The Second Homeland: Polish Refugees in India

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Anuradha Bhattacharjee

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    Dedication

    Dedicated to the children—our future:

    Abhimanyu (late) and Aishwarya Bhattacharjee, Stephen, Cassandra and Gregory Verbeke

    List of Photographs

    Cover Photos
    • Front cover, main spread: Tadeusz Dobrostanski, Quetta, 1942; courtesy of Tadeusz Dobrostanski
    • Front cover, bottom right: Polish girls with Wanda Dynowska and Subramaniam; courtesy of Jan Seidlecki
    • Front cover, bottom left: Polish children at the beach in Balachadi, 1943; courtesy of Tadeusz Dobrostanski
    • Back cover: The last postcard from Father (Lieutenant Colonel F Herzog) from Starobielsk; courtesy of Franek Herzog's collection

    List of Abbreviations

    AANArchiwum Akt Nowichy (Polish acronym for ‘The New Archives’)
    APIAssociation of Poles in India
    BNABritish National Archives
    COPChamber of Princes
    DPDisplaced Person
    GOIGovernment of India
    HMGHis/Her Majesty's Government
    IRCRInternational Committee for the Red Cross
    IROInternational Refugee Organisation
    ITCInterim Treasury Committee
    IWCImperial War Council
    JRAJewish Relief Agency
    KGBKomitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosty (Committee for State Security)
    MERRAMiddle East Relief and Refugee Administration
    NAINational Archives of India
    NCWCNational Catholic Women's Conference
    NKVDNarodnyi Kommissariat Vnutrennikh Del (People's Commisariat for Internal Affairs)
    NWFPNorth West Frontier Province
    PAI ForcePersia and Iraq Force
    PCGPolish Consul General
    POWPrisoner of War
    PUCPolish University College
    RAFRoyal Air Force
    UNRRAUnited Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration
    WVSWomen's Voluntary Service
    ZPPZwiązek Patriotów Polskich

    List of Appendices

    1. List of Polish children in Balachadi Camp, India, 1942. Courtesy of Tadeusz Dobrostanski, Australia.285
    2. Censored telegram, 1943. Courtesy of National Archives of India, New Delhi.288
    3. Linlithgow's appeal to Indian princes for funds for Polish children, 1942. Courtesy of National Archives of India, New Delhi.289
    4. Expanding the offer, Randall to Gibson, 1942. Courtesy of British Library, London.291
    5. Gratitude from Poland, E Raczinsky to Anthony Eden, 1943. Courtesy of British Library, London.292
    6. Polish boys from Bombay travelling to the UK, 1944. Courtesy of National Archives of India, New Delhi.294
    7. Status of adoption, HH Eggers to Gilchrist, 1947. Courtesy of British Library, London.296
    8. Finances raised in India for Polish children, 1943. Courtesy of British Library, London.297
    9. Financial summary by Captain AWT Webb, 1944. Courtesy of Polish Institute and General Sikorski Museum, London.299
    10. Contribution by Indian public for Polish children, 1947. Courtesy of British Library, London.300
    11. Looking for places for the Poles, Anthony Eden to Leo Amery, 1942. Courtesy of British Library, London.302
    12. India as transit/destination (Randall to Gibson), 1942. Courtesy of British Library, London.304
    13. Unused visas of Alicja M Edwards. Courtesy of Ms Alicja M Edwards, USA.306
    14. Zygmunt Mandel papers. Courtesy of Mr Zygmunt Mandel, Israel.308

    Foreword

    From time to time those of us who were posted at Warsaw came across the members of ‘Jamnagar Club’ functioning under the aegis of Indo-Polish Friendship Society, who recalled that they had been in India as children during the 1940s and narrated some very happy memories. It was difficult for us to put their experience in perspective of the context of the World War II and relegated the incident to one the many mass movement of displaced people at that time. They mentioned places like Jamnagar and Kolhapur, but since we could not exactly relate to the events under discussion, we merely carried out the obligatory social exchange.

