The Shopping Experience

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Edited by: Pasi Falk & Colin Campbell

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  • Theory, Culture & Society

    Theory, Culture & Society caters for the resurgence of interest in culture within contemporary social science and the humanities. Building on the heritage of classical social theory, the book series examines ways in which this tradition has been reshaped by a new generation of theorists. It will also publish theoretically informed analyses of everyday life, popular culture, and new intellectual movements.

    EDITOR: Mike Featherstone, Nottingham Trent University

    SERIES EDITORIAL BOARD

    Roy Boyne, University of Durham

    Mike Hepworth, University of Aberdeen

    Scott Lash, Lancaster University

    Roland Robertson, University of Pittsburgh

    Bryan S. Turner, Deakin University

    THE TCS CENTRE

    The Theory, Culture & Society book series, the journals Theory, Culture & Society and Body & Society, and related conference, seminar and postgraduate programmes operate from the TCS Centre at Nottingham Trent University. For further details of the TCS Centre's activities please contact:

    Centre Administrator

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    Recent volumes include:

    The Body and Society

    Explorations in Social Theory

    Second edition

    Bryan S. Turner

    The Social Construction of Nature

    Klaus Eder

    Deleuze and Guattari

    An Introduction to the Politics of Desire

    Philip Goodchild

    Pierre Bourdieu and Cultural Theory

    Critical Investigations

    Bridget Fowler

    Re-Forming the Body

    Religion, Community and Modernity

    Philip A. Mellor and Chris Shilling

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    List of Figures

    • 1.1 Myths of nature 21
    • 3.1 From ‘The Spirit of Modern Commerce’, 1914, one of the ‘cosmopolitan’ posters in the souvenir collection published by Selfridge's to celebrate its fifth anniversary 68
    • 3.2 One of a series of advertisements which appeared in the London daily press promoting the launch of Selfridge's in March 1909 70
    • 3.3 Another of the alluring advertisements in Selfridge's promotional campaign, 1909 71
    • 5.1 Opening day at Kristianstad at the end of the 1930s 114
    • 5.2 The new world of goods 116
    • 5.3 A shop-rat in action 122
    • 5.4 ‘The small customer becomes a big customer …’ 123
    • 5.5 Modern orality – EPA as a meeting place 125
    • 6.1 The centre of Helsinki and the East Centre Mall: comparison of plans 140

    Notes on Contributors

    Rachel Bowlby is Fellow of St Hilda's College, Oxford University. Her books include Just Looking (1985), Still Crazy After All These Years: Women, Writing and Psychoanalysis (1992), Shopping with Freud (1993) and Feminist Destinations and Further Essays on Virginia Woolf (1997). She is currently completing a book on supermarkets.

    Colin Campbell is Reader in Sociology and Head of Department at the University of York. He has written widely on sociological theory, culture and cultural change, religion, and the sociology of consumption. He is editor of Studies in Consumption (Harwood Academic Press), and European Editor of Consumption, Culture, Markets. He is also author of The Romantic Ethic and the Spirit of Modern Consumerism (1987) and The Myth of Social Action (1996).

    Mary Douglas is a distinguished anthropologist who has held positions in both the UK (University College, London) and the USA (Princeton University and Northwestern University, Illinois). Since her book Purity and Danger (1966), now a classic, she has published numerous articles, edited books and monographs. Her recent books include How Institutions Think (1986), How Classification Works (1992) and Risk and Blame (1992). Her latest book, Thought Styles, was published by Sage in 1996.

    Pasi Falk is Senior Research Fellow and Docent of the Department of Sociology at the University of Helsinki. He has published extensively on social theory, sociosemiotics and historical anthropology. From the early 1980s onwards his research has been focused on the cultural dynamics of modern society, with a specific emphasis on human embodiment and modern consumption. He is the author of The Consuming Body (1994). He is currently completing a book on Finnish lottery winners (with Pasi Mäenpää) and preparing a book on the history of civilization illnesses (Modernity Syndrome).

    Cecilia Fredriksson is a PhD candidate in the Department of Ethnology at the University of Lund. She is writing her thesis on the modernization of Sweden as this is reflected in everyday consumption. In addition to her research on the department store, she has also conducted fieldwork on fleamarkets (1991, 1996) and consumption of the outdoor life (1997).

    Paul Hewer graduated from the University of Leeds in 1989 before taking an MA at the University of York. He then embarked on a PhD programme on the sociology of consumer behaviour and men. He completed his thesis in 1995, and has since worked as a research assistant and as an undergraduate and post-graduate tutor.

    Turo-Kimmo Lehtonen is a PhD candidate in the Department of Sociology at the University of Helsinki. He is currently completing his PhD thesis on the everyday practices of consumption and shopping. He has also recently published a study (in Finnish) on the changing history of hygienic habits in Finland.

    Pasi Mäenpää is a PhD candidate in the Department of Sociology at the University of Helsinki. He is currently preparing his PhD thesis, in which the sites and practices of shopping are contextualized in the broader perspective of urban culture. He has also worked as a researcher on Pasi Falk's project on Finnish lottery winners and is the co-author of a forthcoming book on the topic.

    Daniel Miller is Professor of Anthropology at University College, London. He has recently completed a year's ethnography of shopping in a north London street. Prior to that he undertook an ethnography of commerce and consumption in Trinidad. His recent monographs include Modernity – An Ethnographic Approach (1994) and Capitalism – An Ethnographic Approach (1997). He has also recently edited the following books: Unwrapping Christmas (1993), Acknowledging Consumption (1995), Worlds Apart (1995) and Material Cultures (1997). He is a founding editor of the Journal of Material Culture.

    Mica Nava is a Reader in the Department of Cultural Studies and co-director of the Centre for Consumer and Advertising Studies at the University of East London. She is author of Changing Cultures: Feminism, Youth and Consumerism (1992) and co-editor of Modern Times: Reflections on a Century of English Modernity (1996) and Buy This Book: Studies in Advertising and Consumption (1997). Her current research is on cosmopolitanism and consumption.

    Acknowledgements

    Two chapters in this book – Mary Douglas's ‘In Defence of Shopping’ (Chapter 1) and Mica Nava's ‘Women, the City and the Department Store’ (Chapter 3) – have been published previously. The former was originally published in Mary Douglas's collection of essays titled Objects and Objections published by the Toronto Semiotic Circle (Monograph Series of the TSC, no. 9, 1992, pp. 66–87) and the latter, with the title ‘Modernity's Disavowal: Women, the City and the Department Store’ in the book Modern Times: Reflections on a Century of English Modernity, edited by Mica Nava and Alan O'Shea and published by Routledge (1996). We would like to thank the publishers for their permission to reprint these texts.

  • Appendix: Research on Shopping – A Brief History and Selected Literature

    PaulHewer and ColinCampbell
    A Brief History of Research on Shopping

    The following does not claim to be a comprehensive overview of all those discourses on modern shopping which might be considered relevant from a research point of view – either as insightful descriptions or as more systematic accounts of some aspects of the phenomenon. Consequently this excursus has a certain focus which is defined by the following two criteria. First, it focuses on systematic research on the topic which involves theoretically grounded procedures of interpretation, and, second, it deals with research that understands shopping as an object of research – as a social and cultural complex of practices – which is reducible neither to a mere part of the economic system nor to a field of manipulative intervention. According to these criteria, this brief history of research on shopping could also be called a brief history of the sociology of shopping, provided that the term ‘sociology’ is understood in a broad sense.

    Typologizing Shoppers

    There has long been a small but significant literature on the history of shopping in general (Adburgham, 1964), whilst, in the 1980s, historians turned to studying the development of the department store in particular (Benson, 1986; Miller, 1981; Williams, 1982). At the same time, market researchers, geographers and town planners have long shown an understandable interest in the retail environment (Gardner and Sheppard, 1989; Goss, 1993). Until very recently, however, sociologists have all but completely neglected the phenomenon.

    Yet, in fact, the origins of the sociology of shopping can be traced back to the 1950s and an article entitled ‘City Shoppers and Urban Identification’ by the American Gregory P. Stone (1954). This formed what was part of Stone's Master's thesis for the University of Chicago in which he sought to assess the implications of Louis Wirth's outline of the character of urban life. For Wirth, the critical feature of city life was that although contacts between people were face to face they were nevertheless ‘impersonal, superficial, transitory and segmental’ (1964 [originally 1938]: 70). Stone, however, was less than convinced that the character of city life was nothing but a mass of depersonalized relationships (Wirth, 1964: 42), believing, instead, that it contained activities which could be seen to foster the seeds of personalization. So he decided to analyse shopping to see if it did indeed facilitate this form of social integration.

    Consequently Stone interviewed over one hundred women, asking them about their attitudes toward shopping, focusing in particular on their reasons for choosing one kind of retail outlet rather than another. Stone then used the answers to these questions on retail patronage to identify four basic orientations toward shopping. These were: the ‘economic’ shopper whose primary considerations are price and quality; the ‘personalizing’ shopper, who rates such economic criteria as of secondary importance when compared to the opportunity for interaction which the experience offers; the ‘ethical’ shopper, who claims to employ moral considerations in the choice of retail outlet; and finally the ‘apathetic’ shopper, who conducts this activity simply out of necessity.

