The Production of Culture: Media and the Urban Arts
“The Production of Culture is timely and relevant…. Diana Crane introduces the reader to this busy field of scholarly activity, organizes the strands of theory and empirical research in an orderly fashion, and advances some bold notions about the relationship between organizational ‘contexts’ and innovation.” --Contemporary Sociology “Crane melds numerous sources concisely and clearly in her argument that cultural forms cannot be understood ‘apart from the contexts in which they are produced and consumed.’ … looks like a good start to a useful series.” --Communication Booknotes “Crane's overview is clearly written and does an effective job of incorporating concepts and theories from communication, cultural studies, economics, and literature, as well as her home territory, sociology.” --Communication Booknotes How does the media shape and frame culture? ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction
- Chapter 2: The Media Culture Paradigm
- Chapter 3: Social Stratification and the Media: Audiences in Media-Saturated Societies
- Chapter 4: The Production of Culture in National Culture Industries
- Chapter 5: Approaches to the Analysis of Meaning in Media Culture
- Chapter 6: Class Cultures in the City: Culture Organizations and Urban Arts Culture
- Chapter 7: Media Culture, Urban Arts Culture, and Government Policy
- Chapter 8: Conclusion: Toward Global Culture
Foundations of Popular Culture[Page ii]
Series Editor: Garth S. Jowett
University of Houston
The study of popular culture has now become a widely accepted part of the modern academic curriculum. This increasing interest has spawned a great deal of important research in recent years, and the field of “cultural studies” in its many forms is now one of the most dynamic and exciting in modern academia. Each volume in the Foundations of Popular Culture Series will introduce a specific issue fundamental to the study of popular culture, and the authors have been given the charge to write with clarity and precision and to examine the subject systematically. The editorial objective is to provide an important series of “building block” volumes that can stand by themselves or be used in combination to provide a thorough and accessible grounding in the field of cultural studies.
- The Production of Culture: Media and the Urban Arts
by Diana Crane
- Popular Culture Genres: Theories and Texts
by Arthur Asa Berger
- Rock Formation: Music, Technology, and Mass Communication
by Steve Jones
- Cultural Criticism: A Primer of Key Concepts
by Arthur Asa Berger
- Advertising and Popular Culture
by Jib Fowles
Copyright © 1992 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
For information address:
SAGE Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Newbury Park, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
6 Bonhill Street
London EC2A 4PU
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
Greater Kailash I
New Delhi 110 048 India
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Crane, Diana, 1933-
The production of culture : media and the urban arts / Diana Crane.
p. cm. — (Foundations of popular culture; v. 1)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-8039-3693-1. — ISBN 0-8039-3694-X (pbk.)
1. Mass media and the arts—United States. 2. United States—Popular culture. 3. Mass media and the arts—Europe. 4. Europe—Popular culture. I. Title. II. Series.
96 97 98 99 00 01 10 9 8 7 6 5 4
Sage Production Editor: Astrid Virding
Series Editor's Introduction[Page vii]
The complexities of human cultural activities and the significant insights to be gained from understanding their role in modern society has spawned a variety of analytical approaches to the subject. One of the most formidable and yet necessary tasks in cultural analysis is to provide a description of the context within which modern popular culture is produced. In this book, Diana Crane uses clear, precise language and examples to describe and analyze the central issues which have framed the “production of culture” argument within cultural studies. Her main thesis is that we cannot understand such cultural forms apart from the contexts in which they are produced and consumed.
Crane draws upon a wide range of sources and disciplines to examine the shift in the nature of the production of culture in the period since 1945. In this post World War II period there was an enormous growth in public participation in media culture, due in large part to the increasing use of television. But the other media forms—movies, radio, popular music, newspapers, and magazines—also underwent fundamental alterations in their industrial structure and demographic profiles. The author also traces the increasingly complex ways that types of social differentiation affect cultural consumption, and how these no longer correspond to the traditional notions of high culture and popular culture. The book also contains an overview of the major theories of the interpretation [Page viii]of “meaning” in media culture which are models of clarity, and therefore should be of great use to teachers and students alike.
The concluding chapters of the book examine the specific urban nature of modern popular culture, and the different production styles of elite and non-elite cultural forms such as jazz, rock, and live theater. Crane concludes with an important chapter on the increasingly global nature of culture production, and why this will be an increasingly significant factor in the future of popular culture. The reader will be struck not only by the clarity of Diana Crane's presentation, but also by the seamless manner in which she has integrated her wide variety of source material to successfully lay out the central “production of culture” issues.—, Series Editor
This book is intended as a review and a synthesis of the literature on the social organization and interpretation of media culture and the arts. I argue that a major objective of a social science approach to cultural products should be to develop theories that use the characteristics of the media to explain the nature of the cultural products they disseminate. How do the media shape and frame culture? What are the effects of the contexts, broadly defined, in which these products are created and disseminated? By contrast, how do urban environments foster or inhibit urban arts cultures?
