The SAGE Handbook of Sports Economics
Publication Year: 2019
Sports economics is a well-established and dynamic area of study; a key component in the fields of sport management, sport science and sport studies, as well as in other areas of economics, finance and management. Covering amateur to professional sports, individual events and organised tournaments, this Handbook provides an authoritative contribution to the understanding of sport in the economy. The editors of The SAGE Handbook of Sports Economics have brought together a global team of respected scholars to create this benchmark collection of insights into sports economics. Each chapter includes a study of a specific context in which issues arise in sports economics, a critical presentation of its main theoretical contributions, an overview of current research findings, and an outline of enquiry for future research. ...
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: The Nature and Value of the Sports System and Economy
- Chapter 1: Introduction
- Chapter 2: Origins and Developments of Sports Systems
- Chapter 3: The Economic Value of Sport
Part II: Amateur Sports Participation, Supply and Impact
- Chapter 4: Sports Participation
- Chapter 5: Sports Participation and Health
- Chapter 6: Sport and Social Capital Formation
- Chapter 7: Recent Evidence on the Effects of Physical Activity on Human Capital and Employment
- Chapter 8: Private Household Consumption in Sport
- Chapter 9: Sports Clubs in Europe: Organization
- Chapter 10: Volunteering in Sports Clubs and its Impacts
- Chapter 11: The Role of Money and Time Donations in the Supply of Amateur Sport
- Chapter 12: The Economics of the National Collegiate Athletic Association
Part III: Professional Team Sports
- Chapter 13: Economic Objective Functions in Team Sports: A Retrospective
- Chapter 14: European Sports Leagues: Origins and Features
- Chapter 15: Competition Policy in Sports Markets
- Chapter 16: Competitive Balance: Measurement and Relevance
- Chapter 17: Economics of Attendance
- Chapter 18: Exposure and Television Audience Demand: The Case of English Premier League Football
- Chapter 19: Ticket Pricing
- Chapter 20: Secondary Ticket Markets for Sport Events
- Chapter 21: The Economics of the Transfer Market
- Chapter 22: Team Production and Efficiency in Sports
- Chapter 23: Officials and Home Advantage
- Chapter 24: Franchise Relocation and Stadium Subsidies
Part IV: Professional Sports Leagues
- Chapter 25: The Economics of Professional Soccer
- Chapter 26: The Economics of Cricket
- Chapter 27: Rugby Union's Late Conversion to Professionalism: An Economic Perspective
- Chapter 28: ‘The Answer’ and the Economics of Basketball: Perceptions vs Production
- Chapter 29: Economics and the National Football League
- Chapter 30: ‘The Baseball Players’ Labor Market': An Update
- Chapter 31: Economic Issues of the National Hockey League: A Survey of the Literature
- Chapter 32: The Economics of Australian Rules Football
- Chapter 33: The Economics of Major League Soccer from the Nasl to Mls: A Brief History of North American Professional Soccer
Part V: Sports Events
- Chapter 34: The Economic Impact Measurement of the Olympic Games
- Chapter 35: Major Events: Economic Impact
- Chapter 36: Olympic Games: Public Referenda, Public Opinion and Willingness to Pay
- Chapter 37: Olympic Performance
- Chapter 38: The Economics of Mega-Events: The Impact, Costs, and Benefits of the Olympic Games and the World Cup
- Chapter 39: Economic Impact of Minor Sporting Events and Minor League Teams
- Chapter 40: Participation and Demonstration Effects: ‘Couch Potatoes to Runner Beans'?
- Chapter 41: Willingness to Pay in Sports
- Chapter 42: Positive and Negative Externalities of Sport Events: From Well-Being, Pride, and Social Capital to Traffic and Crime
Part VI: Individual Sports
- Chapter 43: The Economics of Running
- Chapter 44: Hitting the Ball Forward: The Economics of Racquet Sports
- Chapter 45: The Economics of Road Cycling
- Chapter 46: The Economics of Golf
- Chapter 47: IRON(O)MICS: The Market for Long-Distance Triathlon
- Chapter 48: NASCAR Economics
Part VII: Future Research
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Introduction & editorial arrangement © Paul Downward, Bernd Frick, Brad R. Humphreys, Tim Pawlowski, Jane E. Ruseski and Brian P. Soebbing, 2019
Chapter 1 © Paul Downward, Bernd Frick, Brad R. Humphreys, Tim Pawlowski, Jane E. Ruseski and Brian P. Soebbing, 2019
Chapter 2 © Wladimir Andreff, 2019
Chapter 3 © Themis Kokolakakis, Chris Gratton and Günther Grohall, 2019
Chapter 4 © Paul Downward and Cristina Muñiz, 2019
Chapter 5 © Jane E. Ruseski, 2019
Chapter 6 © Tim Pawlowski and Ute Schüttoff, 2019
Chapter 7 © Carina Steckenleiter and Michael Lechner, 2019
Chapter 8 © Fernando Lera-López, 2019
Chapter 9 © Christoph Breuer, Philipp Swierzy and Svenja Feiler, 2019
Chapter 10 © Pamela Wicker, 2019
Chapter 11 © Kirstin Hallmann and Lea Rossi, 2019
Chapter 12 © Allen R. Sanderson and John J. Siegfried, 2019
Chapter 13 © Rodney Fort, 2019
Chapter 14 © Nicolas Scelles and Jean-François Brocard, 2019
Chapter 15 © Oliver Budzinski, 2019
Chapter 16 © Tim Pawlowski and Georgios Nalbantis, 2019
Chapter 17 © Placido Rodriguez, 2019
Chapter 18 © Babatunde Buraimo, 2019
Chapter 19 © Brian P. Soebbing, 2019
Chapter 20 © Pascal Courty, 2019
Chapter 21 © Stefan Késenne, 2019
Chapter 22 © Mikael Jamil, 2019
Chapter 23 © J. James Reade, 2019
Chapter 24 © Dennis Coates, 2019
Chapter 25 © Daniel Weimar, 2019
Chapter 26 © Ian Gregory-Smith, David Paton and Abhinav Sacheti, 2019
Chapter 27 © Patrick Massey, 2019
Chapter 28 © David Berri, 2019
Chapter 29 © Benjamin Blemmings, 2019
Chapter 30 © Anthony C. Krautmann, 2019
Chapter 31 © Duane W. Rockerbie and Stephen T. Easton, 2019
Chapter 32 © Ross Booth and Robert Brooks, 2019
Chapter 33 © Nicholas Watanabe, 2019
Chapter 34 © Holger Preuss, 2019
Chapter 35 © Wolfgang Maennig, 2019
Chapter 36 © Wolfgang Maennig, 2019
Chapter 37 © Eva Marikova Leeds, 2019
Chapter 38 © Candon Johnson, 2019
Chapter 39 © Nola Agha and Marijke Taks, 2019
Chapter 40 © Peter Dawson, 2019
Chapter 41 © Johannes Orlowski and Pamela Wicker, 2019
Chapter 42 © Pamela Wicker and Paul Downward, 2019
Chapter 43 © Bernd Frick, Katharina Moser and Katrin Scharfenkamp, 2019
Chapter 44 © Julio del Corral and Carlos Gomez-Gonzalez, 2019
Chapter 45 © Daam Van Reeth, 2019
Chapter 46 © Stephen Shmanske, 2019
Chapter 47 © Joachim Prinz, 2019
Chapter 48 © Peter von Allmen, 2019
Chapter 49 © Yulia Chikish and Brad R. Humphreys, 2019
Chapter 50 © Michael A. Leeds, 2019
Chapter 51 © Rodney J. Paul, 2019
Chapter 52 © David Forrest, 2019
Chapter 53 © Eugen Dimant and Christian Deutscher, 2019
Chapter 54 © Bill Gerrard, 2019
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Library of Congress Control Number: 2019932126
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
List of Figures[Page ix]