    Gregory Stone's typology has had a significant influence upon subsequent research on shopping, although the issues of urban sociology which first caused him to focus on this phenomenon have not, as yet, been pursued by subsequent investigators. Rather, those who came after him were more interested in the possible commercial benefits which his typology seemed to offer. Thus Ronald Stephenson and Ronald Willett (1969) attempted to correlate the manner in which shoppers purchase goods with the number of stores they are likely to frequent; whilst William R. Darden and Fred D. Reynolds (1971) similarly sought to link Stone's shopping orientations with the purchase of products, in this case cosmetics, concluding that the economic shopper will use cosmetic products which are ‘socially visible’ whereas the personalizing shopper tends to use products that ‘aid elementary hygiene’ (1971: 507). Then, also building on Stone's work, George P. Moschis (1976) suggested a classification of shopping orientations constructed around the different kinds of information which individuals employ in selecting products. Shoppers are thus classified on the basis of whether they are brand or store loyal, or whether they are problem-solvers (that is, they resemble Stone's ‘economic’ shopper) or psycho-socializers, which is to say that they are inclined to emulate the consumer behaviour and choices of others.

    Other researchers have gone on to see how far Stone's typology can be applied to specific subsections of the consumer population. Thus Louis E. Boone et al. (1974) compared the shopping orientations of Mexican-Americans living in Texas with middle-class Anglo-Americans from Oklahoma. Their main findings were that the Mexican-Americans were more likely to be ‘economic’ shoppers, whereas the Anglo-Americans were more personalized in their shopping orientations. William G. Zikmund (1977), in his analysis of the grocery shopping behaviour of the black population of Oklahoma, reduced Stone's scheme to just three types of shoppers: the ‘comparative’, the ‘neighbourhood’ and the ‘outshopper’; a classification based primarily on the distance individuals are willing to travel, the frequency of their shopping trips and the use they make of shopping lists. Finally, Robert Williams et al. (1978) refined Stone's typology in their study of grocery shoppers, identifying four main types – convenience, price-oriented, apathetic and involved.

    As already noted, little of this research displays much of the sociological awareness which marked Stone's original essay, being motivated more by the specific needs of consumer research. None the less, some of this work can be of interest to sociologists, especially since in recent years some consumer researchers have begun to break free of the rather narrow concerns which commercial considerations dictate (see Belk, 1995). Thus Bellenger et al. (1977), although starting with a Stone-type typology, go on to identify the important category of the ‘recreational’ shopper. Unlike the ‘convenience shopper’ (who basically resembles ‘economic man’), the recreational shopper gains satisfaction from the act of shopping itself. This point is also made by Williams et al. (1978), who identify a category of shoppers who are distinctive in gaining pleasure from the process. Their claim is also that the act of shopping can provide recreational benefits in itself quite separate from any gains which may be obtained through the process of exchange. Then, in a later article, Bellenger and Korgaonkar (1980) add to the description of this kind of shopper, claiming that such shoppers will spend more time shopping, are more likely to shop with others, are less likely to know what they want, and are inclined to continue with the activity even after they have made a purchase. They also provide data which suggest that such shoppers are more likely to be women than men (see Campbell, Chapter 7, this volume), and to be from white-collar rather than blue-collar households.1

    Despite this tendency for shopper typologies to increasingly incorporate some reference to the experiential aspects of shopping, it is still largely the case that the buying aspect of shopping is foregrounded. To that extent research still tends to be constructed with the interests of market and consumer research in mind rather than those of sociology. To this extent and despite Stone's pioneering work, the construction of shopper typologies has yet to break clear of this legacy. Shopping is still predominantly viewed as a means-end activity centring on the exchange of money for goods. But then of course this tendency is one which the market research perspective shares with neoclassical economics (Hollis and Nell, 1975), economic psychology (van Raaji, 1988) and both rational action and rational choice theory (Coleman and Fararo, 1992; Elster, 1986), all of which unproblematically equate shopping with buying. However, these other perspectives also tend to regard shopping as necessarily constituting a series of decisions taken by individuals who are blessed with both clear knowledge of their own needs and wants and perfect information about the market. Consequently there is a tendency to present the shopper as both an information-processor, a problem-solver and a rational maxi-mizer of utility. Yet the limitations of such a model have long been known. Apart from the a priori nature of the assumptions that they contain, such perspectives ignore all the evidence which shows, as George Katona (1953: 312) has argued, that problem-solving behaviour is a relatively rare occurrence, and that habitual behaviour is a far more common feature of consumer behaviour.

    Instrumental and Recreational Shopping

    If it is accepted that shopping is not reducible either to information-processing, decision-making or indeed even buying, then it has to be accepted that the reason why people go shopping cannot be simply equated with a desire to experience the satisfactions to be obtained from the purchase and use of goods. In which case, why do people shop? This was the very question that Edward Tauber (1972) posed in his short but seminal article. Tauber asked thirty men and women why they went shopping, and, from the responses he received, identified a range of motives which had little to do with the act of buying. These ranged from role-playing, diversion from the routine of daily life, self-gratification, learning about new trends and ideas, physical activity, sensory stimulation, social experiences outside the home with friends, communication or gossip with others, peer group interaction, enjoying status and authority, and finally the pleasures of haggling.

    Subsequently Westbrook and Black's (1985) research provided broad support for Tauber's findings, but also added two further motivations: first, the motivation of choice optimization, or finding exactly what one wants; and, second, the anticipated utility derived from a new product.2 In retrospect Tauber's article can be seen to be important because by finally freeing the shopping motive from the buying motive he succeeded in indicating something of the wider social significance of the act of shopping. In particular he opened the way for shopping to be viewed as a form of leisure.

    In an article entitled ‘Women, Shopping and Leisure’, Myriam Jansen-Verbeke (1987) claims that this is indeed how shopping should be viewed – as a form of leisure in its own right – and not simply as a mundane and routine aspect of people's daily lives. She illustrates this point by listing the range of activities which her analysis of shopping in the Netherlands suggests is covered by the term ‘shopping’. This includes eating and drinking in cafés and bars, sight-seeing, visiting museums or markets, being with one's friends, and simply walking around. In a sense this should not have been such a revelation for earlier studies had intimated that shopping was more than simply the buying of goods. As early as 1963 Stuart U. Rich had indicated something of the importance of browsing, a point subsequently taken up by Peter Bloch et al. (1989). In their article they define browsing as a ‘search activity that is independent of specific purchase needs or decisions’ (Bloch et al., 1989: 13). Freed of this necessity, the shopper gains pleasure through the process of ‘just looking’ (Bowlby, 1985; see Falk, Chapter 8, this volume), which, although it involves obtaining information about products, can also be enjoyed as an end-in-itself. All of which strongly suggests that shopping should perhaps be understood as constituting a distinctive form of experience, one with its own peculiar activities, pleasures and satisfactions, rather than being treated as simply a means to an end.

    But then it is useful to reflect on what is actually known about the practice of shopping, as there is a tendency in some contemporary (postmodern?) discourses for speculation about the ‘consumer society’ to be illustrated by anecdote rather than supported by references to research data. To begin with there is the apparently simple question of how much time people spend shopping. Although such data are scarce it would seem that, according to the Henley Centre (1991), the average person in Britain spends 4.6 hours per week shopping for essential and other items. Naturally this figure masks a number of important differences. For example, while employed men spend 3.3 hours; employed women spend 4.2. hours; whilst for the unemployed, men spend 3.1 hours and women spend 5.1; differentials which are consistent with those found by Gershuny and Jones in 1987. Hawes (1987, 1988), meanwhile, found that ‘Americans spend three to four times as many hours a year shopping as their counterparts in Western European countries’ (Schor, 1992: 107). All of which suggests that shopping is indeed an important component of most people's ‘free time’.

    However, this does not imply that shopping has turned into mere leisure, which as such could be defined as an unambiguous activity pattern. Shopping ‘for’ is not simply transformed into shopping ‘around’, that is, looking around, but rather these different modes of interacting with the world of goods – involving purchase or not – become actually intertwined and thus structured into various constellations. Consequently one can note that ‘shopping’ is not an undifferentiated activity. Indeed, as Robert A. Westbrook and William C. Black (1985) observe in their critique of shopper typologies, shopping for groceries cannot properly be compared with shopping for cosmetics or indeed with shopping in a department store.

    Thus, if one is to understand the phenomenon of shopping, it is probably as important to differentiate between types of shopping as it is to discriminate between types of shopper. Hence these figures, unless broken down into more meaningful sub-divisions, probably tell us very little. The most significant division would seem to be that between regular grocery shopping, or ‘provisioning’, and other forms of shopping (mainly, it would seem, for clothes), this latter form being exemplified in the ‘shopping trip’ (Campbell, forthcoming). This is a distinction which most shoppers themselves recognize as significant, overlapping as it often does with the contrast between shopping viewed as a labourious or as a recreational activity (Prus and Dawson, 1991; Lehtonen and Mäenpää, Chapter 6, this volume).

    None the less, there is little doubt that many people do obtain great pleasure from shopping – or at least from some kinds of shopping – and that shopping is a leisure-time pursuit that has increased in importance in recent decades. However, it is not entirely clear what exactly constitutes the source of the pleasure. Campbell has argued that the pleasure to be derived from shopping is related to the extent that it is self-determined, with the activity understood as an ‘autonomous field of action’ (forthcoming) in which the pleasure is correlated to the extent to which individuals are able to undertake it as they please. In addition, Campbell links the experience with the ability to want goods, arguing that such desire is not programmed but rather occurs as the by-product of pleasurable ‘self-directed browsing’ (ibid.). On the other hand, Pasi Falk (Chapter 8, this volume) has emphasized the different kinds of scopic pleasures which shopping can provide, pleasures which are quite independent of the act of purchasing, but stem directly from the freedom which the shopper has to engage in ‘just looking’ as well as employing the other sensory registers (touching, trying on, and so on) (p. 185).

