sage.
    Braverman, H. (1974) Labour and Monopoly Capital: the Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century. New York: The Monthly Review Press.
    Bridenhaugh, C. and Bridenhaugh, J. (1962) Rebels and Gentlemen: Philadelphia in the Age of Franklin. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Briggs Committee (1972) Report of the Committee on Nursing. London: HMSO.
    Brown, R. (1905) A History of Accounting and Accountants. Edinburgh: T.C. & E.C. Jack.
    Burrage, M. (1988), ‘Revolution and the collective action of the French, American and English legal professions’, Law and Social Enquiry: the Journal of the American Bar Foundation, 13(2): 225–77.
    Burrage, M. (1990), ‘Beyond a sub-set: the professional aspirations of manual workers in France, the United States and Britain’, in M.Burrage and R.Torstendahl (eds), Professions in Theory and History. London: Sage
    Burrage, M. and Torstendahl, R. (eds) (1990) Professions in Theory and History. London: Sage.
    Burrage, M., Jarauch, K. and Siegrist, H. (1990) ‘An actor-based framework for the study of the professions’, in M.Burrage and R.Torstendahl (eds), Professions in Theory and History. London: Sage.
    Caplow, T. (1954) Sociology of Work. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Carchedi, G. (1975) ‘On the economic identification of the new middle class’, Economy and Society, 4: 1–86.
    Carchedi, G. (1977) On the Economic Identification of Social Classes. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Carey, J.L. (1969) The Rise of the Accounting Profession, 2 vols. New York: AICPA.
    Carr-Saunders, A.M. and Wilson, P.A. (1933) The Professions. Oxford: The Clarendon Press.
    Carter, B. (1985) Capitalism, Class Conflict and the New Middle Class. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Clark, G. (1964) A History of the Royal College of Physicians of London, 2 vols. Oxford: The Clarendon Press.
    Clarke, A. (1919) The Working Life of Women in the Seventeenth Century. Leicester.
    Cocks, G. and Jarauch, K.H. (eds) (1990) German Professions 1800–1950. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Collins, R. (1975) Conflict Sociology: Towards an Explanatory Science. New York: Academic Press.
    Collins, R. (1979) The Credential Society: an Historical Sociology of Education and Stratification. New York: Academic Press.
    Collins, R. (1981) Sociology Since Midcentury: Essays in Theory Cumulation. New York: Academic Press.
    Collins, R. (ed.) (1985) Three Sociological Traditions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Collins, R. (1986) Weberian Sociological Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Collins, R. (1990) ‘Changing conceptions in the sociology of the professions’, in R.Torstendahl and M.Burrage (eds), The Formation of Professions: Knowledge, State and Strategy. London: Sage.
    Cooper, D., Lowe, A., Puxty, A., Robson, K. and Willmott, H. (1988) ‘Regulating the U.K. accountancy profession: episodes in the relation between the profession and the state’. Paper presented at Economic and Social Research Council Conference on Corporatism at the Policy Studies Institute, London, Jan. 1988.
    Corrigan, P. and Sayer, D. (1985, 1991) The Great Arch. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Coulanges, Fustel de ([1864] 1955) The Ancient City. New York: Doubleday Anchor Books.
    Crompton, R. (1987) ‘Gender, status and professionalism’, Sociology, 21: 413–28.
    Crompton, R. and Jones, G. (1984) A White Collar Proletariat?London: Macmillan.
    Crompton, R. and Sanderson, K. (1989) Gendered Jobs and Social Change. London: Unwin Hyman.
    Dahrendorf, R. (1959) Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Dangerfield, G. ([1935] 1961) The Strange Death of Liberal England 1910–1914. New York: Capricorn Books.
    Daniels, A.K. (1973) ‘Professionalism in a formal setting’, in J.B.McKinlay, Processing People. London: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
    Davidson, S. and Anderson, G.A. (1987), ‘The development of accounting and auditing standards’, Journal of Accountancy, Centennial Issue, May, 163(5): 110–27.