- 3.1 The circular flow of income 20
- 3.2 Three layers in the Vilnius definition of sport 22
- 3.3 Sport employment in the EU (top five scores) (thousands, 2016) 26
- 4.1 Sport participation demand 34
- 11.1 Multi-level framework on the different levels of time and money donations 105
- 20.1 Fraction of teams with a sponsored secondary ticket marketplace 195
- 21.1 Transfer system and competitive balance in a profit-maximization league 205
- 21.2 Transfer system and competitive balance in a win-maximization league 205
- 21.3 Transfer market and profit maximization 206
- 21.4 Transfer market and win maximization 207
- 23.1 Stylised examples of home advantage expressed in terms of relative team strengths and recorded (average) outcomes 221
- 23.2 Relative proportion of matches ending in wins for the favourite team (according to Elo ranking) 223
- 23.3 Cricket match outcomes by relative quality 225
- 23.4 Cricket match outcomes by Test number 227
- 25.1 Number of publications per main stream of empirical soccer economic research 248
- 25.2 Empirical soccer economic studies by year of publication (2017 only considered until June) 249
- 25.3 Time trends within main streams (2017 only considered until June) 249
- 25.4 Journals with three or more publications on empirical soccer economic studies 250
- 25.5 Authors with 10 or more empirical soccer economic publications 251
- 25.6 Leagues and nations considered in empirical soccer economic research 252
- 27.1 Top14 payroll as a percentage of revenue (2004/05–2016/17) 270
- 27.2 Top14 Clubs’ aggregate revenue and expenditure (2004/05-2016/17 million) 273
- 27.3 Composition of Top14 team revenues in 2016/17 273
- 27.4 Average attendances in the main European rugby leagues (2001/02–2017/18) 275
- 27.5 Average Pro14 attendances by country (2003/04–2017/18) 276
- 30.1 Contract extensions in Major League Baseball (2001–2014) 299
- 30.2 Free Agents’ WARP (2012–2014) 300
- 30.3 Contract extension players’ WARP (2012–2014) 302
- 30.4 Journeymen's WARP (2012–2014) 304
- 30.5 Apprentices’ WARP (2012–2014) 305
- 31.1 NHL salary distribution, 2003–04 season (2003 = 100) 310
- 31.2 NHL salary distribution, 2013–14 season (2003 = 100) 310
- 31.3 Turnover rate versus winning percentage, 1967–68 to 2016–17 313
- 31.4 NHL fights per game, 1960–2015 316
- 34.1 Olympic Keynesian approach 345
- 34.2 Basic monetary streams in impact studies 345
- 34.3 Matrix of relevant monetary streams in impact studies 345
- 34.4 Three-scenario ex-ante study on the Olympic Games Paris 2024 impact for Ile-de-France region 346
- 34.5 Factors influencing the net impact of the Olympic Games 347
- 34.6 Time frame to measure the impact of the Olympic Games 348
- 34.7 Three-scenario forecast of three periods for the Olympic Games in Paris 2024 349
- 34.8 Importance of the size of the region when measuring an impact 350
- 34.9 Games versus non-Games effect by changes in import rates and different multipliers 352
- 36.1 Results of the referendum on the bid for the Olympic Games in Hamburg 2024 (29 November 2015). Share of yes/no votes in the different districts 371
- [Page x]39.1 Potential to find impact of events/teams using the ex post regression method 396
- 39.2 Event Resource Demand (ERD) continuum 397
- 39.3 Economic impact drivers 399
- 39.4 Optimum economic impact where Event Resource Demand (ERD) equals City Resource Supply (CRS) 399
- 40.1 UK performance funding and (Summer) Olympic medals won 2000–2016 406
- 40.2 Stages of change within the transtheoretical model (TTM) 408
- 42.1 The total economic value of sport events 430
- 43.1 Percentage of Africans and Europeans in the world's marathon elite, 1973–2015 446
- 43.2 Age and marathon performance of recreational runners by gender 448
- 54.1 The five stages of analytical competition 555
List of Tables[Page xi]
- 2.1 Stylized organizational features of closed and open sports systems 10
- 3.1 The economic value of sport in the EU, 2012 and 2005 23
- 3.2 Main sport-related indicators, direct effects 24
- 3.3 Employment contributions of the 10 top sport-related sectors 25
- 3.4 UK indirect output multipliers of industries with ties to sport, 2014 26
- 3.5 EU-wide output multipliers of sport-related goods and services 26
- 4.1 Leisure demand in the ‘income–leisure’ model and Becker's time allocation model 35
- 4.2 Econometric modelling approaches 38
- 6.1 Empirical studies on sport and social capital formation 57
- 8.1 Economic importance of consumption in sport made by households 73
- 10.1 Volunteering in sports clubs from a sports economics perspective: overview of topics studied 93
- 16.1 Studies analyzing the impact of market regulations and/or competition design elements on CB 157
- 18.1 Domestic rights fees for English Premier League, 1983–2019 173
- 18.2 Distribution of televised games in the 2000–01, 2007–08 and 2016–17 seasons 175
- 18.3 Summary statistics of dependent and independent variables 176
- 18.4 Model for television audience demand. Dependent variable is ln (television audience ratings) 177
- 20.1 Changes in ticketing practices 191
- 23.1 Proportion of cricket Test matches won by each team 226
- 25.1 Number of soccer economic publications per substream 247
- 25.2 Authors with three or more publications per substream (in descending order according to the number of publications) 251
- 26.1 Summary of LBW appeals in DRS matches 262
- 26.2 Summary of LBW wickets in DRS and non-DRS matches 263
- 27.1 ERC/ERCC performances by league and country (1995/96–2017/18) 272
- 28.1 Impact of various player and team factors on wins in National Collegiate Athletic Association Women's and Men's Basketball, the Women's National Basketball Association, and National Basketball Association, and the American Basketball Association 282
- 28.2 Modeling NBA free agent salaries, 2007–2017 283
- 28.3 Economic significance of box score statistics, 2007–2017 284
- 28.4 Explaining team field goal attempts in the NBA, 1987–88 to 2016–17 284
- 30.1 Summary statistics: Free Agents (2012–2014) 300
- 30.2 Huber-White estimates of Free Agent salaries (2012–2014) – Dependent variable: ln (REALSal) 301
- 30.3 Means of contract extension players (2012–2014) 302
- 30.4 Means of Journeymen (2012–2014) 304
- 30.5 Means of Apprentices (2012–2014) 306
- 31.1 Games lost due to work stoppages 309
- 31.2 Coaching turnover and winning percentage, 1967–68 to 2016–17 312
- 34.1 Problems of data collection 347
- 34.2 Share of visitors at events based on economic importance 351
- 36.1 Positive referenda 368
- 36.2 Negative referenda 369
- 39.1 Results from the Standard Economic Impact Analysis of the 2005 Pan American Junior Athletic Championships: Economic Impact Summary – Combined Total (Visitor – Operational –Stadium) for the City of Windsor in $ CDN 401
- [Page xii]39.2 Results from the cost–benefit analysis (in $ CDN) of the 2005 Pan American Junior Athletic Championships 401