    Shopping as a Gendered Activity

    In so far as there are good grounds for discriminating between types of shoppers then the contrast that is of the greatest significance is not one which featured either in Stone's typology or indeed in any of those derived from it. For research suggests that the critical fact about shopping is the extent to which it is a gendered activity. Now, as noted, Stone only interviewed women and in this respect his research embodied the common wisdom of his day, which was that shopping was a predominantly female activity. This assumption was so taken-for-granted in the consumer research and marketing worlds that it has only been in comparatively recent years that men as well as women have been included in the samples of shoppers chosen for study. This fact in itself reveals the one sense in which shopping is ‘gendered’, which is to say that it is (or at least, it has been) popularly regarded as mainly a ‘female’ activity, in effect a sub-role of the status of ‘housewife’ (Lunt and Livingstone, 1992; Oakley, 1974). The second and closely related sense in which it is gendered is revealed in the data suggesting that men and women have differing shopping styles and shopping habits (Campbell, Chapter 7, this volume).

    Indeed, if gender is applied to the typologies outlined earlier it is found that men are more likely to be convenience or apathetic shoppers, whilst women are more likely to be recreational shoppers (see Bellenger and Korgaonkar, 1980; Tatzel, 1982). Several studies support this view, confirming that when it comes to shopping men are largely apathetic, preferring non-participation to involvement; a fact which causes Fischer and Arnold to comment (in the course of their analysis of Christmas shopping) that ‘men enact their masculinity through more limited involvement in the event’ (1990: 354).3 More recently, Lunt and Livingstone's (1992: 92) research has further confirmed this view, suggesting that men are more likely to be ‘routine’ shoppers than women, whilst women are more likely to be ‘leisure’ shoppers. Other work has suggested that the gendered nature of this activity extends to the commodities which men and women are likely purchase when they do go shopping (Pahl, 1989, 1990; see also Peters, 1989).

    Of course, if shopping is perceived by men to be a ‘female’ activity, then it is hardly surprising that they approach it in a different spirit from women, attempting to limit their involvement as far as possible. In this respect one would expect these differential patterns of shopping activity to be mirrored by their different attitudes and beliefs, and research in this field has indeed suggested that this is the case. For Campbell (Chapter 7, this volume) has shown that men and women tend to endorse contrasting ‘ideologies’ of shopping, systems of belief which, whilst legitimating that style practised by their own sex, tend to denigrate that associated with the other. Hence while men seek to devalue the activity, denying that it has recreational potential and insisting that it is a purely instrumental act to be completed as quickly as possible, women regard it as an important activity, one requiring skill as well as time, energy and commitment, but also one which offers significant recreational awards. Despite claims that these differences are diminishing in contemporary society, there are as yet no data to determine whether this is the case or not.

    Given the considerable gender differences in both shopping behaviour and attitudes it is naturally intriguing to wonder how couples manage to undertake this activity jointly. As yet the data available are limited, despite the fact that Elizabeth Wolgast's pioneering article ‘Do Husbands or Wives Make the Purchasing Decisions?’ first appeared in 1953. Wolgast's data revealed that while women tended to dominate in the purchasing of household appliances, men were more likely to have influence in the choice of the family car. Subsequent research has confirmed this pattern of differential influence for a range of products. This includes research on cars (Cunningham and Green, 1974; Jaffe and Senft, 1966; Newman and Staelin, 1972; Sharp and Mott, 1955; Wolgast, 1953); household appliances from ‘white’ to ‘brown’ goods (Jaffe and Senft, 1966; Woodside and Motes, 1979); homes (Kelly and Egan, 1969); and basic foodstuffs.

    However, it is not clear that asking couples who made the decision to buy a given consumer good is a very sensible question to ask, for, as Scott (1976) observes, both parties will tend to claim different levels of control. Indeed Woodside and Motes (1979) criticize such analyses on the grounds that they place too much emphasis upon the purchasing decision. They argue that this act needs to be broken down into a series of micro-states, ranging from initially suggesting the idea, to deciding upon the style, type, size or brand of item. In addition, there is the question of who visits the store (and indeed who decides which store to visit) as well as who ultimately makes the actual purchase. Finally, one may note that here, too, studies have tended to presume that shopping equals decision-making and buying and hence have generally failed to examine how couples cope with their differential expectations and experiences of this activity when undertaking it together.

    Notes

    1. This tendency to construct typologies is still a dominant feature in studies of shopping behaviour. Thus, very recently, two social psychologists have included one in their study of consumption. Peter K. Lunt and Sonia Livingstone in their book Mass Consumption and Personal Identity: Everyday Economic Experience (1992) present four categories of shoppers: those with ‘careful’, ‘routine’, ‘thrifty’ and ‘alternative’ orientations.

    2. Sigmund Gronmo (1984: 18) presents an alternative case when he suggests that consumer behaviour can be compensatory or conducted to assuage an individual's lack of esteem in other areas of their daily lives, such as the loss of self-esteem through unemployment.

    3. Ann Oakley (1974: 93) writes of men who will not carry the shopping bags for the fear of being labelled effeminate.

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    Peters, John F. (1989) ‘Youth Clothes-Shopping Behavior: An Analysis by Gender’, Adolescence, 24: 575–80.
    Prus, Robert and Dawson, Lorne (1991) ‘“Shop ’Til You Drop”: Shopping as Recreational and Laborious Activity’, Canadian Journal of Sociology, 16(2): 145–64.
    Rich, Stuart U. (1963) Shopping Behavior of Department Store Customers: A Study of Store Policies and Customer Demand, with Particular Reference to Delivery Service and Telephone Ordering. Boston: Harvard University Press.
    Schor, Juliet (1992) The Overworked American: The Unexpected Decline of Leisure. New York: Basic Books.
    Scott, Rosemary (1976) The Female Consumer. London: Associated Business Programmes.
    Sharp, Harry and Mott, Paul (1955) ‘Consumer Decisions in the Metropolitan Family’, Journal of Marketing, 21: 149–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1247333
    Stephenson, Ronald P. and Willett, Ronald P. (1969) ‘Analysis of Consumers' Retail Patronage Strategies’, in P.R.McDonald (ed.), Marketing Involvement in Society and the Economy. Chicago: American Marketing Association, pp. 316–22.
    Stone, Gregory P. (1954) ‘City Shoppers and Urban Identification: Observations on the Social Psychology of City Life’, American Journal of Sociology, 60: 36–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/221483
    Tatzel, Myriam (1982) ‘Skill and Motivation in Clothes Shopping: Fashion-Conscious, Independent, Anxious, and Apathetic Consumers’, Journal of Retailing, 58(4): 90–7.
    Tauber, Edward (1972) ‘Why Do People Shop?’, Journal of Marketing, 36: 46–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1250426
    van Raaji, Fred W. (1988) ‘Information Processing and Decision-Making Cognitive Aspects of Economic Behaviour’, in Fred W.van Raaji, Gery M.van Veldhoven and Karl-ErikWarneryd (eds), Handbook of Economic Psychology. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    Westbrook, Robert A. and Black, William C. (1985) ‘A Motivation-Based Shopper Typology’, Journal of Retailing, 61(1): 78–103.
    Williams, Robert H., Painter, John J. and Nicholas, Herbert R. (1978) ‘A Policy-Oriented Typology of Grocery Shoppers’, Journal of Retailing, 54(1): 27–43.
    Williams, Rosalind (1982) Dream Worlds: Mass Consumption in Late Nineteenth-Century France. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
    Wirth, Louis (1964) ‘Urbanism as a Way of Life’, in Albert J.Reiss (ed.), Louis Wirth on Cities and Social Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Wolgast, Elizabeth (1953) ‘Do Husbands or Wives Make the Purchasing Decisions?’, Journal of Marketing, 23: 151–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1247832
    Woodside, Arch and Motes, William (1979) ‘Perceptions of Marital Roles in Consumer Decision Processes for Six Products’, in Beckwith et al. (eds), American Marketing Association Proceedings. Chicago: American Marketing Association, pp. 214–19.
    Zikmund, William (1977) ‘A Taxonomy of Black Shopping Behavior’, Journal of Retailing, 53(2): 61–72.
    Research on Shopping – Selected Literature

    The following selected bibliography of research on shopping is provided to give the reader a demonstration of the diversity and richness of current research on this topic. Here the books and articles are divided – for reasons of clarity – on the basis of the following disciplines: economics, geography, history, literature, marketing, psychology and sociology. However, the disciplinary categorization should not be taken too strictly due to the fact that a number of the references fall between disciplines and could actually appear in more than one category. The final two sections provide a list of journals which have had special issues on consumption topics and a list of existing bibliographies in the field.