    Davis, K. (1959) ‘ASA Presidential Address’, ASR, 24: 757–73.
    Department of Health (1993) Changing Childbirth: Report of the Expert Maternity Group. London: HMSO.
    Derber, C. (ed.) (1982) Professionals as Workers: Mental Labour in Advanced Capitalism. Boston, MA: G.K. Hall.
    DiMaggio, P. (1989) ‘Review of Abbott (1988)’, American Journal of Sociology, 95(2): 534–5.
    Dingwall, R. (1979) The Social Organization of Health Visiting. Beckenham: Croom Helm.
    Dingwall, R. and Lewis, P. (eds) (1983) The Sociology of the Professions. London: Macmillan.
    Dingwall, R., Rafferty, A.M. and Webster, C. (1988) An Introduction to the Social History of Nursing. London: Routledge.
    Donnison, J. (1977) Midwives and Medical Men. London: Heinemann.
    Durkheim, E. (1957) Professional Ethics and Civic Morals. New York: The Free Press.
    Durkheim, E. (1958) Rules of the Sociological Method. New York: The Free Press.
    Earle, P. (1989) The Making of the English Middle Class. London: Methuen.
    Elster, J. (1989) Nuts and Bolts for the Social Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Etzioni, A. (1969) The Semi-Professions and their Organization: Teachers, Nurses and Social Workers. New York: Free Press.
    Fielding, A. and Portwood, D. (1980) ‘Professions and the state – towards a typology of bureaucratic professions’, Sociological Review, 28(1): 23–54.
    Foster, J. (1974) Class Struggle and the Industrial Revolution. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
    Foucault, M. (1973) The Order of Things. New York: Vintage Books.
    Foucault, M. (1977a) The Archaeology of Knowledge. London: Tavistock.
    Foucault, M. (1977b) Discipline and Punish: the Birth of the Prison. London: Allen Lane, The Penguin Press.
    Foucault, M. (1978) I, Pierre Riviere, having slaughtered my mother, my sister and my brother … (trans. FrankJellinek). London: Peregrine.
    Foucault, M. (1979) ‘On Governmentality’, Ideology and Consciousness6: 5–22.
    Foucault, M. (1980) Power/Knowledge. Brighton: The Harvester Press.
    Fox, A. (1974) Beyond Contract: Work, Power and Trust Relations. London: Allen & Unwin.
    Friedson, E. (1970a) Medical Dominance. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton.
    Friedson, E. (1970b) The Profession of Medicine. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co. (‘Afterword’ added 1988.)
    Freidson, E. (1973) Professions and their Prospects. New York: Sage.
    Freidson, E. (1983) ‘The theory of the professions: the state of the art’, in R.Dingwall and P.Lewis (eds), The Sociology of the Professions. London: Macmillan.
    Friedson, E. (1986) Professional Powers: a Study of the Institutionalization of Formal Knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Gane, M. and Johnson, T. (eds) (1993) Foucault's New Domains. London: Routledge.
    Garrett, A.A. (1961) History of the Society of Incorporated Accountants. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Geison, G.W. (ed.) (1984) French Professions and the State, 1700–1900. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania University Press.
    Gellner, E. (1988) Plough, Sword and Book. London: Collins Harvill.
    Giddens, A. (1973) The Class Structure of the Advanced Societies. London: Hutchinson.
    Giddens, A. (1984) The Constitution of Society. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Glaser, B. and Strauss, A. (1965) The Awareness of Dying. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
    Goldner, F.H., Ference, T.P. and Ritti, R.R. (1973) ‘Priest and laity: a profession in transition’, in P.Halmos (ed.), Professionalization and Social Change. Sociological Review Monograph No. 20. University of Keele.
    Goldstein, J. (1984) ‘Foucault among the sociologists: the “disciplines” and the history of the professions’, History and Theory, pp. 170–92.
    Goldthorpe, J.H., Lockwood, D., Bechhofer, F. and Piatt, J. (1969) The Affluent Worker in the Class Structure, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Goldthorpe, J.H. (1974) ‘A rejoinder to Benson’, Sociology, 8(1): 131–3.