- 41.1 Overview of CVM studies estimating WTP (in chronological, then alphabetical order) 418
- 43.1 Prize purses, 2017, in USD 442
- 43.2 Time bonuses, men 2017, in USD 443
- 43.3 Time bonuses, women 2017, in USD 443
- 43.4 Prize money (in USD) in middle- and long-distance running events, 2017 444
- 45.1 The competition structure of professional road cycling in 2019 466
- 45.2 Some key financial data for professional road cycling (1990–2018, in nominal euro) 467
- 47.1 Top three annual prize money (US$) makers in selected sports, 2015 483
- 47.2 Worldwide IRONMAN race characteristics (2011–2015, daily averages) 485
- 47.3 Triathlon-portfolio 2015 (professional athletes) 486
- 47.4 Development of the IRONMAN market 2008–2016 486
- 47.5 The demand of IRONMAN races 490
- Appendix 20.1 Sponsorship adoption timelines 201
Notes on the Editors and Contributors[Page xiii]The Editors
Paul Downward is Professor of Economics in the School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences at Loughborough University in the UK. He is the current editor of European Sport Management Quarterly and President of the European Sport Economics Association, serving also on the editorial boards of the Journal of Sports Economics, Sport Management Review and the Journal of Sport and Tourism. Paul is the author of The Economics of Professional Team Sports and Sports Economics: theory, evidence and policy and co-editor of the handbook of Sport Management. Paul has published widely on all aspects of sports economics, focusing more recently on the determinants of sport and physical activity participation as well as its health, well-being and labour market outcomes. He has received funding for his research from a variety of organizations such as the DCMS, UK Sport, Sport England, The Health Foundation, The British Academy, Streetgames, Sustrans and the IOC.
Bernd Frick is Professor of Organizational Economics in the Management Department at Paderborn University, Germany and Professor of Sports Economics at Seeburg Castle University in Seekirchen, Austria. His research interests are in organizational and personnel economics as well as in sports and cultural economics. He has published more than eighty refereed papers in e.g. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, Labour Economics, Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Education Economics, Applied Economics, European Journal of Operational Research, Industrial Relations, Labour, British Journal of Industrial Relations, Journal of Sports Economics and the International Journal of Sport Finance. When younger, he was a mediocre football player and a competitive long-distance runner. Although somewhat slower today, he continues to be a dedicated athlete.
Brad R. Humphreys is a professor in the Department of Economics at West Virginia University. He holds a PhD in economics from the Johns Hopkins University. His research on the economics of gambling and the economics and financing of professional sports has been published in academic journals in economics and policy analysis, including the Journal of Urban Economics, the Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, the Journal of Regional Science, the Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, Health Economics, Public Finance Review, and Regional Science and Urban Economics. He twice testified before the United States Congress on the economic impact of professional sports teams and facilities.
Tim Pawlowski is Professor of Sport Economics and Head of the Research Group on Sport Economics, Sport Management and Media Research at the University of Tübingen (Germany). Moreover, he is Associate Member at the LEAD Graduate School and Research Network and founding Board Member of the European Sport Economics Association (ESEA). Tim's empirical work follows three broader lines, i.e. ‘leagues and competitions', ‘society and public policy’ and ‘media and management', and was supported with research grants from the German Research Foundation (DFG), UEFA and FIFA. He was principal investigator in several projects – amongst others for the Federal Ministry of Finance in Germany and Major League Soccer in North America – as well as guest speaker invited by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the Council of the European Union and the Sports Committee of the German National Parliament.[Page xiv]
Jane E. Ruseski is an applied microeconomist with interests in health economics, health financing and policy, and sports economics. Much of her current research studies the socioeconomic determinants of health and (un)healthy behaviors; the effect of health behaviors on outcomes, including chronic health conditions, obesity, and health disparities; the mechanisms underlying health behaviors; and the effect of public policy on health. The overarching goal of this research is to inform the policy environment in an effort to implement policies and interventions that will promote health behaviors and reduce the burden of disease. Dr Ruseski has published in academic journals, including the Journal of Regional Science, Contemporary Economic Policy, Health Economics, the Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, the BE Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, Public Finance Review and the Journal of Sports Economics. She is a co-editor of Contemporary Economic Policy and an associate editor of the International Journal of Sport Finance.
Brian P. Soebbing is an Associate Professor in Sport and Recreation Management in the Faculty of Kinesiology, Sport, and Recreation at the University of Alberta. Dr Soebbing's main research interest focuses on the strategic behavior of sport and recreation organizations and their constituents. Within this research area, he examines issues related to sport facilities and events, decisions made by organizational leaders and its members, policies adopted/modified by sports and recreation organizations, and behaviors by consumers of sport and recreation. Currently, Dr Soebbing is a member of eight editorial boards and is the Associate Editor for both Sport & Entertainment Review and the International Journal of Sport Finance.The Contributors
Nola Agha is an Associate Professor in the Sport Management Program at the University of San Francisco. Professor Agha's research interests lie at the intersection of finance, economics, and strategic management. She studies public goods and externalities, the economic impacts of teams and stadiums, the efficiency and equity outcomes of stadium subsidies, and a variety of issues related to minor league baseball. She worked in international business operations for several years and has also consulted to the sport and fitness industry by conducting economic impact studies, competitive analysis, and feasibility studies for clients in MLB, NBA, minor league hockey, local organizing committees, and fitness organizations.
