The Public Sector: Concepts, Models and Approaches

Books

Jan-Erik Lane

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Preface

    Public administration as an academic discipline has more or less crumbled during the recent decades of research into the public sector. It has become outdated, losing its status as the main approach to the interpretation of the state or government. Christopher Hood (1990) describes the predicament of the science of public administration well in an article named ‘Public Administration: Lost an Empire, Not Yet Found a Role?’

    Replacing it there is now a proliferation of concepts, frameworks and theories. Public sector processes of decision-making and implementation in the modern state are approached through a variety of models from such different fields as public policy, policy implementation, management and evaluation as well as the public choice approach and neo-institutionalism. This overview of these multiple approaches aims to give students an introduction to the analysis of policy-making, to policy implementation as well as to public sector management and administration.

    This volume presents the main theories of policy-making, implementation and management in the modern state, stating their pros and cons from a theoretical point of view. No attempt is made to propose any new solutions to the basic problems of modelling decision-making and implementation in state institutions. The purpose is to introduce students taking their first courses in public policy-making, policy analysis and public management or public administration to the state of the art, that is, to the basic conceptual paradigms and salient theories or sets of theoretical hypotheses.

    For a political scientist, the concept of the public sector includes both what kind of activities public institutions carry out and how decisions are made and implemented by these institutions. Thus, on the one hand, we have the theory of the public sector as a branch of government involved in allocation, redistribution and regulation, with all kinds of concepts involved in the analysis of these three branches of government. On the other hand, we have the dynamic policy perspective of a public sector involved in the making and implementation of policies. The public sector requires both descriptive and normative concepts in order to understand not only what goes on in public institutions but also whether the outputs and outcomes are efficient or desirable. Fundamentally, the public sector is a set of institutions that coordinate the interests of different groups that ask in various ways for public activities of different kinds.

    I have drawn somewhat upon a few articles that I published in edited volumes and international journals. In addition I have drawn upon an article written jointly with Torgeir Nyen, ‘Neoinstitutionalism and the Public Sector’, Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, 95 (4), 1992. However, besides much new material, all of the text has been thoroughly revised in order to be used as an undergraduate textbook. I should thank Andrew Dunsire (York), Ed Page (Hull) and Richard Rose (Strathclyde) for helpful comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. Some of the chapters in the book have arisen from papers presented at COCTA (Committee on Conceptual and Terminological Analysis) sponsored panels at IPSA and ISA conferences. They form part of a project sponsored by the International Social Science Council (ISSC) to focus on key social science concepts and develop awareness in the social science community of theoretical issues.

    Preface to the Second Edition

    In this second edition I have made several significant additions. Three chapters are entirely new, two dealing with public sector reform (Chapters 6 and 12) and another discussing the logic of the new management state in relation to the old administrative state (Chapter 8). New materials have also been included within the existing chapters, particularly in Models of Public Regulation (Chapter 5) and Public Policy Models (Chapter 3). In addition I have corrected a few mistakes and typographical errors in the first edition.

    Some of the new material is drawn from articles I have published in the last couple of years. I am grateful for the permission to use materials from the following articles: ‘Will Public Management Drive Out Public Administration?’, in Asian Journal of Public Administration, 16: 139–51; ‘Ends and Means of Public Sector Reform’, in Staatswissenschaften und Staatspraxis, 1994, 5: 459–73; and ‘Economic Organization Theory and Public Management’ in K. Eliassen and J. Kooiman (eds), Managing Public Organizations (London: Sage, 1993: 73–83). The work on bringing the book up to date was done while I was at the Department of Public Administration at Erasmus University in Rotterdam under a scheme with the Netherlands Interuniversity Institute of Government (NIG). I am grateful for the opportunities to test various ideas with scholars involved in this scheme in Rotterdam, Twente and Leiden.

    Preface to the Third Edition

    The rapid development of public sector reforms in many countries during the 1990s call for some additions to this volume. Thus, I have included an entirely new chapter on New Public Management as well as expanded the analysis of fiscal federalism or decentralization. Despite all the reforms aiming at reinventing government the public sector remains large and complex, covering allocation, redistribution and regulation. To understand how it works it is necessary to master the many models with which it is analysed. This is the focus of this edition, as was the case with the other two editions.

    Jan-ErikLaneGeneva
  • Conclusion: What are the Policy Sciences?

    The decline of the public administration approach opened up the public sector to a variety of new approaches. One of these new perspectives is what was sometimes called ‘policy analysis’ or more broadly the ‘policy sciences’. Overcoming the petrifaction of public administration it claimed to have a comprehensive new framework with which to approach the public sector. A number of different approaches followed in the wake of the dissolution of the public administration school – organizational theory, decision analysis, evaluation research, steering theory, management sciences – all of which were intended as new partial approaches to the study of the public sector.

    But, given that the policy approach was launched as a candidate to replace public administration as a basic framework, is there really a distinct policy approach to the public sector? Could the policy approach really arrive at a general theory of public policies?

    When the public policy approach was launched after the Second World War it embodied an entirely new approach to the interpretation of the state and local governments. Not only were the traditional principles of the public administration perspective outdated, but the study of public policy required new scientific techniques and approaches. This belief in a special policy perspective or policy methodology was continually reiterated in one form or another as the policy perspective became popular, its application widened and the number of policy studies began to rise sharply in the late 1960s.

    The Policy Orientation

    Policy analysis would not only be a scientific discipline of its own with its special techniques for the study of the public sector, but would also offer serious guidance to practical men in power as to how to go about handling social problems in society. Already in the first major volume in what was to become the policy tradition – the classical The Policy Sciences edited by D. Lerner and H.D. Lasswell (1951) – there was this combination of two basically separate enterprises: a science of policy-making and a science for policy-making.

    Lasswell identifies the scope of policies with the set of choices. He states: ‘The word “policy” is commonly used to designate the most important choices made either in organized or in private life’ (Lasswell, 1951: 5). Perhaps such a general definition of the concept of a policy was never strictly adhered to, as the connection between policy and the public sector has remained a very close one.

    Lasswell states that the policy orientation comprises three elements: (1) the methods by which the policy process is investigated; (2) the results of the study of policy; (3) the findings of the disciplines making the most important contributions to the intelligence needs of the time (Lasswell, 1951: 4). It is not clear what the difference is between the first two elements in the policy orientation. In any case Lasswell hinted at a separation between two kinds of policy studies that has characterized much of the policy movement. Policy analysis could mean either the analysis of the policy process – description and explanation – or the elaboration of the methods to be used in ongoing policy-making – prescription or recommendation.

    In Lasswell's perspective policy analysis is not simply the understanding of policies as important public or private choices ‘explaining the policy-making and policy-executing process’. The other side of the coin is the activist notion. The policy analyst should also locate data and provide interpretations of the policy problems at a given point – policy problems being ‘the fundamental and often neglected problems which arise in the adjustment of man in society’, in the ‘world revolutionary process of the epoch’.

    However, not only in the policy sciences but in all the approaches to the public sector we find this tension between objectivity and subjectivity, between value neutrality and value relevance and between explanation and prescription. Why create a special discipline for the analysis of the public sector if it does not hold the promises of improvement in public policy-making and implementation? Surely the methodology employed in explaining policy outcomes in terms of the policy process could also be used to remodel the tools used in ongoing policy-making? Thus, policy analysis could devise a set of intellectual instruments with which to improve the various steps in the policy circle, from demands over decision to implementation and outcomes, which are fed back into the process (Weimar and Vining, 1992).

    Almost from the start the ideas of the policy sciences have contained this tension between description and recommendation. We may quote from Lasswell one more time: ‘the policy science approach has the further implication that it includes, in addition to knowledge about the policy-making process itself, the assembling and evaluating of knowledge – from whatever source – which appears to have an important bearing upon the major policy problems of the time’ (Lasswell, 1951: 14).

    Thus, the policy orientation involves some fundamental questions which have been answered differently as the policy movement has developed. Let us quote from Christopher Ham and Michael Hill's ThePolicy Process in the Modern Capitalist State, where they distinguish between ‘analysis of policy’ and ‘analysis for policy’: ‘The distinction is important in drawing attention to policy analysis as an academic activity concerned primarily with advancing understanding, and policy analysis as an applied activity concerned mainly with contributing to the solution of social problems’ (1984: 4).

    On the one hand we have the problem of identifying the characteristic properties of the policy process in the public sector. On the other hand there is the question of the proper techniques to be employed in the policy-making process in order to arrive at public programme improvement. In addition, there is the problem of congruence between the theoretical position and the practical recommendations.

    The balance between the theoretical and practical tasks of policy analysis could be struck in different ways. Lasswell underlined the practical aspects of the policy orientation, but warned strongly against too close a contact between policy analysts and the political life. Yehezkal Dror advocates the opposite position in Public Policymaking Reexamined (1974).

    Optimal Policy-Making

    Public programmes are based on greater or lesser knowledge about the causal mechanisms operating in society. They also involve normative considerations about the priority of goals and the appropriateness of means. Is there a social science theory that could improve the cognitive and normative foundations of the making and implementing of public choices? Perhaps all research into the public sector should be directed towards the task of finding means of improving policy-making? Could there be an optimal way of structuring the policy process?

    Dror takes a very optimistic view on the practical lessons to be learnt by policy analysis. He states: ‘Contemporary literature in the field of systems analysis, economics, decisionmaking theory, management sciences, and political science, as well as in other disciplines, already includes much material relevant to constructing an optimal model of policymaking’ (1974: 31). What would optimal policy-making look like and how could it be derived from the study of the public sector?

    Dror identifies the following components in optimal policy-making: (1) use of qualitative knowledge; (2) rational as well as extra-rational components; (3) economic rationality; (4) involvement of metapolicy-making; (5) feedback mechanisms. As there is little quantitative information available directly for policy-making purposes, qualitative data have to suffice. By extra-rational mechanisms are meant intuition, non-routine behaviour and guesstimate. There are different needs for resources for both policy and non-policy purposes as well as for various kinds of policy purposes, involving short- and long-term policies and metapolicy-making.

    Policy-making may be of three kinds: (1) metapolicy-making on how to conduct policy-making, (2) making policy on substantive issues, and (3) re-policy-making or making policy based on the feedback information about the policies enacted and implemented. Feedback of information is relevant for both metapolicy-making and substantive policies, where in the first case data would have structural implications for improving the process of policy-making, whereas in the second case information could be used to alter already existing programmes in order to increase the probability of positive outcomes.

    Thus, a policy science would be a set of principles guiding both the overall process of policy-making and the minute details in every single policy. Such a set of policy rules would ensure optimal policies – it is hoped. However, these principles are not enough, as there also has to be an ‘optimal policy-making structure’ (Dror, 1974: 198).

    Would we really be prepared to call a policy ‘optimal’ simply because it satisfied the formal conditions that Dror lays down? Perhaps optimal policy-making would require commitment to some substantive values or goals? Perhaps optimality in policy-making also requires some structuring of the policy-making process? Dror lays down a few conditions on an optimal policy-making structure, but they are also only of a formal kind: participation by many and diverse groups; a minimum amount of formalization of the policy process assigning various policy tasks to different groups; redundance between groups and tasks as well as isolation of some groups from others; integration of groups and periodical reexamination and reform of the structure (Dror, 1974: 197–213). Again, we may wish to demand stronger requirements in order for a policy-making structure to be considered optimal.

