The Shopping Experience
Publication Year: 1997
The last decade has witnessed a clear and steady rise of interest in consumer culture. Many commentators now argue that consumption rather than production is the axis of personal identity and meaningful social action - a standpoint that reverses the traditional view that consumption is an incidental, trivial feature in contemporary culture. This shrewd and probing book seeks to theorize shopping as an autonomous realm. It avoids the reductionist characteristics of economics and marketing. At the same time it avoids the moralizing tone of many contemporary discussions of shopping and consumption. The book uses an interdisciplinary resource base and comparative data to build-up a convincing analysis of the meaning of shopping
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: In Defence of Shopping
- Chapter 2: Could Shopping Ever Really Matter?
- Chapter 3: Women, the City and the Department Store
- Chapter 4: Supermarket Futures
- Chapter 5: The Making of a Swedish Department Store Culture
- Chapter 6: Shopping in the East Centre Mall
- Chapter 7: Shopping, Pleasure and the Sex War
- Chapter 8: The Scopic Regimes of Shopping
Theory, Culture & Society[Page ii]
Theory, Culture & Society caters for the resurgence of interest in culture within contemporary social science and the humanities. Building on the heritage of classical social theory, the book series examines ways in which this tradition has been reshaped by a new generation of theorists. It will also publish theoretically informed analyses of everyday life, popular culture, and new intellectual movements.
EDITOR: Mike Featherstone, Nottingham Trent University
SERIES EDITORIAL BOARD
Roy Boyne, University of Durham
Mike Hepworth, University of Aberdeen
Scott Lash, Lancaster University
Roland Robertson, University of Pittsburgh
Bryan S. Turner, Deakin University
THE TCS CENTRE
The Theory, Culture & Society book series, the journals Theory, Culture & Society and Body & Society, and related conference, seminar and postgraduate programmes operate from the TCS Centre at Nottingham Trent University. For further details of the TCS Centre's activities please contact:
The TCS Centre, Room 175
Faculty of Humanities
Nottingham Trent University
Clifton Lane, Nottingham, NG11 8NS, UK e-mail: email@example.com
Recent volumes include:
The Body and Society
Explorations in Social Theory
Bryan S. Turner
The Social Construction of Nature
Deleuze and Guattari
An Introduction to the Politics of Desire
Pierre Bourdieu and Cultural Theory
Re-Forming the Body
Religion, Community and Modernity
Philip A. Mellor and Chris Shilling
Editorial arrangement and Introduction © Pasi Falk and Colin Campbell 1997
Chapter 1 © Mary Douglas 1997
Chapter 2 © Daniel Miller 1997
Chapter 3 © Mica Nava 1997
Chapter 4 © Rachel Bowlby 1997
Chapter 5 © Cecilia Fredriksson 1997
Chapter 6 © Turo-Kimmo Lehtonen and Pasi Mäenpää 1997
Chapter 7 © Colin Campbell 1997
Chapter 8 © Pasi Falk 1997
Appendix © Paul Hewer and Colin Campbell 1997
First published 1997
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without permission in writing from the Publishers.
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British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
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ISBN 0 7619 5066 4
ISBN 0 7619 5067 2 (pbk)
Library of Congress catalog card number 97-068532
Typeset by Photoprint, Torquay, Devon
List of Figures[Page vi]
- 1.1 Myths of nature 21
- 3.1 From ‘The Spirit of Modern Commerce’, 1914, one of the ‘cosmopolitan’ posters in the souvenir collection published by Selfridge's to celebrate its fifth anniversary 68
- 3.2 One of a series of advertisements which appeared in the London daily press promoting the launch of Selfridge's in March 1909 70
- 3.3 Another of the alluring advertisements in Selfridge's promotional campaign, 1909 71
- 5.1 Opening day at Kristianstad at the end of the 1930s 114
- 5.2 The new world of goods 116
- 5.3 A shop-rat in action 122
- 5.4 ‘The small customer becomes a big customer …’ 123
- 5.5 Modern orality – EPA as a meeting place 125
- 6.1 The centre of Helsinki and the East Centre Mall: comparison of plans 140
Notes on Contributors[Page vii]
Rachel Bowlby is Fellow of St Hilda's College, Oxford University. Her books include Just Looking (1985), Still Crazy After All These Years: Women, Writing and Psychoanalysis (1992), Shopping with Freud (1993) and Feminist Destinations and Further Essays on Virginia Woolf (1997). She is currently completing a book on supermarkets.
Colin Campbell is Reader in Sociology and Head of Department at the University of York. He has written widely on sociological theory, culture and cultural change, religion, and the sociology of consumption. He is editor of Studies in Consumption (Harwood Academic Press), and European Editor of Consumption, Culture, Markets. He is also author of The Romantic Ethic and the Spirit of Modern Consumerism (1987) and The Myth of Social Action (1996).