    Economics
    Fine, Ben and Leopold, Ellen (1993) The World of Consumption. London: Routledge.
    Friedman, Monroe (1988) ‘Models of Consumer Choice Behaviour’, in Fred W.van Raaji, Gery M.van Veldhoven and Karl-ErikWarneryd (eds), Handbook of Economic Psychology. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 332–57.
    Hollis, Martin and Nell, Edward J. (1975) Rational Economic Man: A Philosophical Critique of Neo-Classical Economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511554551
    Katona, George (1953) ‘Rational Behavior and Economic Behavior’, Psychological Review, 60(5): 307–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0060640
    Mittal, Banwari and Lee, Myung-soo (1989) ‘A Causal Model of Consumer Involvement’, Journal of Economic Psychology, 10(3): 363–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0167-4870%2889%2990030-5
    Oumlil, A. Ben (1983) Economic Change and Consumer Shopping Behavior. New York: Praeger.
    Scitovsky, Tibor (1976) The Joyless Economy: An Inquiry into Human Satisfaction and Consumer Dissatisfaction. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Scitovsky, Tibor (1986) Human Desire and Economic Satisfaction: Essays on the Frontiers of Economics. Brighton: Wheatsheaf.
    van Raaji, Fred W. (1988) ‘Information Processing and Decision-Making Cognitive Aspects of Economic Behaviour’, in Fred W.van Raaji, Gery M.van Veldhoven and Karl-ErikWarneryd (eds), Handbook of Economic Psychology. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 74–106.
    Warneryd, Karl Erik (1988) ‘Economic Psychology as a Field of Study’, in Fred W.van Raaji, Gery M.van Veldhoven and Karl-ErikWarneryd (eds), Handbook of Economic Psychology. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 3–40.
    Geography
    Butler, R.W. (1991) ‘West Edmonton Mall as a Tourist Attraction’, The Canadian Geographer, 35(3): 287–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.1991.tb01103.x
    Fairbairn, Kenneth J. (1991) ‘West Edmonton Mall: Entrepreneurial Innovation and Consumer Response’, Canadian Geographer, 35(3): 261–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.1991.tb01100.x
    Goss, Jon (1993) ‘“The Magic of the Mall”: An Analysis of Form, Function, and Meaning in the Contemporary Retail Built Environment’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 83(1): 18–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1993.tb01921.x
    Hallsworth, Alan G. (1994) ‘Decentralization of Retailing in Britain – The Breaking of the Third Wave’, Professional Geographer, 46(3): 296–307. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0033-0124.1994.00296.x
    Hopkins, Jeffrey S.P. (1991) ‘West Edmonton Mall as a Centre for Social Interaction’, The Canadian Geographer, 35(3): 268–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.1991.tb01101.x
    Jackson, Edgar L. (1991) ‘Shopping and Leisure: Implications of West Edmonton Mall for Leisure Research’, The Canadian Geographer, 35(3): 280–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.1991.tb01102.x
    Jackson, Edgar L. and Johnson, Denis B. (1991) ‘Geographic Implications of Mega-Malls with Special Reference to West Edmonton Mall’, The Canadian Geographer, 35(3): 226–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.1991.tb01096.x
    Johnson, Denis B. (1991) ‘Structural Features of West Edmonton Mall’, The Canadian Geographer, 35(3): 249–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.1991.tb01099.x
    Jones, Ken (1991) ‘Mega-Chaining, Corporate Concentration and the Mega-Mall’, The Canadian Geographer, 35(3): 241–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.1991.tb01098.x
    Sack, Robert (1988) ‘The Consumer's World: Place as Context’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 78: 642–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1988.tb00236.x
    Shields, Rob (1989) ‘Social Spatialization and the Built Environment: The Case of the West Edmonton Mall’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 7(2): 147–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d070147
    Simmons, Jim (1991) ‘The Regional Mall in Canada’, The Canadian Geographer, 35(3): 232–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.1991.tb01097.x
    Smith, P.J. (1991) ‘Coping with Mega-Mall Development: An Urban Planning Perspective’, The Canadian Geographer, 35(3): 295–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.1991.tb01104.x
    History
    Adburgham, Alison (1964) Shops and Shopping, 1800–1914: Where, and in What Manner, the Well-dressed Englishwoman Bought her Clothes. London: Allen and Unwin.
    Appleby, Joyce (1993) ‘Consumption in Early Modern Thought’, in JohnBrewer and RoyPorter (eds). Consumption and the World of Goods. London: Routledge. pp. 162–73.
    Benson, Susan Porter (1986) Counter Cultures: Saleswomen, Managers, and Customers in American Department Stores, 1890–1940. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
    Bradley, Harriet (1989) Men's Work, Women's Work: A Sociological History of The Sexual Division of Labour in Employment. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Bradley, Harriet (1992) ‘Changing Social Structures: Class and Gender’, in StuartHall and BramGieben (eds). Formations of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press. pp. 178–226.
    Breen, T.H. (1993) ‘The Meaning of Things: Interpreting the Consumer Society in the Eighteenth Century’, in JohnBrewer and RoyPorter (eds), Consumption and the World of Goods. London: Routledge. pp. 249–60.
    Brewer, John and Porter, Roy (eds) (1993) Consumption and the World of Goods. London: Routledge.
    Davis, Dorothy (1966) A History of Shopping. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Fine, Ben and Leopold, Ellen (1990) ‘Consumerism and the Industrial Revolution’, Social History, 15(2): 151–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03071029008567764
    Horowitz, Daniel (1985) The Morality of Spending: Attitudes toward the Consumer Society in America, 1875–1940. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Laermans, Rudi (1993) ‘Learning to Consume: Early Department Stores and the Shaping of the Modern Consumer Culture (1860–1914)’, Theory, Culture & Society, 10: 79–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026327693010004005
    Leach, William R. (1984) ‘Transformations in a Culture of Consumption: Women and Department Stores, 1890–1925’, Journal of American History, 71(2): 319–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1901758
    Leach, William R. (1993) Land of Desire. Merchants, Power, and the Rise of New American Culture. New York: Pantheon.
    Lears, T.J. Jackson and Fox, Richard Wrightman (1983) The Culture of Consumption: Critical Essays in American History, 1880–1980. New York: Pantheon.
    McKendrick, Neil (1974) ‘Home Demand and Economic Growth: A New View of the Role of Women and Children in the Industrial Revolution’, in NeilMcKendrick (ed.). Historical Perspectives: Studies in English Thought and Society. London: Europa, pp. 152–210.
    McKendrick, Neil, Brewer, John and Plumb, J.H. (1982) The Birth of a Consumer Society: The Commercialization of Eighteenth-Century England. London: Europa.
    Miller, Michael B. (1981) The Bon Marché: Bourgeois Culture and the Department Store, 1869–1920. London: Allen and Unwin.
    Mukerji, Chandra (1983) From Graven Images: Patterns of Modern Materialism. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Plumb, J.H. (1982) ‘Commercialization and Society’, in NeilMcKendrick, JohnBrewer and J.H.Plumb, The Birth of a Consumer Society: The Commercialization of Eighteenth-Century England. London: Europa, pp. 265–334.
    Porter, Roy (1990) English Society in the Eighteenth Century. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Porter, Roy (1993) ‘Consumption: Disease of the Consumer Society’, in JohnBrewer and RoyPorter (eds), Consumption and the World of Goods. London: Routledge. pp. 58–81.
    Reekie, Gail (1992) ‘Changes in the Adamless Eden: The Spatial and Sexual Transformation of a Brisbane Department Store 1930–1990’, in RobShields (ed.), Lifestyle Shopping: The Subject of Consumption. London: Routledge. pp. 170–94.
    Reekie, Gail (1993) Temptations: Sex, Religion and the Department Store. St Leonards: Allen and Unwin.
    Thirsk, Joan (1978) Economic Policy and Projects: The Development of a Consumer Society in Early Modern England. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Vickery, Amanda (1993) ‘Women and the World of Goods: A Lancashire Consumer and her Possessions, 1751–81’, in JohnBrewer and RoyPorter (eds), Consumption and the World of Goods. London: Routledge. pp. 274–301.
    Weatherill, Lorna (1986) ‘A Possession of One's Own: Women and Consumer Behaviour in England, 1660–1740’, Journal of British Studies, 25: 131–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/385858
    Weatherill, Lorna (1988) Consumer Behaviour and Material Culture in Britain, 1660–1760. London: Routledge.
    Wendt, Lloyd and Kogan, Herman (1952) Give the Lady What She Wants: The Story of Marshall Field and Company. Chicago: Rand McNally.
    Williams, Rosalind (1982) Dream Worlds: Mass Consumption in Late Nineteenth-Century France. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
    Literature
    Bowlby, Rachel (1985) Just Looking: Consumer Culture in Dreiser, Gissing, and Zola. London: Methuen.
    Bowlby, Rachel (1987) ‘Modes of Modern Shopping: Mallarmé at the Bon Marché’, in NancyArmstrong and LeonardTennenhouse (eds), The Ideology of Conduct: Essays on Literature and the History of Sexuality. London: Methuen. pp. 185–205.
    Bowlby, Rachel (1993) Shopping with Freud. London: Routledge.
    Leigh, Hunt (1903) ‘Of the Sight of Shops’, in his Essays, ed. with an introduction by ArthurSymons. London: Walter Scott Ltd. pp. 20–35.
    Mitchell, Wesley C. (1950) The Backward Art of Spending Money and Other Essays. New York: Augustus M. Kelley.