Peter von Allmen is the David H. Porter chair and professor of economics at Skidmore College. He has previously served as vice-president and president of the North American Association of Sports Economists (NAASE) and as a Fellow of the American Council on Education. His research focuses on contracts, the role of agents in the bargaining process, and incentives in professional sports. He is the co-author of two textbooks: The Economics of Sports, now in its sixth edition, and Economics. He is also a member of the editorial board of the Eastern Economic Journal.
Wladimir Andreff is currently Emeritus Professor at the University Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne; President of the Scientific Council at the Observatory of the Sports Economy, French Ministry for Sports; Honorary President of the International Association of Sport Economists and of the European Sports Economics Association; Honorary Member and former President of the European Association for Comparative Economic Studies, and former President of the French Economic Association. His research areas are international economics, transition economies, and sports economics. He authored 13 books (six in sports economics), 430 articles (74 peer-reviewed), of which 155 are in sports economics, and edited 17 books (five in sports economics), and has published in 18 languages. His most recent books in sports economics are Mondialisation économique du sport: Manuel de référence en Economie du sport (De Boeck, Bruxelles, 2012; Globalization of the sports economy: Reference textbook in sports economics) and, as an editor, Disequilibrium Sports Economics: Competitive Imbalance and Budget Constraints (Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 2015).
David Berri is a Professor of Economics at Southern Utah University. Dr Berri has spent the last two decades researching sports and economics, and has published works on a variety of topics, including the evaluation of players and coaches, competitive balance, the drafting of players, labor disputes, the NCAA, and [Page xv]gender issues in sports. He was author of two books, The Wages of Wins and Stumbling on Wins, along with the recent textbook Sports Economics. In the past, he has written on the subject of sports economics for a number of popular media outlets, including the New York Times, the Atlantic.com, Time.com, Vice Sports, and Forbes.com.
Benjamin Blemmings is a PhD student in Economics at West Virginia University (WVU). He received a BS in Quantitative Economics from Miami (OH) University, where he graduated with departmental honours in 2015. His current work focuses on economic policies relating to higher education institutions, such as alcohol sales at college football games and merit-based scholarship aid. His primary fields are health and public economics, and he also has broad interests within empirical microeconomics.
Ross Booth is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Economics at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. His main research interest is the economics of professional team sports leagues, especially the Australian Football League. His research has been published in Australian Economic Review, Economic and Labour Relations Review, Economic Papers, Economic Record, International Journal of Sport Finance, Journal of Sports Economics, Labour and Industry and Sport Management Review, as well as several international books. He has been a Vice President of the International Association of Sports Economists (IASE) since December 2014 and was a Vice-President of the North American Association of Sports Economists (NAASE) from July 2011 to July 2013. He is a member of the editorial boards of the International Journal of Sport Finance, Journal of Global Sport Management and Sporting Traditions.
Christoph Breuer is Full Professor of Sport Management at German Sport University Cologne since 2004 (at W3 level since 2010) and Director of the Institute of Sport Economics and Sport Management. Moreover, he is the Vice President for resources, planning and quality management at German Sport University Cologne. From 2006 to 2011 he was simultaneously research professor at German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin). His main research areas are economics, sociology and management of elite and grassroots sport, economics of match-fixing and return on marketing investments/economics of sponsorship.
Jean-François Brocard is an Associate Professor of Economics at the University of Limoges, where he's a member of the Centre de Droit et d'Economie du Sport (CDES). His research focuses on the regulation of professional sports. His recent work includes research on the transfer market of professional football players and its excesses and in particular on the labor market of professional athletes. He is the Secretary General of both the International Association of Sports Economists (IASE) and the French Seminar of “Dynamique Economique du Sport” (DESport). Besides, he's a member of the Board of the French regulatory authority for online games.
Robert Brooks is Deputy Dean (Education) in the Monash Business School, Faculty of Business and Economics and Professor in the Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. His main research interest is in applied econometric modelling of a broad range of financial and economic data, including data of relevance to sports economics.
Oliver Budzinski is Professor of Economic Theory and Director of the Institute of Economics at Ilmenau University of Technology in Germany. Former research and teaching positions include the University of Southern Denmark, Campus Esbjerg, the New York University, US, and Philipps-University of Marburg, Germany. Oliver Budzinski received his PhD from the Leibniz-University of Hanover, Germany. His research interests cover competition policy and industrial economics, media economics, as well as sports economics. To date, he has published more than 40 articles in refereed journals, three books and more than 40 chapters in edited volumes.
Babatunde Buraimo is a Senior Lecturer in sports economics and sports management at the Centre for Sports Business at the University of Liverpool. He has published widely on a range of issues including sports broadcasting, competitive balance and uncertainty of outcome, demand for sport, sports corruption, and more recently, suspense, surprise and shock in professional football. His papers have featured a range of journals including Economic Inquiry, European Sports Management Quarterly, British Journal of Management and Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics. In addition to his academic work, Babatunde has also worked on a number of projects for government departments at national and European levels.[Page xvi]
Yulia Chikish is a PhD candidate in West Virginia University. She graduated from Far Eastern National University in Vladivostok, Russia, majoring in Mathematics and Economics. She received her Master degree from Central European University in Budapest, Hungary. Her research interests include sports economics, behavioural economics and urban economics.
Dennis Coates is a Professor of Economics at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, USA and Leading Researcher in the International Laboratory of Intangible-Driven Economy at the National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russia. His research interests are in the areas of sports economics, public choice, and public economics.
Julio del Corral is an Associate Professor (with habilitation to Full Professor) in Economics in the Faculty of Law and Social Sciences (Ciudad Real) at the University of Castilla-La Mancha. He holds a PhD in economics from the University of Oviedo. His current research focuses on the economics of sports, specifically the topics of demand, competitive balance, productivity, discrimination, and betting. He also has broad interests within empirical microeconomics specifically in behavioural economics and measurement of efficiency and productivity. He could have become a table tennis star but he preferred to focus on training in economics rather than training in table tennis.
Pascal Courty is a Professor of Economics at the University of Victoria who has received his PhD in Economics from the University of Chicago and works in the field of industrial organization. One of his ongoing interests over the past 20 years is ticket markets. He has studied how tickets for popular concerts are priced in the primary market, estimated the return from using multiple seating categories, and shown that popular bands do not always exploit market power. He has also argued that resale in secondary markets can benefit both consumers and artists. Recently his research has looked at changes in ticket pricing with the advent of the Internet. His work has been published in leading academic journals such as the American Economic Review, Review of Economics Studies, Journal of Economics and Statistics, Journal of Law and Economics, and Journal of Economic Perspective. Pascal Courty is Research Fellow of the Centre for Economic Policy Research.