    The idea of optimal policies or optimal policy-making processes is an elusive one. It is far from obvious how prescriptions for the identification of optimality could be derived from the existing knowledge about the public sector, which is heavily heterogeneous and spread across several social science disciplines. Yet would not the idea of creating a new interdisciplinary policy science imply a possibility that we could start gathering systematic knowledge with a policy orientation?

    Dror develops another typical idea in the context of developing an independent field of research, in this case the policy sciences, namely the establishment of a set of policy specialists situated not too far from state power. He writes:

    One of the main recommendations that emerges from comparing the optimal model with actual policymaking is to establish and reinforce special organizations for policy analysis. … Establishing special organizations that are charged with taking a fresh look at basic policy issues is a necessary (though not sufficient) step toward approximating optimality in public policymaking. (Dror, 1974: 261)

    The idea of a set of specialists on public policy and policy implementation located in separate institutes may sound attractive, because it would lend an aura of legitimacy and responsibility to the entire enterprise. But it is highly questionable, because it builds on the weak hypothesis that policy analysis would turn out different results if practised in one institutional setting rather than another. Whatever the organization involved in policy analysis may look like, it is still the case that the quality of the findings and the recommendations depend upon how the inquiry has been conducted, not its formal aspects. Some have argued that policy analysis is distinct as a discipline and not in terms of organizational paraphernalia. What methods would a policy analyst typically use?

    The Tools of Policy Analysis

    The separation of policy analysis into analysis of policy or analysis for policy may seem abstruse. Why could social science knowledge not perform both functions at the same time? In the work of scholars sometimes associated with the so-called Policy Studies Organization there is a strong underlining of the need for policy analysis to be both theoretical and practical. To Nagel and Neef, for example, any radical distinction between knowledge to be used in policy-making and knowledge that models the policy process would be very difficult to uphold. To quote:

    Policy analysis or policy studies can be broadly defined as the study of the nature, causes, and effects of alternative public policies. Sometimes policy analysis is more specifically defined to refer to the methods used in analyzing public policies. The main methods, however, are no different from those associated with social science and the scientific method in general. (Nagel and Neef, 1979: 221)

    Yet there is one major development within the policy orientation that maintains that policy analysis is more a craft than a science.

    Edward S. Quade states the argument for the interpretation of policy analysis as analysis for policy in Analysis for Public Decisions (1976). According to this practical interpretation of the policy orientation, it would be preferable if policy analysis acknowledged from the start that it cannot adhere to the strict requirements of the social sciences. He states:

    science is concerned primarily with the pursuit of truth, and it seeks to understand and predict. Policy analysis seeks to help a decision-maker make a better choice than he would otherwise have made. It is thus concerned with the more effective manipulation of the real world – even if this may have to be accomplished without full understanding of the underlying phenomena. (Quade, 1976: 21)

    It sounds somewhat strange that policy analysis cannot be evaluated properly by means of a truth condition. The notion that policy analysis deals with the manipulation of the real world and not the search for truth about phenomena may seem a clear-cut recognition of its limits. However, should one accept such a demarcation of the scope of policy analysis? To many in the policy school Quade's restriction is both too narrow and basically confused about the ends and means of policy analysis. How could a policy hypothesis be used to manipulate real world phenomena if it was not also true of that world?

    The identification of policy analysis as analysis for policy is typically based on a number of approaches that are said to constitute a specific policy focus. To this set of policy tools Quade adds the following: operations research, systems analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-benefit analysis. (For an overview of various administrative doctrines, see Hood and Jackson, 1991.) Quade himself outlines a model of policy analysis that involves both intellectual cogitation and social interaction with policy-makers. He states:

    There are thus three stages associated with policy analysis. First, discovery, attempting to find an alternative that is satisfactory and best among those that are feasible; second, acceptance, getting the findings accepted and incorporated into a policy or decision; third, implementation, seeing that the policy or decision is implemented without being changed so much that it is no longer satisfactory. (Quade, 1976: 254)

    It is obvious that Quade has some more or less radical model of rational decision-making in mind. What is striking about this identification of policy analysis is that it makes no distinction between ‘policy’ and ‘policy analysis’. I do not understand why a policy analyst would be concerned about the process of policy-making and policy implementation. Perhaps new circumstances developed in the policy process that call for a different policy? Perhaps one discovers at the implementation stage that the drawbacks of a policy had been underestimated, meaning that a policy change is indeed most welcome? Surely policy analysis could help policy-makers improve both policies and implementation of policies. Any such good advice from policy analysis depends on the truth of their positions, not how eagerly they look for policy success. To quote Nagel and Neef again: ‘policy analysis is not something new methodically’ (1979: 221–2).

    Art and Craft in Policy Analysis

    It is questionable whether these strong demands on the originality and scope of policy analysis were characteristic of the policy movement in general. Another major development in the policy orientation was to uphold the view of policy analysis as analysis of policy. In Speaking Truth to Power (1979) by Wildavsky the practical ambitions behind the policy school are moderated while its intellectual claims are stated more specifically. Wildavsky narrows down the goals of the entire school as well as identifying more concretely how policy analysis is to go about achieving them.

    Yet, even in Wildavsky's cautious interpretation there is this same idea that policy analysis constitutes a distinct social inquiry to be pursued by means of its own methodological structure. Policy analysis is both an art and a craft, Wildavsky claims. What, more specifically, are the methods and tools used in the conduct of policy analysis?

    Perhaps the main argument with Wildavsky is that policy analysis is not some conventional technique employed in ongoing public decision-making and implementation. Policy analysis is an art where the creativity that is necessary for arriving at a deep understanding cannot be produced by the mechanical application of information systems like planning, programming, budgeting systems (PPBS), zero-based budgeting (ZBB) and management by objectives (MBO), program, evaluation, review technique (PERT) and social indicators (Coombs and Jenkins, 1992; Henley et al., 1993). Wildavsky states: ‘Policy analysis is an applied subfield whose content cannot be determined by disciplinary boundaries but by whatever appears appropriate to the circumstances of the time and the nature of the problem’ (1979: 15). Here we again confront this idea that there exists a distinct social science of public policies – applied social research with an interdisciplinary orientation. Perhaps it is self-evidently true that policy analysis is what is hoped for in the policy school. Yet sometimes it may pay to question the most basic assumptions.

    Why would policy analysis be more of an applied social science than pure social research, whatever could be meant by this distinction when it occurs in the social sciences? Why could social theory not model the policy process and its various components in a manner that is relevant for practical politics? Moreover, in the same way, the requirement of interdisciplinarity does not make sense, because there would certainly be valid contributions forthcoming from political science, economics, sociology and psychology separately.

    Policy analysis is an art, because it is based on the conduct of social inquiry employing the standard canons of scientific study. Wildavsky writes:

    Analysis is imagination. Making believe the future has happened in the past, analysts try to examine events as if those actions already had occurred. They are strongly committed to ‘thought experiments’ in which they imagine what might have been in order to improve what may come to pass. Theories are discarded instead of people. Naturally, this is risky. (1979: 16)

    Creativity in art like originality in social research will not be forthcoming through the application of some set of tools as in the practice of a craft. What matters more than craftmanship is scientific fantasy, unrestrained by any constraints that could be involved in an applied research setting.

    Policy analysis is a craft, because it is a problem-solving activity. Wildavsky writes: ‘Policy analysis, to be brief, is an activity creating problems that can be solved. Every policy is fashioned of tension between resources and objectives, planning and politics, scepticism and dogma. Solving problems involves temporarily resolving these tensions’ (1979: 17).

    As a policy in real life involves ends and means, so policy analysis must be a set of theories about the relationship between ends and means. Policy analysis implies rationality – means searching for ends – as well as responsibility – proper resources achieving suitable objectives. Since policy analysis deals with contested and value-ingrained materials, it must be practical, evaluative and reconstructive.

    Yet even practical recommendations have to be based on solid theoretical foundations. What matters more than the identification of the objectives and the resources in policy-making organizations is the causal hypothesis about how means have an impact on ends. The arrival at relevant guesses about the means-end relationship depends on both dogma and scepticism, but so do all kinds of knowledge about people in general. Wildavsky writes: ‘These, then, are the tasks and tensions of policy analysis: relating resources to objectives by balancing social interaction against intellectual cogitation so as to learn to draw the line between scepticism and dogma’ (1979: 19).

    Few would argue with this sound identification of policy analysis. Actually, there is only one drawback. While it certainly identifies what typically goes on in policy studies, it fails at the same time to distinguish how the policy orientation differs from the ordinary conduct of social inquiry.

    Conclusion

    ‘Public policy’, like some other words such as ‘politics’, ‘public administration’ and ‘public management’, has a double meaning standing for both the science of something and the object studied. It could either mean the public sector as it appears in various phenomena – public resource allocation, income redistribution and public regulation – or it could stand for some framework for or approach to the interpretation of these appearances. As a matter of fact, public policy as an academic discipline was launched in the form of new courses, departments, institutes or schools where policy analysis would be practised, replacing the outdated public administration framework.

    However, two difficult problems arise in relation to the ambition to identify a distinct social science enterprise, the policy analysis orientation:

    • Does such a distinct approach to the understanding of the public sector exist that we may comfortably speak about policy analysis as an art and craft in its own right?
    • Could policy analysis in the future deliver a new general framework for the study of the public sector?

    I would be inclined to answer ‘no’ to both these questions. Nor do I see the advantages of pursuing the policy school's ambitions. Policy analysis is first and foremost analysis. As such it requires both the rational and the irrational components in the ordinary conduct of social inquiry.

    Since the public policy vogue faded there has been an intense search for new ways of modelling the public sector and its organizations. New concepts, models and approaches that are relevant for the reorientation of traditional public administration are now forthcoming, focusing on the place of motivation or interests and institutions or rules within the public sector.

    The common focus on the public sector, amorphous as it is in the era of big government, used to be bureaucracy. Since the bureaucracy concept is elusive, if not essentially contested, there are disadvantages in the traditional public administration framework. There was no clarification either of the extent to which public sector problems are due to the operation of bureaucracies, or the extent to which public bureaucracies are different from private bureaucracies. It is true that the concepts of bureaucracy tie in with another crucial notion – the state, but the emerging public policy approach in the 1960s and 1970s did not manage to explain fully how bureaux in the public sector operate.

    It was recognized that there were drawbacks in starting from the bureaucracy perspective. The crux of the matter was that there is no connection between the meaning and the reference of the term. Bureaux exist all over the public sector at various levels of government – that is the denotation of the concept. However, what is the connotation of the concept? Here, we find fundamental dissensus and contrary proposals as to what are the distinctive properties of bureaux: efficiency, impersonality, social rationality or waste, partiality and rigidity.

    However, it is doubtful whether the launch of the policy approach solved all the problems inherent in the public administration approach. Just like the public administration approach, public policy models failed to clarify how interests and institutions interact within the public sector. If the classical public administration framework, the top-down policy-making model or the so-called Napoleonic state concept are not enough for understanding the public sector in its various manifestations – allocation, redistribution and regulation – then we must move towards some new approach which recognizes the role of private incentives and public institutions. Clearly, there is a set of proper functions for government, but how are we to go about interpreting its rules and the motivation of its personnel?

    One could claim the policy approach(es) amounted to an attempt at creating a unified paradigm for the analysis of the public sector from a political science standpoint. It sought unification after the public administration framework had been more or less shattered by the proliferation of new approaches after the Second World War (see the overview in White and Adams, 1994). However, although it managed to integrate politics and administration to an extent that the public administration framework never did, the policy approach remains just one additional framework for the analysis of the public sector besides others such as the management, public choice and neo-institutionalist approaches.