    Woolf, Virginia (1994) ‘Street Haunting – A London Adventure’, in her The Crowded Dance of Modern Life. Selected Essays: Volume Two, ed. with an Introduction by RachelBowlby. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Zola, Émile (1992) The Ladies' Paradise. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
    Marketing
    Alba, Joseph W. and Hutchinson, Wesley J. (1987) ‘Dimensions of Consumer Expertise’, Journal of Consumer Research, 13(4): 411–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/209080
    Bellenger, Danny N. and Korgaonkar, Pradeep K. (1980) ‘Profiling the Recreational Shopper’, Journal of Retailing, 56(3): 77–92.
    Bellenger, Danny N., Robertson, Dan H. and Greenberg, Barnett A. (1977) ‘Shopping Centre Patronage Motives’, Journal of Retailing, 53(2): 29–38.
    Bellenger, Danny N., Robertson, Dan H. and Hirschman, Elizabeth C. (1978) ‘Impulse Buying Varies by Product’, Journal of Advertising Research, 18(6): 15–18.
    Bloch, Peter H., Ridgway, Nancy M. and Dawson, S.A. (1994) ‘The Shopping Mall as Consumer Habitat’, Journal of Retailing, 70(1): 23–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-4359%2894%2990026-4
    Bloch, Peter H., Ridgway, Nancy M. and Sherrell, Daniel L. (1989) ‘Extending the Concept of Shopping: An Investigation of Browsing Activity’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 17: 13–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02726349
    Boone, Louis E., Kurtz, David L., Johnson, James C. and Bonno, John A. (1974) ‘City Shoppers and Urban Identification Revisited’, Journal of Marketing, 38: 67–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1249853
    Cunningham, Isabella C.M. and Green, Robert T. (1974) ‘Purchasing Roles in the U.S. Family 1955 and 1973’, Journal of Marketing, 38: 61–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1250393
    Darden, William R. and Ashton, Dub (1974) ‘Psychographic Profiles of Patronage Preference Groups’, Journal of Retailing, 50(4): 99–112.
    Darden, William R. and Dorsch, Michael J. (1990) ‘An Action Strategy Approach to Examining Shopping Behavior’, Journal of Retailing, 21(3): 289–308.
    Darden, William R. and Reynolds, Fred D. (1971) ‘Shopping Orientations and Product Usage Roles’, Journal of Marketing Research, 8: 505–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3150244
    De Grazia, Sebastian (1964) Of Time, Work, and Leisure. New York: Anchor Books.
    Dichter, Ernest (1964) Handbook of Consumer Motivations: The Psychology of the World of Objects. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Dickson, Peter R. and Sawyer, Alan G. (1990) ‘The Price Knowledge and Search of Supermarket Shoppers’, Journal of Marketing, 54: 42–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1251815
    Feinberg, Richard A., Sheffler, Brent, Meoli, Jennifer and Rummel, Amy (1989) ‘There's Something Social Happening at the Mall’, Journal of Business and Psychology, 4(1): 49–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01023038
    Firat, Fuat A. (1991) ‘The Consumer in Postmodernity’, Advances in Consumer Research, 18: 70–6.
    Fischer, Eileen and Arnold, Stephen J. (1990) ‘More than a Labor of Love: Gender Roles and Christmas Gift Shopping’, Journal of Consumer Research, 17: 333–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/208561
    Fischer, Eileen and Arnold, Stephen J. (1994) ‘Sex, Gender Identity, Gender Role Attitudes and Consumer Behavior’, Psychology and Marketing, 11(2): 163–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mar.4220110206
    Fischer, Eileen and Gainer, Brenda (1991) ‘I Shop Therefore I Am: The Role of Shopping in the Social Construction of Women's Identities’, in Janeen ArnoldCosta (ed.). Gender and Consumer Behavior. Salt Lake City, UT: Association for Consumer Research, pp. 350–7.
    Francis, Sally and Burns, Leslie D. (1992) ‘Effect of Consumer Socialization on Clothing Shopping Attitudes, Clothing Acquisition and Clothing Satisfaction’, Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 10(4): 35–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0887302X9201000406
    Gainer, Brenda and Fischer, Eileen (1991) ‘To Buy or Not to Buy? That is Not the Question: Female Ritual in Home Shopping Parties’, Advances in Consumer Research, 18: 597–602.
    Gardner, Carl and Shepherd, Julie (1989) Consuming Passion: The Rise of Retail Culture. London: Unwin Hyman.
    Grossbart, Sanford, Carlson, Les and Walsh, Ann (1991) ‘Consumer Socialization and Frequency of Shopping with Children’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 19(3): 155–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02726492
    Gutman, Jonathan, and Mills, Michael K. (1982) ‘Fashion Life Style, Self-Concept, Shopping Orientation, and Store Patronage: An Integrative Analysis’, Journal of Retailing, 58(2): 64–86.
    Hallsworth, Alan G. (1988) ‘Analysis of Shoppers' Attitudes’, Psychological Reports, 62: 497–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1988.62.2.497
    Hawes, Douglass K. (1987) ‘Time Budgets and Consumer Leisure-Time Behavior: An Eleven-Year-Later Replication and Extension (Part I – Females)’, Advances in Consumer Research, 14: 543–7.
    Hawes, Douglass K. (1988) ‘Time Budgets and Consumer Leisure-Time Behavior: An Eleven-Year-Later Replication and Extension (Part II – Males)’, Advances in Consumer Research, 15: 418–25.
    Hawks, Leona and Ackerman, Norleen (1990) ‘Family Life Cycle Differences for Shopping Styles, Information Use, and Decision-Making.’Lifestyles, 11(2): 199–219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00987081
    Hirschman, Elizabeth C. (1991) ‘A Feminist Critique of Marketing Theory: Toward Agentic-Communal Balance’, in Janeen ArnoldCosta (ed.). Gender and Consumer Behavior. Salt Lake City, UT: Association of Consumer Research, pp. 324–40.
    Hirschman, Elizabeth C. (1993) ‘Ideology in Consumer Research, 1980 and 1990: A Marxist and Feminist Critique’, Journal of Consumer Research, 19: 537–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/209321
    Hirschman, Elizabeth C. and Holbrook, Morris B. (1982) ‘Hedonic Consumption: Emerging Concepts, Methods and Propositions’, Journal of Marketing, 46: 92–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1251707
    Holbrook, Morris B. and Hirschman, Elizabeth C. (1982) ‘The Experiential Aspects of Consumption: Consumer Fantasies, Feelings, and Fun’, Journal of Consumer Research, 9: 132–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/208906
    Jaffe, Laurence J. and Senft, Henry (1966) ‘The Role of Husbands and Wives in Purchasing Decisions’, in LeeAdler and IrvingCrespi (eds), Attitude Research at Sea. Chicago: American Marketing Association, pp. 95–110.
    Jansen-Verbeke, Myriam (1987) ‘Women, Shopping and Leisure’, Leisure Studies, 6: 71–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02614368700390061
    Kelly, Robert F. and Egan, Michael B. (1969) ‘Husband and Wife Interaction in a Consumer Decision Process’, in Philip R.McDonald (ed.), Marketing Involvement in Society and the Economy. Fall Conference Proceedings. Chicago: American Marketing Association, pp. 250–8.
    Kerin, Roger A., Jain, Ambuj and Howard, Daniel J. (1992) ‘Store Shopping Experience and Consumer Price-Quality-Value Perceptions’, Journal of Retailing, 68(4): 376–97.
    Key Note Publications (1992a) Retailing in the United Kingdom.
    3rd edn.
    Hampton: Key Note Publications.
    Key Note Publications (1992b) UK Household Market: Furniture, Fittings and Decor.
    1st edn.
    Hampton: Key Note Publications.
    Key Note Publications (1992c) UK Household Market: Household Appliances and House-wares.
    1st edn.
    Hampton: Key Note Publications.
    Key Note Publications (1992d) UK Clothing and Footwear Market.
    2nd edn.
    Hampton: Key Note Publications.
    Kowinski, W.S. (1985) The Mailing of America: An Inside Look at the Great Consumer Paradise. New York: W. Morrow.
    Laaksonen, Martti (1993) ‘Retail Patronage Dynamics: Learning about Daily Shopping Behavior in Contexts of Changing Retail Structures’ (Special Issue: Retail Patronage Dynamics), Journal of Business Research, 28(1–2): 3–174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0148-2963%2893%2990024-J
    Laaksonen, Pirjo (1994) Consumer Involvement: Concepts and Research. London: Routledge.
    Langrehr, Frederick (1991) ‘Retail Shopping Mall Semiotics and Hedonic Consumption’, Advances in Consumer Research, 18: 428–33.
    McDonald, W.J. (1994) ‘Time Use in Shopping – The Role of Personal Characteristics’, Journal of Retailing, 70(4): 345–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-4359%2894%2990004-3
    Martineau, Pierre (1957) Motivation in Advertising: Motives That Make People Buy. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Mayer, Robert Nathan (1978) ‘Exploring Sociological Theories by Studying Consumers’, American Behavioral Scientist, 21(4): 600–13.
    Moore-Shay, Elizabeth S. and Wilkie, William L. (1988) ‘Recent Advances in Research on Family Decisions’, Advances in Consumer Research, 15: 454–60.
    Moschis, George P. (1976) ‘Shopping Orientations and Consumer Uses of Information’, Journal of Retailing, 52(2): 61–70.
    Moschis, George P. (1985) ‘The Role of Family Communication in Consumer Socialization of Children and Adolescents’, Journal of Consumer Research, 11: 898–913. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/209025
    Moschis, George P. and Churchill, Gilbert A. Jr (1978) ‘Consumer Socialization: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis’, Journal of Marketing Research, 15: 599–609. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3150629
    Newman, Joseph W. and Staelin, Richard (1972) ‘Pre-Purchase Information Seeking for New Cars and Major Household Appliances’, Journal of Marketing Research, 9: 249–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3149534
    Nielson (1992) The British Shopper 1992/93. Oxford: NTC Publications.