Peter Dawson is a Reader (Associate Professor) in Economics in the School of Economics at the University of East Anglia (UEA). He has also worked at the University of Bath and held external examining appointments at Imperial College London, University of Liverpool and Loughborough University amongst others. He has worked in the area of sports economics for nearly 25 years, having first been inspired whilst an undergraduate student. His main focus has been on the behaviour of agents (fans, referees, managers and players) in sporting contests but more recently his attention has turned to the impact of major sporting events, which has included the impact of the London 2012 Olympics on health, happiness and participation in sport. His research has been published in Journal of Economic Psychology, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Economic Modelling, Journal of the Operational Research Society, Journal of Applied Statistics, Journal of Sports Economics and International Journal of Sport Finance.
Christian Deutscher is a Professor of Sport Economics at Bielefeld University, Germany. His research focuses on incentives, effort and sabotage in contests. Recent studies cover betting markets to determine demand for sports betting, efficiency of betting markets and match fixing.
Eugen Dimant is a Senior Research Fellow in the Identity and Conflict Lab at the University of Pennsylvania. Dr Dimant's research interests center on experimental behavioral economics with a particular focus on behavioral ethics, crime, corruption, migration, social norms, and terrorism.
Stephen T. Easton is Professor of Economics at Simon Fraser University. He has published in fields as diverse as Economic History, International Trade, International Finance, Economics of Education, Law and Economics, the Economics of Crime as well as in Sports Economics. A full list of publications can be found at www.sfu.ca/~easton.
Svenja Feiler is a researcher at the Institute of Sport Economics and Sport Management at the German Sport University in Cologne, Germany. Since 2011, she is responsible for managing a large-scale panel study on nonprofit sports clubs in Germany, the Sport Development Report. The project contains regular online surveys on nonprofit sports clubs in Germany and their various stakeholders (members, coaches, [Page xvii]board members, referees). She holds a diploma degree in Business Administration and a Master degree in Sport Management (MSc). She is doing her PhD on the various sources of funding for voluntary sports clubs. Her main research interests are nonprofit sports organizations, finances of nonprofit sports clubs, and sport development.
Rodney Fort is Professor of Sport Management at the University of Michigan and is recognized internationally as an authority on sports economics and business. His work covers a wide variety of sports topics (sites.google.com/site/rodswebpages/academic/cv). Professor Fort is a regular speaker on sports issues and has been a keynote speaker at international sports congresses and a panellist at a variety of universities and institutes. He has testified before the US Senate, the New Zealand Commerce Commission, his signature is on Amicus Briefs to the Supreme Court of the US and government regulatory agencies. He appears frequently in press reports, on television and radio.
David Forrest is Professor of Economics in the University of Liverpool Management School and Honorary Professor, Macau Polytechnic Institute. His research interests lie in both sports economics and the economics of gambling behaviour and he has published fifty journal papers in these fields over the last decade. He works with regulators and operators on issues related to problem gambling and with many stakeholders (including player associations, regulators and world governing bodies) in efforts to combat manipulation of sports events.
Bill Gerrard is Professor of Business and Sports Analytics in the Business School at the University of Leeds, UK with degrees in economics from the University of Aberdeen, Trinity College, Cambridge and the University of York. His research focuses on the use of data analytics as an evidence-based approach to management. Much of his research has been in professional team sports on such topics as football transfer fees, shirt sponsorship, stadium naming rights, the win-wage relationship, the trade-off between sporting and financial performance, and evidence-based coaching. His most recent work has been on the impact on performance of team-specific human capital (with Prof Andy Lockett) published in the British Journal of Management. He is a former editor of the European Sport Management Quarterly. He has worked with a number of elite teams in both football (soccer) and rugby union including AZ Alkmaar, Saracens and London Irish.
Carlos Gomez-Gonzalez is a PhD candidate in Economics and Business at University of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain). He also works as a researcher in the field of sport economics for Group IGOID. His research interests include the areas of sports management and sports economics with a focus on gender studies and discrimination against minority groups.
Chris Gratton is Emeritus Professor of Sport Economics and Director of the Sport Industry Research Centre at Sheffield Hallam University, UK. He currently has six academic sports books in print, the latest being The Global Economics of Sport, published by Routledge in 2012. His main areas of research include the economic benefits of major sports events, measuring the economic importance of sport including the use of satellite accounts for sport, and the modelling of large sports participation surveys. He represented the UK on the EU workshop on Sport and Economics and the EU Expert Group on Sport Statistics from 2006 until 2014.
Ian Gregory-Smith is a Senior Lecturer in Economics at the University of Sheffield. His primary research interests concern the executive labour market and related issues associated with gender, corporate governance, executive remuneration and shareholder voting. He is also interested in using sporting settings such as professional cricket as a laboratory for testing economic ideas associated with the labour market and decision making in firms. His research has been published in economic and management journals including: The Economic Journal, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, British Journal of Industrial Relations and the British Journal of Management.
Günther Grohall has been working on applied economic problems since 2002, with more focus on sport economics since 2007, when he joined SpEA. After studying “Business, Economics, and Computer science” at the University of Vienna and the University of Technology of Vienna from 1993 to 2000, he finished post-graduate courses on Quantitative Finance and Corporate Finance. In 2002 he joined the applied economic team of the Vienna Institute for Advanced Studies (IHS), in 2005 Economica, in 2007 SportsEconAustria and teaches since 2009 at the University of Applied [Page xviii]Sciences in Vienna. His work focuses on quantitative methods, modelling as well as data analysis. He has been involved in numerous input-output analyses, especially, but not only, in the field of sport. Two examples are the “Study on the Contribution of Sport to Economic Growth and Employment” and its recent update “Study on the Economic Impact of Sport through Sport Satellite Accounts”.
Kirstin Hallmann is a Senior Lecturer and Researcher at the Institute of Sport Economics and Sport Management, GSU. Her research interests include volunteer management, sport consumer behavior, elite sports, sport events, and sport tourism.
Mikael Jamil is currently a Senior Lecturer within the Department of Science and Technology, University of Suffolk. He is also the Course Leader of BSc (Hons) Sport Performance Analysis and works closely with the Performance Analysis Department at Ipswich Town Football Club in the role of consultant. His research focuses primarily on Performance Analysis in football and his most recent publications include: Intra-system reliability of SICS: video-tracking system (Digital.Stadium®) for performance analysis in soccer (2018), Reliability of internal and external load parameters in 6 a-side and 7 a-side recreational football for health (2018) and The Reliability of Technical and Tactical Tagging Analysis Conducted by a Semi-Automatic VTS in Soccer (2018). He received his PhD in Sports Economics from Loughborough University in 2016.