    The event caught the imagination of one of my colleagues who thought these people were Jews and he narrated it to Dr Kenneth Robbins, a Jewish Indologist at Washington in 2000, who promptly published a journal article saying that these people were not Jews but Roman Catholics. The puzzle only deepened.

    In 2002, Anuradha contacted us at the Europe-East Division of the Ministry of External Affairs in New Delhi, when I was serving as Joint Secretary, seeking information about these Poles from our sources. During the meeting it transpired that she already knew more about these people than we knew in the Division. It was a pleasant surprise to see her in Warsaw in early 2003, where I was the Ambassador of India, by then, with a group of journalists who had been invited to Warsaw by the Polish Government. She was relentlessly researching her project, which was by then a doctoral dissertation.

    Slowly, we had begun to understand the association of the members of the Jamnagar Club with India. 2003 being the golden jubilee year of the diplomatic relations between India and Poland, I was obliged to attend many functions, one of which was the biennial meet of the Association of Poles in India 1942–48 (API), the bigger club that the ‘Jamnagar Club’ had merged into, which also had chapters in several countries and many members. During the reunion, I met Rev. Z. Peszkovski and heard about the Katyn Forest and related events by which the members of API had reached India. He was the only surviving adult from that time who could put the events in perspective for me.

    Later, we read the diligently researched thesis and its findings surprised us pleasantly—a unique Indian initiative during extremely trying times—another beautiful example of the nobility of the Indian character and spirit. An idea about a film on the subject was mooted by some of us, but unfortunately, it did not see fruition due to budgetary constraints.

    I am delighted to introduce this account which not only introduces the Indian people to some of the lesser known aspects of the WW II, but also does us proud by bringing out the generosity of the Indian people in spite of passing through hard times themselves. This work is a tribute to the spirit of perseverance. I hope some readers will be inspired and motivated to make a film on the subject.

    Happy Reading!

    (Anil Wadhwa)

    Ambassador

    P.O. Box 1727, Ruwi, PC 112, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman Tel: (+968) 2468 4512/2468 4513, Fax: (+968) 2469 8291, Email: hom@indemb-oman.org

    Acknowledgements

    This work would not have been possible without the help of several people. First of all, I would like to thank Mr Hiranmay Karlekar, Consultant Editor, the Pioneer, for encouraging the idea of a book and suggesting that the subject be pursued as a doctoral study when no academic work to build the proposed story around, could be located in Indian academic circles.

    I am grateful to Dr Shridhar (alias Raja) M Dixit, Department of History, University of Pune, for accepting to supervise my work, in spite of my not having a background in historical studies. His bold and opinionated stand gave me the confidence to continue. He made my dream of a book on the subject his own, and put his weight squarely behind me. Both, Mr Karlekar and Dr Dixit, held my hand whenever I faltered and kept me firmly anchored to and focused on the work I had begun, especially after a personal tragedy.

    Gratitude is also due to Meenakshi Rao, features editor, the Pioneer, who published the first article that I had culled out, after initial research, which led to this work to be transformed from a minor journalistic venture to a serious academic pursuit.

    It is to this wonderful new tool of communication—the Internet—that I owe my ability to have carried out this study. Without it, even a lifetime would not have been adequate to be able to put the fragments of the story together. The help and encouragement of the members of Kresy-Siberia discussion group on the Internet, is particularly noteworthy. To the moderator, Stefan Wisniowski, who I met personally only in June 2011, I extend my very grateful thanks. He answered several questions patiently, introduced me to the group and took great pains to help me locate some of the ‘shy or silent’ members. Several of those members in turn shared the memories and resources that have made up the body of this work, especially Tadeusz Dobrostanski and Stanislaus Harasymow. Tadeusz introduced me to Dr Kenneth Robbins and Franek Herzog in the USA, Henry Baczyk and Stanislaus Harasymow in Australia and Wieslaw Stypula in Poland—all over the Internet—each of who contributed significantly to this work. Stanislaus let me have his handwritten and printed books from the period, besides a letter reproduced in the work. Barbara Charuba of Canada, introduced me to Stefan Klosowski when he was scheduled to visit India and to the Association of Poles in India, London, and offered constructive suggestions several times. Zygmunt Mandel contacted Dr Robbins and me voluntarily and added a whole new dimension to the work.