    Packard, Vance (1986) The Hidden Persuaders. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Peters, John F. (1989) ‘Youth Clothes-Shopping Behavior: An Analysis by Gender’, Adolescence, 24: 575–80.
    Rich, Stuart U. (1963) Shopping Behavior of Department Store Customers: A Study of Store Policies and Customer Demand, with Particular Reference to Delivery Service and Telephone Ordering. Boston: Harvard University Press.
    Rook, Dennis (1985) ‘The Ritual Dimension of Consumer Behavior’, Journal of Consumer Research, 12: 251–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/208514
    Rook, Dennis W. and Hoch, Stephen J. (1985) ‘Consuming Impulses’, Advances in Consumer Research, 12: 23–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/208514
    Rust, Langbourne (1993) ‘Parents and Children Shopping Together: A New Approach to the Qualitative Analysis of Observational Data’, Journal of Advertising Research, 33(4): 65–70.
    Schindler, Robert M. (1989) ‘The Excitement of Getting A Bargain: Some Hypotheses Concerning the Origins of and Effects of Smart-Shopper Feelings’, Advances in Consumer Research, 16: 447–53.
    Schudson, Michael (1986) Advertising: The Uneasy Persuasion. New York: Basic Books.
    Scott, Rosemary (1976) The Female Consumer. London: Associated Business Programmes.
    Sharp, Harry and Mott, Paul (1956) ‘Consumer Decisions in the Metropolitan Family’, Journal of Marketing, 21: 149–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1247333
    Sherry, John F. and McGrath, Mary Ann (1989) ‘Unpacking the Holiday Presence: A Comparative Ethnography of Two Gift Stores’, in ElizabethHirschmann (ed.), Interpretive Consumer Research. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, pp. 148–67.
    Soloman, Michael R. (1992) Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having and Being. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
    Somner, Robert, Wynes, Marcia and Brinkley, Garland (1992) ‘Social Facilitation Effects in Shopping Behavior’, Environment and Behavior, 24(3): 285–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916592243001
    Stephenson, Ronald P. and Willett, Ronald P. (1969) ‘Analysis of Consumers' Retail Patronage Strategies’, in P.R.McDonald (ed.), Marketing Involvement in Society and the Economy. Chicago: American Marketing Association, pp. 316–22.
    Stutteville, John R. (1971) ‘Sexually Polarised Products and Advertising Strategy’, Journal of Retailing, 47(2): 3–13.
    Tatzel, Miriam (1982) ‘Skill and Motivation in Clothes Shopping: Fashion-Conscious, Independent, Anxious, and Apathetic Consumers’, Journal of Retailing, 58(4): 90–7.
    Tauber, Edward M. (1972) ‘Why Do People Shop?’, Journal of Marketing, 36: 46–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1250426
    Thompson, Craig J., Locander, William B. and Pollio, Howard R. (1990) ‘The Lived Meaning of Free Choice: An Existential-Phenomenological Description of Everyday Consumer Experiences of Contemporary Married Women’, Journal of Consumer Research, 17: 346–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/208562
    Tigert, Douglas J., Ring, Lawrence J. and King, Charles W. (1976) ‘Fashion Involvement and Buying Behavior: A Methodological Study’, Advances in Consumer Research, 3: 46–52.
    Venkatesh, Alladi, Sherry, John F. Jr and Firat, A. Fuat (1993) ‘Postmodernism and the Marketing Imaginary’, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 10(3): 215–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0167-8116%2893%2990007-L
    Ward, Scott (1981) ‘Consumer Socialization’, in Harold H.Kassarjian and Thomas S.Robertson (eds). Perspectives in Consumer Behavior,
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    Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman. pp. 380–96.
    Ward, Scott, Wackman, Daniel B. and Wartella, Ellen (1977) How Children Learn to Buy. Newbury Park: Sage.
    Ward, Sue (1971) ‘A Study of a Shopping Centre’, in Max K.Adler (ed.), Leading Cases in Market Research. London: Business Books.
    Wertz, Frederick J. and Greenhut, Joan M. (1985) ‘A Psychology of Buying: Demonstration of a Phenomenological Approach in Consumer Research’, Advances in Consumer Research, 12: 566–70.
    Westbrook, Robert A. and Black, William C. (1985) ‘A Motivation-Based Shopper Typology’, Journal of Retailing, 61(1): 78–103.
    Williams, Robert H., Painter, John J. and Nicholas, Herbert R. (1978) ‘A Policy-Oriented Typology of Grocery Shoppers’, Journal of Retailing, 54(1): 27–43.
    Wolgast, Elizabeth (1953) ‘Do Husbands or Wives Make the Purchasing Decisions?’, Journal of Marketing, 23: 151–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1247832
    Woodside, Arch and Motes, William (1979) ‘Perceptions of Marital Roles in Consumer Decision Processes for Six Products’, in Beckwith et al. (eds), American Marketing Association Proceedings. Chicago: American Marketing Association, pp. 214–19.
    Zikmund, W.G. (1977) ‘A Taxonomy of Black Shopping Behavior’, Journal of Retailing, 53(2): 61–72.
    Psychology
    Coshall, John T. and Potter, Robert B. (1986) ‘The Relation of Personality Factors to Urban Consumer Cognition’, Journal of Social Psychology, 126(4): 539–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1986.9713622
    Csikszentmihályi, Mihály and Rochberg-Halton, Eugene (1987) The Meaning of Things: Domestic Symbols and the Self. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Dittmar, Helga (1989) ‘Gender Identity-Related Meanings of Personal Possessions’, British Journal of Social Psychology, 28: 159–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1989.tb00857.x
    Dittmar, Helga (1991) ‘Meanings of Material Possessions as Reflections of Identity: Gender and Social Material Position in Society’, Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 6(6): 165–86. Special Issue: To Have Possessions: A Handbook on Ownership and Property.
    Dittmar, Helga (1992) The Social Psychology of Material Possessions: To Have is To Be. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Lave, Jean (1988) Cognition in Practice: Mind, Mathematics and Culture in Everyday Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511609268
    Lunt, Peter K. and Livingstone, Sonia M. (1992) Mass Consumption and Personal Identity: Everyday Economic Experience. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Potter, Robert B. (1984) ‘Consumer Behavior and Spatial Cognition in Relation to the Extraversion-Introversion Dimension of Personality’, Journal of Social Psychology, 123: 29–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1984.9924510
    Potter, Robert B. and Coshall, John T. (1985) ‘The Influence of Personality-Related Variables on Microspatial Consumer Research’, Journal of Social Psychology, 126(6): 695–701. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1985.9713541
    van Raaji, Fred W. (1988) ‘Het Winkelgedrag van de Consument’ [Consumers' Shopping Behaviour], Psycholoog, 23(5): 208–17.
    Sociology
    Appadurai, Arjun (ed.) (1986) The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Baudrillard, Jean (1981) For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign. St Louis, MO: Telos Press.
    Baudrillard, Jean (1988) Selected Writings, ed. MarkPoster. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Bauman, Zygmunt (1983) ‘Industrialism, Consumerism and Power’, Theory, Culture & Society, 1(3): 32–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026327648300100304
    Bauman, Zygmunt (1987) Legislators and Interpreters: On Modernity, Post-Modernity and Intellectuals. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Bauman, Zygmunt (1988a) Freedom. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Bauman, Zygmunt (1988b) ‘Sociology and Postmodernity’, Sociological Review, 36(4): 790–813. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.1988.tb00708.x
    Bauman, Zygmunt (1990) Thinking Sociologically: An Introduction to Everyone. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Bauman, Zygmunt (1991) ‘Communism: A Post-Mortem’, Praxis International, 10(3–4): 185–192.
    Bauman, Zygmunt (1992) Intimations of Postmodernity. London: Routledge.
    Beng, Huat Chua (1992) ‘Shopping for Women's Fashion in Singapore’, in RobShields (ed.), Lifestyle Shopping: The Subject of Consumption. London: Routledge. pp. 114–35.
    Benjamin, Walter (1983) Charles Baudelaire: A Lyric Poet in the Era of High Capitalism. London: Verso.
    Bocock, Robert (1992) ‘Consumption and Lifestyles’, in RobertBocock and KennethThompson (eds), Social and Cultural Forms of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press. pp. 119–67.
    Bocock, Robert (1993) Consumption. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203313114
    Bourdieu, Pierre (1992a) Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Bourdieu, Pierre (1992b) Language and Symbolic Power. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Buck-Morss, Susan (1990) The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Burrows, Roger and Marsh, Catherine (eds) (1992) Consumption and Class: Divisions and Change. London: Macmillan.
    Campbell, Colin (1987) The Romantic Ethic and the Spirit of Modern Consumerism. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Campbell, Colin (1990) ‘Character and Consumption: An Historical Action Theory Approach to the Understanding of Consumer Behaviour’, Culture and History, 7: 37–48.
    Campbell, Colin (1991) ‘Consumption: The New Wave of Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences’, Journal of Social Behaviour and Personality, 6: 57–74. Special Issue: To Have Possessions: A Handbook on Ownership and Property.
    Campbell, Colin (1992) ‘The Desire for the New’, in RogerSilverstone and EricHirsch (eds), Consuming Technologies: Media and Information in Domestic Spaces. London: Routledge. pp. 48–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203401491_chapter_3
    Campbell, Colin (1994) ‘Consuming Goods and the Good of Consuming’, Critical Review, 8(4): 503–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08913819408443358