    Goldthorpe, J.H. (with Llewellyn, C. and Payne, C.) (1980) Social Mobility and the Class Structure of Modern Britain. Oxford: Clarendon.
    Goldthorpe, J.H. (1982) ‘On the service class, its formation and future’, in A.Giddens and G.Mackenzie (eds), Social Class and the Division of Labour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 162–89.
    Goldthorpe, J.H. (1985) Order and Conflict in Contemporary Capitalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Goode, W.J. (1957) ‘Community within a community: the professions’, American Sociological Review. 22: 194–200.
    Gouldner, A. (1955) ‘Metaphysical pathos and the theory of bureaucracy’, American Political Science Review, 49: 496–507.
    Gouldner, A. (1970) The Coming Crisis in Western Sociology. London: Heinemann.
    Gramsci, A. (1971) Prison Notebooks (ed. Q.Hoare and P. NowellSmith). London: Lawrence & Wishart.
    Hall, J.A. (1985) Powers and Liberties. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Hall, R.H. (1968) ‘Professionalization and bureaucratization’, American Sociological Review, 33(1): 92–104.
    Hall, R.H. (1975) Occupations and the Social Structure,
    2nd. edn.
    Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hail.
    Hall, R.H. (1983) ‘Theoretical trends in the sociology of occupations’, Sociological Quarterly, 24: 5–23.
    Hall, R.H. (1988) ‘Comment on the sociology of the professions’, Work and Occupations, 15(3): 273–5.
    Halliday, T.C. (1983) ‘Professions, class and capitalism’, Archives Européens de Sociologie, 24: 321–46.
    Halliday, T.C. (1985) ‘Knowledge mandates: collective influence by scientific, normative and syncretic professions’, British Journal of Sociology, 36: 421–47.
    Halliday, T.C. (1987) Beyond Monopoly. London: University of Chicago.
    Halmos, P. (1970) The Personal Service Society. London: Constable.
    Halmos, P. (ed.) (1973) Professionalization and Social Change. Sociological Review Monograph No. 20. University of Keele.
    Halpern, S.A. (1988) American Pediatrics: the Social Dynamics of Medicine. London: University of California Press.
    Haskell, T.L. (1984) The Authority of Experts. Bloomington, IN: University of Indiana Press.
    Hastings, A. (1986) A History of English Christianity, 1920–1985. London: Collins.
    Haug, M.R. (1973) ‘Deprofessionalization: an alternative hypothesis for the future’, in P.Halmos (ed.) Professionalization and Social Change. Sociological Review Monograph No. 20. University of Keele.
    Haug, M.R. (1988) ‘A reexamination of the hypothesis of physician deprofessionalization’, Millbank Quarterly, 66 (Suppl. 2).
    Heraud, B. (1973) ‘Professionalism, radicalism and social change’, in P.Halmos (ed.), Professionalization and Social Change. Sociological Review Monograph No. 20. University of Keele.
    Hickson, D.J. and Thomas, M.W. (1969) ‘Professionalization in Britain: a preliminary measure’, Sociology, 3: 37–53.
    Hofstadter, R. (1962) Anti-Intellectualism in American Life. New York: Vintage.
    Hopwood, A.G. (1987) ‘The archaeology of accounting systems’, Accounting, Organizations and Society, 12(3): 207–34.
    House of Commons (1992) The Health Committee Second Report: Maternity Services, vol. 1 (Chairman, N. Winterton). London: HMSO.
    House of Lords (1909) House of Lord Debates, volume 2.
    Hoy, D.C. (1986) Foucault: a Critical Reader. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Huerkamp, C. (1990) ‘The unfree professions: German lawyers, teachers and engineers between democracy and National Socialism, 1900–1950’, in G.Cocks and K.H.Jarauch (eds), German Professions 1800–1950. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Hughes, E.C. (1958) Men and Their Work. New York: The Free Press.
    Hughes, E.C. (1963) ‘Professions’, Daedalus, 92: 655–68.