    One must admit that there is no new synthesis in sight coming from the political science and public administration foci upon the public sector, and the continuation of various sharply competing approaches to the interpretation of the public sector seems inevitable. To get a perspective upon the present research predicament and how the policy sciences fit into that one could speak of two major syntheses preceding the present multiplicity of perspectives: the practical science of public administration and the theoretical model of administrative man/woman in organizational theory.

    The practical science of administration in government was developed by scholars in different countries around 1900. One may mention names such as Max Weber, Woodrow Wilson, Fredrick W. Taylor and Henri Fayol. The emphasis was distinctly upon normative problems in reforming government, enhancing performance judged by different criteria such as efficiency and accountability. The strength of this approach was to be found in its recommendations for creating modern governments which would fulfil the combined requirements for legality or the rule of law as well as technical efficiency. The drawback was that the practical science of public administration lacked a theory about how the public sector actually works – the is, sometimes in glaring contradiction to the proverbs or practical recommendations, the ought.

    If the practical science of public administration delivered a first and normative synthesis focusing on how the basic materials of public sector activities – cases – were to be handled in a neutral, objective and rule-efficient way, then organizational theory came up with a second and realistic understanding of how administrative man/woman functions in governmental agencies. The is may actually be at some distance from the ought according to scholars like Herbert A. Simon, James G. March, Dwight Waldo, Charles E. Lindblom and Aaron Wildavsky. Existence in the administrative state results from bounded rationality and satisfying behaviour according to incremental criteria which diverge from the rationality norms.

    Yet, the tension between existence and norm cannot be done away with in the study of the public sector. Not only do we need more knowledge about how public programmes actually operate, but we are also keenly interested in reform and evaluation in terms of normative criteria. The four major approaches in the study of the public sector relate differently to both these concerns. They include: (a) the management approach; (b) the public choice approach; (c) the public policy framework; and (d) the neo-institutionalist frameworks. One may question whether there is not too much heterogeneity within these approaches, making such a classification rather meaningless. However, be that as it may, the two former frameworks, (a) and (b), are heavily orientated towards evaluation and efficiency – ought – whereas the two latter frameworks are more committed to understanding and explanation – is.

    The key concept in the management perspective is that of the objective, in the public choice approach it is the conception of self-interest, whereas in neo-institutionalism it is the rule, or, as it is also called, ‘institution’. The policy perspective is perhaps still the approach that is closest to the concerns of political science and public administration, because its concept of the policy or the public programme explicitly targets what decisions or non-decisions politicians take in government and Parliament.

