The Psychology of Ethnic Groups in the United States
Publication Year: 2010
“I am most enthusiastic about this book. I designed the course and was thrilled to see that I finally found a good PSYCHOLOGY book with these incredible authors who are so well-respected in their field.”
—Alyson L. Burns-Glover, Pacific University of Oregon
“Well-organized and comprehensive coverage of ethnic psychology.”
—Judith Chapman, Saint Joseph's University
This comprehensive, research-based text allows undergraduate psychology students to explore fundamental issues and methods that distinguish the field of ethnic psychology within mainstream psychology. Combining theory with practical examples, it examines ethnic identities, acculturation, and biculturalism, while aiming to increase readers' sensitivity, awareness, and knowledge regarding the role of ethnicity and culture in human behavior.
Diverse authorship that includes respected African American, Latino, and Asian American researchers; Significant theoretical formulations (on ethnic identity, acculturation, biculturalism, ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Ethnic Diversity and Psychology
- Chapter 2: Basic Theoretical Concepts
- Chapter 3: Methodological Issues in Ethnic Psychology Research
- Chapter 4: Acculturation
- Chapter 5: Intersecting Identities: Racial, Ethnic, Gender, Sexual, and Class Dimensions
- Chapter 6: Family Structure, Relations, and Socialization
- Chapter 7: Social Behavior in an Ethnically Diverse Society
- Chapter 8: Physical Health
- Chapter 9: Psychological Distress and Treatment Issues
- Chapter 10: An Epilogue on the Future of Ethnic Psychology
Copyright © 2010 by SAGE Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
SAGE Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte. Ltd.
33 Pekin Street #02-01
Far East Square
Printed in the United States of America.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Balls Organista, Pamela.
The psychology of ethnic groups in the United States/Pamela Balls Organista, Gerardo Marín, Kevin M. Chun.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4129-1540-3 (pbk.)
1. Minorities—Mental health—United States. 2. Minorities—United States—Psychology. I. Marín, Gerardo. II. Chun, Kevin M. III. Title.
Printed on acid-free paper.
09 10 11 12 13 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquiring Editor: Lisa Cuevas Shaw
Associate Editor: Lindsay Dutro
Editorial Assistant: Sarita Sarak
Production Editor: Sarah K. Quesenberry
Copy Editor: Taryn Bigelow
Proofreader: Andrea Martin
Indexer: Jeanne Busemeyer
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Cover Designer: Gail Buschman
Marketing Manager: Christy Guilbault
In the same fashion as most software manuals, this book should probably begin by stating, “Congratulations …” not just because you bought this book but because you have acknowledged the fact that in our multicultural society, we need to better understand the relationship between ethnicity and culture and psychology. Indeed, in the 21st century it is practically impossible not to encounter cultural and ethnic diversity among one's friends, neighbors, and colleagues, at school and on the street. Interestingly, the same is true of many other nations across the globe, including in the Americas, Europe, Asia, and Africa.
In writing this book we wanted to acknowledge that the ethnic and cultural diversity that we encounter in our lives is a central reason for our nation's richness and strength. We hope that by reading this book you will become an informed member of our ethnically diverse community.
This book will help you to become familiar with some of the most pressing issues that need to be understood when we study the psychology of all the people who reside in the United States—European Americans and people of color. For many of the questions raised in this book, the final answers are not yet available, but the joint efforts of current and future researchers will provide some new parameters and guidelines to follow. Our hope is that this book will help you to be a conscientious and critical consumer of psychological research. We also hope that the book may interest you in contributing to this important enterprise of building an ethnic psychology.
Contemporary psychological research in the United States includes de facto the presence of a variety of members of ethnic groups. One reason for this situation is the high proportion of the country's population that belongs to one of the four major ethnic groups (African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans, and Hispanics/Latinos). But, as we implied above, demographics is just one argument for the need to study a culturally appropriate psychology. More important is the need to obtain an appropriate understanding of what are accurate and valid scientific findings and what information is tainted by poor methodologies or faulty interpretations. Indeed, it is difficult to accept the implicit premise of some social science research that would propose that [Page xiv]members of one culture or ethnic group (usually non-Hispanic Whites) are representative of all humanity. This is what happens when researchers fail to include sufficient numbers of members of appropriate ethnic and cultural groups in their research projects. Just as psychologists have questioned the validity of behavioral rules derived from research with college undergraduates, social and behavioral scientists must question the validity and reliability of findings based on a select and unique group of individuals from one ethnic group.
This book is not intended to replace basic psychological books and textbooks. Rather, the book provides a survey of essential issues that need to be understood when studying the behavior of all peoples. We invite you to join us in this exploration of the relationship of ethnicity and psychology as you read the pages that follow. The introductory section to the book presents an overview of the book including how it is organized and also how to make best use of its various sections. Although most readers tend to overlook the Introduction section in textbooks, we urge you to take a look at this section because it will help you to understand the book and to better learn the principles and facts we are presenting. But first, we would like to tell you a little about how the book came to be and who we are.The Road we Have Traveled
This book is the third joint book publication we have produced in the last few years. More than 10 years ago, we started the search for a textbook that could be used in courses on ethnic psychology. There were a few books on the market, but they did not quite fit our understanding of ethnic psychology as a field that was continuously evolving yet also mature enough to offer important contributions to the analysis of diverse human behaviors. Our early disappointment with available texts led us to edit a book of classic and contemporary readings that was published in 1998 by Routledge, titled Readings in Ethnic Psychology. That book was one of the first to use the label “ethnic psychology” to talk about the psychology of ethnic/racial minority groups in the United States. A few years later, we realized that acculturation was one of the key principles in ethnic psychology and that it was time to update the early work in the field, to identify theoretical developments as well as new applications of this construct. We held a conference at the University of San Francisco centered on acculturation, and [Page xv]some of the presentations from that conference were later collected in the book Acculturation: Advances in Theory, Measurement, and Applied Research, published in 2003 by the American Psychological Association.
We would like to tell you something about ourselves so that you see how our experiences and lives have shaped what you will read.
Pamela Balls Organista was born in St. Louis, Missouri. She attended Washington University in St. Louis where she obtained a B.A. in Psychology and Black Studies. She attended Arizona State University for graduate studies in clinical psychology, obtaining her Ph.D., and then the University of California, San Francisco, where she completed a postdoctorate in clinical psychology with an emphasis in public service and minorities. She has been at the University of San Francisco (USF) since 1992 and currently serves as Professor and Chair in the Department of Psychology and the founding and current director of Ethnic Studies in the College of Arts and Sciences. Her research interests have centered on health risks and protective factors in primarily underserved populations including poor medical patients, Mexican migrants, and ethnic minority youth.
Gerardo Marín was born in Pereira, Colombia, and raised in Cali, Colombia. His family immigrated to the United States when he was 17 years old. He attended Miami Dade Community College for two years and then transferred to Loyola University in Chicago where he obtained a B.S. in Psychology in 1970. He attended graduate school at DePaul University obtaining an M.S. in Psychology in 1972 and his Ph.D. in 1979. Gerardo has been at USF since 1982 and currently holds the position of Professor of Psychology and Vice Provost for Academic Affairs. He has published over 125 articles, chapters, and books mostly on topics such as acculturation, culturally appropriate research methods, AIDS, and tobacco and alcohol use among ethnic minority groups. He was involved in developing two of the most widely used acculturation scales for Latinos and served as the scientific editor for the Surgeon General's report on tobacco use among ethnic minorities. He also has been interested in cross-cultural psychology and in international activities and has been an active member of various international psychological associations including the Interamerican Society of Psychology (SIP). He has been honored by various psychological associations and nongovernmental organizations and was awarded a doctorate honoris causa by the Catholic university in Hungary (Pázmany Péter Katolikus Egyetem). Gerardo has a granddaughter (Sienna M. Lindamood) and two children, Melisa (married to Kevin Lindamood) and Andrés Daniel (married to Kathleen Broderick).
Kevin M. Chun is a fifth generation Chinese American with long-standing family roots in San Francisco. He received a B.S. in Psychology from Santa Clara University in 1990 and his Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from the [Page xvi]University of California, Los Angeles, in 1995. While at UCLA, he worked with his mentor and adviser, Dr. Stanley Sue, at the National Research Center on Asian American Mental Health. He completed a psychology internship at Palo Alto VA Medical Center and received an Irvine Scholar Dissertation Fellowship at USF in 1995. Soon after, Kevin joined USF as a full-time faculty member and is currently Professor of Psychology and Director of Asian American Studies. His research focuses on family acculturation processes and health issues for Chinese American immigrants. Kevin and his University of California, San Francisco, colleague Dr. Catherine Chesla received two consecutive R01 grants from the National Institutes of Health to investigate cultural issues in diabetes management for Chinese American immigrant families, and to develop the first empirically supported diabetes management intervention for this ethnic group. Kevin is a contributing author to a number of scholarly works, including Handbook of Asian American Psychology (first and second editions), Acculturation and Parent-Child Relationships: Measurement and Development, and Handbook of Mental Health and Acculturation in Asian American Families. He was a recipient of the Early Career Award for Distinguished Contributions from the Asian American Psychological Association in 2005.Acknowledgments
The writing of this book has been “in process” for approximately four years, at times delayed by other pressing deadlines or by competitive demands on our time. Nevertheless, we are proud of the final product and thankful for all the support we received from a number of individuals. Jointly, we wish to thank our dean, Jennifer Turpin (Dean of Arts and Sciences at USF), who has always shown interest in our research and who encouraged us to complete the book. We also wish to thank our President, Fr. Stephen A. Privett, S. J., and our Provost, James L. Wiser, who have created the institutional climate necessary to make this book a reality. We also wish to thank our colleagues in the Psychology Department at USF who by their example and encouragement made it possible for us to work on our three books that were born of our collegial search for what is best for our students (the search for the Magis that characterizes Jesuit education). We also wish to thank the staff at Sage who from the beginning have been enthusiastic, supportive, and helpful and who gently prodded us to move on and complete the book. We have been fortunate to work with an excellent editorial staff over the years including Jim Brace-Thompson, Cheri Dellelo, Deya Saoud, Lindsay Dutro, and Erik Evans who assisted us through the completion of this project.[Page xvii]
Thanks are also due to the anonymous reviewers who provided thoughtful and thorough critiques of our manuscript.
Individually, we also wish to express special thanks to a number of people who have supported us while writing the book. We hope they feel proud of their contributions and share in our joy to have completed an important task.
Pamela is eternally grateful to work collaboratively with her esteemed friends and colleagues, Gerardo and Kevin. Together, they have had the opportunity to work on several projects (articles, presentations, books, and grants) that reflect the mission of the University of San Francisco and their values—namely, to continually create, through their scholarship and service, a more just and inclusive world. As a multicultural team, they are able to address issues through a variety of cultural lenses and provide a complex understanding of the psychosocial challenges, promises, and questions that still remain for ethnic minorities living in the United States. Taking on the writing of this manuscript has been a daunting process, and without the passion and support of others, its completion would have been dubious. In particular, she is grateful for her close family and friends. They are upbeat, bright, and good people that never cease to amaze her with their work and commitment to others. She wants to express her thanks to her two sisters, Zoneice and Tunderleauh, and nephews, Demerrio and Tory. She gives special thanks to her husband, Kurt Organista, who continually provides a rich source of inspiration, intellectual collaboration, and loving support. Their beautiful and beloved children, Zena Laura and Zara Luz, never fail to make her think and care more deeply, laugh/play, and recognize that they hold a special place of importance in one another's lives as “Momma” and “Daughters.” Finally, she wants to express her heartfelt gratitude to her parents, Zevonzell and Cynthia Balls, who provided a good upbringing, home, and a strong education to sustain her. Throughout her life, they love her, encourage her, and believe in her. These gifts are meaningful and invaluable and she would like to dedicate this book to them.
Gerardo wishes to express a special appreciation to Pamela and Kevin, his respected colleagues who have been part of many “crazy” ideas and who have sustained his interest in these issues and taught him much. His daughter, Melisa, and his son, Andrés, have been instrumental in shaping the book and in making it a reality and he needs to thank them for their ever so gentle “Papi, how is the book coming?” questioning. In particular, he wishes to thank Lois Ann Lorentzen for her constant and caring companionship, her love, her emotional support, her example, and her disappointed face when other things stole time away from writing. As the book was being written, a little princess was born, his granddaughter Sienna M. Lindamood who has brought much happiness and hope to her family and especially to her “Ato.”[Page xviii]
She exemplifies in her background the realities of a multiethnic society and he would like to dedicate this book to her.
Kevin also wishes to thank his dear friends and colleagues, Gerardo and Pamela, for their continued friendship and support throughout the years. He continues to be inspired by their professional expertise, intellectual curiosity, and abiding commitment to social justice. Kevin is also grateful for the generous and unconditional support of his partner, Anthony Ng; his family, Cynthia and Henry Lum Wilfred Chun, and Annett, Shaun, Garrett, and Harrison Wright; and his many caring friends and extended family members in the San Francisco Bay Area. He dedicates this book to his late grand aunt, Frances Chun Kan, a former singer and entertainer at the Forbidden City Nightclub in San Francisco's Chinatown, who was a loving family member, bon vivant, civil rights pioneer, and inspirational role model to all.