    Hughes, E.C. (1971) The Sociological Eye. New York: Aldine.
    ICAEW (Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales) (1966) History of the Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales 1880–1965. London: Heinemann.
    Jackson, J.A. (ed.) (1970) Professions and Professionalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Jamous, H. and Peloille, B. (1970) ‘Changes in the French university hospital system’, in J.A.Jackson (ed.), Professions and Professionalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 111–52.
    Jaques, E. (1976) A General Theory of Bureaucracy. London: Heinemann.
    Jarauch, K. (1990) The Unfree Professions: German Lawyers, Teachers and Engineers between Democracy and National Socialism. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Jay, M. (1993) Downcast Eyes. London: University of California Press.
    Jessop, B. (1977) ‘Remarks on some recent theories of the capitalist state’, Cambridge Journal of Economics, 1(4).
    Johnson, T. (1972) Professions and Power. London: Macmillan.
    Johnson, T.J. (1977) ‘Professions in the class structure’, in R.Scase (ed.), Class, Cleavage and Control. London: Allen & Unwin.
    Johnson, T.J. (1980) ‘Work and power’, in G.Esland and G.Salaman (eds), The Politics of Work and Occupations. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Johnson, T.J. (1982) ‘The state and the professions: peculiarities of the British’, in A.Giddens and G.Mackenzie (eds), Social Class and the Division of Labour. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Johnson, T. (1989) ‘Review of Abbott (1988)’, Work, Employment and Society, 3(3): 413.
    Johnson, T. (1994) ‘Expertise and the state’, in M.Gane and T.Johnson (eds), Foucault's New Domains. London: Routledge.
    Johnson, T. and Caygill, M. (1978), ‘The development of accountancy links in the Commonweath’, in R.H.Parker (ed.), Readings in Accountancy and Business Research, 1970–77. London: ICAEW.
    Jones, E.L. (1981) The European Miracle. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Joppke, C. (1992) ‘Explaining cross-national variations of two anti-nuclear movements: a political process perspective’, Sociology, 26(2): 311–32.
    Kaye, B. (1960) The Development of the Architectural Profession in Britain. London: Allen & Unwin.
    Kellner, D. (1989) Jean Baudrillard. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Kimball, B.A. (1992) The True Professional Ideal in America. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Kocka, J. (1990) ‘“Bergertum” and professions in the nineteenth century: two alternative approaches’, in M.Burrage and R.Torstendahl (eds), Professions in Theory and History. London: Sage.
    Kronus, C.L. (1976) ‘The evolution of occupational power’, Sociology of Work and Occupations, 3: 3–37.
    Langenderfer, H.Q. (1987) ‘Accounting education's history: a 100-year search for identity’, Journal of Accountancy, Centennial Issue, May, 163(5): 302–31.
    Larkin, G. (1983) Occupational Monopoly and Modern Medicine. London: Tavistock.
    Larson, M.S. (1977) The Rise of Professionalism: A Sociological Analysis. London: University of California Press.
    Larson, M.S. (1980) ‘Proletarianization and educated labour’, Theory and Society, 9: 131–75.
    Larson, M.S. (1984) ‘The production of expertise and the constitution of expert power’, in T.L.Haskell (ed.), The Authority of Experts. Bloomington, IN: University of Indiana Press.
    Larson, M.S. (1990), ‘On the matter of experts and professionals, or how it is impossible to leave nothing unsaid’ in R.Torstendahl and M.Burrage (eds), The Formation of Professions: Knowledge, State and Strategy. London: Sage.
    Lewis, R. and Maude, A. (1952) Professional People. London: Phoenix House.
    Lipset, S.M. (1964) The First New Nation. New York: Free Press.
    Littler, C.R. (1982) The Development of the Labour Process in Capitalist Society. London: Heinemann.
    Lockwood, D. ([1958] 1992) The Blackcoated Worker. London: Allen & Unwin.
    Loft, A. (1986) ‘Towards a critical understanding of accounting: the case of cost accounting in the U.K. 1914–1925’, Accounting, Organizations and Society, 11(2): 137–60.