Mary Douglas is a distinguished anthropologist who has held positions in both the UK (University College, London) and the USA (Princeton University and Northwestern University, Illinois). Since her book Purity and Danger (1966), now a classic, she has published numerous articles, edited books and monographs. Her recent books include How Institutions Think (1986), How Classification Works (1992) and Risk and Blame (1992). Her latest book, Thought Styles, was published by Sage in 1996.
Pasi Falk is Senior Research Fellow and Docent of the Department of Sociology at the University of Helsinki. He has published extensively on social theory, sociosemiotics and historical anthropology. From the early 1980s onwards his research has been focused on the cultural dynamics of modern society, with a specific emphasis on human embodiment and modern consumption. He is the author of The Consuming Body (1994). He is currently completing a book on Finnish lottery winners (with Pasi Mäenpää) and preparing a book on the history of civilization illnesses (Modernity Syndrome).
Cecilia Fredriksson is a PhD candidate in the Department of Ethnology at the University of Lund. She is writing her thesis on the modernization of Sweden as this is reflected in everyday consumption. In addition to her research on the department store, she has also conducted fieldwork on fleamarkets (1991, 1996) and consumption of the outdoor life (1997).
[Page viii]Paul Hewer graduated from the University of Leeds in 1989 before taking an MA at the University of York. He then embarked on a PhD programme on the sociology of consumer behaviour and men. He completed his thesis in 1995, and has since worked as a research assistant and as an undergraduate and post-graduate tutor.
Turo-Kimmo Lehtonen is a PhD candidate in the Department of Sociology at the University of Helsinki. He is currently completing his PhD thesis on the everyday practices of consumption and shopping. He has also recently published a study (in Finnish) on the changing history of hygienic habits in Finland.
Pasi Mäenpää is a PhD candidate in the Department of Sociology at the University of Helsinki. He is currently preparing his PhD thesis, in which the sites and practices of shopping are contextualized in the broader perspective of urban culture. He has also worked as a researcher on Pasi Falk's project on Finnish lottery winners and is the co-author of a forthcoming book on the topic.
Daniel Miller is Professor of Anthropology at University College, London. He has recently completed a year's ethnography of shopping in a north London street. Prior to that he undertook an ethnography of commerce and consumption in Trinidad. His recent monographs include Modernity – An Ethnographic Approach (1994) and Capitalism – An Ethnographic Approach (1997). He has also recently edited the following books: Unwrapping Christmas (1993), Acknowledging Consumption (1995), Worlds Apart (1995) and Material Cultures (1997). He is a founding editor of the Journal of Material Culture.
Mica Nava is a Reader in the Department of Cultural Studies and co-director of the Centre for Consumer and Advertising Studies at the University of East London. She is author of Changing Cultures: Feminism, Youth and Consumerism (1992) and co-editor of Modern Times: Reflections on a Century of English Modernity (1996) and Buy This Book: Studies in Advertising and Consumption (1997). Her current research is on cosmopolitanism and consumption.
Two chapters in this book – Mary Douglas's ‘In Defence of Shopping’ (Chapter 1) and Mica Nava's ‘Women, the City and the Department Store’ (Chapter 3) – have been published previously. The former was originally published in Mary Douglas's collection of essays titled Objects and Objections published by the Toronto Semiotic Circle (Monograph Series of the TSC, no. 9, 1992, pp. 66–87) and the latter, with the title ‘Modernity's Disavowal: Women, the City and the Department Store’ in the book Modern Times: Reflections on a Century of English Modernity, edited by Mica Nava and Alan O'Shea and published by Routledge (1996). We would like to thank the publishers for their permission to reprint these texts.[Page x]
Appendix: Research on Shopping – A Brief History and Selected Literature[Page 186]PaulHewer and ColinCampbellA Brief History of Research on Shopping
The following does not claim to be a comprehensive overview of all those discourses on modern shopping which might be considered relevant from a research point of view – either as insightful descriptions or as more systematic accounts of some aspects of the phenomenon. Consequently this excursus has a certain focus which is defined by the following two criteria. First, it focuses on systematic research on the topic which involves theoretically grounded procedures of interpretation, and, second, it deals with research that understands shopping as an object of research – as a social and cultural complex of practices – which is reducible neither to a mere part of the economic system nor to a field of manipulative intervention. According to these criteria, this brief history of research on shopping could also be called a brief history of the sociology of shopping, provided that the term ‘sociology’ is understood in a broad sense.Typologizing Shoppers
There has long been a small but significant literature on the history of shopping in general (Adburgham, 1964), whilst, in the 1980s, historians turned to studying the development of the department store in particular (Benson, 1986; Miller, 1981; Williams, 1982). At the same time, market researchers, geographers and town planners have long shown an understandable interest in the retail environment (Gardner and Sheppard, 1989; Goss, 1993). Until very recently, however, sociologists have all but completely neglected the phenomenon.