References[Page 339]2007). Use of mental health-related services among immigrant and US-born Asian Americans: Results from the National Latino and Asian American Study. American Journal of Public Health, 97(1), 91–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2006.098541, , , , , , et al. (2004). Implicit bias and contact: The role of interethnic friendships. The Journal of Social Psychology, 144, 335–347. http://dx.doi.org/10.3200/SOCP.144.3.335-347, , & (2000). Ethnic belonging and traditional masculinity ideology among African Americans, European Americans, and Latinos. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 1(2), 75–86., , , & (1996). Traumatization stress among Asians and Asian Americans. In A.Marsella, M.Friedman, E.Gerrity, & R.Scurfield (eds.), Ethnocultural approaches to understanding post-traumatic stress disorder: Issues, research, and clinical applications (pp. 285–299). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10555-011, & (1982). Effective psychotherapy for low income and minority patients. New York: Plenum., , & (Adams, G., Biernat, M., Branscombe, N.R., Crandall, C.S., & Wrightsman, L.S. (eds.). (2008). Commemorating Brown: The social psychology of racism and discrimination. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11681-0001994). Health status of vulnerable populations. Annual Review of Public Health, 15, 487–509. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pu.15.050194.002415(1994). Socioeconomic status and health: The challenge of the gradient. American Psychologist, 49, 15–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.49.1.15, , , , , , et al. (1967). Infancy in Uganda: Infant care and the growth of love. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.(1989). Attachments beyond infancy. American Psychologist, 44(4), 709–716. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.4.709(1999). Rethinking assimilation theory for a new era of immigration. In C.Hirschman, P.Kasinitz, & J.DeWind (eds.), The handbook of international migration: The American experience (pp. 137–160). New York: Russell Sage Foundation., & (2005). A distorted nation: Perceptions of racial/ethnic group sizes and attitudes toward immigrants and other minorities. Social Forces, 84(2), 901–919. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/sof.2006.0002, , & ([Page 340]1987–1988). Patterns of mass media use among Hispanic smokers: Implications for community interventions. International Quarterly of Community Health Education, 8, 341–350., , , , , & (2008). Disparity in depression treatment among racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States. Psychiatric Services, 59, 1264–1272., , , , , , et al. (2007). Correlates of past-year mental service use among Latinos: Results from the National Latino and Asian American Study. American Journal of Public Health, 97(1), 76–83., , , , , & (1997). Ethnicity, immigration, and psychopathology. In I.Al-Issa & M.Tousignant (eds.), Ethnicity, immigration, and psychopathology (pp. 3–15). New York: Plenum.(1997). Spies like us: When sociologists deceive their subjects. Lingua Franca, 7, 31–39.(Allen, V.L. (Ed.). (1970). Psychological factors in poverty. Chicago, IL: Markham Publishing.1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.(1993). Differential patterns of achievement among Asian-American adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 22, 407–423. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01537721(2001). Racial identity and reflected appraisals as influences on Asian Americans' racial adjustment. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 7(3), 217–231., & (1996). Demystifying the concept of ethnicity for psychotherapy researchers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 903–908. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.64.5.903, , & (2001). Stereotype susceptibility in children: Effects of identity activation on quantitative performance. Psychological Science, 12, 385–390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00371, , , & (American Cancer Society. (2005). Cancer facts & figures 2005. Available at http://www.cancer.org/docroot/STT/stt_0.aspAmerican Diabetes Association. (2006). All about diabetes. Retrieved November 15, 2008, from http://www.diabetes.org/about-diabetes.jspAmerican Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., Text Revision). Washington, DC: Author.American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethical principles and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 57, 1060–1073. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.57.12.1060American Psychological Association. (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. American Psychologist, 58(5), 377–402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.58.5.377American Psychological Association. (2005). APA resolution recommending the immediate retirement of American Indian mascots, symbols, images, and personalities by schools, colleges, universities, athletic teams, and organizations. Available at http://www.apa.org/pi/oema/resolution_american_indian_mascots.pdf.American Psychological Association. (2007). Resolution on prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination. American Psychologist, 62, 475–481.[Page 341]American Psychological Association Task Force on Socioeconomic Status. (2007). Report of the APA Task Force on Socioeconomic Status. Washington, DC: Author.American Psychological Association Task Force on Urban Psychology. (n.d.). Toward an urban psychology: Research, action, and policy. Washington, DC: Author. Available at http://www.apa.org/pi/wpo/tf_report_urban_psychology.pdf1993). An acculturation scale for Southeast Asians. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 28, 134–141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00801744, , , , , & (1991). Acculturative stress: A theory of relevance to Black Americans. Clinical Psychology Review, 11, 685–702. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0272-7358%2891%2990126-F(1982). Determinants of extended household structure: Cultural pattern or economic need?American Journal of Sociology, 6, 1360–1383. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/227597, & (2005). Enhancing culturally competent health communication: Constructing understanding between providers and culturally diverse patients. In E.BerlinRay (ed.), Health communication in practice: A case study (pp. 271–284). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., & (2008). Racial differences in beliefs about the effectiveness and necessity of mental health treatment. American Journal of Community Psychology. 42(1–2), 17–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10464-008-9189-5, , , & (2006). Racial differences in stigmatizing attitudes toward people with mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 57, 857–862. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.57.6.857, , & (2004). The influence of friendship groups on intellectual self-confidence and educational aspirations in college. The Journal of Higher Education, 75, 446–471. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jhe.2004.0019(1995). Curanderismo: Demystifying the health beliefs and practices of elderly Mexican Americans. Health & Social Work, 20(4), 247–253.(2002). Spirituality among older African Americans. Journal of Adult Development, 9, 3–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1013821116396, & (2008). The neglected 95%: Why American psychology needs to become less American. American Psychologist, 63, 602–614. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.63.7.602(2002). Reducing the effects of stereotype threat on African American college students by shaping theories of intelligence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 113–125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jesp.2001.1491, , & (1998). The quality of experience of Asian American adolescents in academic activities: An exploration of educational achievement. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 8(2), 241–262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327795jra0802_4, & (1979). Field research in minority communities: Ethical, methodological, and political observations by an outsider. Social Problems, 27, 209–219. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/800369(1994). Fifty years of language maintenance and language dominance in bilingual Hispanic immigrants. Journal of Experimental Psychology General, 123, 264–283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0096-34126.96.36.1994, , , , & (Balls Organista, P., Chun, K.M., & Marín, G. (eds.). (1998). Readings in ethnic psychology. New York: Routledge.2003). The relationship between acculturation and ethnic minority mental health. In K.M.Chun, P.Balls Organista, & G.Marín (eds.), Acculturation: Advances in theory, measurement, and applied research (pp. 139–161). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10472-010, , & ([Page 342]2003). Prejudice, clinical uncertainty and stereotyping as sources of health disparities. Journal of Health Economics, 22, 89–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0167-6296%2802%2900098-X, & (2004). Culture, trauma, and wellness: A comparison of heterosexual and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and two-spirit Native Americans. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(3), 287–301., , , , & (2003). Inclusion of immigrant status in smoking prevalence statistics. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 642–646. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.93.4.642, , & (2004). Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults: United States, 2002. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics (No. 343). Retrieved July 25, 2005, from http://nccam.nih.gov/news/report.pdf, , , & (2001). The psychological sense of economic hardship: Measurement models, validity, and cross-ethnic equivalence for urban families. American Journal of Community Psychology, 29(3), 493–517. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010328115110, , & (2005). Use of mental health services by Asian Americans. Psychiatric Services, 56(6), 746–748. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.56.6.746, & (2001). Assessing culture via the Internet: Methods and techniques for psychological research. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 4, 17–21.(2003). Cultural self-esteem, and demographic correlates of perception of personal and group discrimination among East Asian immigrants. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 73, 223–229. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0002-94188.8.131.52, & (1993). Substance abuse in schizophrenia: Service utilization and costs. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 181(4), 227–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-199304000-00003, , , , , & (2001). Kinship ties of Mexican migrant women on the United States/Mexico border. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 32(4), 549–572.(2003). Educational attainment: 2000 (Census 2000 Brief C2KBR-24). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau., & (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology, 4(1, Part 2), 1–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0030372(1980). New directions in socialization research. American Psychologist, 35, 639–652. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.35.7.639(2002). The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder among American Indian Vietnam veterans: Disparities and context. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 15, 89–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1014894506325, , , , , , et al. (2005). Prevalence of DSM-IV disorders and attendant help-seeking in 2 American Indian reservation populations. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 99–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.62.1.99, , , , , & (2005). Resilience in the face of serious illness among chronically ill African Americans in later life. Journal of Gerontology, 60B(4), S214–S223., & (2002). Relational theory and cultural enhancement interventions for African American adolescent girls. Public Health Reports, 117(1), 76–81.([Page 343]2001). Are empirically supported treatments valid for ethnic minorities? Toward an alternative approach for treatment research. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 7, 328–342., & (Bernal, G., Trimble, J.E., Burlew, A.K., & Leong, F.T. L. (eds.). (2003). Handbook of racial & ethnic minority psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.2004). Child, family, school, community: Socialization and support ((6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.1995). Growing up American: Immigrant children in America, then and now. New York: Twayne.(1980). Acculturation as a variety of adaptation. In A.M.Padilla (ed.), Acculturation: Theory, models and some new findings (pp. 9–25). Boulder, CO: Westview.(1998). Acculturative stress. In P.Balls Organista, K.M.Chun, & G.Marín (eds.), Readings in ethnic psychology (pp. 113–117). New York: Routledge.(2001). A psychology of immigration. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 615–631. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.00231(2003). Conceptual approaches to acculturation. In K.M.Chun, P.Balls Organista, & G.Marín (eds.), Acculturation: Advances in theory, measurement, and applied research (pp. 17–37). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10472-004(2007). Cultural and ethnic factors in health. In S.Ayers, A.Baum, C.McManus, S.Newman, K.Wallston, J.Weinman, et al. (eds.), Cambridge handbook of psychology, health, & medicine (, & (2nd ed., pp. 64–70). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.1993). The study of culture, ethnicity, and race in American psychology. American Psychologist, 43, 629–638. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.48.6.629, & (2003). Defining cultural competence: A practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. Public Health Reports, 118(4), 293–302., , , & . (1999). Domestic violence in South Asian communities in America. Violence Against Women, 5(6), 684–699. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10778019922181437(2003). Glossary of terms relating to ethnicity and race: For reflection and debate. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 58, 441–445. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.2003.013466(1998). Biculturalism and perceived competence of Latino immigrant adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology, 26, 335–354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1022101219563(2005). A tale of two cities: Replication of a study on the acculturation and adaptation of immigrant adolescents from the former Soviet Union in a different community context. American Journal of Community Psychology, 35, 83–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10464-005-1891-y, , & (2001). Cultural transitions in first-generation immigrants: Acculturation of Soviet Jewish refugee adolescents and parents. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32, 456–477. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022101032004006, & (2002). Trends in AIDS incidence and survival among racial/ethnic minority men who have sex with men, United States, 1990–1999. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 31, 339–347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00126334-200211010-00011, , & ([Page 344]2004). Experiences of depression: Theoretical, clinical, and research perspectives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10749-000(1973). Toward the decolonization of social research. In J.A.Ladner (ed.), The death of white sociology: Essays on race and culture (pp. 310–330). New York: Vintage., & (1959). Race reactions by sexes. Sociology and Social Research, 43, 439–441.(Bolaffi, G., Bracalenti, R., Braham, P., & Gindro, S. (eds.). (2003). Dictionary of race, ethnicity & culture. London: Sage.2004). Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events?American Psychology, 59(1), 20–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.59.1.20(2006). Self-reported health, perceived racial discrimination, and skin color in African Americans in the CARDIA study. Social Science & Medicine, 63, 1415–1427., , , , & (1998). The shape of the river: Long-term consequences of considering race in college and university admissions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press., & (1969). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. New York: Basic Books.(2003). Triple jeopardy and beyond: Multiple minority stress and resilience among Black lesbians. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 7(4), 67–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J155v07n04_06, , , , & (2005a). Beyond the down low debate: Sex, lies, and denial in Black America. New York: Carrol and Graf.(2005b, February 3). 10 things you should know about the DL. Sexuality. Available at http://www.keithboykin.com/arch/2005/02/03/10_things_you_s(2004). Examining ethnic identity and self-esteem among biracial and monoracial adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33(2), 123–132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:JOYO.0000013424.93635.68, , & (1998). Child rearing in African American families: A study of the disciplinary practices of African American parents. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 26(4), 273–281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1912.1998.tb00204.x(2007). Health psychology: An introduction to behavior and health (, & (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.2005). Lifetime prevalence and persistence of psychiatric disorders across ethnic groups in the USA. Psychological Medicine, 35, 317–327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291704003514, , , , & (1976). Ethnocentrism and intergroup attitudes. New York: John Wiley., & (1980). Translation and content analysis of oral and written materials. In H.C.Triandis & J.W.Berry (eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology (pp. 389–444). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.(1973). Cross-cultural research methods. New York: John Wiley., , & ([Page 345]2004). Ancestry: 2000 (Census 2000 Brief C2KBR-35). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau., & (1999). Linking maternal efficacy beliefs, developmental goals, parenting practices, and child competence in rural single-parent African American families. Child Development, 70(5), 1197–1208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00087, , & (1996). Parental religiosity, family processes, and youth competence in rural, two-parent African American families. Developmental Psychology, 32(4), 696–706. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-16184.108.40.2066, , & (2003). Perceived racism and blood pressure: A review of the literature and conceptual and methodological critique. Annuals of Behavioral Medicine, 25, 55–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15324796ABM2501_08, , , & (1986). Ecology of the family as a context for human development: Research perspectives. Developmental Psychology, 22(6), 723–742. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-16220.127.116.113(1998). The ecology of developmental process. In W.Damon (editor-in-Chief) & R.M.Lerner (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 1. Theoretical models of human development (, & (5th ed., pp. 993–1028). New York: John Wiley.1992). Pitfalls in communication with Hispanic and African-American patients: Do translators help or harm?Journal of the National Medical Association, 84, 941–947.(2000). Recruitment and retention of minority women in cancer screening, prevention, and treatment trials. Annals of Epidemiology, 10, S13–S21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1047-2797%2800%2900097-1, , , & (2003). Moving beyond poverty: Neighborhood structure, social processes, and health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 44, 552–571. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1519799, & (1999). Domestic violence in the Vietnamese immigrant community. Violence Against Women, 5(7), 769–795. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10778019922181473, & (2003). Chinese immigrant mothers of adolescents: Self-perceptions of acculturation effects on parenting. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 9(2), 127–140., , , & (1990). Dumping in Dixie: Race, class, and environmental quality. Boulder, CO: Westview.(2007, March). Toxic wastes and race at twenty, 1987–2007 (Report prepared for the United Church of Christ Justice and Witness Ministries). Available at http://www.ejrc.cau.edu/TWART-light.pdf, , , & (2006, June). Justifying inequality: A social psychological analysis of beliefs about poverty and the poor. Retrieved December 1, 2008, from the National Poverty Center at http://www.npc.umich.edu/publications/working_papers/(1984). Integration with traditional Mexican American culture and sociocultural adjustment. In J.L.Martinez & R.Mendoza (eds.), Chicano psychology ((2nd ed., pp. 95–130). New York: Academic Press.1980). Psychocultural characteristics of college-bound and noncollege-bound Chicanas. Journal of Social Psychology, 110, 245–251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1980.9924251, & ([Page 346]1987). Acculturation and lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders among Mexican Americans in Los Angeles. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 28, 89–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2137143, , , , & (1995). Doll studies revisited: A question of validity. Journal of Black Psychology, 21, 19–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00957984950211003, & (2004). You've got mail: Using e-mail to examine the effect of prejudiced attitudes on discrimination against Arabs. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 753–759. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2004.02.001, & (2003). Measuring acculturation: Where we are and where we need to go. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 25, 127–146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0739986303025002001(2003). Investigating the role of racial/ethnic bias in health outcomes. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 191–192. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.93.2.191, & (California Psychological Association. (2004). Expertise series (Division I: Clinical and Professional Practice). Available at http://www.cpapsych.org/displaycommon.cfm?an=16.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001). HIV incidence among young men who have sex with men—seven U.S. cities, 1994–2000. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(21), 440–444.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002). State-specific trends in self-reported blood pressure screening and high blood pressure—United States, 1991–1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 51(21), 456–460.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005a). HIV/AIDS surveillance report (Vol. 17). Atlanta, GA: Author. Retrieved October 21, 2007, from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/reports/.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005b). Racial/ethnic disparities in prevalence, treatment, and control of hypertension—United States, 1999–2002. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 54(01), 7–9.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2006). Deaths: Final data for 2003. National Vital Statistics Reports, 54(13). Retrieved January 15, 2007, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr54/nvsr54_13.pdf.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007a). HIV/AIDS among women. Retrieved March 7, 2008, from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/women/resources/factsheets/women.htm.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007b). HIV/AIDS surveillance report (Vol. 19). Available at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/reports/.1994). Native America: Portrait of the peoples. Detroit, MI: Visible Ink.(1995). Issues of sexual identity in an ethnic minority: The case of Chinese American lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people. In A.R.D'Augelli & C.J.Patterson (eds.), Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities over the lifespan: Psychological perspectives (pp. 87–101). New York: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195082319.003.0004(1994). Beyond parental control and authoritarian parenting style: Understanding Chinese parenting through the cultural notion of training. Child Development, 65, 1111–1119. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131308([Page 347]2006). The prevalence and consequences of adolescents' language brokering for their immigrant parents. In M.H.Bornstein & L.R.Cote (eds.), Acculturation and parent-child relationships: Measurement and development (pp. 271–296). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1999). African American religious participation: A multi-sample comparison. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 38(1), 132–145. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1387589, , & (2004). Researching communities: Travails of working in the Indian subcontinent. Cross-Cultural Psychology Bulletin, 38(4), 5–13.(1993). Foreword. In R.D.Bullard (ed.), Confronting environmental racism: Voices from the grassroots (pp. 3–5). Boston, MA: South End Press.(2008). Gender matters, too: The influences of school racial discrimination and racial identity on academic engagement outcomes among African American adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 44, 637–654. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1618.104.22.1687, , , , & (2006). Neighborhood, family, and subjective socioeconomic status: How do they relate to adolescent health?Health Psychology, 25(6), 704–714. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-622.214.171.1244, & (2005). Accommodating type 2 diabetes in the Chinese American family. Qualitative Health Research, 15(2), 240–255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1049732304272050, & (1999). Social interaction differences between Chinese and Americans. Psychological Beiträge, 41, 84–90., , , & (Chin, J.L. (Ed.). (2004). The psychology of prejudice and discrimination (Vol. 2, Ethnicity and Multiracial Identity Series). Westport, CT: Praeger.1995). Perceptions of family values and roles among Japanese Americans: Clinical considerations. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 65(2), 216–224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079612, , , & (2004). Some thoughts on the measurement of acculturation among Mexican American elders. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 26(3), 274–292. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0739986304267205(2001). Cultural resources and psychological adjustment of African American children: Effects of spirituality and racial attribution. Journal of Black Psychology, 27(1), 43–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0095798401027001003, & (1999). Negotiating new Asian-American masculinities: Attitudes and gender expectations. The Journal of Men's Studies, 7(3), 391–413., & (2006). Conceptual and measurement issues in family acculturation research. In M.H.Bornstein & L.R.Cote (eds.), Acculturation and parent-child relationships: Measurement and development (pp. 63–78). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1999). Utilization of mental health services: Cultural and gender considerations for immigrant and refugee women. In L.Kramer, S.Ivey, & Y.Ying (eds.), Immigrant women and the U.S. health care delivery system: From policy to program (pp. 54–64). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass., & ([Page 348]2003). Acculturation among ethnic minority families. In K.M.Chun, P.Balls Organista, & G.Marín (eds.), Acculturation: Advances in theory, measurement, and applied research (pp. 95–119). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10472-008, & (1994). A study of Southeast Asian veterans of the Vietnam War. Paper presented at the 28th annual convention of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, San Diego, CA., , & (Chun, K.M., Balls Organista, P., & Marín, G. (eds.). (2003). Acculturation: Advances in theory, measurement, and applied research. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10472-0002004). Cultural issues in disease management for Chinese Americans with type 2 diabetes. Psychology and Health, 19(6), 767–785. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870440410001722958, & (2008). Conducting research with diverse Asian American groups. In F.T. L.Leong, A.G.Inman, A.Ebreo, L.H.Yang, L.Kinoshita, & M.Fu (eds.), Handbook of Asian American psychology (, , , & (2nd ed., pp. 47–65). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.2004). Asian American multidimensional acculturation scale: Development, factor, analysis, reliability, and validity. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10, 66–80., , & (2004). The effects of segregation and consequences of desegregation. American Psychologist, 59, 495–501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.59.6.495, , & (1939). Segregation as a factor in the racial identification of Negro pre-school children. Journal of Experimental Education, 8, 161–163., & (1999). Racism as a stressor for African Americans. American Psychologist, 53, 805–816. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.54.10.805, , , & (2007). Critical issues in the measurement of ethnic and racial identity: A referendum on the state of the field. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(3), 224–234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0126.96.36.199(2007). Black and white women's perspectives on femininity. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13(1), 1–9., & (2005). The development of children (, , & (5th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.2000). Biracial Japanese American identity: An evolving process. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 6(2), 115–133.(1987). Of totemism and ethnicity: Consciousness, practice, and the signs of inequality. Ethnos, 52(3–4), 301–323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00141844.1987.9981348(2007). Abnormal psychology ((6th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.2006). Changes in the prevalence of major depression and comorbid substance use disorders in the United States between 1991–1992 and 2001–2002. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 2141–2147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.163.12.2141, , , & (2002). Economic pressure in African American families: A replication and extension of the family stress model. Developmental Psychology, 38(2), 179–193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-16188.8.131.52, , , , , & ([Page 349]2004). Sex, race/ethnicity, and romantic attractions: Multiple minority status adolescents and mental health. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(3), 200–214., , & (2003). Independent and interdependent self-construals, individualism, collectivism, and harmony control in African Americans. Journal of Black Psychology, 229, 87–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0095798402239230, , , & (2004). How stigma interferes with mental health care. American Psychologist, 59, 614–625. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.59.7.614(2003). Idioms of distress, acculturation, and depression: The Puerto Rican experience. In , , & , Acculturation: Advances in theory, measurement, and applied research (pp. 207–222). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10472-013(2003). Affirmative action: Psychological data and the policy debates. American Psychologist, 58, 93–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.58.2.93, , , & (1971). Negro-to-Black conversion experience: Toward a psychology of Black liberation. Black World, 20, 13–27.(1995). The psychology of nigrescence: Revising the cross model. In J.G.Ponterotto, J.M.Casas, L.A.Suzuki, & C.M.Alexander (eds.), Handbook of multicultural counseling (pp. 181–198). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1995). Cognitive referents of acculturation: Assessment of cultural constructs in Mexican Americans. Journal of Community Psychology, 23, 339–356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1520-6629%28199510%2923:4%3C339::AID-JCOP2290230406%3E3.0.CO;2-7, , & (1980). An acculturation scale for Mexican American normal and clinical populations. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 2, 199–217., , & (2005). The effect of socioeconomic status on the survival of people receiving care for HIV infection in the United States. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 6, 655–676. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2005.0093, , , , , , et al. (1994). Service utilization and minority elderly: Appropriateness, accessibility and acceptability. Gerontology & Geriatrics Education, 15(1), 45–63., , & (1993). Accent penalties and the earnings of Mexican Americans. Social Science Quarterly, 74, 902–916., , & (2005). Explaining the unexplained? Overcoming the distortions of a dualist understanding of medically unexplained illness. Journal of Mental Health, 14(3), 213–221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09638230500136605(1999). An overview of research on gender: Four themes from 3 decades. In W.B.Swann, Jr., J.H.Langlois, & L.A.Gilbert (eds.), Sexism and stereotypes in modern society: The gender science of Janet Taylor Spence (pp. 11–33). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10277-001(2008). Workplace discrimination and health among Filipinos in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 98, 520–526. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2007.110163, , & ([Page 350]2006). Adapting manualized treatments: Treating anxiety disorders among Native Americans. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 13(4), 304–309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2006.04.012, , & (2004). Deculturation: Its lack of validity. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(2), 169–176., & (Denner, J., & Guzman, B.L. (eds.). (2006). Latina girls: Voices of adolescent strength in the United States. New York: New York University Press.Department of Health and Human Services. (1998). Mental health: A report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: Author.Department of Health and Human Services. (1999). Mental health: A report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: Author.Department of Health and Human Services. (2000). Policy guidance on the Title VI prohibition against national origin discrimination as it affects persons with limited English proficiency. Rockville, MD: Author.Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). Mental health: Culture, race, and ethnicity [A supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General—Executive Summary]. Rockville, MD: Author.Department of Health and Human Services. (2006). Child health USA 2006. Rockville, MD: Author.1996). World mental health: Problems and priorities in low-income countries. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press., , , & (2005). American = White?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 447–466. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2067, & (2004). Sexual risk as an outcome of social oppression: Data from a probability sample of Latino gay men in three U.S. cities. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(3), 255–267., , & (2005). Beyond the optimal contact strategy: A reality check for the contact hypothesis. American Psychologist, 60(7), 697–711. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.60.7.697, , & (Don Markstein's Toonopedia. (2008). The Frito Bandito. Retrieved August 8, 2008, from http://www.Toonopedia.com/frito.htm.2001). Introduction to the reading of Lacan: The unconscious structured like a language. New York: Other Press.(2006, August). Health care disconnect: Gaps in coverage and care for minority adults. New York: The Commonwealth Fund. http://dx.doi.org/10.2510/386220, & (2005). On the nature of prejudice: Fifty years after Allport. Malden, MA: Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470773963, , & (1990). Children of depressed parents: An integrative review. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 50–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.108.1.50, & (1994). Economic deprivation and early childhood development. Child Development, 65, 296–318. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131385, , & (1997). Treatment barriers: Accessing and accepting professional help. In J.G.Garcia & M.C.Zea (eds.), Psychological interventions and research with Latino populations (pp. 94–107). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.([Page 351]The Education Trust. (2006). Education watch: The nation. Key education facts and figures. Achievement, attainment and opportunity from elementary school through college. Washington, DC: Author. Available at http://www2.edtrust.org/edtrust/summaries2006/USA.pdf.1990). Didn't you hear my mommy? Autonomy with connectedness in moral self-emergence. In D.Cicchetti & M.Beeghly (eds.), The self in transition (pp. 35–60). Chicago: University of Chicago Press., & (Environmental Protection Agency. (2008a). Environmental justice: Basic information, background. Retrieved November 20, 2008, from http://www.epa.gov/compliance/basics/ejbackground.html.Environmental Protection Agency. (2008b). Environmental justice: Frequently asked questions. Retrieved November 20, 2008, from http://www.epa.gov/compliance/resources/faqs/ej/#faq12.1950). Childhood and society. New York: Norton.(1999). The dual-focus approach to creating bilingual measures. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 30, 206–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022199030002004, , , , & (1995). Transcultural aspects of dissociative and somatoform disorders. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 18(3), 555–569.(1998). Immigration and mental health: Why are immigrants better off?Archives of General Psychiatry, 55(9), 781–782. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.55.9.781(1997). Asian American women and men: Labor, laws, and love. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(2004). The environment of childhood poverty. American Psychologist, 59, 77–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.59.2.77(1999). Increasing minority representation in health care management. Health Forum Journal, 42, 22.(1999). Environmental racism in Chester. Available at http://www.ejnet.org/chester/ewall_article.html.(1997). The spirit catches you and you fall down: A Hmong child, her American doctors, and the collision of two cultures. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.(1981). Chicano, Hispanic, or Mexican American: What's in a name?Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 3(2), 191–198., & (1997). Acculturation of Arab-American immigrants: An exploratory study. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 28, 182–203., , & (2002). Racial identities in 2000: The response to the multiple-race response option. In J.Perlmann & M.C.Waters (eds.), The new race question: How the census counts multiracial individuals (pp. 33–61). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.(2002). East meets West: Ethnic identity, acculturation, and conflict in Asian Indian families. Journal of Family Psychology, 16(3), 338–350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-3220.127.116.118, , & ([Page 352]2006). Racial bias in diagnosis: Practical implications for psychotherapists. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 9, 10–14., & (2000). Perceived discrimination and depression among Mexican-origin adults in California. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 41, 295–313. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2676322, , & (2004). The power of the Brown v. Board of Education decision: Theorizing threats to sustainability. American Psychologist, 59(6), 502–510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.59.6.502(2000). Who speaks what language to whom and when. In W.Li (ed.), The bilingualism reader (pp. 89–106). London: Routledge. (Reprinted from La Linguistique, 1965, 2, 65–88)(1998). Stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. In D.T.Gilbert, S.T.Fiske, & G.Lindzey (eds.), The handbook of social psychology (pp. 357–411). New York: McGraw-Hill.(1999). The immigrant family: Cultural legacies and cultural changes. In C.Hirschman, P.Kasinitz, & J.DeWind (eds.), The handbook of international migration: The American experience (pp. 257–274). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.(2002). Beyond deficit thinking: Providing access for gifted American students. Roeper Review, 24(2), 52–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02783190209554129, , , & (1991). Methodological considerations for survey research on sexual behavior: Urban African American and Hispanic youth. Journal of Sex Research, 28, 539–555. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224499109551623, & (2004a). Commentary: Racial bias in diagnosis and medication of mentally ill minorities in prisons and communities. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 32(1), 46.(2004b). Cultural variables in psychiatry. Psychiatric Times, 24(4), 28–30.(2006). The virtue of multiculturalism: Personal transformation, character, and openness to the other. American Psychologist, 61(6), 581–594. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.61.6.581, & (2002). A psychological and educational perspective on Black parenting. In H.P.McAdoo (ed.), Black children: Social, educational, and parental environments (, , & (2nd ed., pp. 119–140). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.2006). The association of subjective social status and health in low-income Mexican-origin individuals in Texas. Social Science & Medicine, 63, 788–804., & (2004). The postsecondary educational progress of youth from immigrant families. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 14(2), 159–183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2004.01402002.x, & (2002). The impact of family obligation on the daily activities and psychological well-being of Chinese American adolescents. Child Development, 73(1), 302–314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00407, , & (2003). Socioeconomic resources, parenting, and child development among immigrant families. In M.H.Bornstein & R.H.Bradley[Page 353](Eds.), Socioeconomic status, parenting, and child development (pp. 107–124). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., & (1995). Prejudice: From Allport to Dubois. American Psychologist, 50, 96–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.50.2.96, & (2002). Psychological sequelae of the September 11 terrorist attacks in New York City. New England Journal of Medicine, 13, 982–987. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMsa013404, , , , , , et al. (1999). Toward a reconciliation of “assimilation” and “pluralism”: The interplay of acculturation and ethnic retention. In C.Hirschman, P.Kasinitz, & J.DeWind (eds.), The handbook of international migration: The American experience (pp. 161–171). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.(1992). The status and use of Spanish and English among Hispanic youth in Dade County (Miami), Florida: A sociolinguistic study, 1989–1991. Language and Education, 6(1), 13–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500789209541322, & (2001). Culture, context, and development. In D.Matsumoto (ed.), The handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 101–117). New York: Oxford University Press.(2002). Sexual orientations in perspective. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 8(2), 115–129.(2000). Red as an apple: Native American acculturation and counseling with or without reservation. Journal of Counseling & Development, 78, 3–13., & (2004). Assessment of anxiety and depression in Asian American youth. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(2), 269–271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp3302_7(2002). A multilevel analysis of the relationship between institutional and individual racial discrimination and health status. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 615–631. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.92.4.615(2008). Disentangling the effects of racial and weight discrimination on body mass index and obesity among Asian Americans. American Journal of Public Health, 98, 493–500. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2007.114025, , , & (2007). A nationwide study of discrimination and chronic health conditions among Asian Americans. American Journal of Public Health, 97, 1275–1282. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2006.091827, , , & (2001). Functional relationships in the nuclear and extended family: A 16-culture study. International Journal of Psychology, 36(5), 289–300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207590143000045, , , , , , et al. (Gerth, H., & Mills, C.W. (eds.). (1946). From Max Weber: Essays in sociology. New York: Oxford University Press.1992). Negotiating ethnic identity: Issues for Black-White adolescents. In M.P. P.Root (ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 223–238). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., & (1989). Accommodation without assimilation: Sikh immigrants in an American high school. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.([Page 354]1996). Two different worlds: Acculturation stress and adaptation among Cuban and Nicaraguan families. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 13, 435–456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407596133008, & (2000). Acculturation, familism, and alcohol use among Latino adolescent males: Longitudinal relations. Journal of Community Psychology, 28(4), 443–458. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1520-6629%28200007%2928:4%3C443::AID-JCOP6%3E3.0.CO;2-A, , & (2001). Black identity in biracial Black/White people: A comparison of Jacqueline who refuses to be exclusively Black and Adolphus who wishes he were. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 7(2), 182–196., , & (1963). Beyond the melting pot. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press., & (2002, April 19). Answering protests, retailer to pull line of T-shirts that mock Asians. Los Angeles Times, p. B1., & (1971). The emergence of ethnic interests: A case of serendipity. Social Forces, 48, 379–384.(1989). Factor structure of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1, 163–168., & (1991). Responses to depression scale items among Mexican-Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 47, 61–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679%28199101%2947:1%3C61::AID-JCLP2270470110%3E3.0.CO;2-E, , & (1992). Risk factors of secondary depression among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 181, 166–175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-199303000-00004, , , & (1987). The California Southeast Asian Mental Health Needs Assessment (No. 85-76282A-2). Sacramento, CA: California State Department of Mental Health, Asian Community Mental Health Services.(2008). Problems in the pipeline: Stereotype threat and women's achievement in high-level math courses. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 17–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2007.10.004, , & (1964). Assimilation in American life: The role of race, religion, and national origins. New York: Oxford University Press.(1996). The relation of family functioning to violence among inner-city minority youths. Journal of Family Psychology, 10(2), 115–129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-318.104.22.168, , , & (2002). Strangers still? The experience of discrimination among Chinese Americans. Journal of Community Psychology, 30, 211–224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcop.9998, , & (2003). The horizontal and vertical attributes of individualism and collectivism in a Spanish population. The Journal of Social Psychology, 14, 43–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224540309598430, , & (2004). Prevalence and co-occurrence of substance use disorders and independent [Page 355]mood and anxiety disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 807–816. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.61.8.807, , , , , , et al. (1998). The Tuskegee syphilis study. Montgomery, AL: Black Belt Press.(1973). The family: Variations in time and space. In L.I.Duran & H.R.Bernard (eds.), Introduction to Chicano studies (pp. 309–331). New York: Macmillan., , & (1997). Ethnic minority lesbians and gay men. In B.Greene (ed.), Ethnic and cultural diversity among lesbians and gay men (pp. 216–239). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(2005). Why employed Latinos lack health insurance: A study in California. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 27, 517–532. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0739986305281262, , & (2001). Overview of race and Hispanic origin: 2000 (Census 2000 Brief C2KBR/01-1). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau., & (1998). Adolescent development in family contexts. In W.Damon (editor-in-Chief) & N.Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development ((5th ed., pp. 1097–1149). New York: John Wiley.2005). Age, race, and ethnicity in the use of complementary and alternative medicine for health self-management: Evidence from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey. Journal of Aging and Health, 17, 547–572. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0898264305279821, , , , , & (1989). The factor structure of the CES-D in the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: The influences of ethnicity, gender, and language. Social Science & Medicine, 29, 85–94., , & (1999). Research on culture-bound syndromes. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(9), 13322–13327., & (1995). Effects of United States residence on birth outcomes among Mexican immigrants: An exploratory study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 142, S30–S38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/142.Supplement_9.S30, & (1990). Generational differences in perinatal health among the Mexican American population: Findings from HHANES 1982–84. American Journal of Public Health, 80, S61–S65. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.80.Suppl.61, , , & (1994). Individuality and relatedness: Evolution of a fundamental dialectic. American Psychologist, 49, 104–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.49.2.104, & (2001). Preliminary validation of the acculturation scale on Chinese Americans. Journal of Social Work Research & Evaluation, 2, 43–56., & (1997). Expert report. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. Available at http://www.vpcomm.umich.edu/admissions/legal/expert/gurintoc.html.(2002). Diversity and higher education: Theory and impact on educational outcomes. Harvard Educational Review, 72, 330–366., , , & ([Page 356]1998). Even the rat was white: A historical view of psychology. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.(2004). Even the rat was white: A historical view of psychology ((2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.2003). Ethical principles of the psychology profession and ethnic minority issues. In W.O'Donohue & K.E.Ferguson (eds.), Handbook of professional ethics for psychologists: Issues, questions, and controversies (pp. 301–318). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., , & (1994). The “bleaching syndrome”: Implications of light skin for Hispanic American assimilation. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 16, 307–314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07399863940163008(1996). Race effects on students' track mobility in high school. Social Psychology of Education, 1(1), 1–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02333403(2004). Poverty and depressed mood among urban African-American adolescents: A family stress perspective. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 13(3), 309–323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:JCFS.0000022037.59369.90, , , & (2005). Being a man about it: Manhood meaning among African American men. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 6(2), 114–126., & (1952). The third generation in America. Commentary, 14, 493–500.(2004). Disparities in the adequacy of depression treatment in the United States. Psychiatric Services, 55, 1379–1385. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.55.12.1379, , & (2003). Physiological responses to racism and discrimination: An assessment of the evidence. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 243–248. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.93.2.243, , & (1996). The Greek-American acculturation scale: Development and validity. Psychological Reports, 78, 599–610. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1922.214.171.1249, & (1998). Acculturation as a determinant of Greek-American family values. Psychological Reports, 83, 1163–1172., & (2005). Use of mental health care and substance abuse treatment among adults with co-occurring disorders. Psychiatric Services, 56, 954–959. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.56.8.954, & (1990). Family ecologies of ethnic minority children. Child Development, 61, 347–362. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131097, , , , & (2004). Racial and ethnic status: Risk and protective processes among African American families. In K.I.Maton, C.J.Schellenbach, B.J.Leadbeater, & A.L.Solarz (eds.), Investing in children, youth, families, and communities (pp. 269–283). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10660-015, , & (2004). Predictors of risky sexual behavior among young African American men who have sex with men. American Journal of Public Health, 94, 1122–1123. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.94.7.1122, & (2001). Whiteness: Theorizing race, eliding ethnicity. International Labor and Working-Class History, 60, 61–68.(2003). White privilege, oppression, and racial identity development: Implications for supervision. Counselor Education and Supervision, 43, 134–145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6978.2003.tb01837.x, & ([Page 357]2002). Understanding Whiteness/Unraveling racism: Tools for the journey. New York: Thomson Learning., & (1990). Black and White racial identity development. Westport, CT: Greenwood.(1995). An update of Helms' White and people of color racial identity models. In J.G.Ponterotto & J.M.Casas (eds.), Handbook of multicultural counseling (pp. 181–198). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(2006). Fairness is not a validity or cultural bias in racial-group assessment: A quantitative perspective. American Psychologist, 61, 845–859. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.61.8.845(2007). Some better practices for measuring racial and ethnic identity constructs. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(3), 235–246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0126.96.36.199(1999). Using race and culture in counseling and psychotherapy: Theory and process. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon., & (2005). The meaning of race in psychology and how to change it: A methodological perspective. American Psychologist, 60(1), 27–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.60.1.27, , & (1999). Louisiana Cajun ethnicity: Symbolic or structural?Sociological Spectrum, 19, 223–248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/027321799280244, & (1994). The bell curve: Intelligence and class structure in American life. New York: Free Press., & (1997). Expressions of anxiety in African Americans: Ethnography and the ECA studies. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry, 21, 337–363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005389007836, , & (2003). Advances in the conceptualization and measurement of religion and spirituality: Implications for physical and mental health research. American Psychologist, 58(1), 64–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.58.1.64, & (1998). Understanding Black family functioning: A holistic perspective. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 29(1), 15–25.(2001). Class, race, and gender dimensions of child rearing in African American families. Journal of Black Studies, 31(4), 494–508. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002193470103100407(1973). Political scientists and other camaradas: Academic myth making and racial stereotypes. In R.O.de la Garza, Z.A.Kruswski, & T.A.Arcinego (eds.), Chicanos and Native Americans. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(1990). An analysis of domestic violence in Asian American communities: A multicultural approach to counseling. Women and Therapy, 9(12), 129–150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J015v09n01_08(1980). Culture's consequences: International differences in work-related values. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(2003). Mexican American youth of the Southwest borderlands: Perceptions of ethnicity, acculturation, and race. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 25, 352–369. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0739986303256913(2003). A tale of challenge and change: A history and chronology of ethnic minorities in psychology in the United States. In G.Bernal, J.E.Trimble, A.K.Burlew, & F.T. L.Leong (eds.), Handbook of racial & ethnic minority psychology (pp. 15–64). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., & ([Page 358]2008). Religious healing and biomedicine in comparative context. In B.W.McNeill & J.M.Cervantes (eds.), Latina/o healing practices: Mestizo and indigenous perspectives (pp. 249–270). New York: Routledge/Taylor.(1996). Stories from the homefront: Perspectives of Asian American parents with lesbian daughters and gay sons. In R.Leong (ed.), Asian American sexualities: Dimensions of the gay and lesbian experience. New York: Routledge.(2000). Multicultural minds: A dynamic constructivist approach to culture and cognition. American Psychologist, 55, 709–720. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.7.709, , , & (2005). Patient smoking cessation advice by health care providers: The role of ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and health. American Journal of Public Health, 95(6), 1056–1061. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2004.039909, , , & (2005). An analysis of the field of spirituality, religion and health (s/rh). Retrieved July 5, 2008, from http://www.templetonadvancedresearchprogram.com/pdf/TARP-Hufford.pdf.(1997). When and what parents tell children about race: An examination of race-related socialization among African American families. Applied Developmental Science, 1(4), 200–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s1532480xads0104_4, & (1986). Individualism-collectivism: A study of cross-cultural researchers. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 17, 229–244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022002186017002006, & (2004). Should “acculturation” be a variable in health research? A critical review of research on US Hispanics. Social Science & Medicine, 59, 973–986., , & (2008). Individualistic and collectivistic worldviews: Implications for understanding perceptions of racial discrimination in African Americans and British Caribbean Americans. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 55, 321–332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0188.8.131.521(1998). The climate for diversity: Key issues for institutional self-study. New Directions for Institutional Research, 25(2), 53–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ir.9804, , & (2001). African American ethnic identity orientation in two national samples: A secondary survey analysis study. Journal of Black Psychology, 27, 139–171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0095798401027002001(1996). Designing and evaluating strategies to recruit African Americans for AIDS/HIV interventions: Targeting the African-American family. Ethnicity & Disease, 6(3–4), 301–310., , , & (Institute of Medicine. (2002). Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Washington, DC: National Academy of Science.Institute of Medicine. (2005). Complementary and alternative medicine in the United States. Washington, DC: National Academy of Science.Israel, B.A., Eng, E., Schultz, A.J., & Parker, E.A. (eds.). (2005). Methods in community-based participatory research for health. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.1997). Asian Americans. In S.Friedman (ed.), Cultural issues in the treatment of anxiety (pp. 99–129). New York: Guilford.(2003). Anxiety disorders among ethnic minority groups. In G.Bernal, J.E.Trimble, A.K.Burlew, & F.T. L.Leong (eds.), Handbook of racial & ethnic minority psychology (pp. 429–447). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., & (1992). Race and ethnicity as biological constructs. Ethnicity & Disease, 2, 120–125.([Page 359]2007). Use of mental health services and subjective satisfaction with treatment among Black Caribbean immigrants: Results from the National Survey of American Life. American Journal of Public Health, 97, 60–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2006.088500, , , , , & (2004). The National Survey of American Life: A study of racial, ethnic, and cultural influences on mental disorders and mental health. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 13(4), 196–207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mpr.177, , , , , , et al. (1988). J'accuse. In M.H.Bond (ed.), The cross-cultural challenge to social psychology (pp. 86–95). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(2008). Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975–2005, featuring trends in lung cancer, tobacco use, and tobacco control. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 100(23). Available at http://seer.cancer.gov/report_to_nation/. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djn389, , , , , , et al. (2004). Racial and ethnic differences in patient perceptions of bias and cultural competence in health care. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 19, 101–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1497.2004.30262.x, , , , & (1953). The life and work of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 1). New York: Basic Books.(1992). Understanding the mental health consequences of race: Contributions of basic social psychological processes. In D.N.Ruble, P.R.Costanze, & M.E.Oliveri (eds.), The social psychology of mental health: Basic mechanism and applications (pp. 199–240). New York: Guilford.(2003). TRIOS: A psychological theory of the African legacy in American culture. Journal of Social Issues, 59(1), 217–242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1540-4560.t01-1-00014(2003). A statistical portrait of children of two or more races in Census 2000. In M.P. P.Root & M.Kelley (eds.), Multiracial child resource book: Living complex identities (pp. 3–12). Seattle, WA: Mavin Foundation., & (Joslin Diabetes Center. (2003). Growing diabetes in Asians. Available at http://joslin.org/news/diabetes_growing_asians.shtml.2006). The impact of the family environment on the ethnic identity development of multiethnic college students. Journal of Counseling & Development, 84, 328–340.(1967). Collected works. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(2000). Racial and ethnic variations in gender-related attitudes. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 419–439. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.26.1.419(2001). HIV in the United States at the turn of the century. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 1060–1068. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.91.7.1060, , , & (2007). The psychology and mental health of Asian American women. In F.T. L.Leong, A.G.Inman, A.Ebreo, L.H.Yang, L.Kinoshita, & M.Fu (eds.), Handbook of Asian American psychology (, & (2nd ed., pp. 181–196). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.2005). Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of twelve-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 617–627. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.617, , , & ([Page 360]1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the US: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 8–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1994.03950010008002, , , , , , et al. (2004). The National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 13, 60–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mpr.166, & (2007). Status and trends in the education of racial and ethnic minorities (NCES 2007-039). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics., , , & (2002, July 26). The unstable path to cancer. Science, 297, 543–569. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.297.5581.543, & (1993). Family tightrope: The changing lives of Vietnamese Americans. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(2005). The Asian American values scale—multidimensional: Development, reliability, and validity. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority, 11, 187–201., , & (2007). Family violence among Asian Americans. In F.T. L.Leong, A.G.Inman, A.Ebreo, L.H.Yang, L.Kinoshita, & M.Fu (eds.), Handbook of Asian American psychology (, , & (2nd ed., pp. 363–378). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.2004). Ethnic and cultural variations in anger regulation and attachment patterns among Korean American and European American male batterers. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(2), 151–168., & (2000). Conjugal violence in Korean American families: A residue of the cultural tradition. Journal of Family Violence, 15(4), 331–345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1007502212754, & (2000). Parenting practices and adolescent depressive symptoms in Chinese American families. Journal of Family Psychology, 14(3), 420–435. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-3184.108.40.2060, & (2001). Culture, science and indigenous psychologies: An integrated analysis. In D.Matsumoto (ed.), Handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 51–76). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.(1993). Indigenous psychologies: Research and experience in cultural context. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., & (2003). Ethnic self-awareness as a function of ethnic group status, group composition, and ethnic identity orientation. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 9(3), 289–302., & (2005). On the down low: A journey into the lives of “straight” Black men who sleep with men. New York: Random House., & (2005). Why is discrimination stressful? The mediating role of cognitive appraisal. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 11, 202–212.(1963). I have a dream [Speech]. Delivered at the Lincoln Memorial, Washington, DC.(1997). Socioeconomic status and racial and ethnic differences in functional status associated with chronic diseases. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 805–810. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.87.5.805, & ([Page 361]1990). The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder and its clinical significance among Southeast Asian refugees. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 913–917., , , , , & (1992). Psychiatry epidemiology of an Indian village: A 19-year replication study. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 180, 33–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-199201000-00008, , , , , & (1991). Language of interview: Relevance for research of Southwest Hispanics. American Journal of Public Health, 81, 1399–1407. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.81.11.1399, & (1977). Depression, somatization, and the “new cross-cultural psychiatry.” Social Science Medicine, 11, 3–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0037-7856%2877%2990138-X(1991). Differences in infant mortality by race, nativity status, and other maternal characteristics. American Journal of Disease in Children, 145, 194–199., , & (1999). Cross-validation of the schedule of racist events. Journal of Black Psychology, 25, 231–254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0095798499025002006, & (1961). The study of values. In D.N.Barrett (ed.), Values in America. Notre Dame, IN: Notre Dame University Press.(1961). Variations in value orientation. New York: Harper & Row., & (1999). Adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior in single-parent ethnic minority families. Journal of Family Psychology, 13(1), 93–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-3220.127.116.11, , , & (2003). Gender identity, ethnicity, acculturation, and drug use: Exploring differences among adolescents in the Southwest. Journal of Community Psychology, 31(2), 167–188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcop.10041, , & (1999). Alcohol dependence and conduct disorder among Navajo Indians. Journal of Studies in Alcohol, 60, 159–167., , , , , , et al. (1993). Psychological impact of biculturalism: Evidence and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 395–412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.114.3.395, , & (1994). African-American acculturation: Deconstructing “race” and reviving culture. Thousand Oaks, CA; Sage., & (1995). The African American Acculturation Scale II: Cross-validation and short form. Journal of Black Psychology, 21, 124–152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00957984950212003, & (1996). Cultural diversity and methodology in feminist psychology. Journal of Black Psychology, 22, 144–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00957984960222002, & (2006). Conceptualizing and measuring ethnic discrimination in health research. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 29, 79–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10865-005-9029-0, , , , & (2004). Structural violence and racial disparity in HIV transmission. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 15, 319–335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2004.0043, , , , , , et al. (1994). Race as a factor in inpatient and outpatient admissions and diagnosis. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 45, 72–74., , , & ([Page 362]Lee, E. (Ed.). (1997). Working with Asian Americans: A guide for clinicians. New York: Guilford.1989). Assessment and treatment of Asian-American survivors of mass violence. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2, 93–120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.2490020109, & (2001). The current state of mental health research on Asian Americans. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 3(3/4), 159–178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J137v03n03_11, , & (2002). Neighborhood context and youth cardiovascular health behaviors. American Journal of Public Health, 92(3), 428–436. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.92.3.428, & (2003). Do ethnic identity and other-group orientation protect against discrimination for Asian Americans?Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50(2), 133–141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-018.104.22.168(2003). Comparison of models of acculturation: The case of Korean Americans. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34, 282–296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022103034003003, , & (1966). Power and privilege: A theory of social stratification. New York: McGraw-Hill.(1986). Counseling and psychotherapy with Asian Americans: A review of the literature. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 33, 192–206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-022.214.171.124(1980). Belief in a just world: A fundamental delusion. New York: Plenum.(1966). Pensée savage [The savage mind]. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(2005). A change of heart: How the people of Framingham, Massachusetts, helped unravel the mysteries of cardiovascular disease. New York: Knopf., & (2006). Chronic exposure to everyday discrimination and coronary artery calcification in African American women: The SWAN Heart Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 68, 362–368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.psy.0000221360.94700.16, , , , , , et al. (1972). Cancer in the United States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(2002). The development of the Khmer acculturation scale. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26, 653–678. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0147-1767%2802%2900040-8, , , & (1990). A comparison of child-rearing practices among Chinese, immigrant Chinese, and Caucasian-American parents. Child Development, 61, 429–433. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131104, & (1979). Minority women in America: Black American, Native American, Chicana, and Asian American women. In E.C.Synder (ed.), The study of women enlarging perspectives of social reality. New York: Harper & Row.(2002). Exploring the lives of Asian American men: Racial identity, male role norms, gender role conflict, and prejudicial attitudes. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 3(2), 107–118.(2000). Motivating illegal drug use recovery: Evidence for a culturally congruent intervention. Journal of Black Psychology, 26(3), 288–301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0095798400026003002, & (2004). Interethnic contact, curriculum, and attitudes in the first year of college. Journal of Social Issues, 60(1), 75–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-4537.2004.00100.x([Page 363]1989). Patient variable biases in clinical judgment: Conceptual overview and methodological considerations. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 184–203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.106.2.184(2005). Cultural dimensions of psychopathology: The social world's impact on mental illness. In J.E.Maddux & B.A.Winstead (eds.), Psychopathology: Foundations for a contemporary understanding (pp. 19–38). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., & (2000). Cultural psychopathology: Uncovering the social world of mental illness. Annual Review of Psychology, 51, 571–598. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.51.1.571, & (Lorentzen, L., Chun, K.M., Gonzalez, J., & Do, H. (Eds.). (in press). On the corner of bliss and nirvana: The religious lives of new immigrants in San Francisco. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.2002). Racial inequality in special education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press., & (1996). Oppression and privilege: Towards a relational conceptualization of race. Teaching Sociology, 24(3), 245–255. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1318739(2004). Children and the households they live in: 2000 (Census 2000 Special Report). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau., & (1997). Cumulative impact of sustained economic hardship on physical, cognitive, psychological, and social functioning. The New England Journal of Medicine, 337(26), 1889–1895. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199712253372606, , & (2006). Gender differences in early risk factors for adolescent depression among low-income urban children. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 12(4), 644–657., , , , & (2008). Recent trends in infant mortality in the United States (NCHS Data Brief No. 9). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics., & (2000). Informed consent for research: International perspectives. Journal of the American Medical Women's Association, 55, 290–293.(Maddux, J.E., & Winstead, B.A. (eds.). (2005). Psychopathology: Foundations for a contemporary understanding. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.2002). Development of an empirical typology of African American family functioning. Journal of Family Psychology, 16(3), 318–337. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-3126.96.36.1998, & (2004). Media magic: Making class invisible. In P.S.Rothenberg (ed.), Race, class, and gender in the United States: An integrated study ((6th ed., pp. 560–568). New York: St. Martin's.2000). Ethnic stratification: Power and inequality. In M.N.Marger (ed.), Race and ethnic relations: American and global perspectives ((5th ed., pp. 36–68). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.1984). Stereotyping Hispanics: The differential effect of research method, label, and degree of contact. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 8, 17–27.(1992). Issues in the measurement of acculturation among Hispanics. In K.Geisinger (ed.), Psychological testing of Hispanics. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.([Page 364]1993). Defining culturally appropriate community interventions: Hispanics as a case study. Journal of Community Psychology, 20, 375–391.(2003). Acculturation research: Current issues and findings. In G.Bernal, J.E.Trimble, A.K.Burlew, & F.T. L.Leong (eds.), Handbook of racial & ethnic minority psychology (pp. 208–219). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., , & (1996). A new measurement of acculturation for Hispanics: The Bidimensional Acculturation Scale for Hispanics. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 18, 297–316., & (1989). Cigarette smoking among San Francisco Hispanics: The role of acculturation and gender. American Journal of Public Health, 79, 196–198., , & (1987). Development of a short acculturation scale for Hispanics. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 9, 183–205., , , , & (1983). Ethnic affirmation versus social desirability: Explaining discrepancies in bilinguals' responses to a questionnaire. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 14, 173–186., , , & (1991). Research with Hispanic populations (Vol. 23, Applied Social Research Methods Series). Newbury Park, CA: Sage., & (1987). Smoking among Mexican Americans: A three-generation study. American Journal of Public Health, 77, 708–711. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.77.6.708, , & (1990). Health risk behaviors of Hispanics in the United States: Findings from HHANES, 1982–84. American Journal of Public Health, 80 (Suppl.), 20–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.80.Suppl.20, , & (1995). Human biodiversity: Genes, race, and history. New York: Walter de Gruyter.(1991). Culture and the self. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.98.2.224, & (1998). Toward a “global-community psychology”: Meeting the needs of a changing world. American Psychologist, 53, 1282–1291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.53.12.1282(2004). Ethnicity and ethnic identity as predictors of drug norms and drug use among preadolescents in the US Southwest. Substance Use & Misuse, 39(7), 1061–1094., , , & (2004). Culture and psychology (, & (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.2007). Race, race-based discrimination, and health outcomes among African Americans. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 201–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.57.102904.190212, , & (1992). Magic Johnson's credibility among African-American men. American Journal of Public Health, 82, 1692–1693. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.82.12.1692-a, , , & (1983). Cultural variations in family attitudes and their implications for therapy. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 22, 454–458. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-7138%2809%2961508-9, , , , , & ([Page 365]2006). Intergroup attitudes of European American children attending ethnically homogeneous schools. Child Development, 77, 1375–1386. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00941.x, & (2004). White privilege: Unpacking the invisible knapsack. In P.S.Rothenberg (ed.), Race, class, and gender in the United States: An integrated study ((6th ed., pp. 188–192). New York: Worth.2008). Participatory action research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1990). The impact of economic hardship on Black families and children: Psychological distress, parenting, and socioemotional development. Child Development, 61, 311–346. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131096(1998). Socioeconomic disadvantage and child development. American Psychologist, 53, 185–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.53.2.185(2000). Marital processes and parental socialization in families of color: A decade review of research. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62(4), 1070–1093. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.01070.x, , , & (2001). Ethnic minority status, interparental conflict, and child adjustment. In J.H.Grych & F.Fincham (eds.), Interparental conflict and child development: Theory, research, and applications. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press., , & (2002). Ethnic identity in urban African American youth: Exploring links with self-worth, aggression, and other psychosocial variables. Journal of Community Psychology, 30(4), 411–432. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcop.10013, & (2004). African American women and AIDS: Factors influencing risk and reduction to HIV disease. Journal of Black Psychology, 30(1), 106–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0095798403261414, & (2004). Type 2 diabetes prevalence in Asian Americans: Results of a national health survey. Diabetes Care, 27(1), 66–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.27.1.66, & (1999). The social construction of wife abuse. Violence Against Women, 5(6), 619–640. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10778019922181400(1987). Acculturative stress and specific coping strategies among immigrant and later generation college students. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 9, 207–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07399863870092006, , & (2007). Stereotype-busting people can spur stress, reduce cognitive performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.528(2000). Development of a brief scale to measure acculturation among Japanese Americans. Journal of Community Psychology, 28, 103–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291520-6629%28200001%2928:1%3C103::AID-JCOP10%3E3.0.CO;2-E, , , , & (2004, January 21). How to slap a happy face on misery. The Washington Post, p. B01.(2006). Death: Preliminary data for 2004. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics., , & (Minority Health and Health Disparities Research and Education Act. (2000). Pub. L. No. 106-525. Available at http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS10757.2000). Socio-psychological predictors of acculturative stress among Latino adults. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 22, 306–317., & ([Page 366]1998). Depression and social interest differences between Latinos in dissimilar acculturation stages. Journal of Mental Health, 20, 159–171., & (2005). State of the science on psychosocial interventions for ethnic minorities. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 113–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.1.102803.143822, , , , , & (2004). Depression prevalence in disadvantaged young Black women: African and Caribbean immigrants compared to U.S.-born African Americans. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 40, 253–258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-005-0879-0, , , & (2003). The state of working America 2002–2003. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press., , & (1994). Southeast Asian refugees: Migration history and mental health issues. In A.J.Marsella, T.Bornemann, S.Ekblad, & J.Orley (eds.), Amidst peril and pain: The mental health and well-being of the world's refugees (pp. 83–100). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.(1973). Social constraints on sociological knowledge: Academics and research concerning minorities. Social Problems, 21, 65–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/799977(2002). Socioeconomic, cultural, and behavioral factors affecting Hispanic health outcomes. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 13, 477–503., , , , & (1999). Defining and measuring harmony control. Journal of Research in Personality, 33, 379–414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jrpe.1999.2254, & (2003). Coping with perceived discrimination: Does ethnic identity protect mental health?Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 44(3), 318–331. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1519782(2001). Religious involvement, spirituality, and medicine: Implications for clinical practice. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 76, 1225–1235. http://dx.doi.org/10.4065/76.12.1225, , & (2003). Sick and tired of being sick and tired: Scientific evidence, methods, and research implications for racial and ethnic disparities in occupational health. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 221–226. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.93.2.221(2001). Racial discrimination as a moderator of the links among stress, maternal psychological functioning, and family relationships. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 915–926. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2001.00915.x, , , , & (2003). Acculturation and physical health in racial and ethnic minorities. In K.M.Chun, P.Balls Organista, & G.Marín (eds.), Acculturation: Advances in theory, measurement, and applied research (pp. 163–185). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10472-011, & (National Cancer Institute. (2005). SEER cancer statistics review. Retrieved July 3, 2005, from http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2002/results_merged/topic_race_ethnicity.pdf.National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2002). Diabetes: Disabling, deadly, and on the rise. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.[Page 367]National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. (2008). What is CAM? Retrieved July 22, 2008, from http://nccam.nih.gov/health/whatiscam/.National Center for Health Statistics. (2002). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/nhanes/nhanes01-02.htm.National Center for Health Statistics. (2005). Health, United States, 2004: With chart-book on trends in the health of Americans. Hyattsville, MD: Author.National Center for Health Statistics. (2006). Health, United States, 2005: With chart-book on trends in the health of Americans. Hyattsville, MD: Author.National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (2004). Factsheet: How HIV causes AIDS. Retrieved August 8, 2007, from http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/howhiv.htm.1991). Anxiety disorders research with African Americans: Current status. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 400–410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.109.3.400, & (2003). Understanding how universal goals of independence and interdependence are manifested within particular cultural contexts. Human Development, 46, 312–318. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000071938(2001). Judgments of personal autonomy and interpersonal responsibility in the context of Indian spousal relationships: An examination of young people's reasoning in Mysore, India. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 19, 233–257. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/026151001166056(2002a). The authenticity of conflict resolutions among adult couples: Does women's other-oriented behavior reflect their true selves?Sex Roles, 47, 403–417. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021692109040, & (2002b). The role of power and authenticity in relationship styles emphasizing autonomy, connectedness, or mutuality among adult couples. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 19, 827–849., & (2003). Relationship styles of self-focused autonomy, other-focused connectedness, and mutuality across multiple relationship contexts. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 20, 81–99., & (2003). Ethnic identity, self-esteem, and ethnocentrism: A study of social identity versus multicultural theory of development. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 9(4), 333–344., , , & (2007). Race, ethnicity, and the use of services for mental disorders: Results from the National Survey of American Life. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(4), 485–494. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.64.4.485, , , , , , et al. (2006). Acculturation in the United States. In D.L.Sam, & J.W.Berry (eds.), The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology (pp. 311–330). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511489891.024(2002). The Acculturation Scale for Vietnamese Adolescents (ASVA): A bidimensional perspective. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26, 202–213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01650250042000672, & (1987). Puerto Rican leaders' views of English-language media. Journalism Quarterly, 64(2–3), 597–601. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769908706400249([Page 368]2001). Culture and systems of thought: Holistic versus analytic cognition. Psychological Review, 108, 291–310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.108.2.291, , , & (North American Spine Society. (2006). Herbal supplements: “Natural” doesn't always mean safe. Retrieved August 22, 2007, from http://www.spine.org/Documents/herbalsupplements_2006.pdf.2003). Environmental equity and health: Understanding complexity and moving forward. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 214., , , & (2005). Understanding and using the implicit association test: II. Method variables and construct validity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 166–180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167204271418, , & (1996). Acculturative stress among Amerasian refugees: Gender and racial differences. Adolescence, 31, 477–487., & (1978). Minority education and caste. New York: Academic Press.(1993). Parental beliefs and children's school performance. Child Development, 64, 36–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131436, & (1995). Methodological issues in assessment research with ethnic minorities. Psychological Assessment, 7, 367–375. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-35184.108.40.2067, & (1998). Methodological issues in assessment research with ethnic minorities. In P.Balls Organista, K.M.Chun, & G.Marín (eds.), Readings in ethnic psychology (pp. 26–40). New York: Routledge., & (2007). Solving Latino psychosocial and health problems: Theory, practice and populations. New York: John Wiley.(2003). Black-White differences in achievement: The importance of wealth. Sociology of Education, 76, 281–304. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1519867(Oskamp, S. (Ed.). (2000). Reducing prejudice and discrimination. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.2000). Promising practices in reducing prejudice: A report from the President's Initiative on Race. In S.Oskamp (ed.), Reducing prejudice and discrimination (pp. 319–334). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., & (2003). Prediction of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 129(1), 52–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.1.52, , , & (2001). Issues in culturally appropriate assessment. In L.A.Suzuki, J.G.Ponterotto, & P.J.Meller (eds.), Handbook of multicultural assessment: Clinical, psychological, and educational applications (pp. 5–27). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.(2003). Acculturation, social identity, and social cognition: A new perspective. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 25, 35–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0739986303251694, & (2000). The psychology of Blacks: An African centered perspective (, , & (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.1995). Confucianism and the Korean family. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 26(1), 117–134., & ([Page 369]2004). Assessing father involvement in Mexican-American families. In R.D.Day & M.E.Lamb (eds.), Conceptualizing and measuring father involvement (pp. 17–38). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., , , , & (2004). Race/ethnicity and sexual orientation: Intersecting identities. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(3), 241–254., , & (1991). Racial segregation in major league baseball. Sociology and Social Research, 76, 3–9., & (1999). Culture, dialectics, and reasoning about contradiction. American Psychologist, 54, 741–754. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.54.9.741, & (2004). The development and implementation of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, the National Survey of American Life, and the National Latino and Asian American Survey. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 4(13), 241–269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mpr.180, , , , , , et al. (2008). Prevalence and correlates of everyday discrimination among U.S. Latinos. Journal of Community Psychology, 36, 421–433., , & (2000). Cultural orientation across three generations of Hispanic adolescents. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 22, 390–398. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0739986300223008, & (1997). The effects of ethnicity and language on medical outcomes of patients with hypertension or diabetes. Medical Care, 35, 1212–1219., , & (2002). Ethnicity, culture, and disaster response: Identifying and explaining ethnic differences in PTSD six months after Hurricane Andrew. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 21(1), 20–45., , & (2002). Second-generation transnationalism. In P.Levitt & M.C.Waters (eds.), The changing face of home: The transnational lives of the second generation (pp. 216–220). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.(2005). Predictive models of implicit and explicit attitudes. British Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 29–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/014466604X23491(1998). How people get into mental health services: Stories of choice, coercion and “muddling through.” Social Science & Medicine, 46(2), 275–286., , & (2007). Images of sexual stereotypes in rap videos and the health of African American female adolescents. Journal of Woman's Health, 16, 1157–1164., , , , & (1998). Intergroup contact theory. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 65–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.49.1.65(2004). Justice deferred a half century after Brown v. Board of Education. American Psychologist, 59, 521–529. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.59.6.521(Pew Hispanic Center. (2006). From 200 million to 300 million: The numbers behind population growth. Washington, DC: Author.[Page 370]2001). Acculturation strategies among Vietnamese-Americans. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 25, 279–300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0147-1767%2801%2900004-9, & (1989). Stages of ethnic identity development in minority group adolescents. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 9(1), 34–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272431689091004(1990). Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: Review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 499–514. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.108.3.499(1992). The multigroup ethnic identity measure: A new scale for use with diverse groups. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7(2), 156–176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/074355489272003(1993). Multigroup group identities: Differentiation, conflict, and integration. In J.Kroger (ed.), Discussions on ego identity (pp. 47–73). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1996). When we talk about American ethnic groups what do we mean?American Psychologist, 51, 918–927. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.51.9.918(1992). Ethnic identity and self-esteem: An exploratory longitudinal study. Journal of Adolescence, 15(3), 271–281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0140-1971%2892%2990030-9, & (1993). The effect of ethnic threat on ethnic self-concept and own-group ratings. Journal of Social Psychology, 133(4), 469–478. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1993.9712171, , & (2001). Ethnic identity, immigration, and well-being: An interactional perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 57(3), 493–510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.00225, , , & (1990). Ethnic identity development and psychological adjustment in adolescence. In A.R.Stiffman & L.E.Davis (eds.), Ethnic issues in adolescent mental health (pp. 53–72). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., , & (2002). Adolescent-parent disagreements and life satisfaction in families from Vietnamese- and European-American backgrounds. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26(6), 556–561. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01650250143000544, & (2007). Conceptualization and measurement of ethnic identity: Current status and future directions. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(3), 271–281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0220.127.116.111, & (2000). Cultural values and intergenerational value discrepancies in immigrant and non-immigrant families. Child Development, 71(2), 528–539. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00162, , & (2001). The role of language, parents, and peers in ethnic identity among adolescents in immigrant families. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(2), 135–153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010389607319, , , & (1992). Ethnic identity in adolescence: Process, context, and outcome. In G.R.Adams, T.P.Gullotta, & R.Montmayor (eds.), Advances in adolescent development: Vol. 4. Adolescent identity formation (pp. 145–172). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., & (1992). The United States and Latin America: Myths and stereotypes of civilization and nature. Austin: University of Texas Press.(2003). The relationship between parenting, acculturation, and adolescent academics in Mexican-origin immigrant families in Los Angeles. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 25(2), 222–239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0739986303025002005, & ([Page 371]2005). Why are Hispanics at greater risk for PTSD?Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 11(2), 144–161., , , & (2001). Handbook of multicultural counseling (, , , & (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.2003). The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM): Psychometric review and further validity testing. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 63(3), 502–515. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013164403063003010, , , , & (2007). Racial and ethnic identity theory, measurement, and research in counseling psychology: Present status and future directions. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(3), 282–294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-018.104.22.1682, & (Population Reference Bureau. (2002). Foreign-born make up growing segment of the U.S. Black population. Population Today. Available at http://www.prb.org/Articles/2002/ForeignBornMakeUpGrowingSegmentofUSBlackPopulation.aspx?p=1.1999). Immigration theory for a new century: Some problems and opportunities. In C.Hirschman, P.Kasinitz, & J.DeWind (eds.), The handbook of international migration: The American experience (pp. 21–33). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.