    Bibliography

    Aberbach, J.D., Putnam, R.D. and Rockman, B.A. (1981) Bureaucrats and Politicians in Western Democracies. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Akerlof, G.A. (1970) The Market for “Lemons”: Qualitative Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 84: 488–500. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1879431
    Albrow, M. (1970) Bureaucracy. London: Macmillan.
    Alchian, A.A. (1950) ‘Uncertainty, Evolution and Economic Theory’, Journal of Political Economy, 48: 211–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/jpe.1950.58.issue-3
    Alchian, A.A. and Demsetz, H. (1972) ‘Production, Information Costs and Economic Organization’, American Economic Review, 62: 777–95.
    Aldrich, H.A. and Whetten, H.D.A. (1981) ‘Organization-Sets, Action-Sets and Networks: Making the Most Out of Simplicity’, in Nystrom and Starbuck (1981).
    Alt, J.E. and Chrystal, A.K. (1983) Political Economics. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Amacher, R.C., Tollison, R.D. and Willett, T.D. (1976) The Economic Approach to Public Policy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Anderson, J.-E. (1975) Public Policy-Making. London: Nelson.
    Anderson, T.R. and Warkov, S. (1961) ‘Organizational Size and Functional Complexity’, American Sociological Review, 26: 23–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2090509
    Ankar, D. and Ståhlberg, K. (1980) ‘Assessing the Impact of Politics: A Typology and Beyond’, Scandinavian Political Studies, 3: 1191–208.
    Appleby, P.H. (1949) Policy and Administration. Alabama: University of Alabama Press.
    Appleby, R.C. (1991) Modern Business Administration. London: Pitman.
    Argyris, C. (1960) Understanding Organizational Behavior. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.
    Argyris, C. (1964) Integrating the Individual and the Organization. New York: Wiley.
    Arrow, K.J. (1963) Social Choice and Individual Values. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Arrow, K.J. and Scitovsky, T. (eds) (1969) Readings in Welfare Economics. London: Allen & Unwin.
    Ashford, D.E. (ed.) (1978) Comparing Public Policies. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Astley, W.G. (1985) ‘Organizational Size and Bureaucratic Structure’, Organizational Studies, 6: 201–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084068500600301
    Atkinson, A.B. and Stiglitz, J.E. (1980) Lectures on Public Economics. London: McGraw-Hill.
    Baier, V.E., March, J.G. and Saetren, H. (1986) ‘Implementation and Ambiguity’, Scandinavian Journal of Management Studies, 2: 197–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0281-7527%2886%2990016-2
    Bardach, E. (1977) The Implementation Game. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Barney, J.B. and Ouchi, W.G. (1988) (eds) Organizational Economics. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Barone, E. (1935) ‘The Ministry of Production in the Collectivist State’, in Hayek (1935).
    Barrett, S. and Fudge, C. (eds) (1981) Policy and Action. London: Methuen.
    Barry, B. (1971) Sociologists, Economists and Democracy. London: Collier-Macmillan.
    Barry, B. (1973) The Liberal Theory of Justice: A Critical Examination of the Principal Doctrines in ‘A Theory of Justice’ by JohnRawls.Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Barry, B. (1989) Theories of Justice. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Barry, B. (1995) Justice as Impartiality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Barzel, Yoram (1982) ‘Measurement Cost and the Organization of Markets’, Journal of Law and Economics, 25: 27–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/jle.1982.25.issue-1
    Bator, F.M. (1957a) ‘The Anatomy of Market Failures’, Quarterly journal of Economics, 72: 351–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1882231
    Bator, F.M. (1957b) ‘Simple Analytics of Welfare Maximization’, American Economic Review, 47: 22–59.
    Baumol, W.J. (1965) Welfare Economics and the Theory of the State. London: Bell & Sons.
    Baumol, W.J., Bailey, E.E. and Willig, R.D. (1977) ‘Weak Invisible Hand Theorems on the Sustainability of Multiproduct Natural Monopoly’, American Economic Review, 67: 355.
    Becker, G.S. (1983) ‘A Theory of Competition among Pressure Groups for Political Influence’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 98: 371–400. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1886017
    Becker, G.S. (1985) ‘Public Policies, Pressure Groups, and Dead Weight Costs’, Journal of Public Economics, 28: 329–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0047-2727%2885%2990063-5
    Bender, J. and Moe, T.M. (1985) ‘An Adaptive Model of Bureaucratic Politics’, American Political Science Review, 79: 755–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1956842
    Bendix, R. (1956) Work and Authority in Industry. New York: Wiley.
    Benson, J.K. (1978) The Interorganizational Network as a Political Economy, in Karpik (1978).
    Benson, J.K. (1982) ‘A Framework for Policy Analysis’, in Rogers and Whetten (1982).
    Benveniste, G. (1972) The Politics of Expertise. Berkeley, CA: Glendessary Press.
    Berg, S.V. and Tschirhart, J. (1988) Natural Monopoly Regulation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Bergson, A. (1954) ‘On the Concept of Social Welfare’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 68: 233–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1884448
    Bergson, A. (1969) ‘A Reformulation of Certain Aspects of Welfare Economics’, in Arrow and Scitovsky (1969).
    Bergson, A. (1982) Selected Essays in Economic Theory. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Bernard, C. (1938) The Functions of the Executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Bilas, R.A. (1971) Microeconomic Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Blau, P.M. (1955) The Dynamics of Bureaucracy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Blau, P.M. (1973) The Organization of Academic Work. New York: Wiley.
    Blau, P.M. (1974) On the Nature of Organizations. New York: Wiley.
    Blau, P.M. and Schoenherr, R. (1971) The Structure of Organizations. New York: Basic Books.
    Blau, P.M. and Scott, W.R. (1963) Formal Organizations: A Comparative Approach. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Blaug, M. (1980) The Methodology of Economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Bodenheimer, E. (1962) ‘Prolegomena to a Theory of the Public Interest’, Nomos, 1: 205–17.
    Bohm, P. (1976) Social Efficiency: A Concise Introduction to Welfare Economics. London: Macmillan.
    Boman, I. (1994) New Philosophy of Social Science. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Borcherding, T.E. (1977) Budgets and Bureaucrats: The Sources of Governmental Growth. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Borcherding, T.E. (1984) ‘A Survey of Empirical Studies about Causes of the Growth of Government’ (mimeo). Paper presented at the Nobel Symposium on the Growth of Government, Stockholm.
    Borcherding, T.E., Pommerehene, W.W. and Schneider, F. (1982) ‘Comparing the Efficiency of Private and Public Production: The Evidence from Five Countries’, in Bös, D., Musgrave, R.A. and Wiseman, J. (eds), Public Production. New York: Springer-Verlag.
    Braybrooke, D. and Lindblom, C. (1963) A Strategy of Decision. New York: Free Press.
    Brecht, A. (1959) Political Theory. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Breit, W. and Hochman, H.M. (eds) (1969) Readings in Macroeconomics. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Brennan, G. and Buchanan, J.M. (1980) The Power to Tax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Brennan, G. and Buchanan, J.M. (1985) The Reason of Rules. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Breton, A. (1974) The Economic Theory of Representative Government. London: Macmillan.
    Bridge, G. (1977) ‘Citizen Choice in Public Services: Voucher System’, in Savas (1977).
    Broad, C.D. (1930) Five Types of Ethical Theory. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Bromley, D.W. (1989) Economic Interests and Institutions. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Brown, C.V. and Jackson, P.M. (1978) Public Sector Economics. Oxford: Martin Robertson.
    Browne, A. and Wildavsky, A. (1984) ‘Should Evaluation become Implementation?’, in Pressman and Wildavsky (1984).
    Bruin, G. (1991) Decision-Making on Public Goods. Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis.
    Buchanan, J.M. (1960) Fiscal Theory and Political Economy. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
    Buchanan, J.M. (1965) ‘A Theory of Economic Clubs’, Economica, 32: 1–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2552442
    Buchanan, J.M. (1967) Public Finance in Democratic Process. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
    Buchanan, J.M. (1968) Demand and Supply of Public Goods. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.
    Buchanan, J.M. (1975) The Limits of Liberty: Between Anarchy and Leviathan. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.
    Buchanan, J.M. (1977) Freedom in Constitutional Contract. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.
    Buchanan, J.M. (1978) ‘Markets, States and the Extent of Morals’, American Economic Review, 68 (2): 364–8.
    Buchanan, J.M. (1984) ‘Politics without Romance: A Sketch of Positive Public Choice Theory and its Normative Implications’, in Buchanan and Tollison (1984).
    Buchanan, J.M. (1986) Liberty, Market and State. Brighton: Wheatsheaf.
    Buchanan, J.M. (1987) The Constitution of Economic Policy. Stockholm: Nobel Foundation.
    Buchanan, J.M. (1988) ‘Market Failure and Political Failure’, Cato Journal, 8 (1): 1–13.
    Buchanan, J.M. (1991) Constitutional Economics, Oxford: Blackwell.
    Buchanan, J.M. and Stubblebine, W.C. (1969) ‘Externality’, in Arrow and Scitovsky (1969).
    Buchanan, J.M. and Tollison, R.D. (eds) (1972) Theory of Public Choice. Vol. I. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
    Buchanan, J.M. and Tollison, R.D. (eds) (1984) The Theory of Public Choice. Vol. II. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
    Buchanan, J.M. and Tullock, G. (1962) The Calculus of Consent. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
    Buchanan, J.M. and Wagner, R.E. (1977) Democracy in Deficit. New York: Academic Press.
    Buchanan, J.M., Tollison, R.D. and Tullock, G. (eds) (1980) Toward a Theory of the Rent-Seeking Society. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.
    Caiden, N. and Wildavsky, A. (1974) Planning and Budgeting in Poor Countries. New York: Wiley.
    Caldwell, B.J. (1984): Appraisal and Criticism in Economics. Boston, MA: Allen & Unwin.
    Cassinelli, C.W. (1962) ‘The Public Interest in Political Ethics’, Nomos, 1: 44–53.
    Castles, F.G. (ed.) (1982) The Impact of Political Parties. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Cawson, A. (ed.) (1985) Organized Interests and the State. London: Sage.
    Cerych, L. and Sabatier, P. (1985) Implementation of Higher Education Reform in Europe. Hanley, Staffs: Trentham Books.
    Chamberlain, E.H. (1988) ‘Monopolistic Competition’, in Barney and Ouchi (1988).
    Charlesworth, J.C. (ed.) (1968) Theory and Practice of Public Administration: Scope, Objectives and Methods. Philadelphia, PA: American Academy of Political and Social Science.
    Chisholm, D. (1987) ‘Ill-structured Problems: Informal Mechanisms and the Design of Public Organization’, in Lane (1987).
    Clark, B. (1983) The Higher Education System: Academic Organization in Cross-national Perspective. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Clarke, R. and McGuiness, T. (eds) (1987) The Economics of the Firm. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Coase, R.H. (1937) ‘The Nature of the Firm’, Economica, 4: 386–405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ecca.1937.4.issue-16
    Coase, R.H. (1960) ‘The Problem of Social Cost’, Journal of Law and Economics, 3: 1–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/jle.1960.3.issue-1
    Coase, R.H. (1988) The Firm, the Market and the Law. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Cohen, M. and March, J.G. (1974) Leadership and Ambiguity: The American College President. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Cohen, M., March, J.G. and Olsen, J.P. (1972) ‘A Garbage Can Model of Organizational Choice’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 17: 1–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392088
    Cohen, M., March, J.G. and Olsen, J.P. (1976) ‘People, Problems and the Ambiguity of Relevance’, in March and Olsen (1976).
    Cole, G.A. (1990) Management: Theory and Practice. London: DP Publications.
    Colm, G. (1962) ‘The Public Interest: Essential Key to Public Policy’, Nomos, 1: 115–28.
    Coombs, H.M. and Jenkins, D.E. (1992) Public Sector Financial Management. London: Chapman & Hall.
    Comes, R. and Sandier, T. (1986) The Theory of Externalities: Public Goods and Club Goods. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Crozier, M. (1964) The Bureaucratic Phenomenon. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Cyert, R.M. and March, J.G. (1963) A Behavioral Theory of the Firm. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Dahl, R.R. (1947) ‘The Science of Public Administration: Three Problems’, Public Administration Review, 7: 1–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/972349
    Daniels, N. (ed.) (1985) Reading Rawls. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Danziger, J.N. (1978) Making Budgets: Public Resource Allocation. London: Sage.
    Davis, S.M. and Lawrence, P.R. (1977) Matrix. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Dempster, M.A.H. and Wildavsky, A. (1979) ‘On Change: Or, There is No Magic Size for an Increment’, Political Studies, 27: 371–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/post.1979.27.issue-3
    Demsetz, H. (1967) ‘Toward a Theory of Property Rights’, American Economic Review, 57: 347–59.
    Demsetz, H. (1970) ‘The Private Production of Public Goods’, Journal of Law and Economics, 13: 293–306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/jle.1970.13.issue-2
    Demsetz, H. (1982) Economic, Legal, and Political Dimensions of Competition. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
    Demsetz, H. (1988) ‘Why Regulate Utilities?’, in Stigler (1988).