Yet, in fact, the origins of the sociology of shopping can be traced back to the 1950s and an article entitled ‘City Shoppers and Urban Identification’ by the American Gregory P. Stone (1954). This formed what was part of Stone's Master's thesis for the University of Chicago in which he sought to assess the implications of Louis Wirth's outline of the character of urban life. For Wirth, the critical feature of city life was that although contacts between people were face to face they were nevertheless ‘impersonal, superficial, transitory and segmental’ (1964 [originally 1938]: 70). Stone, however, was less than convinced that the character of city life was nothing but a mass of depersonalized relationships (Wirth, 1964: 42), believing, instead, that it contained activities which could be seen to foster the seeds of personalization. So he decided to analyse shopping to see if it did indeed facilitate this form of social integration.
[Page 187]Consequently Stone interviewed over one hundred women, asking them about their attitudes toward shopping, focusing in particular on their reasons for choosing one kind of retail outlet rather than another. Stone then used the answers to these questions on retail patronage to identify four basic orientations toward shopping. These were: the ‘economic’ shopper whose primary considerations are price and quality; the ‘personalizing’ shopper, who rates such economic criteria as of secondary importance when compared to the opportunity for interaction which the experience offers; the ‘ethical’ shopper, who claims to employ moral considerations in the choice of retail outlet; and finally the ‘apathetic’ shopper, who conducts this activity simply out of necessity.
Gregory Stone's typology has had a significant influence upon subsequent research on shopping, although the issues of urban sociology which first caused him to focus on this phenomenon have not, as yet, been pursued by subsequent investigators. Rather, those who came after him were more interested in the possible commercial benefits which his typology seemed to offer. Thus Ronald Stephenson and Ronald Willett (1969) attempted to correlate the manner in which shoppers purchase goods with the number of stores they are likely to frequent; whilst William R. Darden and Fred D. Reynolds (1971) similarly sought to link Stone's shopping orientations with the purchase of products, in this case cosmetics, concluding that the economic shopper will use cosmetic products which are ‘socially visible’ whereas the personalizing shopper tends to use products that ‘aid elementary hygiene’ (1971: 507). Then, also building on Stone's work, George P. Moschis (1976) suggested a classification of shopping orientations constructed around the different kinds of information which individuals employ in selecting products. Shoppers are thus classified on the basis of whether they are brand or store loyal, or whether they are problem-solvers (that is, they resemble Stone's ‘economic’ shopper) or psycho-socializers, which is to say that they are inclined to emulate the consumer behaviour and choices of others.
Other researchers have gone on to see how far Stone's typology can be applied to specific subsections of the consumer population. Thus Louis E. Boone et al. (1974) compared the shopping orientations of Mexican-Americans living in Texas with middle-class Anglo-Americans from Oklahoma. Their main findings were that the Mexican-Americans were more likely to be ‘economic’ shoppers, whereas the Anglo-Americans were more personalized in their shopping orientations. William G. Zikmund (1977), in his analysis of the grocery shopping behaviour of the black population of Oklahoma, reduced Stone's scheme to just three types of shoppers: the ‘comparative’, the ‘neighbourhood’ and the ‘outshopper’; a classification based primarily on the distance individuals are willing to travel, the frequency of their shopping trips and the use they make of shopping lists. Finally, Robert Williams et al. (1978) refined Stone's typology in their study of grocery shoppers, identifying four main types – convenience, price-oriented, apathetic and involved.
As already noted, little of this research displays much of the sociological awareness which marked Stone's original essay, being motivated more by the specific needs of consumer research. None the less, some of this work can be of interest to sociologists, especially since in recent years some consumer researchers have begun to break free of the rather narrow concerns which commercial considerations dictate (see Belk, 1995). Thus Bellenger et al. (1977), although starting with a Stone-type typology, go on to identify the important category of the ‘recreational’ shopper. Unlike the ‘convenience shopper’ (who basically resembles ‘economic man’), the recreational shopper gains satisfaction from the act of shopping itself. This point is also made by Williams et al. (1978), who identify a category of shoppers who are distinctive in gaining pleasure from the process. Their claim is also that the act of shopping can provide recreational benefits in itself quite separate from any gains which may be obtained through the process of exchange. Then, in a later article, Bellenger and Korgaonkar (1980) add to the description of this kind of [Page 188]shopper, claiming that such shoppers will spend more time shopping, are more likely to shop with others, are less likely to know what they want, and are inclined to continue with the activity even after they have made a purchase. They also provide data which suggest that such shoppers are more likely to be women than men (see Campbell, Chapter 7, this volume), and to be from white-collar rather than blue-collar households.1
Despite this tendency for shopper typologies to increasingly incorporate some reference to the experiential aspects of shopping, it is still largely the case that the buying aspect of shopping is foregrounded. To that extent research still tends to be constructed with the interests of market and consumer research in mind rather than those of sociology. To this extent and despite Stone's pioneering work, the construction of shopper typologies has yet to break clear of this legacy. Shopping is still predominantly viewed as a means-end activity centring on the exchange of money for goods. But then of course this tendency is one which the market research perspective shares with neoclassical economics (Hollis and Nell, 1975), economic psychology (van Raaji, 1988) and both rational action and rational choice theory (Coleman and Fararo, 1992; Elster, 1986), all of which unproblematically equate shopping with buying. However, these other perspectives also tend to regard shopping as necessarily constituting a series of decisions taken by individuals who are blessed with both clear knowledge of their own needs and wants and perfect information about the market. Consequently there is a tendency to present the shopper as both an information-processor, a problem-solver and a rational maxi-mizer of utility. Yet the limitations of such a model have long been known. Apart from the a priori nature of the assumptions that they contain, such perspectives ignore all the evidence which shows, as George Katona (1953: 312) has argued, that problem-solving behaviour is a relatively rare occurrence, and that habitual behaviour is a far more common feature of consumer behaviour.Instrumental and Recreational Shopping
If it is accepted that shopping is not reducible either to information-processing, decision-making or indeed even buying, then it has to be accepted that the reason why people go shopping cannot be simply equated with a desire to experience the satisfactions to be obtained from the purchase and use of goods. In which case, why do people shop? This was the very question that Edward Tauber (1972) posed in his short but seminal article. Tauber asked thirty men and women why they went shopping, and, from the responses he received, identified a range of motives which had little to do with the act of buying. These ranged from role-playing, diversion from the routine of daily life, self-gratification, learning about new trends and ideas, physical activity, sensory stimulation, social experiences outside the home with friends, communication or gossip with others, peer group interaction, enjoying status and authority, and finally the pleasures of haggling.