    My gratitude also goes to my London friends from the Association of Poles in India 1942–48, and its president Jan Siedlecki. Members of the Association took time and assisted me on visits to various archival institutions, often booking a few files for my use on their own reader's ticket, so that no valuable time was lost in procedural matters. They were: Teresa Glazer, who took me to the British Library to see India and Oriental Collection; Karol Huppert, who accompanied me to the Polish Institute and Gen. Sikorski Museum, which houses a unique collection of Polish documents; Eugenia Maresch, member of the Anglo-Polish Historical Committee, who shared her knowledge and experience in accessing Polish Refugees documents kept at the British National Archives at Kew (formerly Public Records Office) and Wiesia Kleszko, the secretary of the Association, for being so helpful in locating people and their addresses. Jan and Wiesia also made the introductions as a prelude to setting up appointments and subsequent meetings.

    To Roman Gutowski, and all members of Association of Poles in India (API), Warsaw Chapter, I owe a lot. They not only hosted me in their homes at short notice, but also shared memories, memorabilia and insights while answering my myriad questions. Roman made it possible for me to meet all members of API, Warsaw, especially Fr Peszkovski, the sole surviving adult from the period.

    Princess Hershad Kumariji of Nawanagar and Colonel Vijaysingh Gaikwad helped me with the Indian side of the story and local links in Jamnagar—Balachadi and Kolhapur, respectively. Major General Vikram Madan of the Indian Army identified Balachadi as the place where there is a Sainik School with a wartime history, when I was perplexed about the location of the erstwhile camp. To the librarian of Sainik School, Balachadi, Mr Atul Desai, and the then Principal Wing Cdr. VK Kaushal, I owe gratitude for letting me peruse the historical material housed there—especially the paper written by Dr Kenneth Robbins and copies of documents from British Library-India and Oriental Collection that Ken had placed there, after publishing the said paper in the Journal of Indo-Judaic Studies in 1998. Ken later asked me to join him as research associate, which kept me afloat financially for this extremely expensive project whose links were scattered all over the world, besides enhancing my portfolio of research papers.

    Dr Krzysztof Majka, the Ambassador of Poland and Ms Margaret Wejsis-Golebiak, Counsellor at the Embassy of Poland in New Delhi made it possible for me to visit Warsaw on a study visit, which added great value and dimension to my work. The Charles Wallace India Trust (CWIT) granted me a small fellowship to visit London and peruse documents there. I extend my gratitude to the archivists at all the archives: National Archives, New Delhi; Tata Central Archives, Pune; Kesari-Maratha Sanstha, Pune; State Archives, Kolhapur; The New Archives, Warsaw; British Library-India and Oriental Collection; British National Archives and Polish Institute and General Sikorski Museum, all in London. The librarians at Sapru House Library, New Delhi, and Rajputana Rifles Centre Library, New Delhi, deserve special mention for making available to me old and rare books. Many thanks are due to Ms Nayana Bose of the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR), New Delhi, who patiently explained to me nuances of refugee matters.

    I would fail in my duties if I did not thank Aneta Naszynska, Danuta Pniewska and Mirka Gutowska, who hosted me in their homes during my two visits to London and Warsaw, respectively. Stanley Whittlesey, Alicja Edwards, Eugene Bak, Casimir Majewski and Wieslaw Stypula sent me books that helped to shed light on the dynamics of the period. Lech Lesiak pointed in the right direction to be able to source two critical books. Richard Alford of the CWIT presented me with ‘Deportation …’ by Keith Sword when I had given up all hopes of locating the work with authentic figures. API Warsaw and London presented me with two limited edition books published in Warsaw: Exiled Children and Schooling in Wartime Exile, which are cornerstones to the study and examples of the changing political orientation in Poland and the growing interest of the new generation in the history that was kept under wraps for so long.