    Demsetz, H. (1990a) Ownership, Control and the Firm. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Demsetz, H. (1990b) Efficiency, Competition and Policy. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Derthick, M. (1972) New Towns In-Town. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
    Derthick, M. and Quirk, P. (1985) The Politics of Regulation. Washington, DC: Brookings.
    Doel, H. van den (1979) Democracy and Welfare Economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Dolbeare, K.M. (ed.) (1974) Public Policy Evaluation. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Donaldson, L. (1982) ‘Divisionalization and Size’, Organizational Studies, 3: 321–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084068200300402
    Dooley, M.P., Kaufman, H.M. and Lombra, R.E. (1979) The Political Economy of Policy-Making. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Downs, A. (1957) An Economic Theory of Democracy. New York: Harper & Row.
    Downs, A. (1960) ‘Why the Government is Too Small in a Democracy’, World Politics, 12: 541–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2009337
    Downs, A. (1961) ‘The Public Interest: Its Meaning in a Democracy’, Social Research, 29: 1–36.
    Downs, A. (1967) Inside Bureaucracy. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co.
    Downs, G. and Larkey, P. (1986) The Search for Government Efficiency. Philadelphia, PA: Temple.
    Dror, Y. (1974) Public Policymaking Reexamined. New York: Leonard Hill Books.
    Dunleavy, P. (1985) ‘Bureaucrats, Budgets and the Growth of the State: Reconstructing an Instrumental Model’, British Journal of Political Science, 15: 293–328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S000712340000421X
    Dunleavy, P. (1991) Politicians, Bureaucrats and Democracy. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Dunleavy, P. and O'Leary, B. (1987) Theories of the State. London: Macmillan.
    Dunsire, A. (1973) Administration: The Word and the Science. Oxford: Martin Robertson.
    Dunsire, A. (1978) Implementation in a Bureaucracy. Oxford: Martin Robertson.
    Dunsire, A. (1987) ‘Testing Theories: The Contribution of Bureaumetrics’, in Lane (1987).
    Dunsire, A. and Hood, C. (1989) Cutback Management in Public Bureaucracies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Dworkin, R. (1986) Law's Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Dworkin, R. (1987) Taking Rights Seriously. London: Duckworth.
    Dye, T. (1966) Politics, Economics and the Public. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.
    Dye, T. (1976) Policy Analysis. Alabama: University of Alabama Press.
    Easton, D. (1965) A Framework for Political Analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Eatwell, J., Milgate, M. and Nennan, P. (eds) (1987) The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. London: Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230279803
    Eavery, C.L. (1984) ‘Bureaucratic Agenda Control: Imposition or Bargaining’, American Political Science Review, 78: 719–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1961839
    Eckstein, H. and Gurr, T.R. (1975) Patterns of Authority: A Structural Basis for Political Inquiry. New York: Wiley.
    Edelman, M. (1971) Politics as Symbolic Action. Chicago: Markham.
    Eggertson, T. (1990) Economic Behaviour and Institutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511609404
    Eisenstadt, S.N. (1959) ‘Bureaucracy, Bureaucratization and Debureaucratization’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 4: 302–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2390912
    Eliassen, K. and Kooiman, J. (eds) (1993) Managing Public Organizations. Lessons from Contemporary European Experience. London: Sage.
    Ellwein, T., Hesse, J.J., Mayntz, R. and Scharpf, F.W. (1989) Yearbook on Government and Public Administration. Baden-Baden: Nomos.
    Elmore, R.F. (1978) ‘Organizational Models of Social Program Implementation’, Public Policy, 26: 185–228.
    Elmore, R.F. (1982) ‘Backward Mapping: Implementation Research and Policy Decision’, in Williams (1982).
    Enderud, H. (1977) Four Faces of Leadership in an Academic Organization. Copenhagen: Nyt Nordisk Forlag.
    Enelow, J.M. and Hinich, M.J. (1984) The Spatial Theory of Voting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Etzioni, A. (1964) Modern Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Etzioni, A. (1967) ‘Mixed-Scanning: A “Third” Approach to Decision-Making’, Public Administration Review, 27: 385–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/973394
    Etzioni, A. (1975) A Comparative Analysis of Complex Organizations. New York: Free Press.
    Etzioni-Halevy, E. (1983) Bureaucracy and Democracy: A Political Dilemma. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Eulau, H. (1963) The Behavioral Persuasion in Politics. New York: Random House.
    Evans, P.B., Rueschemeyer, D. and Skocpol, T. (eds) (1985) Bringing the State Back In. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511628283
    Fairchild, H.P. (1955) Dictionary of Sociology. Totowa, NJ: Littlefield, Adams.
    Fenno, R.F. (1966) The Power of the Purse. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co.
    Ferejohn, J.A., McKelvey, R.D. and Packel, E.W. (1984) ‘Limiting Distributions for Continuous State Markov Voting Models’, Social Choice and Welfare, 1: 45–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00297059
    Feyerabend, P. (1975) Against Method. London: Verso.
    Fishburn, P.C. (1973) The Theory of Social Choice. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Flynn, N. (1993) Public Sector Management.
    2nd edn.
    Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Francis, J. (1993) The Politics of Regulation: A Comparative Perspective. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Fredriksen, H.G. (1971) ‘Toward a New Public Administration’, in Marini (1971).
    Frey, B.S. (1978) Modern Political Economy. London: Martin Robertson.
    Frey, B.S. (1988) ‘Explaining the Growth of Government: International Perspectives’, in Lybeck and Henrekson (1988).
    Frey, R.G. (ed.) (1984) Utility and Rights. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Friedman, M. (1953) Essays in Positive Economics. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Frohlich, N., Oppenheimer, J.A. and Young, O.R. (1971) Political Leadership and Collective Goods. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Frohlich, N., Oppenheimer, J.A. and Young, O.R. (1978) Modern Political Economy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Fudge, C. and Barrett, S. (1981) ‘Reconstructing the Field of Analysis’, in Barrett and Fudge (1981).
    Furubotn, E.G. and Pejovich, S. (1972) ‘Property Rights and Economic Theory: A Survey of Recent Literature’, Journal of Economic Literature, 10: 1137–62.
    Galbraith, J.K. (1967) The New Industrial State. London: Hamilton.
    George, V. and Wilding, P. (1984) The Impact of Social Policy. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Glymour, C. (1980) Theory and Evidence. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Goodin, R.E. (1982) Political Theory and Public Policy. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.
    Goodman, N. (1965) Fact, Fiction and Forecast. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill.
    Goodman, N. (1972) Problems and Projects. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill.
    Goodsell, C.T. (1983) The Case for Bureaucracy. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.
    Gordon, I., Lewis, J. and Young, K. (1977) ‘Perspectives on Policy Analysis’, Public Administration Bulletin, 25.
    Gouldner, A.W. (1954) Patterns of Industrial Bureaucracy. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
    Graaff, J. de van (1957) Theoretical Welfare Economics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Grant, W. (1985) ‘Corporatism and the Public-Private Distinction’, in Lane (1985).
    Grant, W. and Nath, S. (1984) The Politics of Economic Policymaking. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Grinyer, P.H. (1982) ‘Discussion Note: Divisionalization and Size’, Organizational Studies, 3: 339–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084068200300403
    Groves, T. and Ledyard, J. (1977) ‘Optimal Allocation of Public Goods: A Solution to the “Free Rider” Problem’, Econometrica, 45: 783–809. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1912672
    Gulick, L. and Urwick, L. (eds) (1937) Papers on the Science of Administration. New York: Institute of Public Administration.
    Gunsteren, H. van (1976) The Quest for Control. New York: Wiley.
    Gwartney, J.D. and Wagner, R.E. (eds) (1988) Public Choice and Constitutional Economics. Greenwich, CT: Jai Press.
    Hall, R.H. (1974) Organizations: Structure and Process. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Ham, C. and Hill, M. (1984) The Policy Process in the Modern Capitalist State. Brighton: Wheatsheaf.
    Hanf, K. and Scharpf, F.W. (eds) (1978) Interorganizational Policy Making: Limits to Coordination and Central Control. London: Sage.
    Hanke, S.H. (1987) ‘Privatization’, in Eatwell et al. (1987).
    Hansen, T. (1981) ‘Transforming Needs into Expenditure Decisions’, in Newton (1981).
    Hanson, J.L. (1974) A Dictionary of Economics and Commerce. London: Macdonald & Evans.
    Hardin, G. and Baden, J. (1977) Managing the Commons. San Francisco: Freeman.
    Hardin, R. (1982) Collective Action. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Hargrove, E. (1975) The Missing Link: The Study of the Implementation of Social Policy. Washington, DC. Urban Institute.
    Harsanyi, J.C. (1977) Rational Behavior and Bargaining Equilibrium in Games and Social Situations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511571756
    Harsanyi, J.C. (1986) ‘Advances in Understanding Rational Behavior’, in Elster, J. (ed.), Rational Choice. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Hayek, F.A. von (1944) The Road to Serfdom. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Hayek, F.A. von (1955) The Counter-Revolution of Science. New York: Free Press.
    Hayek, F.A. von (1973) Law, Legislation and Liberty. Vol. 1. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.
    Hayek, F.A. von (ed.) (1935) Collectivist Economic Planning. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Head, J.G. (1974) Public Goods and Public Welfare. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Heap, S. Hargreaves (1989) Rationality in Economics. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Heclo, H. and Wildavsky, A. (1974) The Private Government of Public Money. London: Macmillan.
    Hedberg, B., Nystrom, P.C. and Starbuck, W.H. (1976) ‘“Camping on Seesaws”: Prescriptions for a Self-Designing Organization’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 21: 41–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2391877
    Hempel, C.G. (1965) Aspects of Scientific Explanation. New York: Free Press.
    Henley, D., Likierman, A., Perrin, J., Evans, M., Lapsley, I. and Whiteoak, J. (1993) Public Sector Accounting and Financial Control. London: Chapman & Hall.
    Hernes, G. (ed.) (1978) Forhandlingsökonomi og blandingsadministratasjon. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
    Herring, E.P. (1936) Public Administration and the Public Interest. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Hesse, J.J. (1989) ‘The Purpose of a Contemporary Staatslehre’, in Ellwein et al. (1989).
    Hesse, J.J. and Benz, A. (1989) ‘Institutional Policy: An International Comparison’, in Ellwein et al. (1989).
    Hesse, M. (1974) The Structure of Scientific Inference. New York: Free Press.
    Hibbs, D.A. (1987) The American Political Economy: Macroeconomics and Electoral Politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Hibbs, D.A. and Fassbender, H. (eds) (1981) Contemporary Political Economy. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
    Hill, L.B. (ed.) (1992) The State of Public Bureaucracy. New York: Armonk.
    Hirschman, A.O. (1970) Exit, Voice and Loyalty. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Hjern, B. and Hull, C. (1982) ‘Implementation Research as Empirical Constitutionalism’, European journal for Political Research, 10: 105–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejpr.1982.10.issue-2
    Hjern, B. and Hull, C. (1984) ‘Going Interorganizational: Weber meets Durkheim’, Scandinavian Political Studies, 7: 197–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/scps.1984.7.issue-3
    Hjern, B. and Porter, D.O. (1981) ‘Implementation Structures: A New Unit for Administrative Analysis’, Organizational Studies, 2: 211–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084068100200301
    Hodgson, D.H. (1967) Consequences of Utilitarianism. London: Oxford University Press.
    Hodgson, G. (1988) Economics and Institutions. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Hofferbert, R. (1974) The Study of Public Policy. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill.
    Hogwood, B.W. and Gunn, L.A. (1984) Policy Analysis for the Real World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Hogwood, B.W. and Peters, G.B. (1983) Policy Dynamics. Brighton: Wheatsheaf.
    Hogwood, B.W. and Peters, G.B. (1985) The Pathology of Public Policy. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Holler, M. (ed.) (1984) Coalitions and Collective Action. Wurzburg: Physica Verlag.
    Hood, C. (1976) The Limits of Administration. London: Wiley.
    Hood, C. (1983) The Tools of Government. London: Macmillan.
    Hood, C. (1986) Administrative Analysis: An Introduction to Rules, Enforcement and Organizations. Brighton: Wheatsheaf.
    Hood, C. (1987) ‘British Administrative Trends and the Public Choice Revolution’, in Lane (1987).
    Hood, C. (1990) ‘Public Administration: Lost an Empire, Not Yet Found a Role?’, in Leftwich, A. (ed.), New Developments in Political Science. Aldershot: Gower.
    Hood, C. (1994) Explaining Economic Policy Reversals. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Hood, C. and Dunsire, A. (1981) Bureaumetrics: The Quantitative Comparison of British Central Government Agencies. Farnborough: Gower.
    Hood, C. and Jackson, M. (1991) Administrative Argument. Aldershot: Dartmouth.
    Hood, C. and Schuppert, G.F. (eds) (1987) Delivering Public Services in Western Europe. London: Sage.
    Hoover, K.D. (1988) The New Macroeconomics. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Hotelling, H. (1931) ‘Stability in Competition’, Economic Journal, 39: 41–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2224214
    Hurwicz, L. (1972) ‘On Informationally Decentralized Systems’, in Radner and McGuire (1972).