Subsequently Westbrook and Black's (1985) research provided broad support for Tauber's findings, but also added two further motivations: first, the motivation of choice optimization, or finding exactly what one wants; and, second, the anticipated utility derived from a new product.2 In retrospect Tauber's article can be seen to be important because by finally freeing the shopping motive from the buying motive he succeeded in indicating something of the wider social significance of the act of shopping. In particular he opened the way for shopping to be viewed as a form of leisure.
In an article entitled ‘Women, Shopping and Leisure’, Myriam Jansen-Verbeke (1987) claims that this is indeed how shopping should be viewed – as a form of leisure in its own right – and not simply as a mundane and routine aspect of people's daily lives. She illustrates this point by listing the range of activities which her [Page 189]analysis of shopping in the Netherlands suggests is covered by the term ‘shopping’. This includes eating and drinking in cafés and bars, sight-seeing, visiting museums or markets, being with one's friends, and simply walking around. In a sense this should not have been such a revelation for earlier studies had intimated that shopping was more than simply the buying of goods. As early as 1963 Stuart U. Rich had indicated something of the importance of browsing, a point subsequently taken up by Peter Bloch et al. (1989). In their article they define browsing as a ‘search activity that is independent of specific purchase needs or decisions’ (Bloch et al., 1989: 13). Freed of this necessity, the shopper gains pleasure through the process of ‘just looking’ (Bowlby, 1985; see Falk, Chapter 8, this volume), which, although it involves obtaining information about products, can also be enjoyed as an end-in-itself. All of which strongly suggests that shopping should perhaps be understood as constituting a distinctive form of experience, one with its own peculiar activities, pleasures and satisfactions, rather than being treated as simply a means to an end.
But then it is useful to reflect on what is actually known about the practice of shopping, as there is a tendency in some contemporary (postmodern?) discourses for speculation about the ‘consumer society’ to be illustrated by anecdote rather than supported by references to research data. To begin with there is the apparently simple question of how much time people spend shopping. Although such data are scarce it would seem that, according to the Henley Centre (1991), the average person in Britain spends 4.6 hours per week shopping for essential and other items. Naturally this figure masks a number of important differences. For example, while employed men spend 3.3 hours; employed women spend 4.2. hours; whilst for the unemployed, men spend 3.1 hours and women spend 5.1; differentials which are consistent with those found by Gershuny and Jones in 1987. Hawes (1987, 1988), meanwhile, found that ‘Americans spend three to four times as many hours a year shopping as their counterparts in Western European countries’ (Schor, 1992: 107). All of which suggests that shopping is indeed an important component of most people's ‘free time’.
However, this does not imply that shopping has turned into mere leisure, which as such could be defined as an unambiguous activity pattern. Shopping ‘for’ is not simply transformed into shopping ‘around’, that is, looking around, but rather these different modes of interacting with the world of goods – involving purchase or not – become actually intertwined and thus structured into various constellations. Consequently one can note that ‘shopping’ is not an undifferentiated activity. Indeed, as Robert A. Westbrook and William C. Black (1985) observe in their critique of shopper typologies, shopping for groceries cannot properly be compared with shopping for cosmetics or indeed with shopping in a department store.
Thus, if one is to understand the phenomenon of shopping, it is probably as important to differentiate between types of shopping as it is to discriminate between types of shopper. Hence these figures, unless broken down into more meaningful sub-divisions, probably tell us very little. The most significant division would seem to be that between regular grocery shopping, or ‘provisioning’, and other forms of shopping (mainly, it would seem, for clothes), this latter form being exemplified in the ‘shopping trip’ (Campbell, forthcoming). This is a distinction which most shoppers themselves recognize as significant, overlapping as it often does with the contrast between shopping viewed as a labourious or as a recreational activity (Prus and Dawson, 1991; Lehtonen and Mäenpää, Chapter 6, this volume).