Candon Johnson is a PhD candidate at West Virginia University in Morgantown, West Virginia. His research focuses on sports economics, urban and regional economics, and health economics. He is currently working on a variety of sports economics topics, including racial wage discrimination (co-authored with Eduardo Minuci), game attendance and loss aversion across different Collective Bargaining Agreements, and evidence of present bias in free agency decisions (co-authored with Brad Humphreys) within the National Basketball Association (NBA). He is also conducting research on the impact of the Olympics Games on host cities and the surrounding areas. Outside sports, he is researching the impact of the legalization of recreational marijuana on the consumption of legal goods that are potentially risky, such as alcohol, cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco.
Stefan Késenne is Emeritus Professor of economics at the University of Antwerp (UA) where he has been teaching Econometrics, Macroeconomics, Labour Economics and Sports Economics. His most important research area is Sport Economics. He has published in many Internationally reviewed journals and is the author of the well-known textbook: The Economic Theory of Professional Team Sports, an analytical treatment (2nd Ed., 2014). He is also a member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Sports Economics and of the Scientific Committee of CIES in Switzerland.
Themis Kokolakakis is a Reader of Sport Economics at Sheffield Hallam University. He has been working over a number of years with Chris Gratton and Günther Grohall on the development of SSAs in Europe. He has produced numerous studies on economic value of sport using different methodological perspectives, including National Income Accounting and SSAs. He has published widely on the economic value of sport and the social and health impact of sport participation. Research interests include: evaluating sport economies, examining sport participation in relation to economic growth, sport volunteering as a factor of economic growth, the economic impact of sport on health and wellbeing and the economic evaluation of health interventions.
Anthony C. Krautmann is the Professor and Chair of the Economics Department at DePaul University in Chicago. He has served previously as Vice-President of the North American Association of Sports Economists (NAASE) as well as the President of the Illinois Economic Association. Professor Krautmann's research include a focus on labor markets in professional sports as well the industrial organization of sport leagues. His publications have appeared in a number of journals, including the Journal of Sports Economics, Economic Inquiry, and the Southern Economic Journal.
Michael Lechner is Professor of Econometrics at the University of St. Gallen and director of the Swiss Institute for Empirical Economic Research (SEW). He holds his PhD from the University of Mannheim (1994) and spent one year at the London School of Economics and at Harvard University. His research focuses on developing and improving econometric methods for causal analysis in the field of microeconometrics as well as applications in the areas of labour, health and sports economics. His recent [Page xix]work centers on the question how machine learning methods can be used to obtain credible causal effects in large (or Big) data settings. Michael Lechner is also affiliated with CEPR, London, CESIfo, Munich, IAB, Nuremberg, and IZA, Bonn.
Eva Marikova Leeds is Professor of Economics at Moravian College in Bethlehem, PA, USA. She has written on privatization and mortgage markets in transition economies. Her work in sports economics with Michael Leeds includes the application of event analysis to stadium naming rights and finding determinants of national success in international soccer and at the Summer Olympics. She has also examined pay determination in Japanese baseball and the differences between men and women in how they respond to competitive settings. She is the co-editor of Handbook on Economics of Women in Sports (2013). Her work has appeared in such journals as the Journal of Sports Economics and the Review of Industrial Organization.
Michael A. Leeds is Professor and Chair of the Economics Department at Temple University. His research expertise is in the Economics of Sport,Labor Economics, and Applied Microeconomics. His research has appeared in such journals as The Journal of Urban Economics, Economic Inquiry, Social Science Quarterly, and The Journal of Sports Economics. His textbook, The Economics of Sports, with Peter von Allmen and Victor Matheson is a prominent textbook in the field. He is co-editor, with Eva Marikova Leeds of The Handbook on the Economics of Women in Sport. His current research includes work on the economics of baseball in Japan and gender differences in the response to economic contests.
Fernando Lera-López is Senior Lecturer in Economics at the Department of Economics of the Public University of Navarra (Spain), where he lectures on Economics and Innovation in Teaching. He is also member of the Institute for Advanced Research in Business and Economics at the Public University of Navarra. His research focuses on sports economics, and particularly, in the analysis of the sports participation and consumption and their social health and wellbeing, and economic effects. His research has been published in leading sport journals such as Journal of Sport Management, Journal of Sport Economics, European Sport Management Quarterly, Sport Management Review, International Journal of Sport Finance, Journal of Sports Sciences and European Journal of Sport Science. He is the treasurer of the Spanish Society of Sports Economics.
Wolfgang Maennig is a Professor at the Department of Economics of Hamburg University. He was a visiting scholar at the University of California Berkeley, at MIT, at the American University in Dubai as well as at the Universities of Istanbul (Turkey) and Stellenbosch (South Africa), at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and at the University of Economics Bratislava. He was also visiting scholar at International Monetary Fund in Washington, DC, and at Deutsche Bundesbank in Frankfurt. His research concentrates on sport economics and urban issues and he has been published in numerous leading academic journals. He is co-editor of the International Handbook on the Economics of Mega Sporting Events. Wolfgang Maennig has worked as an expert for many bids of large sport events, e.g. the Olympic bids of Berlin 2000, Leipzig 2012, Munich 2018 and the Athletics World Cup Berlin 2009. He was Olympic Champion (rowing, eight with coxwain) at the Olympics 1988 in Seoul and president of the German Rowing Federation, 1995–2001. He holds the Olympic Order.
Patrick Massey is a Director of Compecon – Competition Economics, which he established in 2001, based in Dublin and specializing in the economics of competition (antitrust) and regulation. He was previously a member of the Irish Competition Authority for 10 years. Prior to that he worked for the New Zealand Treasury and DKM economic consultants. His books include New Zealand: Market Liberalization in a Developed Economy (1995); Competition Law and Policy in Ireland, (1996) (co-authored with Paula O'Hare); and Competition and Regulation in Ireland: The Law and Economics (2003) (co-authored with Daragh Daly). He has authored/co-authored papers published in various journals including The Antitrust Bulletin; The Economic and Social Review; European Competition Journal; European Sports Management Quarterly; the International Journal of Sport Finance; Journal of Competition Law & Economics; Journal of Sports Economics and World Competition. He has lectured on the economics of competition and regulation at the University of Dublin (Trinity College) and NUI Maynooth.