    Hyde, A.C. (1992) Government Budgeting: Theory, Process and Politics. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Hyneman, C.S. (1950) Bureaucracy in a Democracy. New York: Harper.
    Indik, B.P. (1964) ‘The Relationship between Organizational Size and Supervisory Ratio’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 9: 301–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2391443
    Ingram, H.M. and Mann, E.E. (eds) (1980) Why Policies Succeed or Fail. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Jenkins, B. and Gray, A. (1983) ‘Bureaucratic Politics and Power’, Political Studies, 31: 177–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/post.1983.31.issue-2
    Johansen, L. (1978a) Public Economics. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
    Johansen, L. (1978b) Lectures on Macroeconomic Planning. Vols 1–2. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
    Johansen, L. (1979) ‘The Bargaining Society and the Inefficiency of Bargaining’, Kyklos, 32: 497–522. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/kykl.1979.32.issue-3
    Johnsen, E. (1968) Studies in Multiobjective Decision Models. Lund: Studentlitteratur.
    Jones, G.W. (ed.) (1980) New Approaches to the Study of Central-Local Relationships. Farnborough: Gower.
    Jonsson, E. (1985) ‘A Model of a Non-Budget-Maximizing Bureau’, in Lane (1985).
    Jordan, G. (1981) ‘Iron Triangles, Wholly Corporatism and Elastic Nets: Images of the Policy Process’, Journal of Public Policy, 1: 95–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0143814X00001379
    Jordan, G. (1990) ‘Sub-governments, Policy Communities and Networks: Refilling Old Bottles’, Journal of Theoretical Politics, 2: 319–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0951692890002003004
    Kahn, A. (1988) The Economics of Regulation: Principles and Institutions. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Original edition 1971.)
    Kaplan, A. (1964) The Conduct of Inquiry. San Francisco: Chandler.
    Karpik, L. (ed.) (1978) Organization and Environment. London: Sage.
    Kaufman, F.X., Majone, G. and Ostrom, V. (eds) (1986) Guidance, Control, and Evaluation in the Public Sector. Berlin: de Gruyter.
    Kaufman, H. (1976) Are Government Organizations Immortal?Washington, DC: Brookings.
    Kaufman, H. (1981) The Administrative Behavior of Federal Bureau Chiefs. Washington, DC: Brookings.
    Kaufman, H. (1985) Time, Change and Organization. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.
    Kelly, J.S. (1986) Social Choice Theory. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
    Kelsen, H. (1961) General Theory of Law and State. New York: Russel & Russel.
    Kimberly, J.R. (1976) ‘Organizational Size and the Structuralist Perspective’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 21: 571–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2391717
    Kingdon, J.W. (1984) Agendas, Alternatives and Public Policies. Boston: Toronto.
    Klijn, E.H. (1995) ‘Policy Networks: An Overview’. Department of Public Administration, Erasmus University: Working Paper No 11.
    Klijn, E.H., Koppenjan, J.F.M. and Termeer, C.J.A.M. (1995) ‘Managing Networks in the Public Sector’. Department of Public Administration, Erasmus University, Rotterdam.
    Knight, K. (1976) ‘Matrix Organization: A Review’, Journal of Management Studies, 13: 111–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joms.1976.13.issue-2
    Konukiewitz, M. (1985) ‘Taming the Housing Market’, in Lane (1985).
    Kooiman, J. and Eliassen, K.A. (eds) (1987) Managing Public Organizations. London: Sage.
    Kristensen, O.P. (1987a) Vaeksten i den offentlige sektor. Copenhagen: Jurist- og Ökonomforbundets Forlag.
    Kristensen, O.P. (1987b) ‘Privatization’, in Kooiman and Eliassen (1987).
    Krupp, S. (ed.) (1966) The Structure of Economic Science. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Kuhn, T.S. (1962) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.
    Laffer, A.B. (1978) ‘Taxation, GNP, and Potential GNP’, Proceedings of the Business and Economics Statistics Section. Washington, DC: American Statistical Association.
    Laffer, A.B. (1981) ‘Government Extractions and Revenue Deficiencies’, Cato journal, 1:1–21.
    Lane, J.-E. (ed.) (1985) State and Market: The Politics of the Public and the Private. London: Sage.
    Lane, J.-E. (ed.) (1987) Bureaucracy and Public Choice. London: Sage.
    Lange, O. (1969) ‘The Foundations of Welfare Economics’, in Arrow and Scitovsky (1969).
    Lange, O. and Taylor, F.M. (1964) On the Economic Theory of Socialism. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Larkey, P., Stolp, C. and Winer, M. (1981) ‘Theorizing about the Growth of Government: A Research Assessment’, Journal of Public Policy, 2: 157–220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0143814X00001483
    Lasswell, H. (1951) ‘The Policy Orientation’, in Lerner and Lasswell (1951).
    Lasswell, H. (1962) ‘The Public Interest: Proposing Principles of Content and Procedure’, Nomos, 1: 54–79.
    Laver, M. (1986) Social Choice and Public Policy. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Lawton, A. and Rose, A.G. (1994) Organisation and Management in the Public Sector. London: Pitman.
    Layard, P.R.G. and Walters, A.A. (1978) Microeconomic Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Le Grand, J. and Estrin, S. (eds) (1989) Market Socialism. Oxford: Clarendon.
    Lehmbruch, G. and Schmitter, P.C. (eds) (1982) Patterns of Corporatist Policy-Making. London: Sage.
    Leibenstein, H. (1966) ‘Allocative Efficiency versus “X-Efficiency”’, American Economic Review, 56: 392–415.
    Lerner, A.P. (1944) The Economics of Control: Principles of Welfare Economics. New York: Macmillan.
    Lerner, D. and Lasswell, H.D. (eds) (1951) The Policy Sciences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Levy, F., Meltsner, A.J. and Wildavsky, A. (1974) Urban Outcomes. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Leys, W.A.R. (1962) ‘The Relevance and Generality of “The Public Interest”’, Nomos, 1: 237–50.
    Leys, W.A.R. and Perry, C.M. (1959) Philosophy and the Public Interest. Chicago, IL: Committee to Advance Original Work in Philosophy.
    Likert, R. (1961) New Patterns of Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Lindahl, E. (1967) ‘Just Taxation – A Positive Solution’, in Musgrave and Peacock (1967). (Original edition 1919.)
    Lindbeck, A. (1984) ‘Redistribution Policy and the Expansion of the Public Sector’ (mimeo). Paper presented at the Nobel Symposium on the Growth of Government, Stockholm.
    Lindblom, C.E. (1959) ‘The Science of “Muddling-Through”’, Public Administration Review, 19: 79–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/973677
    Lindblom, C.E. (1965) The Intelligence of Democracy. New York: Free Press.
    Lindblom, C.E. (1977) Politics and Markets. New York: Basic Books.
    Lindblom, C.E. (1988) Democracy and Market System. Oslo: Norwegian University Press.
    Lindblom, C.E. (1990) Inquiry and Change. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Lindgren, B.W. (1971) Elements of Decision Theory. New York: Macmillan.
    Lippman, W. (1955) Essays in the Public Interest Philosophy. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co.
    Lipsey, R.C. and Lancaster, K. (1956) ‘The General Theory of Second Best’, Review of Economic Studies, 24: 11–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2296233
    Lipsky, M. (1980) Street-Level Bureaucracy. New York: Russell Sage.
    Little, I.M.D. (1973) A Critique of Welfare Economics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Loerhr, W. and Sandier, T. (eds) (1978) Public Goods and Public Policy. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Lowi, T.J. (1979) The End of Liberalism: The Second Republic of the United States. New York: W.W. Norton.
    Lybeck, J.A. (1986) The Growth of Government in Developed Economies. Aldershot: Gower.
    Lybeck, J.A. and Henrekson, M. (eds) (1988) Explaining the Growth of Government. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
    Lynn, N. and Wildavsky, A. (eds) (1990) Public Administration: The State of the Discipline. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.
    Lyons, D. (1965) The Forms and Limits of Utilitarianism. London: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198241973.001.0001
    Maidment, R. and Thompson, G. (1993) Managing the United Kingdom. London: Sage.
    Majone, G. and Wildavsky, A. (1984) ‘Implementation as Evolution’, in Pressman and Wildavsky (1984).
    Manley, J.F. (1975) The Politics of Finance. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co.
    March, J.G. (1981) ‘Decisions in Organizations and Theories of Choice’, in Ven, J. Van de and Joyce, W. (eds), Perspectives on Organizational Design and Behavior. New York: Wiley.
    March, J.G. (1988) Decisions and Organizations. Oxford: Blackwell.
    March, J.G. and Olsen, J.P. (eds) (1976) Ambiguity and Choice in Organizations. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
    March, J.G. and Olsen, J.P. (1984) ‘The New Institutionalism: Organizational Factors in Political Life’, American Political Science Review, 78: 734–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1961840
    March, J.G. and Olsen, J.P. (1989) Rediscovering Institutions: The Organizational Basis of Politics. New York: Free Press.
    March, J.G. and Olsen, J.P. (1995) Democratic Governance. New York: Free Press.
    March, J.G. and Simon, H. (1958) Organizations. New York: Wiley.
    Marglin, S.A. (1963) ‘The Social Rate of Discount and the Optimal Rate of Investment’, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 77: 95–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1879374
    Margolis, H. (1982) Selfishness, Altruism and Rationality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Margolis, J. and Guitton, H. (eds) (1969) Public Economics. New York: St Martin's Press.
    Marin, B. and Mayntz, R. (eds) (1991) Policy Networks: Empirical Evidence and Theoretical Considerations. Frankfurt am Main: Campus Verlag.
    Marini, F. (ed.) (1971) Toward a New Public Administration: The Minnowbrook Perspective. Scrawton, PA: Chandler.
    Marsh, D. and Rhodes, R.A.W. (eds) (1992) Policy Networks in British Government. Oxford: Clarendon Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198278528.001.0001
    Matthews, R.C.O. (1986) ‘The Economics of Institutions and the Sources of Growth’, Economic Journal, 96: 903–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2233164
    May, J.V. and Wildavsky, A. (eds) (1978) The Policy Cycle. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Mazmanian, D.A. and Sabatier, P.A. (1983) Implementation and Public Policy. Palo Alto: Scott, Foresman.
    McCubbins, M.D. and Sullivan, T. (eds) (1987) Congress: Structure and Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    McKean, R.N. (1958) Efficiency in Government through Systems Analysis. New York: Wiley.
    McKevitt, D. and Lawton, A. (eds) (1994) Public Sector Management: Theory, Critique and Practice. London: Sage.
    McLean, I. (1987) Public Choice. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Melman, S. (1951) ‘The Rise of Administrative Overhead in the Manufacturing Industries of the United States: 1899–1947’, Oxford Economic Papers, 3: 62–112.
    Meltsner, A.J. (1976) Policy Analysts in the Bureaucracy. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Meltsner, A.J. and Bellavita, C. (1983) The Policy Organization. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Merritt, R.L. and Merritt, A.J. (eds) (1985) Innovation in the Public Sector. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Merton, R.K. (1957) Social Theory and Social Structure. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
    Metcalfe, L. and Richards, S. (1987) Improving Public Management. London: Sage.
    Meter, D.S. van and Horn, C.E. van (1975) ‘The Policy Implementation Process: A Conceptual Framework’, Administration and Society, 6: 445–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009539977500600404
    Meyer, M.W. (1985) Limits to Bureaucratic Growth. Berlin: de Gruyter.
    Meyer, M.W. and Brown, M.C. (1977) ‘The Process of Bureaucratization’, American Journal of Sociology, 77: 297–322.
    Mierlo, H.J.G.A. van (1985) ‘Improvement of Public Provision of Goods and Services’ in Lane (1985).
    Milgram, P. and Roberts, J. (1992) Economics, Organization and Management. New York: Prentice-Hall
    Mill, J.S. (1964) Utilitarianism, Liberty and Representative Government. London: Everyman's Library.
    Miller, D. (1976) Social Justice. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Miller, D. and Walzer, M. (eds) (1995) Pluralism, Justice and Equality. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0198280084.001.0001
    Miller, G.J. and Moe, T.M. (1983) ‘Bureaucrats, Legislators and the Size of Government’, American Political Review, 77: 297–322. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1958917
    Milward, H.B. Brinton (1982) ‘Interorganizational Policy Systems and Research on Public Organizations’, Administration and Society, 13: 457–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009539978201300404
    Mintzberg, H. (1973) The Nature of Managerial Work. New York: Harper & Row.
    Mintzberg, H. (1979) The Structuring of Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Mintzberg, H. (1983) Structures in Fives. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Mises, L. von (1935) ‘Economic Calculation in the Socialist Commonwealth’, in Hayek (1935).
    Mises, L. von (1962) Bureaucracy. Westport, CT: Arlington House.
    Mises, L. von (1963) Human Action: A Treatise on Economics. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Mishan, E.J. (1981) Introduction to Normative Economics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Mitnick, B. (1980) The Political Economy of Regulation. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Moe, T.M. (1984) ‘The New Economics of Organization’, American Journal of Political Science, 28: 739–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2110997
    Moe, T.M. (1990) ‘Political Institutions: The Neglected Side of the Story’, Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, 6: 213–53.
    Moene, K.O. (1986) ‘Types of Bureaucratic Interaction’, Journal of Public Economics, 29: 333–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0047-2727%2886%2990033-2
    Morgan, Gareth (1986) Images of Organization. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Morgan, Glenn (1990) Organizations in Society. London: Macmillan.