    No academic work is possible without borrowing from predecessors. This work stands on the shoulders of titans: Professors Norman Davies, Ian Copland, Kieth Sword and Bisheshwar Prasad. The context for this work is developed by excerpting the fruit of their labour.

    I also owe gratitude to Sheta Shaha, who read this manuscript and offered advice on structure and continuity, Professor Atul Tandan of Mudra Institute of Communications, Ahmedabad, India, for letting me have the time and space to see this work to its logical fruition and Rekha Natarajan of SAGE Publications who has guided the entire publication process since inception.

    Last but not the least, my heartfelt gratitude to my family: my son late Abhimanyu, who believed in the project, but did not live long enough to see it realised; my daughter Aishwarya, who bore my frequent physical and mental distance from her with cheer; my husband, Ajoy, who put up with all my demanding work and travel needs; my parents, though not in the physical realm anymore, late Lieutenant Colonel Monindra K Mukherji and Mrs Usha Mukherji, who taught me never to stop seeking the truth.

    There are many who I may have missed out here, but their contribution is just as important. To them all and many others I express my deep gratitude. The responsibility of all omissions and errors is my own.

    Anuradha Bhattacharjee

    Ahmedabad/Noida

    ∗ Jan Siedlecki, Fr Peszkovski and Aneta Naszynska departed while this book was under production.

  • Appendices

    1. List of Polish children in Balachadi camp, India, 1942
    2. Censored Telegram, 1943
    3. Linlithgow's appeal to Indian princes for funds for Polish children, 1942
    4. Expanding the offer, Randall to Gibson, 1942
    5. Gratitude from Poland, E Raczinsky to Anthony Eden, 1943
    6. Polish boys from Bombay travelling to the UK, 1944
    7. Status of adoption, HH Eggers to Gilchrist, 1947
    8. Finances raised in India for Polish children, 1943
    9. Financial summary by Captain AWT Webb, 1944
    10. Contribution by Indian public for Polish children, 1947
    11. Looking for places for the Poles, Anthony Eden to Leo Amery, 1942
    12. India as transit/destination (Randall to Gibson), 1942
    13. Unused visas of Alicja M Edwards
    14. Zygmunt Mandel papers

    Bibliography

    Primary Sources: Archival Files

    National Archives of India (NAI), New Delhi

    EAD File no. 186/-X/40 (Secret)

    EAD 276-X/42/Secret

    EAD 276(8)-X/42/Secret

    EAD 218(72)-G/44

    Tata Central Archives, Pune

    Sir Dorab Tata Trust Meetings Minutes

    Banasinski Papers

    Kolhapur Administration Reports, Kolhapur

    1943–45 Reports

    British Library—India & Oriental Collection (formerly India Office Library), London

    R2/952/76 C-70/43

    W 11294/87/48

    OF 91/4/53

    L/P&J/8/413

    POL 6251 1942

    R2/952/76 C-70/43

    L/AG/40/1/169 (PRC/A-25)

    L/AG/40/1/131 (RRO A-5)

    L/P&J/8/415

    L/AG/40/1/169/PRC/A-25

    L/P&J/8/414/Coll 110 N3

    POL 8103 POL 9244

    British National Archives (BNA) (formerly Public Records Office), Kew, London

    CAB/111/310

    PREM 3/354/1

    WO 193/216

    WO 204/8711

    WO 204/8711

    FO 371/29214

    FO 371/32630

    FO 371/42882

    FO 371/36736

    FO 371/31079

    FO 371/42781

    FO 371/34584 C 8076

    FO 371.51153

    T 160/1204 8H177

    Polish Institute and General Sikorski Museum, London

    C-811c C 811d

    Banasinski Papers

    Archiwum Akt Nowichy (AAN) or The New Archives, Warsaw

    Letter No. W 9800/87/48 dated 15 July 1942, Maurice Peterson to Count E Raczynski, State Archives of Poland, Warsaw

    File 417

    Secondary Sources
    Books Consulted

    Anders, W, An Army in Exile (London: Macmillan, 1949).