Katharina Moser is Research Assistant and PhD Candidate at the Department of Human Resource Management and Organization, School of Business and Economics at the University of Tübingen. Her research interests include gender diversity on corporate boards, sports economics, and economics of religion. She received her Bachelor degree in Social Anthropology and Gender Studies at the University of Basel and her Master degree in Economics, major in Management, at the University of Lugano, Switzerland.[Page xx]
Cristina Muñiz is an Associate Professor (Profesor Contratado Doctor) of Economics at the University of Oviedo, Spain. She has an expertise in applying econometric models to examine the engagement of individuals in leisure activities, with particular interest in sports and cultural activities. She has also recently published papers on Ecotourism and Labour Economics. Her research has been published in leading journals such as The European Journal of Health Economics, Economic Modelling, Journal of Cultural Economics, Ambio, and International Journal of Sport Finance. She is a member of the editorial board of the European Sport Management Quarterly. She received her PhD in Economics from the University of Oviedo.
Georgios Nalbantis is Research Associate at the Department of Sport Economics, Sport Management and Media Research, at the University of Tübingen, Germany. Born in Greece, he was educated in Germany and Austria. He studied Business Law in Heidelberg, obtained an LLM in European and International Business Law in Vienna as well as a MSc in Sport Management in Cologne. In 2017 he received his PhD in Sport Economics with summa cum laude from the University of Tübingen. His research interests include the economics of league competitions as well as the econometric analysis of (international) sports demand and regulations of sport systems. He co-authored articles published in journals such as Economic Inquiry, Applied Economics and Journal of Sports Economics.
Johannes Orlowski is currently a postdoctoral researcher at the Department for Business Administration at the University of Zurich. In 2017, he received his PhD in Sports Economics and Management at the German Sport University Cologne were he also received his MSc in Sport Management in 2013. Johannes is interested in uncovering natural experiment settings in sports data and utilizing them for economic and managerial research questions. In his research, he has addressed health-related aspects of participation in sport and physical activity, labour markets in sport, and monetary valuation of intangibles associated with sports.
David Paton holds the Chair of Industrial Economics at Nottingham University Business School and is Associate Dean within the School. David gained his PhD in economics from University College London. His research covers a range of topics including the economics of teenage pregnancy, betting markets, gambling taxation, the economics of suicide and economics of sport especially cricket. David has published over 50 academic papers in journals such as the Economic Journal, Economica, Demography and The Journal of Health Economics. He is Co-Editor of the International Journal of the Economics of Business. David has acted as an advisor to Government Departments such as DCMS, HMRC, and the Audit Office and his research has been featured extensively in the media including appearances on Newsnight, the Today Programme, Women's Hour, BBC Radio 5, Voice of Russia, Channel 4 news etc.
Rodney J. Paul is Professor of Sport Management and Director of the Sport Analytics Program in the Falk College of Sport and Human Dynamics at Syracuse University. He completed his PhD in Applied Economics at Clemson University in 2000. He has over 100 publications related to the economics and finance of sport in various journals and book chapters. His main research interests are in sports betting markets, attendance and television viewership models of sports teams and leagues, and the economics of professional hockey.
Holger Preuss is Professor of Sport Economics and Sport Sociology at the Johannes Gutenberg-University in Mainz, Germany, and at the Molde University College, Norway. He is also adjunct professor at the University of Ottawa, Canada, and international scholar at the State University of New York (Cortland). He is past editor of the journal European Sport Management Quarterly and currently is associate Editor of the Journal of Sport & Tourism. He has published 17 books and more than 125 articles in international journals and books. His field of research is the socioeconomic aspects of sport. In particular, his research focuses on impact analysis of mega-sport events (Olympic Games since 1972 and FIFA World Cup since 2006). A main theme examines cost and revenue overruns at Olympic Games and he is constantly developing a framework and measurement of Olympic legacy events. He is a member of the IOC Legacy and Sustainability Commission and the UIPM Development Commission.
Joachim Prinz is a Professor of Business Administration u6the Mercator School of Business at the University of Duisburg-Essen. Generally he is interested in all “exotic” economic issues but mostly his research and teaching considers topics professional team- and endurance sports.[Page xxi]
J. James Reade is an Associate Professor of Economics at the University of Reading. Prior to this he was Lecturer in Economics at the University of Birmingham. He completed his DPhil at the University of Oxford in 2007. His research has appeared in a number of top economics, management and operations research journals, as well as chapters in a number of handbooks and other collections. His research is in applied economics, primarily with a focus on sport and gambling-related topics.
Daam Van Reeth is Senior Professor of Economics in the Faculty of Economics and Business at the KU Leuven, Belgium. He teaches courses in Micro- and Macro-economics. His research interest is in the economics of sport, with a focus on professional road cycling and media attention for sport. Research topics he worked on include TV demand for the Tour de France, doping perception, gender balance in sports coverage, and fantasy sports. He is editor and co-writer of The Economics of Professional Road Cycling and he has published numerous articles on media interest in the Tour de France.
Duane W. Rockerbie is a Professsor of Economics at the University of Lethbridge. He received his PhD at Simon Fraser University in 1990. He is a past editor of the Journal of International Financial Studies, a member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of Sports Economics and a past Vice-President of the North American Association of Sports Economists. His research has focused on sports economics, economics of higher education and international finance. Duane has published over 60 articles in economics journals and book volumes and has published two textbooks. He has also performed consulting work for the Canadian Soccer Association and CONCACAF.
Placido Rodriguez is Professor EU of Economics in the Department of Economics at the University of Oviedo, Spain. Doctor in Economics and Law Degree. He is the co-editor of several books on Sports Economics and he has published several papers in specialized journals such as the Journal of Sports Economics, European Sport Management Quarterly, International Journal of Sport Finance, Journal of Cultural Economics, Journal of Media Economics, Economic Modeling, Rivista di diritto ed economia dello sport, International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, Journal of Sports Economics & Management, Ambio, Revista de Economía Aplicada, Estudios de Economía Aplicada, Intangible Capital, Revista Asturiana de Economía or Revista de Psicología Aplicada. He was formerly President of Real Sporting de Gijon Football Club and currently is the Director of the Fundación Observatorio Económico del Deporte, Honorary President of the IASE (International Association of Sports Economists) and has been awarded with the Larry Hadley Service Award 2018 by the North American Association of Sports Economists (NAASE).
Lea Rossi is a PhD candidate at the Institute of Sport Economics and Sport Management at the German Sport University Cologne. Her research interests include non-profit sport clubs, commercial sport providers, sport volunteers, and elite sports.