    Moulin, H. (1983) The Strategy of Social Choice. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
    Mueller, D. (1979) Public Choice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Mueller, D. (1986) The Modern Corporation. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester.
    Mueller, D. (1989) Public Choice II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Murray, R. (1987) ‘Productivity Measurement in Bureaucratic Organizations’, in Lane (1987).
    Musgrave, R.A. (1959) The Theory of Public Finance. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Musgrave, R.A. (1962) ‘The Public Interest: Efficiency in the Creation and Maintenance of Material Welfare’, Nomos, 1: 107–14.
    Musgrave, R.A. and Musgrave, R. (1989) Public Finance in Theory and Practice.
    5th edn.
    New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Musgrave, R.A. and Peacock, A.T. (eds) (1967) Classics in the Theory of Public Finance. New York: St Martin's Press. (Original edition 1958.)
    Myrdal, G. (1961) ‘“Value-loaded” Concepts’, in Hegeland, H. (ed.), Money, Growth, and Methodology and Other Essays in Honor of J. Åkermann. Lund: Gleerup.
    Myrdal, G. (1970) Objectivity in Social Research. London: Duckworth.
    Nagel, E. (1961) The Structure of Science. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Nagel, S.S. and Neef, M. (1979) Policy Analysis in Social Science Research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Nagel, T. (1991) Equality and Partiality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Nath, S.K. (1969) A Reappraisal of Welfare Economics. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Newton, K. (ed.) (1981) Urban Political Economy. London: Frances Pinter.
    Niskanen, W.A. (1971) Bureaucracy and Representative Government. Chicago, IL: Aldine-Atherton.
    Noll, R. and Owen, B. (1983) The Political Economy of Deregulation. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute.
    North, D.C. (1981) Structure and Change in Economic History. New York: Norton.
    North, D.C. (1989) ‘A Transaction Cost Approach to the Historical Development of Polities and Economies’, journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 145: 661–8.
    North, D.C. (1990a) ‘A Transaction Cost Theory of Politics’, journal of Theoretical Politics, 2: 355–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0951692890002004001
    North, D.C. (1990b) Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511808678
    Novick, D. (1973) Current Practice in Program Budgeting (PPBS). London: Heinemann.
    Novick, D. (ed.) (1965) Program Budgeting. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Nozick, R. (1974) Anarchy, State and Utopia. New York: Basic Books.
    Nurmi, H. (1987) Comparing Voting Systems. Dordrecht: D. Reidel. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3985-1
    Nystrom, P.C. and Starbuck, W.H. (eds) (1981) Handbook of Organizational Design. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Oates, W. (1972) Fiscal Federalism. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
    OECD (1993) Public Management Developments: Survey 1993. Paris: OECD.
    Okun, A.M. (1975) Equality and Efficiency. Washington, DC: Brookings.
    Olsen, J.P. (1983) Organized Democracy. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
    Olsen, J.P. (1988) Statsstyre og institusjonsutforming. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.
    Olson, M. (1965) The Logic of Collective Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Olson, M. (1982) The Rise and Decline of Nations. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Ostrom, E. (1990) Governing the Commons. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Ostrom, V. and Ostrom, E. (1971) ‘Public Choice: A Different Approach to the Study of Public Administration’, Public Administration Review, 31: 302–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/974676
    Ostrom, V. and Ostrom, E. (1977) ‘Public Goods and Public Choices’, in Savas (1977).
    Page, E. (1985) Political Authority and Bureaucratic Power: A Comparative Analysis. Brighton: Harvester.
    Page, E. (1987) ‘Comparing Bureaucracies’, in Lane (1987).
    Palgrave, R.H.I. (ed.) (1894) Dictionary of Political Economy. Vols I–III. London: Macmillan.
    Parfit, D. (1984) Reasons and Persons. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Parkinson, N.C. (1957) Parkinson's Law or the Pursuit of Progress. London: John Murray.
    Parsons, T. (1968) The Structure of Social Action. Vols I–II. New York: Free Press. (Original edition 1937.)
    Parsons, T. (ed.) (1947) The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. New York: Free Press.
    Paul, E.F. and Russo, P.A. (eds) (1982) Public Policy. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.
    Peabody, R.L. and Rourke, F.E. (1965) ‘Public Bureaucracies’, in March, J.G. (ed.), Handbook of Organizations. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.
    Peltzman, S. (1976) ‘Towards a More General Theory of Regulation’, Journal of Law and Economics, 19: 211–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/jle.1976.19.issue-2
    Peltzman, S. (1988) ‘Toward a More General Theory of Regulation’, in Stigler (1988).
    Peltzman, S. (1989) ‘The Economic Theory of Regulation after a Decade of Deregulation’. Washington, DC: Brookings Papers on Economic Activity: Microeconomics1–41.
    Pennock, J.R. (1962) ‘The One and the Many: A Note on the Concept’, Nomos, 1: 177–82.
    Peters, B.G. (1987) ‘Politicians and Bureaucrats in the Politics of Policy-Making’, in Lane (1987).
    Peters, B.G. (1991) The Politics of Taxation. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Pfeffer, J. (1982) Organizations and Organization Theory. Boston, MA: Pitman.
    Pfiffner, J.M. and Sherwood, F.P. (1960) Administrative Organization. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Phelps, E.S. (ed.) (1962) Private Wants and Public Needs. New York: Norton.
    Pigou, A.C. (1962) The Economics of Welfare. London: Macmillan. (Original edition 1924.)
    Pirie, M. (1988) Privatization: Theory, Practice and Choice. Aldershot: Wildwood House.
    Pondy, L.R. (1969) ‘Effects of Size, Complexity and Ownership on Administrative Intensity’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 14: 47–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2391361
    Popper, K. (1959) The Logic of Scientific Discovery. New York: Harper & Row.
    Popper, K. (1963) Conjectures and Refutations. New York: Harper & Row.
    Popper, K. (1972) Objective Knowledge. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Posner, R. (1974) ‘Theories of Economic Regulation’, Bell Journal of Economics, 5: 335–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3003113
    Posner, R. (1988) ‘The Social Costs of Monopoly and Regulation’, in Stigler (1988).
    Posner, R. (1992) The Economic Analysis of Law. Boston: Little, Brown & Co.
    Powell, W.W. and DiMaggio, P.J. (1991) The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Pressman, J. and Wildavsky, A. (1984) Implementation. Berkeley: University of California Press. (Original edition 1973.)
    Prest, A.R. and Barr, N.A. (1979) Public Finance in Theory and Practice. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
    Pugh, D.S. and Hickson, D.J. (1976) Organization Structure in its Context: The Aston Programme I. Famborough: Saxon House.
    Pugh, D.S., Hickson, D.J., Hinings, C.R., MacDonald, K.M., Turner, C. and Lupton, T. (1963) ‘A Conceptual Scheme for Organizational Analysis’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 10: 301–7.
    Pugh, D.S., Hickson, D.J., Hinings, C.R. and Turner, C. (1969) ‘The Context of Organizational Structures’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 14: 91–114. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2391366
    Putnam, H. (1975) Mind, Language and Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511625251
    Quade, E.S. (1976) Analysis for Public Decisions. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
    Quine, W.V. (1960) Word and Object. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Quine, W.V. and Ullian, J.S. (1970) The Web of Belief. New York: Random House.
    Quirk, J. and Saposnik, R. (1968) Introduction to General Equilibrium Theory and Welfare Economics. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Radner, R. and McGuire, C.B. (eds) (1972) Decision and Organization: A Volume in Honor of Jacob Marschak. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
    Radomysler, J. (1969) ‘Welfare Economics and Economic Policy’, in Arrow and Scitovsky (1969).
    Ranney, A. (1968) Political Science and Public Policy.
    19th edn
    . Chicago, IL: Markham.
    Rasmussen, E. (1994) Games and Information: An Introduction to Games Theory. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Rawls, J. (1971) A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Regan, D. (1980) Utilitarianism and Co-operation. Oxford: Clarendon Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198246091.001.0001
    Reiman, J. (1990) justice and Modern Moral Philosophy. New Haven: Yale University Press.
    Rescher, N. (1970) Scientific Explanation. New York: Free Press.
    Rhodes, R.A.W. (1981) Control and Power in Central-Local Relations. Farnborough: Gower.
    Rhodes, R.A.W. (1988) Beyond Westminster and Whitehall: the Sub-central Governments of Britain. London: Routledge.
    Rhodes, R.A.W. (1990) ‘Policy Networks: A British Perspective’, Journal of Theoretical Politics, 2: 293–317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0951692890002003003
    Richardson, J.J. (ed.) (1982) Policy Styles in Western Europe. London: Allen & Unwin.
    Richardson, J.J. and Jordan, A.G. (1979) Governing under Pressure. London: Martin Robertson.
    Ricketts, M. (1987) The Economics of Business Enterprise. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Riggs, F.W. (1979) ‘Introduction: Shifting Meanings of the Term “Bureaucracy”’, International Social Science journal, 31: 563–84.
    Riker, W.H. (1980) ‘Implications from the Disequilibrium of Majority Rule for the Study of Institutions’, American Political Science Review, 74: 432–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1960638
    Riker, W.H. (1982) Liberalism against Populism. San Francisco: Freeman.
    Riker, W.H. and Ordeshook, P.C. (1973) An Introduction to Positive Political Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Robbins, L.C. (1932) An Essay on the Nature and Significance of Economic Science. London: Macmillan.
    Roethlisberger, F.J. and Dickson, W.J. (1939) Management and the Worker. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Rogers, D.L. and Whetten, D.A. (eds) (1982) Interorganizational Coordination: Theory, Research and Implementation. Ames: Iowa State University Press.
    Rose, R. (ed.) (1980) The Challenge to Governance: Studies in Overloaded Polities. London: Sage.
    Rose, R. (1981) ‘What If Anything is Wrong with Big Government?’, journal of Public Policy, 1: 5–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0143814X00001343
    Rose, R. (1984) Understanding Big Government: The Programme Approach. London: Sage.
    Rose, R. (1985) Public Employment in Western Nations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Rose, R. (1987) ‘Giving Direction to Permanent Officials: Signals from the Electorates, the Market, and from Self-expertise’, in Lane (1987).
    Rose, R. (1989) Ordinary People in Public Policy. London: Sage.
    Ross, S.A. (1973) ‘The Economic Theory of Agency: The Principal's Problem’, American Economic Review, 63: 134–9.
    Rourke, F.E. (1969) Bureaucracy, Politics and Public Policy. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co.
    Rowley, C.K. and Peacock, A.T. (1975) Welfare Economics. London: Martin Robertson.
    Rowley, C.K., Tollison, R.D. and Tullock, G. (1988) The Political Economy of Rent-Seeking. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
    Rudolph, L.J. and Rudolph, S.H. (1979) ‘Authority and Power in Bureaucratic and Patrimonial Administration’, World Politics, 31: 195–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2009942
    Sabatier, P. (1986) ‘Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches to Implementation Research’, journal of Public Policy, 6: 21–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0143814X00003846
    Sabatier, P. and Jenkins-Smith, H. (eds) (1993) Policy Change and Learning: An Advocacy Coalition Approach. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Sabatier, P. and Mazmanian, D. (1979) ‘The Conditions of Effective Implementation: A Guide to Accomplishing Policy Objectives’, Policy Analysis, 5: 481–504.
    Saltzstein, G.H. (1985) ‘Conceptualizing Bureaucratic Responsiveness’, Administration and Society, 17: 283–306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009539978501700303
    Samuelson, P.A. (1954) ‘The Pure Theory of Public Expenditure’, Review of Economics and Statistics, 36: 387–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1925895
    Samuelson, P.A. (1955) ‘Diagrammatic Exposition of a Theory of Public Expenditure’, Review of Economics and Statistics, 37: 35–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1925849
    Samuelson, P.A. (1965) Foundations of Economic Analysis. New York: Atheneum.
    Savas, E.S. (1982) Privatizing the Public Sector. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.
    Savas, E.S. (1987) The Key to Better Government. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.
    Savas, E.S. (ed.) (1977) Alternatives for Delivering Public Services. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Scanlon, T.M. (1982) ‘Contractualism and Utilitarianism’, in Sen and Williams (1982).
    Scharpf, F.W. (ed.) (1993) Games in Hierarchies and Networks: Analytical and Empirical Approaches to the Study of Governmental Institutions. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Scharpf, F.W., Reissert, B. and Schnabel, F. (1975) Control Deficits in Multi-Level Problem Solving. Berlin: International Institute of Management.
    Scheffler, I. (1967a) The Anatomy of Inquiry. New York: Knopf.
    Scheffler, I. (1967b) Science and Subjectivity. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill.
    Schmidt, M.G. (ed.) (1982) Wohlfartsstaatliche Politik und bürgerlichen und sozial-demokratichen Regierungen. Frankfurt am Main: Campus.
    Schmitter, P.C. (1983) ‘Democratic Theory and Neo-Corporatist Practice’, Social Research, 50: 885–928.
    Schmitter, P.C. and Lehmbruch, G. (eds) (1978) Trends Toward Corporatist Intermidiation. London: Sage.