    Campbell, Colin (1995) ‘The Sociology of Consumption’, in DanielMiller (ed.), Acknowledging Consumption. London: Routledge. pp. 96–126.
    Campbell, Colin (forthcoming) ‘Shopping, Pleasure and the Context of Desire’, in Gosewijnvan Beek and CoraGovers (eds). The Global and the Local: Consumption and European Identity. Amsterdam: Spinhuis Press.
    Carroll, John (1979) ‘Shopping World: An Afternoon in the Palace of Modern Consumption’, Quadrant, August: 11–15.
    Carter, Erica (1984) ‘Alice in the Consumer Wonderland: West German Case Studies' in Gender and Consumer Culture’, in AngelaMcRobbie and MicaNava (eds). Gender and Generation. London: Macmillan. pp. 185–214.
    Certeau, Michel de (1984) The Practice of Everyday Life. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
    Certeau, Michel de (1985) ‘Practices of Space’, in MarshallBlonsky (ed.), On Signs: A Semiotics Reader. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. pp. 122–45.
    Chaney, David (1983) ‘The Department Store as a Cultural Form’, Theory, Culture & Society, 1(3): 22–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026327648300100303
    Chaney, David (1990) ‘Subtopia in Gateshead: The Metrocentre as a Cultural Form’, Theory, Culture & Society, 7(4): 49–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026327690007004003
    Chapman, Rowena (1988) ‘The Great Pretender: Variations on the New Man Theme’, in RowenaChapman and JonathanRutherford (eds), Male Order: Unwrapping Masculinity. London: Lawrence and Wishart, pp. 225–48.
    Chapman, Rowena and Rutherford, Jonathan (eds) (1988) Male Order: Unwrapping Masculinity. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
    Clammer, John (1992) ‘Aesthetics of the Self: Shopping and Social Being in Contemporary Urban Japan’, in RobShields (ed.), Lifestyle Shopping: The Subject of Consumption. London: Routledge. pp. 195–215.
    Clarke, John and Critcher, Charles (1985) The Devil Makes Work: Leisure in Capitalist Britain. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Comer, Lee (1974) Wedlocked Women. Leeds: Feminist Books.
    Connor, Steven (1989) Postmodernist Culture: An Introduction to Theories of the Contemporary. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Corrigan, Peter (1989) ‘Gender and the Gift: The Case of the Family Clothing Economy’, Sociology, 23(4): 513–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038589023004002
    Deem, Rosemary (1983) ‘Women, Leisure and Inequality’, Leisure Studies, 1: 29–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02614368200390031
    Deem, Rosemary (1986) All Work and No Play. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Douglas, Mary and Isherwood, Baron (1980) The World of Goods: Towards An Anthropology of Consumption. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Edgell, Stephen (1980) Middle-Class Couples: A Study of Segregation, Domination and Inequality in Marriage. London: George Allen and Unwin.
    Ehrenreich, Barbara (1983) The Hearts of Men: American Dreams and the Flight from Commitment. London: Pluto Press.
    Ewen, Stuart (1976) Captains of Consciousness: Advertising and the Social Roots of the Consumer Culture. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Ewen, Stuart (1988) All Consuming Images. New York: Basic Books.
    Falk, Pasi (1991) ‘Consumption as Self-Building’, in The Growing Individualisation of Consumer Lifestyles and Demand. Amsterdam: ESOMAR. pp. 13–25.
    Falk, Pasi (1994) The Consuming Body. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446250648
    Falk, Pasi (1995) ‘Three Metaphors of Modern Consumption’, Arttu!, 3: 24–6.
    Featherstone, Mike (1991a) Consumer Culture and Postmodernism. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446212424
    Featherstone, Mike (1991b) ‘The Body in Consumer Culture’, in MikeFeatherstone, MikeHepworth and Bryan S.Turner (eds), The Body: Social Processes and Cultural Theory. London: Sage. pp. 170–96.
    Fiske, John (1989) ‘Shopping For Pleasure’, in his Reading Popular Culture. London: Unwin-Hyman. pp. 13–42.
    Fiske, John (1991) Television Culture. London: Routledge.
    Fiske, John (1992) ‘Women and Quiz Shows: Consumerism, Patriarchy and Resisting Pleasures’, in Mary EllenBrown (ed.), Television and Women's Culture: The Politics of the Popular. London: Sage. pp. 134–43.
    Fiske, John (1994) ‘Radical Shopping in Los Angeles – Race, Media and the Sphere of Consumption’, Media, Culture and Society, 16(3): 469–86.
    Fiske, John, Hodge, Bob and Turner, Graeme (1987) ‘Shopping’, in their Myths of Oz: Reading Australian Popular Culture. London: Allen and Unwin. pp. 95–116.
    Fraser, Nancy (1987) ‘What's Critical About Critical Theory: The Case of Habermas and Gender’, in SeylaBenhabib and DrucillaCornell (eds), Feminism as Critique: Essays on the Politics of Gender in Late-Capitalist Societies. Cambridge: Polity Press. pp. 31–56.
    George, Alison and Murcott, Anne (1992) ‘Monthly Strategies for Discretion: Shopping for Sanitary Towels and Tampons’, The Sociological Review, 40(1): 146–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.1992.tb02949.x
    Gershuny, Jonathan and Jones, Sally (1987) ‘The Changing Work-Leisure Balance in Britain, 1961–1984’, in JohnHome, DavidJary and AlanTomlinson (eds), Sport, Leisure and Social Relations. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. pp. 9–50.
    Giddens, Anthony (1991) Modernity and Self-Identity. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Gottdiener, Mark (1986) ‘Recapturing the Center: A Semiotic Analysis of Shopping Malls’, in MarkGottdiener and Alexandros Ph.Lagopoulos (eds), The City and the Sign: An Introduction to Urban Semiotics. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 288–302.
    Green, Eileen, Hebron, Sandra and Woodward, Diana (1989) Women's Leisure, What Leisure?London: Macmillan.
    Gronmo, Sigmund (1984) Compensatory Consumer Behavior: Theoretical Perspectives, Empirical Examples and Methodological Challenges. Oslo: Norwegian Fund for Market and Distribution Research.
    Gronmo, Sigmund and Lavik, Randi (1988) ‘Shopping Behaviour and Social Interaction: An Analysis of Norwegian Time Budget Data’, in PerOtnes (ed.), The Sociology of Consumption. Oslo: Solum Forlag. pp. 101–18.
    Hafstrom, Jeanne L. and Schram, Vicki R. (1986) ‘Husband-Wife Shopping Time: A Shared Activity?’Urbana, IL: University of Illinois, Department of Family and Consumer Economics, Working Paper Series No. 122.
    Hall, Trish (1990) ‘Shop? Many Say Only if I Must’, New York Times, 28 November.
    Harvey, David (1989) The Condition of Postmodernity. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Haywood, Les, Kew, Francis and Bramham, Peter, in collaboration with Spink, John, Capenerhurst, John and Henry, Ian (1990) Understanding Leisure. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes Publishers.
    Hebdige, Dick (1988) Hiding in the Light: On Images and Things. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Henley Centre (1991) Leisure Futures. London: Henley Centre for Forecasting.
    Henwood, Melanie, Rimmer, Lesley and Wicks, Malcolm (1987) Inside the Family: The Changing Roles of Men and Women. Occasional Paper No. 6. London: Family Policy Studies Centre.
    Huyssen, Andreas (1986) ‘Mass Culture as Woman: Modernism's Other’, in his After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture and Postmodernism. Basingstoke: Macmillan. pp. 44–62.
    Jameson, Fredric (1989) ‘Postmodernism and Consumer Society’, in HalFoster (ed.), Postmodern Culture. London: Pluto Press.
    Jameson, Fredric (1991) Postmodernism, Or the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. London: Verso.
    Keat, Russell, Whiteley, Nigel and Abercrombie, Nicholas (eds) (1994) The Authority of the Consumer. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203392867
    Kellner, Douglas (1989) Jean Baudrillard: From Marxism to Postmodernism and Beyond. London: Polity Press.
    Kellner, Douglas (1992) ‘Popular Culture and the Construction of Postmodern Identities’, in ScottLash and JonathanFriedman (eds), Modernity and Identity. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. pp. 141–77.
    Langman, Lauren (1992) ‘Neon Cages: Shopping for Subjectivity’, in RobShields (ed.), Lifestyle Shopping: The Subject of Consumption. London: Routledge. pp. 4–82.
    Lee, Martyn J. (1993) Consumer Culture Reborn. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203359655
    Lewis, George H. (1990) ‘Community Through Exclusion and Illusion: The Creation of Social Worlds in an American Shopping Mall’, Journal of Popular Culture, 24: 121–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3840.1990.2402_121.x
    Lynd, Robert S. and Lynd, Helen Merrell (1929) Middletown: A Study in Contemporary American Culture. London: Constable and Company.
    McCracken, Grant (1987) “The History of Consumption: A Literature Review and Consumer Guide”, Journal of Consumer Policy, 10: 139–166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00411633
    McCracken, Grant (1989) ‘“Homeyness”: A Cultural Account of One Constellation of Consumer Goods and Meanings’, in Elizabeth C.Hirschman (ed.), Interpretive Consumer Research. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, pp. 168–83.
    McCracken, Grant (1991) Culture and Consumption: New Approaches to the Symbolic Character of Consumer Goods and Activities. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Marcuse, Herbert (1964) One-Dimensional Man. London: Routledge.
    Mason, Roger (1981) Conspicuous Consumption: A Study of Exceptional Consumer Behaviour. Farnborough: Gower.
    Miller, Daniel (1987) Material Culture and Mass Consumption. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Miller, Daniel (1993) ‘Christmas against Materialism in Trinidad’, in DanielMiller (ed.), Unwrapping Christmas. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 134–53.