    Lynd, R.S. and Lynd, H.M. (1929) Middletown. New York: Harcourt Brace.
    Lynn, K. (1963) ‘Introduction to the professions’, Daedalus, Fall.
    Macdonald, K.M. (1984) ‘Professional formation: the case of Scottish accountants’, British Journal of Sociology, 35(2): 174–89.
    Macdonald, K.M. (1985a) ‘Social closure and occupational registration’, Sociology, 19(4): 541–56.
    Macdonald, K.M. (1985b) ‘Professional formation: a reply to Briston and Kedslie’, British Journal of Sociology, 38(1): 106–11.
    Macdonald, K.M. (1989) ‘Building respectability’, Sociology, 23(1): 55–80.
    Macdonald, K.M. and Ritzer, G. (1988) ‘The sociology of the professions: dead or alive?’, Work and Occupations, 15(3): 251–72.
    Mackay, L. (1990) ‘Nursing: just another job?’, in P.Abbott and C.Wallace (eds), The Sociology of the Caring Professions. London: The Falmer Press.
    Mann, M. (1973) Consciousness and Action Among the Western Working Class. London: Macmillan.
    Mann, M. (1986) The Sources of Social Power, vol. I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    MannM. (1993) The Sources of Social Power, vol. II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Mannheim, K. (1936) Ideology and Utopia. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Marcuse, H. (1964) One Dimensional Man. London: Routledge.
    Margerison, T. (1980) The Making of a Profession. London: ICAEW.
    Marshall, G., Newby, H., Rose, D. and Vogler, C. (1988) Social Class in Modern Britain. London: Unwin Hyman.
    Marshall, T.H. (1963) ‘The recent history of professionalism in relation to social structure and social policy’, first published in 1939 and reprinted in Sociology at the Crossroads. London: Heinemann.
    Marx, K. (1958) ‘Manifesto of the Communist Party’, in K.Marx and F.Engels, Selected Works, vol. I. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House.
    Marx, K. (1976) Capital. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    McKinlay, J.B. (1973a) ‘On the professional regulation of change’, in P.Halmos (ed.), Professionalization and Social Change. Sociological Review Monograph No. 20. University of Keele, pp. 61–84.
    McKinlay, J.B. (1973b) ‘Clients and organizations’, in Processing People. London: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, pp. 61–84.
    McKinlay, J.B. and Arches, J. (1985) ‘Towards the proletarianization of physicians’, International Journal of Health Services, 15: 161–95.
    McLellan, D. (1977) Karl Marx: Selected Writings. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    McLellan, D. (1980) The Thought of Karl Marx,
    2nd edn.
    London: Macmillan.
    Merton, R.K. (1947) ‘The machine, the worker and the engineer’, Science, 105: 79–81.
    Merton, R.K. (1957) Social Theory and Social Structure. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.
    Millerson, G. (1964) The Qualifying Professions. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Mills, C.W. (1956) White Collar. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Montagna, P. (1975) ‘The public accounting profession: organization, ideology and social power’, American Behavioral Scientist, 14: 445–91.
    Murphy, R. (1984) ‘The structure of closure: a critique and development of the theories of Weber, Collins and Parkin’, British Journal of Sociology, 35(3): 547–67.
    Murphy, R. (1988) Social Closure. Oxford: The Clarendon Press.
    Murphy, R. (1990) ‘Proletarianization or bureaucratization: the fall of the professional?’, in R.Torstendahl and M.Burrage (eds), The Formation of the Professions: Knowledge, State and Strategy. London: Sage.
    Neale, R.S. (1972) Class and Ideology in the Nineteenth Century. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Nettleton, S. (1992) Power, Pain and Dentistry. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Oppenheimer, M. (1973) ‘The proletarianization of the professional’, in P.Halmos (ed.), Professionalization and Social Change. Sociological Review Monograph No. 20. University of Keele.
    Parkin, F. (1971) Class Inequality and Political Order. London: Macgibbon and Kee.