    Applebaum, A, Gulag—A History (New York: Penguin, 2003).

    Association of Poles in India 1942–48, A Short History of Poles in India 1942–48, In Light of Reminiscences and Documents, Polish (English translation underway) (London, n.d.).

    Bak, E, Life's Journey (New York: East European Monographs, 2002).

    Banasinska, K and G Verghese, Autobiography of Kira Banasinska (Mumbai: Kotak & Co., 1997).

    Bhatti, A and V Johannes, Jewish Exiles in India (New Delhi: Manohar, 1999).

    Carr, EH, What is History? (London: Penguin, 1990).

    Copland, I, The Princes of India in the Endgame of Empire 1917–47 (London: Cambridge University Press, 1997).

    Dalai Lama, Freedom in Exile, Autobiography of Dalai Lama (London: Abacus, 1990).

    Davies, N, Heart of Europe—A Short History of Poland (London: Oxford University Press, 1984).

    —, Rising ‘44 (London: Macmillan, 2003).

    Dear and Foot (eds), The Oxford Companion to WW II (London: Oxford University Press, 1995).

    Djurovic, G, The Central Tracing Agency of the International Committee of the Red Cross (Geneva: International Committee of the Red Cross, 1986).

    Edwards, AR, And God was our Witness (Montana: Self Published, 2002).

    Fundacja Archiwum Fotograficzne, Exiled Children (Tulacze Dzeici) (Warsaw: Fundacja Archiwum Fotograficzne, 1995).

    —, Polish Schooling in War-time Exile (Warsaw: Fundacja Archiwum Fotograficzne, 2004).

    Grant, AJ and H Temperly, Europe in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries 1789–1950, 6th edition (London: Longman, 1952).

    Jacob, JFR, Surrender at Dacca-Birth of a Nation (New Delhi: Manohar, 1997).

    James, L, Raj: The Making & Unmaking of British India (London: Abacus, 1997).

    Krolikowski, L, Stolen Childhood—A Saga of Polish War Children (New York: Father Justin Rosary Hour, 1983).

    Lala, RM, Beyond the Last Blue Mountain—Biography of J.R.D. Tata (Bombay: Tata Press, 1992).

    Prasad, B (ed.), Official History of the Indian Armed Forces in the Second World War 1939–45, Vol. 5–Campaign in Western Asia (New Delhi: Combined Inter-Services Historical Section (India and Pakistan), Orient Longmans, 1958).

    Raczynski, E, In Allied London (London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 1962).

    Rawicz, S, The Long Walk (Connecticut: The Lyons Press, 1988).

    Rodrigues, M, Battling for the Empire (New Delhi: Penguin, 2003).

    Sarkar, S, Modern India 1885–1947, 2nd edition (London: Cambridge Commonwealth Series, 1989).

    Solomon, S, Hooghly Tales (London: David Ashley Publishing, 1998).

    Stypula, W, W Goscinie U “Polskiego” Maharadzy (Guests of the “Polish” Maharaja) (Warsaw: Orion (22)615 54 01, 2000).

    Sword, K, Deportation and Exile, Poles in the Soviet Union 1939–48 (London: St. Martin's Press with School of Slavonic and East European Studies, 1994).

    Umiastowski, R, Poland, Russia and Great Britain 1941–45—A Study of Evidence (London: Hollis & Carter, 1946).

    United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Flight and Rescue (Washington: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 2001).

    Other Published Material

    Basu, M, ‘Mother Courage’, Pune Newsline, The Indian Express, Pune, 15 August2005.