    Miller, Daniel (1994) Modernity – An Ethnographic Approach. Oxford: Berg.
    Miller, Daniel (ed.) (1995) Acknowledging Consumption: A Review of New Studies. London: Routledge.
    Miller, Daniel (1997) Capitalism – An Ethnographic Approach. Oxford: Berg.
    Moore, Suzanne (1991) Looking for Trouble: On Shopping, Gender and the Cinema. London: Serpent's Tail.
    Moorhouse, Herbert (1983) ‘American Automobiles and Workers' Dreams’, Sociological Review, 31(3): 403–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.1983.tb00901.x
    Morley, David (1986) Family Television: Cultural Power and Domestic Leisure. London: Comedia.
    Morley, David (1992) Television, Audiences and Cultural Studies. London: Routledge.
    Morris, Meaghan (1988) ‘Things to do with Shopping Centres’, in SusanSheridan (ed.), Grafts: Feminist Cultural Criticism. London: Verso, pp. 193–225.
    Mort, Frank (1988) ‘Boy's Own? Masculinity, Style and Popular Culture’, in RowenaChapman and JonathanRutherford (eds), Male Order: Unwrapping Masculinity. London: Lawrence and Wishart. pp. 193–224.
    Mort, Frank (1989) ‘The Politics of Consumption’, in StuartHall and MartinJacques (eds), New Times: The Changing Face of Politics in the 1990s. London: Lawrence and Wishart. pp. 160–172.
    Mort, Frank and Thompson, Peter (1994) ‘Retailing, Commercial Culture and Masculinity in 1950s Britain: The Case of Montague Burton, the “Tailor of Taste”’, History Workshop: A Journal of Socialist and Feminist Historians, 38: 106–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hwj/38.1.106
    Nava, Mica (1992) Changing Cultures: Feminism, Youth and Consumerism. London: Sage.
    Nicholson-Lord, David (1993a) ‘Consumers Made Wary by End of Eighties Boom’, Independent, 23 February.
    Nicholson-Lord, David (1993b) ‘New Man Image Takes a Battering’, Independent, 21 December.
    Nixon, Sean (1992) ‘Have You Got the Look? Masculinities and Shopping Spectacle’, in RobShields (ed.), Lifestyle Shopping: The Subject of Consumption. London: Routledge. pp. 149–69.
    Oakley, Ann (1974) The Sociology of Housework. Bath: Martin Robertson.
    Oakley, Ann (1980) Housewife. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Otnes, Per (ed.) (1988) The Sociology of Consumption: An Anthology. Oslo: Solum Forlag.
    Pahl, Jan (1989) Money and Marriage. London: Macmillan.
    Pahl, Jan (1990) ‘Household Spending, Personal Spending and the Control of Money in Marriage’, Journal of the British Sociological Association, 24(1): 119–38.
    Prus, Robert C. (1993) ‘Shopping with Companions: Images, Influences and Interpersonal Dilemmas’, Qualitative Sociology, 16(2): 87–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00989745
    Prus, Robert C. and Dawson, Lorne (1991) ‘“Shop ’Til You Drop”: Shopping as Recreational and Laborious Activity’, Canadian Journal of Sociology, 16(2): 145–64.
    Radley, Alan (1991) ‘Boredom, Fascination and Mortality: Reflections upon the Experience of Museum Visiting’, in GaynorKavanagh (ed.), Museum Languages: Objects and Texts. Leicester: Leicester University Press. pp. 65–82.
    Radway, Janice A. (1987) Reading the Romance: Women, Patriarchy and Popular Literature. London: Verso.
    Rapping, Elaine (1980) ‘Tupperware and Women’, Radical America, 14(6): 39–49.
    Ravo, Nick (1992) ‘The Born-Again Penny-Pincher’, International Herald Tribune, 17 January.
    Riesman, David with Glazer, Nathan and Denney, Reuel (1961) The Lonely Crowd: A Study of the Changing American Character. New Haven: Yale University Press.
    Robins, Kevin (1994) ‘Forces of Consumption: From the Symbolic to the Psychotic’, Media, Culture and Society, 16(3): 449–68.
    Rogge, Jan-Uwe (1989) ‘The Media in Everyday Family Life: Some Biographical and Typological Aspects’, in EllenSeiter, HansBorchers, GabrieleKreutzner and Eva-MariaWarth (eds), Remote Control: Television, Audiences, and Cultural Power. London: Routledge. pp. 168–79.
    Rutherford, Jonathan (1992) Men's Silences: Predicaments of Masculinity. London: Routledge.
    Seiter, Ellen, Borchers, Hans, Kreutzner, Gabriele and Warth, Eva-Maria (1989) Remote Control: Television, Audiences, and Cultural Power. London: Routledge.
    Sellerberg, Ann-Mari (1994) ‘The Paradox of the Good Buy’, in her A Blend of Contradictions: Georg Simmel in Theory and Practice. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
    Sennett, Richard (1976) The Fall of Public Man. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Shields, Rob (ed.) (1992) Lifestyle Shopping: The Subject of Consumption. London: Routledge.
    Silverman, Roger and Hirsch, Eric (eds) (1992) Consuming Technologies: Media and Information in Domestic Spaces. London: Routledge.
    Sofer, Cyril (1965) ‘Buying and Selling: A Study in the Sociology of Distribution’, Sociological Review, 13: 183–209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.1965.tb01136.x
    Soiffer, Stephen S. and Herrmann, Gretchen M. (1987) ‘Visions of Power: Ideology and Practice in the American Garage Sale’, Sociological Review, 35: 48–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.1987.tb00003.x
    Starkey, Mike (1989) Born to Shop. Eastbourne: Monarch Publications.
    Steiner, Robert L. and Weiss, Joseph (1951) ‘Veblen Revised in the Light of Counter-Snobbery’, Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 9(3): 263–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/425888
    Stone, Gregory P. (1954) ‘City Shoppers and Urban Identification: Observations on the Social Psychology of City Life’, American Journal of Sociology, 60: 36–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/221483
    Szalai, Alexander (ed.) in collaboration with Converse, PhilipE., Feldham, Pierre, Scheuch, Erwin K. and Stone, Philip J. (1972) The Use of Time: Daily Activities of Urban and Suburban Populations in Twelve Countries. The Hague: Mouton.
    Taylor-Gooby, Peter (1985) ‘Personal Consumption and Gender’, Sociology, 19(2): 273–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038585019002009
    Tomlinson, Alan (1989) ‘Consumer Culture and the Aura of the Commodity’, in AlanTomlinson (ed.), Consumption, Identity and Style: Marketing, Meanings and the Packaging of Pleasure. London: Routledge. pp. 1–38.
    Veblen, Thorstein (1953) The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study of Institutions. New York: Mentor Books.
    Warde, Alan (1992) ‘Notes on the Relationship between Production and Consumption’, in RogerBurrows and CatherineMarsh (eds), Consumption and Class: Divisions, and Change. London: Macmillan. pp. 15–31.
    Warde, Alan (1994a) ‘Consumers, Identity and Belonging: Reflections on Some Theses of Zygmunt Bauman’, in RussellKeat and NigelWhiteley (eds), The Authority of the Consumer. London: Routledge. pp. 58–74.
    Warde, Alan (1994b) ‘Consumption, Identity-Formation and Uncertainty’, Sociology, 28(4): 877–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038594028004005
    Weinbaum, Batya and Bridges, Amy (1979) ‘The Other Side of the Paycheck: Monopoly Capital and the Structure of Consumption’, in Zillah R.Eisenstein (ed.), Capitalist Patriarchy and the Case for Socialist Feminism. New York: Monthly Review Press. pp. 190–205.
    Wheelock, Jane (1990) ‘Families, Self-Respect and the Irrelevance of “Rational Economic Man” in a Postindustrial Society’, Journal of Behavioral Economics, 19(2): 221–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0090-5720%2890%2990012-V
    White, Daniel R. and Hellenick, Gert (1994) ‘Nietzsche at the Mall: Deconstructing the Consumer’, Canadian Journal of Political and Social Theory, 17(1–2): 76–99.
    Whitehead, Ann (1984) ‘“I'm Hungry, Mum”: The Politics of Domestic Budgeting’, in KateYoung, CarolWolkowitz and RoslynMcCullagh (eds), Of Marriage and the Market: Women's Subordination and its Lessons. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. pp. 93–116.
    Williams, Raymond (1983) Keywords. London: Fontana.
    Williamson, Judith (1988) Consuming Passions: The Dynamics of Popular Culture. London: Marion Boyars.
    Willis, Susan (1989) ‘“I Shop Therefore I Am”: Is There a Place for Afro-American Culture in Commodity Culture?’, in Cheryl A.Wall (ed.), Changing Our Own Words: Essays on Criticism, Theory and Writing by Black Women. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. pp. 173–95.
    Wilson, Elizabeth (1985) Adorned in Dreams: Fashion and Modernity. London: Virago.
    Wirth, Louis (1964) ‘Urbanism as a Way of Life’, in Albert J.Reiss (ed.), Louis Wirth on Cities and Social Life. London: University of Chicago Press. pp. 60–83.
    Witherspoon, Sharon (1985) ‘Sex Roles and Gender Issues’, in RogerJowell and SharonWitherspoon (eds), British Social Attitudes: The 1985 Report. Aldershot: Gower. pp. 55–94.
    Journals: Special Issues on Consumption
    The Canadian Geographer (1991), 35(3). Special Issue on West Edmonton Mall.
    Culture and History (1990), 7. Special Issue: Consumption. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag.
    Journal of Social Behavior and Personality (1991), 6(6). Special Issue: To Have Possessions: A Handbook on Ownership and Property.
    Media, Culture and Society (1994), 16(3). Special Issue: Relations of Consumption.
    Sociology (1990), 24(1): Special Issue: The Sociology of Consumption.
    Theory, Culture & Society (1988), 5(2–3). Special Issue: Postmodernism.
    Useful Bibliographies on Consumption
    Auyong, Dorothy K., Porter, Dorothy and Porter, Roy (1991) Consumption and Culture in the 17th and 18th Centuries: A Bibliography, ed. JohnBrewer. Los Angeles: UCLA Centre for 17th and 18th Century Studies and the William Andrews Clark Memorial Library.
    Rudmin, Floyd, Belk, Russell and Furby, Lita (1987) Social Science Bibliography on Property, Ownership and Possessions: 1580 Citations from Psychology, Anthropology, Sociology and Related Disciplines. Monticello, IL: Vance Bibliographies.

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