None the less, there is little doubt that many people do obtain great pleasure from shopping – or at least from some kinds of shopping – and that shopping is a leisure-time pursuit that has increased in importance in recent decades. However, it is not entirely clear what exactly constitutes the source of the pleasure. Campbell has argued that the pleasure to be derived from shopping is related to the extent that it is self-determined, with the activity understood as an ‘autonomous field of action’ (forthcoming) in which the pleasure is correlated to the extent to which individuals [Page 190]are able to undertake it as they please. In addition, Campbell links the experience with the ability to want goods, arguing that such desire is not programmed but rather occurs as the by-product of pleasurable ‘self-directed browsing’ (ibid.). On the other hand, Pasi Falk (Chapter 8, this volume) has emphasized the different kinds of scopic pleasures which shopping can provide, pleasures which are quite independent of the act of purchasing, but stem directly from the freedom which the shopper has to engage in ‘just looking’ as well as employing the other sensory registers (touching, trying on, and so on) (p. 185).Shopping as a Gendered Activity
In so far as there are good grounds for discriminating between types of shoppers then the contrast that is of the greatest significance is not one which featured either in Stone's typology or indeed in any of those derived from it. For research suggests that the critical fact about shopping is the extent to which it is a gendered activity. Now, as noted, Stone only interviewed women and in this respect his research embodied the common wisdom of his day, which was that shopping was a predominantly female activity. This assumption was so taken-for-granted in the consumer research and marketing worlds that it has only been in comparatively recent years that men as well as women have been included in the samples of shoppers chosen for study. This fact in itself reveals the one sense in which shopping is ‘gendered’, which is to say that it is (or at least, it has been) popularly regarded as mainly a ‘female’ activity, in effect a sub-role of the status of ‘housewife’ (Lunt and Livingstone, 1992; Oakley, 1974). The second and closely related sense in which it is gendered is revealed in the data suggesting that men and women have differing shopping styles and shopping habits (Campbell, Chapter 7, this volume).
Indeed, if gender is applied to the typologies outlined earlier it is found that men are more likely to be convenience or apathetic shoppers, whilst women are more likely to be recreational shoppers (see Bellenger and Korgaonkar, 1980; Tatzel, 1982). Several studies support this view, confirming that when it comes to shopping men are largely apathetic, preferring non-participation to involvement; a fact which causes Fischer and Arnold to comment (in the course of their analysis of Christmas shopping) that ‘men enact their masculinity through more limited involvement in the event’ (1990: 354).3 More recently, Lunt and Livingstone's (1992: 92) research has further confirmed this view, suggesting that men are more likely to be ‘routine’ shoppers than women, whilst women are more likely to be ‘leisure’ shoppers. Other work has suggested that the gendered nature of this activity extends to the commodities which men and women are likely purchase when they do go shopping (Pahl, 1989, 1990; see also Peters, 1989).
Of course, if shopping is perceived by men to be a ‘female’ activity, then it is hardly surprising that they approach it in a different spirit from women, attempting to limit their involvement as far as possible. In this respect one would expect these differential patterns of shopping activity to be mirrored by their different attitudes and beliefs, and research in this field has indeed suggested that this is the case. For Campbell (Chapter 7, this volume) has shown that men and women tend to endorse contrasting ‘ideologies’ of shopping, systems of belief which, whilst legitimating that style practised by their own sex, tend to denigrate that associated with the other. Hence while men seek to devalue the activity, denying that it has recreational potential and insisting that it is a purely instrumental act to be completed as quickly as possible, women regard it as an important activity, one requiring skill as well as time, energy and commitment, but also one which offers significant recreational awards. Despite claims that these differences are diminishing in contemporary society, there are as yet no data to determine whether this is the case or not.
[Page 191]Given the considerable gender differences in both shopping behaviour and attitudes it is naturally intriguing to wonder how couples manage to undertake this activity jointly. As yet the data available are limited, despite the fact that Elizabeth Wolgast's pioneering article ‘Do Husbands or Wives Make the Purchasing Decisions?’ first appeared in 1953. Wolgast's data revealed that while women tended to dominate in the purchasing of household appliances, men were more likely to have influence in the choice of the family car. Subsequent research has confirmed this pattern of differential influence for a range of products. This includes research on cars (Cunningham and Green, 1974; Jaffe and Senft, 1966; Newman and Staelin, 1972; Sharp and Mott, 1955; Wolgast, 1953); household appliances from ‘white’ to ‘brown’ goods (Jaffe and Senft, 1966; Woodside and Motes, 1979); homes (Kelly and Egan, 1969); and basic foodstuffs.