(2001). Factor variability of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) among urban Latinos. Ethnicity & Health, 6, 137–144., , , & (1990). The biracial identity development model: A needed addition. Journal of Counseling & Development, 69(2), 152–155.(Poverty rate up 3rd year in a row. (2004, August 27). The Washington Post, p. A01.1988). Implications of doll color preferences among Black preschool children and White preschool children. The Journal of Black Psychology, 14, 57–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00957984880142004, & (2002, September). Poverty in the United States: 2001. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau., & (2003). Asian American women and racialized femininities: “Doing” gender across cultural worlds. Gender & Society, 17(1), 33–53., & (1998). Children's developmental understanding of ethnicity and race. Applied & Preventive Psychology, 7(1), 27–45.(2007). Racial and ethnic identity: Developmental perspectives and research. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(3), 259–270. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-022.214.171.1249(1970). Behind ghetto walls: Black life in a federal slum. Chicago: Aldine.(1974). Cultural democracy and bicognitive developmental education. New York: Academic Press., & (2000). Neighborhood poverty and the social isolation of inner-city African American families. Social Forces, 79(1), 139–164., & (2006). Gender inequalities in US adult health: The interplay of race and ethnicity. Social Science & Medicine, 62, 1045–1065., & (1936). Memorandum on the study of acculturation. American Anthropologist, 38, 149–152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/aa.1936.38.1.02a00330, , & ([Page 372]1999). On the development and psychometric testing of the WHO screening instrument to assess disablement in the general population. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 8, 110–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mpr.61, , , , , , et al. (1997). Language-specific response patterns and subjective assessment of health: A sociolinguistic analysis. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 19, 353–368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07399863970193007(1999). The structure of ethnic identity of young adolescents from diverse ethnocultural groups. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 19(3), 301–322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272431699019003001, , , , , & (1989). Effects of language and ethnic status on reliability and validity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale with psychiatric patients. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 177, 581–592. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-198910000-00001, , & (Robins, L., & Regier, D. (eds.). (1991). Psychiatric disorders in America: The Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. New York: Free Press.2002). Development of the Multidimensional Acculturative Stress Inventory for adults of Mexican origin. Psychological Assessment, 14, 451–461. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-35126.96.36.1991, , , , & (1999a). Implementing cultural sensitivity in mental health research: Convergence and new directions. Psychline, 3(1), 5–11.(1999b). Methodological sources of cultural insensitivity in mental health research. American Psychologist, 54, 424–433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.54.6.424(1991). Acculturation and mental health status among Hispanics. American Psychologist, 46, 585–597. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.46.6.585, , & (1985). Perceived parental acceptance-rejection and parental control among Korean adolescents. Child Development, 56, 524–528. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1129739, & (1993). Dietary acculturation among Latinos of Mexican descent. Nutrition Today, 28(4), 5–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00017285-199307000-00003, , , , , , et al. (2006). Promoting values of education in Latino mother-adolescent discussions about conflict and sexuality. In J.Denner & B.L.Guzman (eds.), Latina girls: Voices of adolescent strength in the United States (pp. 59–76). New York: New York University Press., , , & (1990). Resolving “other” status: Identity development of biracial individuals. Women & Therapy, 9(1), 185–205.(1992). Back to the drawing board: Methodological issues in research on multiracial people. In M.P. P.Root (ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 181–189). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1998). Multiracial Americans: Changing the face of Asian America. In N.W. S.Zane & E.Lee (eds.), Handbook of Asian American psychology ((1st ed., pp. 261–287). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.2003). Racial identity development and persons of mixed race heritage. In M.P. P.Root & M.Kelley (eds.), Multiracial child resource book (p. 41). Seattle, WA: Mavin Foundation.([Page 373]2004). Ethnic/racial differences in the coming-out process of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths: A comparison of sexual identity development over time. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(3), 215–228., , & (2003). The meaning of difference: American constructions of race, sex and gender, social class, and sexual orientation. New York: McGraw-Hill., & (1996). Race and outcome of treatment for veterans suffering from PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9, 343–351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.2490090215, & (1996). Vietnamese adolescents in Australia: Relationships between perceptions of self and parental values, intergenerational conflict, and gender dissatisfaction. International Journal of Psychology, 31(2), 81–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/002075996401106, , & (2002). Cultural/ethnic issues and the prevention scientist in the 21st century. Prevention & Treatment, 5, 21–36., , , & (1987). Ethnic behavior patterns as an aspect of identity. In J.S.Phinney & M.J.Rotheram (eds.), Children's ethnic socialization: Pluralism and development (pp. 210–218). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., & (2002). Structural inequality and social stratification. In R.A.Rothman (ed.), Inequality and stratification: Race, class, and gender ((4th ed., pp. 2–17). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.2005). Patterns and personality correlates of implicit and explicit attitudes toward Christians and Muslims. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 44, 29–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5906.2005.00263.x, , & (2003). “Critical history of the acculturation psychology of assimilation, separation, integration, and marginalization”: Correction to Rudmin (2003). Review of General Psychology, 7, 250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1089-26188.8.131.52(2001). Ethnicities: Children of immigrants in America. Berkeley: University of California Press., & (1972). Blaming the victim. New York: Vintage.(1987). Hispanic familism and acculturation: What changes and what doesn't?Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 9, 397–412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07399863870094003, , , , & (2003). Depression in ethnic minorities: Latinos and Latinas, African Americans, Asian Americans, and Native Americans. In G.Bernal, J.E.Trimble, A.K.Burlew, & F.T. L.Leong (eds.), Handbook of racial & ethnic minority psychology (pp. 401–428). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., & (2000). Anxiety in ethnic minority youth: Methodological and conceptual issues and review of the literature. Behavior Modification, 24, 147–183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0145445500242001, , , , , & (2006). Acculturation and health. In D.L.Sam & J.W.Berry (eds.), The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology (pp. 452–468). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511489891.033(Sam, D.L., & Berry, J.W. (eds.). (2006). The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511489891[Page 374]1999). Dealing with differences: An introduction to the social psychology of prejudice. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace.(1993). Acculturation stress among Hispanics: A bidimensional model of ethnic identification. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 23, 654–668. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1993.tb01107.x, & (2002). The Black church: Bridge over troubled water. In J.L.Sanders & C.Bradley (eds.), Counseling African American families (pp. 73–84). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.(2004). African Americans' perceptions of psychotherapy and psychotherapists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35, 19–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.35.1.19, , & (2006). Brief strategic family therapy: Lessons learned in efficacy research and challenges to blending research and practice. Family Process, 45(2), 259–271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.2006.00094.x, , , & (2007). The relationship between campus diversity, students' ethnic identity and college adjustment: A qualitative study. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13, 104–114., , , & (2004). Life span development ((10th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.2005). A topical approach to life-span development. ((2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.1998). Parental beliefs and children's everyday planning in European-American and Latino families. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 19, 319–340. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0193-3973%2899%2980043-4, & (1996). Racial and ethnic groups ((6th ed.). New York: HarperCollins.Schaefer, R.T. (Ed.). (2008). Encyclopedia of race, ethnicity, and society (Vols. 1–3). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.2004). School desegregation and social science research. American Psychologist, 59, 538–546. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.59.6.538, & (2002). The influence, timing, and duration of risk experiences for the passage from childhood to midadulthood. Child Development, 73(5), 1486–1504. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00485, , , , , & (2006). Treating minority patients with depression and anxiety: What does the evidence tell us?General Hospital Psychiatry, 28, 27–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2005.07.002, , , , & (1985). Racial attitudes in America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press., , & (1996). Program development and integrated treatment across systems for dual diagnosis: Mental illness, drug addiction and alcoholism, MIDAA. Journal of Mental Health Administration, 23(3), 288–297. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02522303, & (2003). The origins and persistence of ethnic identity among the “new immigrant” groups. Social Psychology Quarterly, 66(4), 419–437. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1519838, , , & (2003). Exploring familial processes in urban, low-income African-American families. Journal of Family Issues, 24(5), 627–644. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192513X03024005003, & ([Page 375]1998). Cross-cultural psychology as a scholarly discipline: On the flowering of culture in behavioral research. American Psychologist, 53, 1101–1110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.53.10.1101, , & (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.5, & (1979). How specific are perpetual skills? A cross-cultural study of pattern. British Journal of Psychology, 70, 365–380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1979.tb01706.x(2003). Assessment of a refined short acculturation scale for Latino preteens in rural Colorado. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 25, 240–253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0739986303025002006, & (1997). Why are African Americans under-represented in medical research studies? Impediments to participation. Ethnicity & Health, 2(1–2), 31–45., , , & (1999). A prospective study of the effects of marital status and family relations on young children's adjustment among African American and European American families. Child Development, 70(3), 742–755. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00053, , & (2005). Ironic effects of racial bias during interracial interactions. Psychological Science, 16, 397–402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0956-7976.2005.01547.x, , , & (2001). The convergence of vulnerable characteristics and health insurance in the United States. Social Science Medicine, 53(4), 519–529. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536%2800%2900357-9(2006). Domain-specific effects of stereotypes on performance. Self and Identity, 5, 1–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15298860500338534, , & (2005). Perspectives and research on the positive and negative implications of having multiple racial identities. Psychological Bulletin, 131(4), 569–591. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.131.4.569, & (2003). Language use and English-speaking ability (Census 2000 Brief C2KBR-29). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau., & (2007). Asian American subgroup differences in sources of health information and predictors of screening behavior. California Journal of Health Promotion, 5(2), 112–127., , , , , & (2007). The stage-specific role of spirituality among African American Christian women throughout the breast cancer experience. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13, 26–34., , & (2002). Discrimination, crime, ethnic identity, and parenting as correlates of depressive symptoms among African American children: A multilevel analysis. Development and Psychopathology, 14(2), 371–393. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579402002109, , , , , & (1994). The measurement of independent and interdependent self-construals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 580–591. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167294205014(2008). Moving beyond access: Achieving equity in state health care reform. Health Affairs, 27(2), 447–455. http://dx.doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.27.2.447(Smedley, B.D., Stith, A.Y., & Nelson, A.R. (eds.). (2003). Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.[Page 376]1999). Adolescent-parent conflict in middle-class African American families. Child Development, 70(6), 1447–1463. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00105, & (1990). Ethnic images (GSS Topical Report No.19). Chicago: National Opinion Research Center.(1990). Use of inpatient mental services by members of ethnic minority groups. American Psychologist, 45, 347–355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.45.3.347, & (1999). A scale to assess African American acculturation. Journal of Black Psychology, 25, 36–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0095798499025001003, & (2007). Federal civil rights policy and mental health treatment access for persons with limited English proficiency. American Psychologist, 62(2), 109–117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.62.2.109, , & (2000). Medicaid and African American outpatient mental health treatment. Mental Health Services Research, 2, 115–120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010161222515, & (Social Science Research Council. (1954). Acculturation: An exploratory formulation. American Anthropologist, 56, 973–1002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/aa.1954.56.6.02a000301991). Moderating effects of sociocultural variables on acculturation attitudes of Hispanics and Asian Americans. Journal of Counseling & Development, 70, 194–204., , & (1985). To soar with the eagles: Enculturation and acculturation of Indian children. Childhood Education, 10, 185–189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00094056.1985.10520710(1997). A passion for wisdom: A very brief history of philosophy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press., & (1994). Cross-cultural translation: Methodology and validation. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 25, 501–524. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022194254006, , & (Stanfield, J.H., & Dennis, R.M. (eds.). (1993). Race and ethnicity in research methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.1997). A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. American Psychologist, 52, 613–629. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.52.6.613(1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 797–811. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2067, & (1997). Change in AIDS risk behaviors among impoverished minority women after a community based cognitive-behavioral outreach program. Journal of Community Psychology, 25, 519–533. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291520-6629%28199711%2925:6%3C519::AID-JCOP3%3E3.0.CO;2-K, , & (2001). We know some things: Parent-adolescent relationships in retrospect and prospect. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11, 1–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1532-7795.00001(2004). Religious activity and risk behavior among African American adolescents: Concurrent and developmental effects. American Journal of Community Psychology, 33(3/4), 151–161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:AJCP.0000027002.93526.bb, & (2000). Development and validation of the Stephenson Multigroup Acculturation Scale (SMAS). Psychological Assessment, 12, 77–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-35220.127.116.11(1991). Genetic and environmental determinants of type II diabetes in Mexican Americans: Is there a “descending limb” to the modernization/diabetes relationship?Diabetes Care, 14, 649–654. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.14.7.649, , , , , & ([Page 377]1985). Beyond IQ: A triarchic theory of human intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press.(2004). Culture and intelligence. American Psychologist, 59, 325–338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.59.5.325(1990). Beliefs and achievement: A study of Black, White, and Hispanic children. Child Development, 61, 508–523. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131111, , & (2002). Abercrombie & glitch: Asian Americans rip retailer for stereotypes on T-shirts. San Francisco Chronicle, p. A-1. Available at http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2002/04/18/MN109646.DTL.(2005, January/February). The many languages of medicine. Retrieved April 29, 2005, from Unique Opportunities: The Physician's Resource at http://www.uoworks.com/articles/language.html.(1995). Transformations: Migration, family life, and achivement motivation among Latino adolescents. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press., & (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2006). Results from the 2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National findings (NSDUH Series H-30, DHHS Publication No. SMA 06-4194). Rockville, MD: Author.2006). Explaining US racial/ethnic disparities in health declines and mortality in late middle age: The roles of socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and health insurance. Social Science & Medicine, 62(4), 909–922., & (2003). Overcoming our racism: The journey to liberation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.(2004). Whiteness and ethnocentric monoculturalism: Making the “invisible” visible. American Psychologist, 59, 761–769. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.59.8.761(2007). Racial microaggressions in everyday life. American Psychologist, 62, 271–286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.62.4.271, , , , , , et al. (1996). A theory of multicultural counseling and psychotherapy. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole., , & (1999). Counseling the culturally different (, & (3rd ed.). New York: John Wiley.2008). Counseling the culturally diverse: Theory and practice. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley., & (1999). Science, ethnicity, and bias. American Psychologist, 54, 1070–1077. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.54.12.1070(2006). Cultural competency: From philosophy to research and practice. Journal of Community Psychology, 34(2), 237–245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20095(1991). Community mental health services for ethnic minority groups: A test of the cultural responsiveness hypothesis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 533–540. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.59.4.533, , , , & (1990). Asian-American educational achievements: A phenomenon in search of an explanation. American Psychologist, 45, 913–920. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.45.8.913, & (1998). Psychopathology among Asian Americans: A model minority? In P.Balls Organista, K.M.Chun, & G.Marín (Eds.), Readings in ethnic psychology (pp. 270–282). New York: Routledge., , , & ([Page 378]2009). The case for cultural competence in psychotherapeutic interventions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 525–548. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163651, , , & (1987). Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale: An initial report. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 47, 401–407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013164487472012, , , & (2004). Evolution of the biopsychosocial model: Prospects and challenges for health psychology. Health Psychology, 23, 119–125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-618.104.22.168, & (2004). The relationship among ethnic identity, psychological well-being, and intergroup competence: An investigation of two biracial groups. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10(2), 137–150., & (2004, August 29). “African-American” becomes a term for debate. New York Times, p. 01.(1980). Acculturation, biculturalism and adjustment among Cuban-Americans. In A.M.Padilla (ed.), Acculturation: Theory, models and some new findings (pp. 139–159). Boulder, CO: Westview., & (1981). Human groups and social categories: Studies in social psychology. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(1979). Iron cages: Race and culture in nineteenth century America. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press.(1997, November 30). Getting credit for being White. The New York Times Magazine, 30, 116–119.(1998). Grandparents as a family resource in Chinese-American families. In H.I.McCubbin, E.A.Thompson, A.I.Thompson, & J.E.Fromer (eds.), Resiliency in Native American and immigrant families (pp. 243–262). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., & (2002). Definition of violence against women: A comparative study in Chinese societies of Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the People's Republic of China. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17(6), 671–688. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260502017006005, , , & (1993). Influence of kinship social support on the parenting experiences and the psychosocial adjustment of African-American adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 29(2), 382–388. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1622.214.171.1242, , & (2009). Health psychology ((7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.1918). The Polish peasant in Europe and America. Boston: R. Badger., & (1992). Nativity, gender, and earning discrimination. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 14, 134–143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07399863920141007(2002). The myth of sameness among Latino men and their machismo. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 72(2), 163–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0002-94126.96.36.199, , & (2000). Domestic violence in Vietnamese refugee and Korean immigrant communities. In J.L.Chin (ed.), Relationships among Asian American women (pp. 71–96). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10349-005, & ([Page 379]1997). Family functioning and psychological well-being in Vietnamese adolescents. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 24(1), 41–61., & (1990). Cross-cultural studies of individualism and collectivism. In J.J.Berman (ed.), Cross-cultural perspectives: Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 1989 (pp. 41–133). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.(1994). Culture and social behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill.(1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview.(2002). Subjective culture. In W.J.Lonner, D.L.Dinnel, S.A.Hayes, & D.N.Sattler (eds.), Online readings in psychology and culture (Unit 15, Chapter 1). Available from Center for Cross-Cultural Research, Western Washington University, Bellingham, at http://www.wwu.edu/~culture.(1988). Individualism and collectivism: Cross cultural perspectives on selfingroup relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 1006–1020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.526, , , , & (1998). Converging measurement of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 118–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.206, & (1996). A future for community psychology: The contexts of diversity and the diversity of contexts. American Journal of Community Psychology, 24, 209–234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02510399(2007). Prolegomena for the connotation of construct use in the measurement of ethnic and racial identity. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(3), 247–258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0220.127.116.11(1999). Psychological acculturation development of a new measure for Puerto Ricans on the U.S. mainland. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 59(2), 351–367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00131649921969794, , , , & (2000). Parent-adolescent language use and relationships among immigrant families with East Asian, Filipino, and Latin American backgrounds. Journal of Marriage and Family, 62, 465–476. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.00465.x, & (2006). From peculiar psychiatric disorders through culture-bound syndromes to culture-related syndromes. Transcultural Psychiatry, 43(4), 554–576. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1363461506070781(2004). Behavioral epidemiology and health psychology. In T.J.Boll (Series Ed.) & R.G.Frank, A.Baum, & J.L.Wallander (Vol. Eds.), Models and perspectives in health psychology: Vol. 3. Handbook of clinical health psychology (pp. 435–464). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11590-013, , , & (2001). APA's guidelines for test users' qualifications: An executive summary. American Psychologist, 56, 1099–1113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.56.12.1099, , , & (2008). The future of Whiteness: A map of the “third wave.” Ethnic and Racial Studies, 31(1), 3–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01419870701538836, & (1994). Asian Americans: Personality patterns, identity, and mental health. New York: Guilford.(2002). Ethnic identity and self-esteem of Latino adolescents: Distinctions among the Latino populations. Journal of Adolescent Research, 17(3), 303–327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0743558402173005, , & ([Page 380]2002). The AHIMSA acculturation scale: A new measure of acculturation for adolescents in a multicultural society. Journal of Early Adolescence, 22, 225–251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02731602022003001, , , , , & (U.S. Census Bureau. (2002). Poverty in the United States: 2002. Retrieved December 20, 2005, from http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/publications.html.U.S. Census Bureau. (2006). American Community Survey. Retrieved July 3, 2008, from http://www.factfinder.census.gov.U.S. Census Bureau. (2008). Percent of the projected population by race and Hispanic origin for the United States: 2010 to 2050 (NP2008-T6). Retrieved January 30, 2009, from http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/usinterimproj/.U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Government Reform. (2004, January). A case study in politics and science: Changes to the National Healthcare Disparities Report. Retrieved April 22, 2009, from http://oversight.house.gov/features/politics_and_science/pdfs/pdf_politics_and_science_disparities_rep.pdf2002). Effect of ethnic group membership on ethnic identity, race-related stress, and quality of life. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 8(4), 366–377., , , & (2001). Psychological nigrescence revisited: Introduction and overview. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 29(3), 165–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1912.2001.tb00515.x(2001). Cross's nigrescence model: From theory to scale to theory. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 29(3), 174–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1912.2001.tb00516.x, , , , & (2004). Racial discrimination by low-prejudiced Whites: Facial movements as implicit measures of attitudes related to behavior. Psychological Science, 15, 711–714. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.00746.x, , , & (1984). The prevalence of depressive symptoms among Mexican Americans and Anglos. American Journal of Epidemiology, 120, 592–607., , , & (2002). What do we know about Latino drug use? Methodological evaluation of state databases. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 24, 395–408. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0739986302238211, , & (1996). Translating tests: Some practical guidelines. European Psychologist, 1, 88–99., & (2008). Psychology (, & (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.2007). Between here and there: How attached are Latino immigrants to their native country. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center.(2002). Measuring acculturation among Central American women with the use of a brief language scale. Journal of Immigrant Health, 4, 95–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1014550626218, , & (1998). Urban neighborhoods and mental health: Psychological contributions to understanding toxicity, resilience, and interventions. American Psychologist, 53, 635–646. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.53.6.647, & (1999). Development of a community-based diabetes management program for Pacific Islanders. Diabetes Educator, 25(5), 738–746. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014572179902500506, , , , & ([Page 381]2005). Twelve-month use of mental health services in the United States: Results of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 629–640. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.629, , , , & (Washington in brief. (2004, February 11). The Washington Post, p. A20.2005). The changing image of Hispanic Americans. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 27, 337–354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0739986305278459(2007). The effects of contact on the prejudice between Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites in the United States. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 29, 254–274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0739986306296590(2008). Social distance as a measure of prejudice among ethnic groups in the United States. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38, 779–795. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2007.00326.x(1996). Hispanic and Anglo interviewer and respondent ethnicity and gender: The impact on survey response quality. Journal of Marketing Research, 33, 62–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3152013(2004). Intractable self-fulfilling prophecies fifty years after Brown v. Board of Education. American Psychologist, 59, 511–520. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.59.6.511, , & (2002). Recruiting Asian-American adolescents for behavioral surveys. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 11(2), 143–149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1015132107565, & (1990). Welfare status and psychological adjustment among 100 Hmong refugees. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 178, 300–306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-199005000-00004, , & (Westra, L., & Lawson, B.E. (eds.). (2001). Faces of environmental racism: Confronting issues of global justice (2nd ed.). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.2000). Sociocultural differences in the developmental consequences of the use of physical discipline during childhood for African Americans. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 6(1), 5–12.(2001). Cultural mistrust: An important psychological construct for diagnosis and treatment of African Americans. American Psychologist, 32, 555–562.(2004). A two-stage method for the study of cultural bias in the diagnosis of schizophrenia in African Americans. Journal of Black Psychology, 30(2), 167–186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0095798403262062(2007). Cultural competence and evidence-based practice in mental health services: A complementary perspective. American Psychologist, 62, 563–574. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.62.6.563, & (1997, December 12). 3 medical organizations embroiled in controversy over use of placebos in AIDS studies abroad. The Chronicle of Higher Education, pp. A15–A16.(2006). The psychology of prejudice and discrimination. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth., & (1976). Enculturation in Latin America. Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles, Latin American Center.(1989). Hispanics and Blacks in television commercials. Journal of Advertising, 18, 19–25., & (1999). Claiming a biracial identity: Resisting social constructions of race and culture. Journal of Counseling & Development, 77, 32–35.([Page 382]1995). U.S. socioeconomic and racial differences in health: Patterns and explanations. Annual Review of Sociology, 21, 349–386. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.21.080195.002025, & (2007). The mental health of Black Caribbean immigrants: Results from the National Survey of American Life. American Journal of Public Health, 97(1), 52–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2006.088211, , , , , & (2003). Racial/ethnic discrimination and health: Findings from community studies. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 200–208. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.93.2.200, , & (2006). Neo soul: Taking soul food to a whole nutha level. New York: Avery.(1974). The new Black sociology: Reflections on the “insiders” and “outsiders” controversy. In J.E.Blackwell & M.Janowitz (eds.), Black sociologists: Historical and contemporary perspectives. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(2003). The influence of ethnic discrimination and ethnic identification on African American adolescents' school and socioemotional adjustment. Journal of Personality, 71(6), 1197–1232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.7106012, , & (World Health Organization. (1948). Constitution of the World Health Organization. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization Basic Documents.1974). Comparative psychiatry: A theoretical framework. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press.(1993). Addressing psychology's problem with race. American Psychologist, 48(11), 1132–1140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.48.11.1132, , , & (1998). Families: Life-span socialization in a cultural context. In L.C.Lee & N.W. S.Zane (eds.), Handbook of Asian American psychology (, , & (1st ed., pp. 83–135). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.2000). Predictors of physical spousal/intimate violence in Chinese American families. Journal of Family Violence, 15(3), 249–267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1007501518668(1990). Explanatory models of major depression and implications for help-seeking among immigrant Chinese-American women. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry, 14, 393–408. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00117563(1999). Strengthening intergenerational/intercultural ties in migrant families: A new intervention for parents. Journal of Community Psychology, 27(1), 89–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291520-6629%28199901%2927:1%3C89::AID-JCOP6%3E3.0.CO;2-O(1988). Examining racial discrimination with fair housing audits. New Directions for Program Evaluations, 37, 47–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ev.1474(2002). Daily variation in ethnic identity, ethnic behaviors, and psychosocial well-being among American adolescents of Chinese descent. Child Development, 73(5), 1557–1572. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00490, & (1999). Differences in familism values and caregiving outcomes among Korean, Korean American, and White American dementia caregivers. Psychology and Aging, 14(3), 355–364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7918.104.22.1685, , , & (2002). The role of ethnic identity and self-construal in coping among African American and Caucasian American seventh graders: An exploratory analysis of within-group variance. Adolescence, 37(148), 751–773., , , & (1998). Dosage-related changes in a culturally responsive prevention program for Asian American youth. Drugs and Society, 12, 105–125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J023v12n01_08, , , , & ([Page 383]2003). Major approaches to the measurement of acculturation among ethnic minority populations: A content analysis and an alternative empirical strategy. In K.M.Chun, P.Balls Organista, & G.Marín (eds.), Acculturation: Advances in theory, measurement, and applied research (pp. 39–60). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10472-005, & (Zane, N.W. S., Takeuchi, D.T., & Young, K.N. J. (eds.). (1994). Confronting issues of Asian and Pacific Islander Americans. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.1994). Latino cultural values: Their role in adjustment to disability. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 9, 185–200., , & (1999). Ethnic characteristic of mental disorders in five communities nationwide. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 5, 134–146., & (1999). Segmental assimilation: Issues, controversies, and recent research on the new second generation. In C.Hirschman, P.Kasinitz, & J.DeWind (eds.), The handbook of international migration: The American experience (pp. 196–211). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.(2006). Racial disparity in mortality rates in a sample of the U.S. Medicare population (Working Paper 114). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, Department of Biostatistics. Available at http://www.bepress.com/jhubiostat/paper114/., , & (2005). Employment discrimination: The role of implicit attitudes, motivation, and a climate for racial bias. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 553–562. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.3.553, & (1996). The development of a measure of enculturation for Native American youth. American Journal of Community Psychology, 24, 295(16). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02510403, , , , & (1998). Some dubious premises in research and theory on racial differences: Scientific, social, and ethical issues. In P.Balls Organista, K.M.Chun, & G.Marín (eds.), Readings in ethnic psychology (pp. 59–72). New York: Routledge.([Page 384]
Photo Credits[Page 385]
Chapter 1: © Getty Images/Asia Images Group.
Chapter 2: © Getty Images/Ariel Skelley.
Chapter 3: © Getty Images/Adam Crowley.
Chapter 4: © Getty Images/Jose Luis Pelaez Inc.
Chapter 5: © Getty Images/Stockbyte.
Chapter 6: © Getty Images/David Fischer.
Chapter 7: © Getty Images/Abid Katib.
Chapter 8: © Getty Images/John Eastcott & Yva Momatiuk/National Geographic.
Chapter 9: © Getty Images/John Foxx.
Chapter 10: © Getty Images/Image Studios.[Page 386]