    Bhattacharjee, A, ‘Sophie's World’, Foray, The Pioneer, New Delhi, 10 June 2001.

    Neizgoda, A, ‘1000 children of the Maharaja’, Polityka, Warsaw, June 2, 2001.

    Polak w Indiach, No. 18-19, 15 Sept.-1 Oct. 1944.

    Puranik, SS, ‘Why the Poles do not want to leave India’, The Maratha, Pune, 10 January 1949.

    Robbins, KX, ‘The Camp for Polish Refugee Children at Balachadi, Nawanagar (India)’, Journal of Indo-Judaic Studies (1998), Washington.

    Tokarski, K, ‘Wanda Dynowska-Umadevi: A Biographical Essay’, Journal of Theosophical History (1994), California State University, Fullerton.

    Oral History
    Personal Interviews

    The place indicates where they normally reside and where the interview was conducted.

    • Ashani, Kirit; Jamnagar
    • Bartosz, Zbigniew; Warsaw
    • Bereznicka, Teresa; Manchester (interviewed at Kolhapur)
    • Bhagubapu; Balachadi
    • Bock, Hubert; Manchester (interviewed at Kolhapur)
    • Buras, Zbigniew; Luton, UK
    • Byrski, Maria K; Warsaw
    • Chendinski, Andrej; Warsaw
    • Gaikwad, Shamrao; Kolhapur
    • Gaikwad, Vijaysingh; Kolhapur
    • Glazer, Teresa; London
    • Gonzaga, Maria; Mumbai
    • Gutowski, Roman; Warsaw
    • Harshad Kumariji; New Delhi
    • Hoogewerf, Margaret; Mumbai
    • Huppert, Karol; London
    • Ingle, Ramrao; Kolhapur
    • Jacob, JFR, General; New Delhi
    • Kashikar, Wanda; Kolhapur
    • Khan, Suleiman; Balachadi
    • Kleszko, Weislawa; London
    • Klosowski, Stefan; Quebec, Canada (interviewed at Balachadi)
    • Maresch, Eugenia; London
    • Mendonca, Zofia; Pune
    • Nesrikar, Nirmala; Kolhapur
    • Pawar, Vasant Bapu; Kolhapur
    • Peszkovski, Z, Reverend; Warsaw
    • Pniewska, Danuta; London
    • Raba, Marian; Leicester, UK
    • Siedlecki, Jan; London
    • Singhji, Shatrushalaya; Jamnagar
    • Stypula, Wieslaw; Warsaw
    • Szydlo, Daniela; London
    • Truchanowicz, Jagwiga; Warsaw
    • Vara, Dinesh; Jamnagar

    Interviews by Correspondence (including emails)

    • Adamczyk, Wesley; USA
    • Baczyk, Henryk; Australia
    • Baczyk-Haus, Alina; USA
    • Bak, Eugene; USA
    • Charuba, Barbara; Canada
    • Chhina, Hardev Singh; Chandigarh
    • Dobrostanski, Tadeusz; Australia
    • Dziurinski, Janusz; USA
    • Edwards, Alicja, R; USA
    • Harasymow, Stanislaus; Australia
    • Herzog, Franek; USA
    • Kail, Vanessa; Australia
    • Krawiec, Janina Fiore; USA
    • Majewski, Casimir; USA
    • Mandel, Zygmunt; Israel
    • Trella, Boguslaw; Australia
    • Trzaska, Leszek; Poland
    • Wisniowski, Stefan; Australia
    • Wolski, Marek; UK

    About the Author

    Anuradha Bhattacharjee is Fellow, Centre for Culture, Media and Governance, Jamia Milia Islamia, New Delhi. Prior to this, she was Assistant Professor, Mudra Institute of Communication, Ahmedabad (MICA). A Fellow of the Charles Wallace India Trust (2004), she was a journalist with the Times of India (1991–94) and the Pioneer (2000–02). She was Research Fellow under the Kasturbhai Lalbhai Chair for Social Entrepreneurship at Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (IIMA) in 2006.