However, it is not clear that asking couples who made the decision to buy a given consumer good is a very sensible question to ask, for, as Scott (1976) observes, both parties will tend to claim different levels of control. Indeed Woodside and Motes (1979) criticize such analyses on the grounds that they place too much emphasis upon the purchasing decision. They argue that this act needs to be broken down into a series of micro-states, ranging from initially suggesting the idea, to deciding upon the style, type, size or brand of item. In addition, there is the question of who visits the store (and indeed who decides which store to visit) as well as who ultimately makes the actual purchase. Finally, one may note that here, too, studies have tended to presume that shopping equals decision-making and buying and hence have generally failed to examine how couples cope with their differential expectations and experiences of this activity when undertaking it together.Notes
1. This tendency to construct typologies is still a dominant feature in studies of shopping behaviour. Thus, very recently, two social psychologists have included one in their study of consumption. Peter K. Lunt and Sonia Livingstone in their book Mass Consumption and Personal Identity: Everyday Economic Experience (1992) present four categories of shoppers: those with ‘careful’, ‘routine’, ‘thrifty’ and ‘alternative’ orientations.
2. Sigmund Gronmo (1984: 18) presents an alternative case when he suggests that consumer behaviour can be compensatory or conducted to assuage an individual's lack of esteem in other areas of their daily lives, such as the loss of self-esteem through unemployment.
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London: Allen and Unwin.([Page 193]1976) ‘Shopping Orientations and Consumer Uses of Information’, Journal of Retailing, 52(2): 61–70.(1972) ‘Pre-Purchase Information Seeking for New Cars and Major Household Appliances’, Journal of Marketing Research, 9: 249–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3149534and (1974) The Sociology of Housework. Bath: Martin Robertson.(1989) Money and Marriage. London: Macmillan.(1990) ‘Household Spending, Personal Spending and the Control of Money in Marriage’, Journal of the British Sociological Association, 24(1): 119–38.(1989) ‘Youth Clothes-Shopping Behavior: An Analysis by Gender’, Adolescence, 24: 575–80.(1991) ‘“Shop ’Til You Drop”: Shopping as Recreational and Laborious Activity’, Canadian Journal of Sociology, 16(2): 145–64.and (1963) Shopping Behavior of Department Store Customers: A Study of Store Policies and Customer Demand, with Particular Reference to Delivery Service and Telephone Ordering. Boston: Harvard University Press.(1992) The Overworked American: The Unexpected Decline of Leisure. New York: Basic Books.(1976) The Female Consumer. London: Associated Business Programmes.(1955) ‘Consumer Decisions in the Metropolitan Family’, Journal of Marketing, 21: 149–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1247333and (1969) ‘Analysis of Consumers' Retail Patronage Strategies’, in P.R.McDonald (ed.), Marketing Involvement in Society and the Economy. Chicago: American Marketing Association, pp. 316–22.and (1954) ‘City Shoppers and Urban Identification: Observations on the Social Psychology of City Life’, American Journal of Sociology, 60: 36–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/221483(1982) ‘Skill and Motivation in Clothes Shopping: Fashion-Conscious, Independent, Anxious, and Apathetic Consumers’, Journal of Retailing, 58(4): 90–7.(1972) ‘Why Do People Shop?’, Journal of Marketing, 36: 46–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1250426(1988) ‘Information Processing and Decision-Making Cognitive Aspects of Economic Behaviour’, in Fred W.van Raaji, Gery M.van Veldhoven and Karl-ErikWarneryd (eds), Handbook of Economic Psychology. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.(1985) ‘A Motivation-Based Shopper Typology’, Journal of Retailing, 61(1): 78–103.and (1978) ‘A Policy-Oriented Typology of Grocery Shoppers’, Journal of Retailing, 54(1): 27–43., and (1982) Dream Worlds: Mass Consumption in Late Nineteenth-Century France. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.(1964) ‘Urbanism as a Way of Life’, in Albert J.Reiss (ed.), Louis Wirth on Cities and Social Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1953) ‘Do Husbands or Wives Make the Purchasing Decisions?’, Journal of Marketing, 23: 151–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1247832(1979) ‘Perceptions of Marital Roles in Consumer Decision Processes for Six Products’, in Beckwith et al. (eds), American Marketing Association Proceedings. Chicago: American Marketing Association, pp. 214–19.and (1977) ‘A Taxonomy of Black Shopping Behavior’, Journal of Retailing, 53(2): 61–72.(Research on Shopping – Selected Literature