Abhinav Sacheti works as an economist for a multinational professional services firm in the United Arab Emirates, where he uses applied economics to advise clients in the public and private sectors across a variety of settings. He obtained his PhD on the economics of cricket from the University of Nottingham and his research interests continue to center around the economics of sport, particularly cricket. He is especially interested in decision-making by players and officials. His research has been published in journals such as the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Applied Economics, Economic Record and the Journal of Sports Economics.
Allen R. Sanderson is a Senior Lecturer in Economics at the University of Chicago. A graduate of Brigham Young University and the University of Chicago, he came to Chicago from Princeton in 1984; served eight years as associate provost of the University; and has also been a senior research scientist at the National Opinion Research Center, where his contributions include research on education, labor markets and affirmative action. In addition to his popular two-quarter sequence on principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics, he teaches a course and does research on the economics of sports. He has also led an interdisciplinary team-taught course on “Sport, Society and Science.” He has received a Quantrell Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching and has the distinction of having taught more students at Chicago than anyone in the history of the University.
Nicolas Scelles is Senior Lecturer in the Manchester Metropolitan University Business School. He is a member of the Sport Policy Unit sitting in the Department of Economics, Policy and International [Page xxii]Business. He is a sport economist having published extensively in journals such as Applied Economics, Applied Economics Letters, International Journal of Sport Finance and Journal of Sports Economics. His main topics are competitive balance and intensity, determinants of stadium attendance and TV audience, determinants of financial value and insolvencies of European professional sports clubs, specifically in football. His recent work includes research on the development of women's sports. Dr Nicolas Scelles is also a member of the European Sports Economics Association (ESEA) and the Boards of the International Society for Sports Sciences in the Arab World (I3SAW) and the Scientific Council of the French Observatory of the Sports Economy. He works with international sports organizations such as UEFA.
Katrin Scharfenkamp is a postdoctoral researcher at the Mercator School of Management (University of Duisburg-Essen). Her research focuses on diversity in organizations and teams, and in particular on the mechanisms in corporate boards, political economy and sports economics. Her recent work centres on the effects of socio-demographic as well as functional differences in groups on the individual or team outcome. Her research has been published in leading journals such as the European Journal of Political Economy, Managerial and Decision Economics and the International Journal of Sports Finance. She received her PhD in Economics from the University of Münster.
Ute Schüttoff works as Lecturer at the Institute of Sports Science at the University of Tübingen with focus on sports economics and sports media research. Her research interests include amateur and leisure sports participation, in particular the economic effects of physical activity or sports participation, and sport in the media. Further, she works on a project on (state-funded) sports promotion in Germany. Her latest studies have been published in journals such as Social Science Quarterly or Journal of Sports Economics.
Stephen Shmanske is Professor of Economics Emeritus at California State University, East Bay. He earned a B S in Mathematics from Dartmouth College and a PhD in Economics from the University of California, Los Angeles. He has published dozens of articles in professional journals in many areas of interest including sports economics, transportation economics, price discrimination, and the economics of education. He is the author of Golfonomics and Super Golfonomics and was a pioneer in applying economics to the sport of golf and in using statistics from the golf industry to address issues of general economic concern such as discrimination and production theory. He is the co-editor of The Oxford Handbook of Sports Economics published in two volumes in 2012.
John J. Siegfried is Professor of Economics Emeritus at Vanderbilt University. He earned a B.S. from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (1967), and an M.A. from Penn State (1968). He was on Vanderbilt University's economics faculty from the time he earned a Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin in 1972 until retiring in 2010. In 1975 and 1976 he served as a senior staff economist at the Federal Trade Commission, and on President Ford's Council of Economic Advisers. He chaired the Vanderbilt Economics Department from 1980 to 1986. From 1997 through 2012 he was Secretary-Treasurer of the American Economic Association. His research has been in industrial organization, antitrust, economics of higher education, economics of sports, and the teaching of economics. He co-authored Economic Challenges in Higher Education (Chicago Press) in 1991. His latest book is Better Living Through Economics (Harvard Press, 2010).
Carina Steckenleiter is a PhD student in Economics and Finance at the University of St. Gallen and works as a Research assistant at the Swiss Institute for Empirical Economic Research (SEW). Her research interests are in applied econometrics with a focus on labour, education and sports economics.
Philipp Swierzy is a PhD student at the Institute of Sport Economics and Sport Management at the German Sport University Cologne. As part of his PhD, he conducts research projects with a focus on the relationship between individual behaviour and its organizational context. His main research interests include behavioural economics, economics of nonprofit organizations and labour economics. He has a bachelor degree in Business Administration and Economics and a master degree in Sport Management.
Marijke Taks is a Professor in the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Ottawa. Her area of expertise is in socioeconomic aspects of sport and leisure. Her grant-supported research focuses particularly on impacts, outcomes and leveraging of small and medium-sized sport events, and their [Page xxiii]meaning for host communities. She also studies sport consumer behaviour of various groups in society. Mass participation and the ‘Sport for All’ philosophy guide her research. She has published her work in leading journals of sport management and related fields. She is past-editor of the European Sport Management Quarterly, associate editor of the Journal of Sport Management and the Journal of Global Sport Management, editorial board member of the European Sport Management Quarterly, and guest reviewer for a wide variety of journals in the field of sport management, sport marketing, sport finance and sport tourism.
Nicholas Watanabe is an Assistant Professor of Big Data and Analytics in the Department of Sport and Entertainment Management at the University of South Carolina. Dr Watanabe's research predominantly focuses on the intersection of economics, management and communications in the context of sport, with special focus on the sport marketplace in the digital era. His work has been published in top journals in sport management, including the Journal of Sport Management, International Journal of Sport Finance, and Sport Management Review. Currently, he serves on the editorial board for the Journal of Sport Management, Journal of Leisure Research, Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics, Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, and Managing Sport and Leisure. In 2018, he was named a Research Fellow of the North American Society for Sport Management.
Daniel Weimar is a postdoctoral researcher at Mercator School of Management at the University of Duisburg–Essen. His research concentrates on empirical investigations in the areas of sports economics, personell economics and education economics.
Pamela Wicker is a Senior Researcher and Lecturer at the Department of Sport Economics and Sport Management at the German Sport University Cologne where she obtained her PhD in 2009 and her Habilitation in 2015. In 2011 and 2012, she was employed as a Senior Lecturer in Sport Management at Griffith University, Australia. Her research interests include non-profit sport organisations, monetary valuation of intangibles in sport, determinants and outcomes of sport participation and physical activity, and labour economics. She currently serves as Associate Editor at Sport Management Review, European Sport Management Quarterly, and the Journal for Study and Teaching in Sport Science, and is an editorial board member of another six journals (Journal of Sports Economics, International Journal of Sport Finance, Journal of Sport Management, European Journal for Sport and Society, Journal of Sport and Tourism, Managing Sport and Leisure).