    Parkin, F. (1979) Marxism and Class Theory: a Bourgeois Critique. London: Tavistock Publications.
    Parry, N.C.A. and Parry, J. (1976) The Rise of the Medical Profession: a Study of Collective Social Mobility. London: Croom Helm.
    Parsons, T. (1954) ‘Professions and social structure’, in Essays in Sociological Theory. Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.
    Penn, R. (1985) Skilled Workers in the Class Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Perkin, H. (1972) The Origins of Modern English Society, 1780–1880. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Pevsner, N. (1973) Penguin Buildings of England: London (vol. 1). Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Poggi, G. (1978) The Development of the Modern State. London: Hutchinson.
    Polyani, K. (1957) The Great Transformation. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
    Portwood, D. and Fielding, A. (1981) ‘Privilege and the professions’, Sociological Review, 29: 749–73.
    Poulantzas, N. (1973) Political Power and Social Classes. London: New Left Books.
    Poulantzas, N. (1975) Classes in Modern Capitalism. London: New Left Books.
    Pound, R. (1977) The Lawyer from Antiquity to Modern Times with Particular Reference to the Development of Bar Associations in the United States. St Paul, Minn: West.
    Pye, L. (1968) ‘Political culture’, International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, vol. 12. New York: Macmillan.
    Ramsey, M. (1988) Professional and Popular Medicine in France 1770–1830: The Social World of Medical Practice. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Reskin, B.F. (1978) ‘Sex differentiation and the social organization of science’, in J.Gaston (ed.), The Sociology of Science. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Ried, G., Acken, B.T. and Jancura, E.G. (1987) ‘An historical perspective on women in accounting’, Journal of Accountancy, Centennial Issue, May 163 (5): 338–55.
    Roberts, K., Cook, F.G., Clark, S.C. and Semeonoff, E. (1977) The Fragmented Class Structure. London: Heinemann.
    Robson, K., Willmott, H., Cooper, D. and Puxty, T. (1994) ‘The ideology of professional regulation and the market for accounting labour: three episodes in the recent history of the UK accountancy profession’, Accounting, Organizations and Society, 19(6): 527–53.
    Rose, D. and McAllister, I. (1986) Voters Begin to Choose. London: Sage.
    Roslender, R. (1992) Sociological Perspectives on Modern Accountancy. London: Routledge.
    Roszak, T. (1969) The Making of a Counter Culture. New York: Doubleday Anchor Books.
    Rubenstein, W.D. (1977) ‘The Victorian middle classes: wealth, occupation and geography’, Economic History Review, 30: 602–23.
    Rueschemeyer, D. (1987) ‘Comparing legal professions cross-nationally: from a professions-centered to a state-centered approach’, Law and Social Enquiry: the Journal of the American Bar Foundation, 3: 415–46.
    Rushing, B. (1993) ‘Ideology in the reemergence of North American midwifery’, Work and Occupations, 20(1): 46–67.
    Russell, B. (1946) The History of Western Philosophy. London, Allen & Unwin.
    Sacks, M. (1983) ‘Removing the blinkers: a critique of recent contributions to the sociology of the professions’, Sociological Review, 31: 1–21.
    Salaman, G. (1981) Class and the Corporation. London: Fontana.
    Sartre, J-P. (1957) Being and Nothingness. London: Methuen.
    Savage, M., Barlow, J., Dickens, P. and Fielding, T. (1992) Property, Bureaucracy and Culture: Middle-class Formation in Contemporary Britain. London: Routledge.
    Seebohm Committee (1968) Report of the Committee on Local Authority and Allied Personal Social Services. Cmnd. 3703. London: HMSO.
    Service, A. (1977) Edwardian Architecture. London: Thames & Hudson.
    Sheppard, M. (1990) ‘Social work and community psychiatric nursing’, in P.Abbott and C.Wallace (eds), The Sociology of the Caring Professions. London: The Falmer Press.
    Shyrock, R.H. (1947) The Development of Modern Medicine. New York: Knopf.