    This work has been culled out from her doctoral thesis, ‘History of Polish Refugees in India 1942–48’, submitted to the University of Pune, which was awarded the Bendre Prize for Best Dissertation (2006).

    Photographs

    Section 1: Arrival

    1. The last postcard from Father (Lieutenant Colonel F Herzog) from Starobielsk
    2. Polish boys in Bandra, 1942

    Section 2: India Years

    3. Franek, Balachadi, 1942
    4. Tadek Herzog and Henry Bobotek, Balachadi, 1943
    5. Marian Rozanski, Jerzy Dobrostanski, Franek Herzog, Zbigniew Suchecki, Jerzy Krzyszton, Steven Balaram and Mrs Janina Dobrostanska, Balachadi, 1945
    6. End-of-year report for 1943–44 from Balachadi
    7. End-of-year report for 1945–46 from Balachadi
    8. The youngest children at Balachadi with Indian caretaker, 1942
    9. Dr Ashani, Mr Joshi, Fr Pluta and Polish nursing staff, Balachadi, 1942
    10. Sabina Kotlinska's picture, page 160, Rama Varma (Appan) Tampuran, War Publicity Officer, ‘Cochin’, 1944
    11. Programme sheet of a function by the children, Balachadi, 1944
    12. Jam Saheb with Polish children, Jamnagar, 1944
    13. Polish refugees arriving from Russia, 1942
    14(a). Letter from a complete stranger (front)
    14(b). Letter from a complete stranger (reverse)
    15. Book on Indian theme developed by Madam W Dynowska
    16. Franek (extreme left) and Jerzy Krzyszton (extreme right) with two Portuguese scouts in Goa, 1947
    17. Polish girls with Wanda Dynowska and Subramaniam – 1
    18. Polish girls with Wanda Dynowska and Subramaniam – 2
    19. Shamrao Gaikwad and Roma, engagement picture, 1948

    Section 3: Reminiscences and Reflections

    20. Father's (Lieutenant Colonel F Herzog) symbolic grave at the Polish Military Cemetery, Charkov, Ukraine, 2000
    21. Stefan Bukowski (late), Jam Saheb Junior, Kira Banasinska and Wieslaw Stypula at Jamnagar palace reception, 1989
    22. Monument at Balachadi
    23. Reunion 2004. Members of API 1942–48 with His Excellency Ambassador Anil Wadhwa and Reverend Z
    24. Hershad Kumariji, 2010
    25. Hershad Kumariji in Polish costume, 1944
    26. Alina Baczyk Haus with spouse and family, Ephrata, USA, 2007
    27. Alina and Henryk Baczyk, Balachadi, 1944
    28. Marian Raba, Leicester, UK, 2005
    29. Henry and Marian Raba with Tarvinder Singh of Malaria Institute, New Delhi, Balachadi, 1943
    30. Reverend Z Peszkovski and the author, Warsaw, May 2004
    31. Lieutenant B Pancewicz, Janina Dobrostanska, Janina Ptakowa and Lieutenant Z Peszkovski with scouts in Balachadi, 1943
    32. Tadeusz Dobrostanski, Melbourne, Australia, 2003
    33. Tadeusz Dobrostanski, Quetta, 1942
    34. Roman Gutowski in front of Jam Saheb School, 2004
    35. Polish children at the beach in Balachadi, 1943
    36. Zygmunt and Hadassah Mandel, Israel, 2004
    37. Zygmunt Mandel, Janina Dobrostanska, Dr Brune, Ms Kowalewska, Quetta, 1942
    38. Danuta Mujawar and granddaughter, Bombay, 1997
    39. Vasant and Wanda (Malati) Kashikar, Kolhapur, India, 2003
    40. Christine Rebello, Nikola Rebello and Zofia Mendonca, Pune, 2001


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