The following selected bibliography of research on shopping is provided to give the reader a demonstration of the diversity and richness of current research on this topic. Here the books and articles are divided – for reasons of clarity – on the basis of the [Page 194]following disciplines: economics, geography, history, literature, marketing, psychology and sociology. However, the disciplinary categorization should not be taken too strictly due to the fact that a number of the references fall between disciplines and could actually appear in more than one category. The final two sections provide a list of journals which have had special issues on consumption topics and a list of existing bibliographies in the field.Economics1993) The World of Consumption. London: Routledge.and (1988) ‘Models of Consumer Choice Behaviour’, in Fred W.van Raaji, Gery M.van Veldhoven and Karl-ErikWarneryd (eds), Handbook of Economic Psychology. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 332–57.(1975) Rational Economic Man: A Philosophical Critique of Neo-Classical Economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511554551and (1953) ‘Rational Behavior and Economic Behavior’, Psychological Review, 60(5): 307–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0060640(1989) ‘A Causal Model of Consumer Involvement’, Journal of Economic Psychology, 10(3): 363–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0167-4870%2889%2990030-5and (1983) Economic Change and Consumer Shopping Behavior. New York: Praeger.(1976) The Joyless Economy: An Inquiry into Human Satisfaction and Consumer Dissatisfaction. New York: Oxford University Press.(1986) Human Desire and Economic Satisfaction: Essays on the Frontiers of Economics. Brighton: Wheatsheaf.(1988) ‘Information Processing and Decision-Making Cognitive Aspects of Economic Behaviour’, in Fred W.van Raaji, Gery M.van Veldhoven and Karl-ErikWarneryd (eds), Handbook of Economic Psychology. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 74–106.(1988) ‘Economic Psychology as a Field of Study’, in Fred W.van Raaji, Gery M.van Veldhoven and Karl-ErikWarneryd (eds), Handbook of Economic Psychology. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 3–40.(Geography1991) ‘West Edmonton Mall as a Tourist Attraction’, The Canadian Geographer, 35(3): 287–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.1991.tb01103.x(1991) ‘West Edmonton Mall: Entrepreneurial Innovation and Consumer Response’, Canadian Geographer, 35(3): 261–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.1991.tb01100.x(1993) ‘“The Magic of the Mall”: An Analysis of Form, Function, and Meaning in the Contemporary Retail Built Environment’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 83(1): 18–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1993.tb01921.x(1994) ‘Decentralization of Retailing in Britain – The Breaking of the Third Wave’, Professional Geographer, 46(3): 296–307. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0033-0124.1994.00296.x(1991) ‘West Edmonton Mall as a Centre for Social Interaction’, The Canadian Geographer, 35(3): 268–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.1991.tb01101.x(1991) ‘Shopping and Leisure: Implications of West Edmonton Mall for Leisure Research’, The Canadian Geographer, 35(3): 280–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.1991.tb01102.x(1991) ‘Geographic Implications of Mega-Malls with Special Reference to West Edmonton Mall’, The Canadian Geographer, 35(3): 226–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.1991.tb01096.xand (1991) ‘Structural Features of West Edmonton Mall’, The Canadian Geographer, 35(3): 249–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.1991.tb01099.x([Page 195]1991) ‘Mega-Chaining, Corporate Concentration and the Mega-Mall’, The Canadian Geographer, 35(3): 241–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.1991.tb01098.x(1988) ‘The Consumer's World: Place as Context’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 78: 642–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1988.tb00236.x(1989) ‘Social Spatialization and the Built Environment: The Case of the West Edmonton Mall’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 7(2): 147–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d070147(1991) ‘The Regional Mall in Canada’, The Canadian Geographer, 35(3): 232–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.1991.tb01097.x(1991) ‘Coping with Mega-Mall Development: An Urban Planning Perspective’, The Canadian Geographer, 35(3): 295–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.1991.tb01104.x(History1964) Shops and Shopping, 1800–1914: Where, and in What Manner, the Well-dressed Englishwoman Bought her Clothes. London: Allen and Unwin.(1993) ‘Consumption in Early Modern Thought’, in JohnBrewer and RoyPorter (eds). Consumption and the World of Goods. London: Routledge. pp. 162–73.(1986) Counter Cultures: Saleswomen, Managers, and Customers in American Department Stores, 1890–1940. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.(1989) Men's Work, Women's Work: A Sociological History of The Sexual Division of Labour in Employment. Cambridge: Polity Press.(1992) ‘Changing Social Structures: Class and Gender’, in StuartHall and BramGieben (eds). Formations of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press. pp. 178–226.(1993) ‘The Meaning of Things: Interpreting the Consumer Society in the Eighteenth Century’, in JohnBrewer and RoyPorter (eds), Consumption and the World of Goods. London: Routledge. pp. 249–60.(Brewer, John and Porter, Roy (eds) (1993) Consumption and the World of Goods. London: Routledge.1966) A History of Shopping. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.(1990) ‘Consumerism and the Industrial Revolution’, Social History, 15(2): 151–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03071029008567764and (1985) The Morality of Spending: Attitudes toward the Consumer Society in America, 1875–1940. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.(1993) ‘Learning to Consume: Early Department Stores and the Shaping of the Modern Consumer Culture (1860–1914)’, Theory, Culture & Society, 10: 79–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026327693010004005(1984) ‘Transformations in a Culture of Consumption: Women and Department Stores, 1890–1925’, Journal of American History, 71(2): 319–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1901758(1993) Land of Desire. Merchants, Power, and the Rise of New American Culture. New York: Pantheon.