    Siegrist, H. (1990) ‘Public office or free profession; German attorneys in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries’, in G.Cocks and K.H.Jarauch (eds), German Professions 1800–1950. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Smart, B. (1985) Michel Foucault. Chichester: Ellis-Horwood.
    Smigel, E.O. (1954) ‘Trends in occupational psychology: a survey of post-war research’, American Sociological Review, 19: 398–404.
    Smigel, E.O., Wood, R.B. and Nye, B.R. (1963) ‘Occupational sociology: a reexamination’, Sociology and Social Research, 47: 472–7.
    Spencer, A. and Podmore, D. (1986) In a Man's World. London: Tavistock.
    Stacey, N.A.H. (1954) English Accountancy: a Study in Social and Economic History 1800–1954. London: Gee.
    Stewart, J.C. (1977) Pioneers of a Profession: Chartered Accountants to 1897. Edinburgh: ICAS.
    Stinchcombe, A.L. (1965) ‘Social structure and organizations’, in J.C.March, Handbook of Organizations. Chicago: Rand McNally, pp. 142–93.
    Tawney, R.H. ([1921] 1982) The Acquisitive Society. Brighton: Harvester Press.
    Thompson, E.P. (1963) The Making of the English Working Class. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Thompson, E.P. (1978) The Poverty of Theory. London: Merlin.
    Tilly, C. (1990) Coercion, Capital and European States. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Torstendahl, R. (1990) ‘Essential properties, strategic aims and historical development: three approaches to theories of professionalism’, in M.Burrage and R.Torstendahl (eds), Professions in Theory and History. London: Sage.
    Torstendahl, R. and Burrage, M. (1990) The Formation of Professions: Knowledge, State and Strategy. London: Sage.
    Turner, B.S. (1987) Medical Power and Social Knowledge. London: Sage.
    Turner, B.S. (1989) ‘Review of Abbott (1988)’, Sociology, 23(3): 473.
    Turner, B.S. (1992) Regulating Bodies. London: Routledge.
    Turner, C. and Hodge, M.N. (1970) ‘Occupations and professions’, in J.A.Jackson (ed.), Professions and Professionalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Turner, R.S. (1980) ‘Das Bildungsbergertum and the learned professions in Prussia, 1770–1830: the origins of a class’, Histoire Sociale-Social History, 13(25): 105–35.
    Veblen, T. (1970) The Theory of the Leisure Class. London: Unwin.
    Waddington, I. (1984) The Medical Profession in the Industrial Revolution. London: Humanities Press.
    Walby, S. (1989) ‘Theorizing patriarchy’, Sociology, 23(2): 213–44.
    Walby, S. (1990) Theorizing Patriarchy. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Warner, W.L. and Lunt, P.S. (1941) The Social Life of a Modern Community. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Waters, M. (1989) ‘The concept of patriarchy’, Sociology, 23(2): 193–212.
    Weber, M. (1949) The Methodology of the Social Sciences (ed. E.Shils and H.Finch). Glencoe, IL: The Free Press.
    Weber, M. (1976) The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. London: George Allen & Unwin.
    Weber, M. (1978) Economy and Society. London: University of California Press.
    Wilensky, H. L. (1964) ‘The professionalization of everyone?’, American Journal of Sociology, 70: 137–58.
    Winkler, J. (1977) ‘The corporate economy: theory and administration’, in R.Scase (ed.), Class, Cleavage and Control. London: Allen & Unwin.
    Witz, A. (1992) Professions and Patriarchy. London: Routledge.
    Wood, S. (ed.) (1982) The Degradation of Work?London: Hutchinson.
    Wood, S. (ed.) (1989) The Transformation of Work?London: Unwin Hyman.
    Wright, E.O. (1979) Class, Crisis and the State. London: Verso.
    Wright, E.O. (1985) Classes. London: Verso.
    Wright, E.O. (1989) ‘Rethinking, once again, the concept of class structure’, in E.O.Wright et al., The Debate on Classes. London: Verso.

    Author Index

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website