    Schotter, A. (1985) Free Market Economics. New York: St Martin's Press.
    Schubert, G. (1960) The Public Interest. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
    Schumpeter, J.A. (1965) Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy.
    London
    : Allen & Unwin. (Original edition 1942.)
    Schumpeter, J.A. (1989) Essays on Entrepreneurs, Innovations, Business Cycles and the Evolution of Capitalism. New Brunswick: Transaction.
    Self, P. (1972) Administrative Theories and Politics. London: Allen & Unwin.
    Self, P. (1985) Political Theories of Modern Government, its Role and Reform. London: Allen & Unwin.
    Selznick, P. (1949) TVA and the Grass Roots. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Selznick, P. (1957) Leadership in Administration. Evanston, IL: Row & Peters.
    Sen, A. (1970) Collective Choice and Social Welfare. San Francisco: Holden-Day, Inc.
    Sen, A. (1982) Choice, Welfare and Measurement. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Sen, A. and Williams, B. (eds) (1982) Utilitarianism and Beyond. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511611964
    Shafritz, J.M. and Hyde, A.C. (eds) (1978) Classics of Public Administration. Oak Park, IL: Moore Publishing.
    Shafritz, J.M. and Ott, J.S. (1992) Classics of Organization Theory. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Sharkansky, I. (1969) The Politics of Taxation and Spending. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill.
    Sharkansky, I. (1978) Public Administration. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.
    Sharkansky, I. (1979) Wither the State?Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.
    Sharpe, L.J. (1985) ‘Central Coordination and the Policy Network’, Political Studies, 33: 361–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/post.1985.33.issue-3
    Sharpe, L.J. and Newton, K. (1984) Does Politics Matter? The Determinants of Public Policy. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Shepsle, K.A. (1986) ‘Institutional Equilibrium and Equilibrium Institutions’, in Weisburg, H. (ed.), Political Science: The Science of Politics. New York: Agathon Press.
    Shepsle, K.A. (1989) ‘Studying Institutions: Some Lessons from the Rational Choice Approach’, Journal of Theoretical Politics, 1: 131–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0951692889001002002
    Shepsle, K.A. and Weingast, B.R. (1981) ‘Institutional Equilibrium and Equilibrium Institutions’, Public Choice, 37: 503–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00133748
    Sherman, R. (1989) The Regulation of Monopoly. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511572005
    Sidgwick, H. (1967) The Methods of Ethics,
    7th edn.
    London: Macmillan.
    Simmons, R.H. and Dvorin, E.P. (1977) Public Administration. Port Washington: Alfred Publishing.
    Simon, H.A. (1947) Administrative Behavior. New York: Macmillan.
    Simon, H.A. (1957) Models of Man. New York: Wiley.
    Simon, H.A. (1964) ‘On the Concept of Organizational Goal’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 9: 1–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2391519
    Simon, H.A.Smithburg, D.W. and Thompson, V.A. (1950) Public Administration. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
    Skocpol, T. (1979) States and Social Revolutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Skocpol, T. (1985) ‘Bringing the State Back In: Strategies of Analysis in Current Research’, in Evans et al. (1985).
    Smart, J.C. and Williams, B. (1987) Utilitarianism: For and Against. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Smith, A. (1962) The Wealth of Nations. Vols I–II. London: Everyman Library. (Original edition 1776.)
    Smith, D. and Zurcher, O. (eds) (1944) A Dictionary of American Politics. New York: Barnes & Noble.
    Sorauf, F.J. (1962) ‘The Conceptual Muddle’, Nomos, 1: 183–190.
    Sörensen, R. (1985) ‘Economic Relations between City and Suburban Governments’, in Lane (1985).
    Sörensen, R. (1987) ‘Bureaucratic Decision-making and the Growth of Public Expenditure’, in Lane (1987).
    Spulber, D.F. (1989) Regulation and Markets. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Ståhlberg, K. (1987) ‘Functional and Dysfunctional Bureaucracies’, in Lane (1987).
    Starbuck, W.H. (1965) ‘Organizational Growth and Development’, in March, J.G. (ed.), Handbook of Organizations. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.
    Starbuck, W.H. (1976) ‘Organizations and their Environments’, in Dunnette, M.D. (ed.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Chicago: Rand McNally.
    Stevens, J.B. (1993) The Economics of Collective Choice. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Stigler, G.J. (1975) The Citizen and the State: Essays on Regulation. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Stigler, G.J. (ed.) (1988) Chicago Studies in Political Economy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Stiglitz, J.E. (1987) ‘Principal and Agent’ in Eatwell et al. (1987).
    Stone, R.C. (1969) ‘Bureaucracy’, in Gould, J. and Kolb, W.L. (eds), A Dictionary of the Social Sciences. New York: Free Press.
    Streeck, W. and Schmitter, P.C. (eds) (1985) Private Interest Government. London: Sage.
    Sugden, R. (1981) The Political Economy of Public Choice. Oxford: Martin Robertson.
    Sutton, J. (1991) Sunk Cost and Market Structure. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Tarschys, D. (1975) ‘The Growth of Public Expenditure: Nine Modes of Explanation’, Scandinavian Political Studies, 10: 9–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9477.1975.tb00568.x
    Thompson, E.A. and Faith, R.L. (1981) ‘A Pure Theory of Strategic Behavior and Social Institutions’, American Economic Review, 71: 366–80.
    Thompson, J.D. (1967) Organizations in Action. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Thompson, M., Ellis, R. and Wildavsky, A. (1990) Cultural Theory. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Thompson, V.A. (1964) Modern Organization. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
    Thurow, L.C. (1980) The Zero-Sum Society: Distribution and the Possibilities for Economic Change. New York: Basic Books.
    Tiebout, C. (1956) ‘A Pure Theory of Local Expenditure’, journal of Political Economy, 64: 416–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/jpe.1956.64.issue-5
    Tinbergen, J. (1967) Economic Policy: Principles and Design. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
    Tirole, J. (1993) The Theory of Industrial Organization. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Tollison, R.D. (1982) ‘Rent-Seeking: A Survey’, Kyklos, 35: 575–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/kykl.1982.35.issue-4
    Trow, M. (1984) ‘Leadership and Organization: The Case of Biology at Berkeley’, in Premfors, R. (ed.), Higher Education Organization. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.
    Trow, M. (1985) ‘Comparative Reflexions on Leadership in Higher Education’, European Journal of Education, 20: 14–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1502944
    Truman, D.B. (1951) The Governmental Process. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
    Tufte, E. (1978) Political Control of the Economy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Tullock, G. (1959) ‘Some Problems of Majority Voting’, journal of Political Economy, 67: 571–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/jpe.1959.67.issue-6
    Tullock, G. (1965) The Politics of Bureaucracy. Washington, DC: Public Affairs Press.
    Tullock, G. (1970) Private Wants, Public Means. New York: Basic Books.
    Tullock, G. (1988) Wealth, Poverty and Politics. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Vanberg, Viktor and Buchanan, James M. (1989) ‘Interests and Theories in Constitutional Choice’, journal of Theoretical Politics, 1: 49–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0951692889001001004
    Varian, H.R. (1987) Microeconomic Analysis. New York: Norton.
    Veljanovski, Cento G. (1982) ‘The Coase Theorems and the Economic Theory of Markets and Law’, Kyklos, 35: 66–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/kykl.1982.35.issue-1
    Vickers, J. and Wright, V. (eds) (1988) ‘The Politics of Privatization in Western Europe’, West European Politics, 11 (4).
    Vickers, J. and Yarrow, G. (1989) Privatization: An Economic Analysis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Waldo, D. (1948) The Administrative State. New York: Ronald Press.
    Waldo, D. (ed.) (1971) Public Administration in a Time of Turbulence. Scrawton, PA: Chandler.
    Waldron, J. (1984) Theories of Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Walzer, M. (1983) Spheres of justice. New York: Basic Books.
    Wamsley, G.L. et al. (eds) (1990) Refunding Public Administration. London: Sage.
    Wanat, J. (1974) ‘Bases of Budgetary Incrementalism’, American Political Science Review, 68: 1221–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1959158
    Warwick, D.P. (1975) A Theory of Public Bureaucracy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Weaver, R.K. and Rockman, B.A. (eds) (1993) Do Institutions Matter? Government Capabilities in the United States and Abroad. Washington, DC: Brookings.
    Weber, M. (1923) Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Wissenschaftslehre. Tübingen: Mohr.
    Weber, M. (1949) The Methodology of the Social Sciences. New York: Free Press.
    Weber, M. (1978) Economy and Society. Vols I–II. Berkeley: University of California Press. (Original German edition 1922.)
    Weimar, D.L. and Vining, A.R. (1992) Policy Analysis: Concepts and Practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Weingast, Barry R. (1989) ‘The Political Institutions of Representative Government’, journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 145: 693–703.
    Weingast, Barry R. and Marshall, William J. (1988) ‘The Industrial Organization of Congress; or Why Legislatures, Like Firms, are Not Organized as Markets’, Journal of Political Economy, 96: 132–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/jpe.1988.96.issue-1
    Weiss, L. and Klass, M. (eds) (1986) Regulatory Reform: What Actually Happened. Boston: Little, Brown & Co.
    Westlund, A. and Lane, J.-E. (1983) ‘The Relevance of the Concept of Structural Variability to the Social Sciences’, Quality and Quantity, 17: 189–201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00167583
    White, J. and Wildavsky, A. (1989) The Deficit and the Public Interest. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    White, J.D. and Adams, G.B. (1994) Research in Public Administration: Reflections on Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Whiteley, P. (1980) Models of Political Economy. London: Sage.
    Whiteley, P. (1986) The Political Economy of Policy-Making. London: Sage.
    Whyte, W.H. (1956) The Organization of Man. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Wicksell, K. (1967) ‘A New Principle of Just Taxation’, in Musgrave and Peacock (1967). (Original edition 1896.)
    Wildavsky, A. (1972) The Revolt against the Masses and Other Essays on Politics and Public Policy. New York: Basic Books.
    Wildavsky, A. (1973) ‘If Planning is Everything, Then Maybe it is Nothing’, Policy Sciences, 4: 127–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01405729
    Wildavsky, A. (1977) ‘Changing Forward versus Changing Back. Lindblom: Politics and Markets: The World's Political-Economic Systems', Yale Law journal, 217: 34.
    Wildavsky, A. (1979) Speaking Truth to Power: The Art and Craft of Policy Analysis. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co.
    Wildavsky, A. (1980) How to Limit Government Spending. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Wildavsky, A. (1984) The Politics of the Budgetary Process. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co. (Original edition 1964.)
    Wildavsky, A. (1985) ‘The Logic of Public Sector Growth’, in Lane (1985).
    Wildavsky, A. (1986) Budgeting: A Comparative Theory of the Budgetary Process. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co. (Original edition 1975.)
    Wildavsky, A. (1987) ‘Choosing Preferences by Constructing Institutions: A Cultural Theory of Preference Formation’, American Political Science Review, 81: 3–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1960776
    Wildavsky, A. (1988a) The New Politics of the Budgetary Process. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co.
    Wildavsky, A. (1988b) Searching for Safety. New Brunswick: Transaction.
    Wilensky, H. (1967) Organizational Intelligence. New York: Basic Books.
    Wilensky, H. (1975) The Welfare State and Equality. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Williams, W. (1971) Social Policy Research and Analysis. New York: Elsevier.
    Williams, W. (1980) The Implementation Perspective. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Williams, W. (ed.) (1982) Studying Implementation: Methodological and Administrative Issues. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.
    Williams, W. and Elmore, R.F. (eds) (1976) Social Programme Implementation. New York: Academic Press.
    Williamson, O. (1975) Markets and Hierarchies. New York: Free Press.
    Williamson, O. (1985) The Economic Institutions of Capitalism. New York: Free Press.
    Williamson, O. (1986) Economic Organization. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Williamson, O. (ed.) (1990) Organization Theory: From Chester Barnard to the Present and Beyond. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Willoughby, W.F. (1927) Principles of Public Administration. Washington, DC: Brookings.
    Wilson, J.Q. (1980) The Politics of Regulation. New York: Basic Books.
    Wilson, J.Q. (1987) Bureaucracy: What Government Agencies Do and Why They Do It. New York: Basic Books.
    Wilson, W. (1887) ‘The Study of Administration’, Political Science Quarterly, 2: 197–222. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2139277
    Wolf, C. (1988) Markets or Governments. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Wolff, R.P. (1977) Understanding Rawls: A Reconstruction and Critique of ‘A Theory of justice’. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Wright, V. (ed.) (1994) Privatization in Western Europe. London: Pinter.
    Young, O.R. (1989) International Cooperation: Building Regimes for Natural Resources and the Environment. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Yuhl, G.A. (1989) Leadership in Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website