(1983) The Culture of Consumption: Critical Essays in American History, 1880–1980. New York: Pantheon.and (1974) ‘Home Demand and Economic Growth: A New View of the Role of Women and Children in the Industrial Revolution’, in NeilMcKendrick (ed.). Historical Perspectives: Studies in English Thought and Society. London: Europa, pp. 152–210.(1982) The Birth of a Consumer Society: The Commercialization of Eighteenth-Century England. London: Europa., and (1981) The Bon Marché: Bourgeois Culture and the Department Store, 1869–1920. London: Allen and Unwin.(1983) From Graven Images: Patterns of Modern Materialism. New York: Columbia University Press.(1982) ‘Commercialization and Society’, in NeilMcKendrick, JohnBrewer and J.H.Plumb, The Birth of a Consumer Society: The Commercialization of Eighteenth-Century England. London: Europa, pp. 265–334.([Page 196]1990) English Society in the Eighteenth Century. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1993) ‘Consumption: Disease of the Consumer Society’, in JohnBrewer and RoyPorter (eds), Consumption and the World of Goods. London: Routledge. pp. 58–81.(1992) ‘Changes in the Adamless Eden: The Spatial and Sexual Transformation of a Brisbane Department Store 1930–1990’, in RobShields (ed.), Lifestyle Shopping: The Subject of Consumption. London: Routledge. pp. 170–94.(1993) Temptations: Sex, Religion and the Department Store. St Leonards: Allen and Unwin.(1978) Economic Policy and Projects: The Development of a Consumer Society in Early Modern England. Oxford: Clarendon Press.(1993) ‘Women and the World of Goods: A Lancashire Consumer and her Possessions, 1751–81’, in JohnBrewer and RoyPorter (eds), Consumption and the World of Goods. London: Routledge. pp. 274–301.(1986) ‘A Possession of One's Own: Women and Consumer Behaviour in England, 1660–1740’, Journal of British Studies, 25: 131–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/385858(1988) Consumer Behaviour and Material Culture in Britain, 1660–1760. London: Routledge.(1952) Give the Lady What She Wants: The Story of Marshall Field and Company. 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Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.(Marketing1987) ‘Dimensions of Consumer Expertise’, Journal of Consumer Research, 13(4): 411–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/209080and (1980) ‘Profiling the Recreational Shopper’, Journal of Retailing, 56(3): 77–92.and (1977) ‘Shopping Centre Patronage Motives’, Journal of Retailing, 53(2): 29–38., and (1978) ‘Impulse Buying Varies by Product’, Journal of Advertising Research, 18(6): 15–18., and ([Page 197]1994) ‘The Shopping Mall as Consumer Habitat’, Journal of Retailing, 70(1): 23–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-4359%2894%2990026-4, and (1989) ‘Extending the Concept of Shopping: An Investigation of Browsing Activity’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 17: 13–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02726349, and (1974) ‘City Shoppers and Urban Identification Revisited’, Journal of Marketing, 38: 67–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1249853, , and (1974) ‘Purchasing Roles in the U.S. Family 1955 and 1973’, Journal of Marketing, 38: 61–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1250393and (1974) ‘Psychographic Profiles of Patronage Preference Groups’, Journal of Retailing, 50(4): 99–112.and (1990) ‘An Action Strategy Approach to Examining Shopping Behavior’, Journal of Retailing, 21(3): 289–308.and (1971) ‘Shopping Orientations and Product Usage Roles’, Journal of Marketing Research, 8: 505–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3150244and (1964) Of Time, Work, and Leisure. 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London: Fontana.(1988) Consuming Passions: The Dynamics of Popular Culture. London: Marion Boyars.(1989) ‘“I Shop Therefore I Am”: Is There a Place for Afro-American Culture in Commodity Culture?’, in Cheryl A.Wall (ed.), Changing Our Own Words: Essays on Criticism, Theory and Writing by Black Women. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. pp. 173–95.(1985) Adorned in Dreams: Fashion and Modernity. London: Virago.(1964) ‘Urbanism as a Way of Life’, in Albert J.Reiss (ed.), Louis Wirth on Cities and Social Life. London: University of Chicago Press. pp. 60–83.([Page 206]1985) ‘Sex Roles and Gender Issues’, in RogerJowell and SharonWitherspoon (eds), British Social Attitudes: The 1985 Report. Aldershot: Gower. pp. 55–94.(Journals: Special Issues on ConsumptionThe Canadian Geographer (1991), 35(3). Special Issue on West Edmonton Mall.Culture and History (1990), 7. Special Issue: Consumption. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag.Journal of Social Behavior and Personality (1991), 6(6). Special Issue: To Have Possessions: A Handbook on Ownership and Property.Media, Culture and Society (1994), 16(3). Special Issue: Relations of Consumption.Sociology (1990), 24(1): Special Issue: The Sociology of Consumption.Theory, Culture & Society (1988), 5(2–3). Special Issue: Postmodernism.Useful Bibliographies on Consumption1991) Consumption and Culture in the 17th and 18th Centuries: A Bibliography, ed. JohnBrewer. Los Angeles: UCLA Centre for 17th and 18th Century Studies and the William Andrews Clark Memorial Library., and (1987) Social Science Bibliography on Property, Ownership and Possessions: 1580 Citations from Psychology, Anthropology, Sociology and Related Disciplines. Monticello, IL: Vance Bibliographies., and (