Building on studies in the sociology of culture during the past decade that indicate that the distinctions between high culture and popular culture are socially constructed, this book discusses new and more meaningful ways of distinguishing between different types of recorded cultures and their audiences. Specifically, I will be concerned with cultural products, other than news and information, that exist either as artifacts (in the form of celluloid, tape, or type) or have been performed or exhibited for an audience or spectators, such as film, television, literature, drama, music, and the plastic arts. This book is based on the premise that recorded cultures cannot be understood apart from the contexts in which they are produced and consumed. Because of space limitations, I will restrict my attention to the role of the media and other types [Page x]of recorded culture in American society during the postwar period (1945–1990).
A sociology of cultural products must be eclectic, drawing on materials from a wide range of specialties and disciplines, largely outside rather than within the increasingly ill-defined boundaries of sociology. In addition to the sociology of popular culture and the arts, my sources include books and articles from the fields of communication, literary criticism, film studies, American civilization, economics, and art criticism.
The chapters in this book are based on courses in the sociology of popular culture and the sociology of the arts that I have been teaching at the University of Pennsylvania for the past 10 years. I am grateful to my students for their reactions, both positive and negative, that have led me to new materials and stimulated me to refine and clarify my ideas.
References[Page 174]1983). On reading soaps: A semiotic primer. In E. A.Kaplan (Ed.), Regarding television (pp. 97–108). Frederick, MD: University Publications of America.(1989). Reader-oriented criticism and television. In R. C.Allen (Ed.), Channels of discourse: Television and contemporary discourse (pp. 74–112). New York: Routledge.(1988, November/December). La planète Mickey. La Nouvelle Amérique, Documents Observateur, pp. 11–19., & (1981). The American film musical: Paradigmatic structure and mediatory function. In R.Altman (Ed.), Genre, the musical: A reader (pp. 197–207). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.(1980). Hit record trends, 1940–1977. Journal of Communication, 30, 31–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1980.tb01963.x, , , & (1985). The I Love Lucy' book. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.(1991, June 14). F.C.C. is increasing local regulation of cable TV rates. The New York Times, pp. A1, D14.(1985). Watching Dallas: Soap opera and the melodramatic imagination. New York: Methuen.(Angus, I. & Jhally, S. (Eds.). (1989). Cultural politics in contemporary America. New York: Routledge.1990). Disjuncture and difference in the global culture economy. Theory, Culture and Society, 7, 295–310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026327690007002017(1985). The myth of cultural integration. British Journal of Sociology, 36, 333–353. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/590456(1971). Bach, Beethoven and bureaucracy: The case of the Philadelphia Orchestra. University: University of Alabama Press.(1984) Cultural soundings in France, 1983–84. Arts, 58, 116–119.(1991). Enterprising women: Television fandom and the creation of popular myth. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.(1987). Media monopoly (([Page 175]2nd ed.). Boston: Beacon Press.1986). Dimensions of science fiction. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1989). The baby-boom generation: Lost patrons, lost audience? In M. J.Wyszomirski & P.Clubb (Eds.), The cost of culture: Patterns and prospects of private arts patronage (pp. 9–26). New York: American Council for the Arts Books.(1988). United Artists: The company that changed the film industry. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.(1979). Puritan Boston and Quaker Philadelphia: Two Protestant ethics and the spirit of class authority and leadership. New York: The Free Press.(1984). The Democratic muse: Visual arts and the public interest. New York: Basic Books.(1989). International advertising handbook. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.(1970). Science fiction and the cinema. New York: A. S. Barnes.(1982). Art worlds. Berkeley: University of California Press.(1983). An economic analysis of the recorded music industry. In W. S.Hendon & J. L.Shanahan (Eds.), Economics of cultural decisions (pp. 132–142). Cambridge, MA: Abt Books., & (1976). The cultural contradictions of capitalism. New York: Basic Books.(1973). The story of rock ((2nd ed.). New York: Harper Colophon Books.1969). The work of art in the age of mechanical reproduction. In H.Arendt (Ed.), Illuminations (H.Zohn., Trans.; pp. 291–353). New York: Schocken Books.(1987). Bond and beyond: The political career of a popular hero. New York: Methuen., & (1958). Art and mass society. Social Problems, 6, 4–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/798990, & (1990). Learning and creativity in minority communities: A case study of jazz improvisers. Unpublished manuscript, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL.(1979, November). Art vs. the arts. Commentary, 68, 46–52.(1982). The garden in the machine: The why of Star Trek. In H.Newcomb (Ed.), Television: A critical view (pp. 181–197). New York: Oxford University Press.(1985). Narration in the fiction film. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.(1984). The Frankfurt school. London: Tavistock/Ellis Horwood Ltd.http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203407110(1984). Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1982). Myth in television discourse. Communications Monographs, 49, 127–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637758209376076, & (1986, February 23). Museum and corporation—A delicate balance. The New York Times, sect. 2, pp. 1, 28.(1978). Future tense: The cinema of science fiction. New York: St. Martin's Press.(1984). Theory of the avant-garde (M.Shaw, Trans.). University of Minnesota Press.(1988). Concentration and diversity in the popular music industry, 1948–86. Unpublished manuscript, Harvard University, Office for Information Technology, Cambridge, MA., & ([Page 176]1978). Art galleries as gatekeepers: The case of the abstract expressionists. Social Research, 45, 390–408.(1988). Populist politics, communications media, and large scale integration. Sociological Theory, 6, 219–241. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/202117(1954). Sociological notes on the jam session. Social Forces, 33, 177–182. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2573543(1987). Securing the middle ground: Reporter formulas in 60 Minutes. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 4, 325–350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295038709360144(1991, June 9). Bidding adieu to the classic French film. The New York Times, sec. 2, pp. 15, 32.(1971). The Hollywood TV producer: His work and his audience. New York: Basic Books.(1979). The politics of popular drama. Communication Research, 6, 387–406. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009365027900600401(1985). United States: A system of minimal regulation. In R.Kuhn (Ed.), The politics of broadcasting (pp. 158–196). New York: St. Martin's Press., & (1986). Audience composition and television content: The mass audience revisited. In S. J.Ball-Rokeach & M. G.Cantor (Eds.), Media, audience, and social structure (pp. 214–225). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., & (1992) Prime-time television: Content and control. Newbury Park, CA: Sage., & (1983). Soap opera. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., & (1975). A cultural approach to communications. Communication, 2, 1–22.(1991, November 6). Despite industry gloom, magazines are vibrant. International Herald Tribune, pp. 15, 19.(1980). Chicano teatro: The people's theatre, Journal of Popular Culture, 13, 556–563. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3840.1980.1303_556.x(1985). Concentration and specialization: Dynamics of niche width in populations of organizations. American Journal of Sociology90, 1262–1284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/228210(1989, May 29). Cable channels bite hands that feed them. The New York Times, sect. I, p. 35.(1991, April 15). TV takes stock of a hitless season. New York Times, D1.(1983). Life on daytime television: Tuning in American serial drama. Norwood, NJ: Ablex., & (1985). Styles de vie (Vol. 1). Paris: Les Editions d'Organisation.(1976). Adventure, mystery, romance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1987). The spy story. Chicago: University of Chicago Press., & (1976). Style. In S.Hall & T.Jefferson (Eds.), Resistance through rituals: Youth subcultures in post-war Britain (pp. 175–191). London: Hutchinson.(1976). Subcultures, cultures, and class. In S.Hall & T.Jefferson (Eds.), Resistance through rituals. London: Hutchison., , , & (1990, September 30). If the written word is really dying, who is patronizing the ‘superstores?’The New York Times, p. E6.(1984, November 27). Prentice-Hall accepts $71-a-Share G&W Bid. The New York Times, pp. D1, D9.([Page 177]1980). The magazine industry: Developing the special interest audience. Journal of Communication, 30, 98–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1980.tb01971.x(1982). Who owns the media? Concentration of ownership in the mass communications industry ((2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Knowledge Industry Publications.1987). Introduction: An imposing presence—The art museum and society. In V.Jackson (Ed.), Art museums of the world (pp. 13–24). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.(1982). Books: The culture of publishing. New York: Basic Books., , & (1983). Patronage and organizational structure in symphony orchestras in London and New York. In J. B.Kamerman & R.Martorella (Eds.), Performers and performances: The social organization of artistic work (pp. 109–122). South Hadley, MA: Bergin and Garvey.(Cowie, P. (Ed.). (1991). Variety international film guide. Hollywood: Samuel French, Inc.1987). The transformation of the avant-garde: The New York art world, 1940–1985. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1988). Terror and everyday life. Communication, 10, 367–382.(Craven, R. R. (Ed.). (1987). Symphony orchestras of the world: Selected profiles. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.1986). The world book industry. New York: Facts on File.(1989). Relations between government and the arts in Western Europe and North America. In M. C.Cummings, Jr., & J. M. D.Schuster (Eds.), Who's to pay for the arts? The international search for models of arts support (pp. 5–14). New York: ACA Books, American Council for the Arts., & (1986). Three scientific world views and the covering law model. In D. W.Fiske & R. A.Shweder (Eds.), Metatheory in social science: Pluralisms and subjectivities (pp. 19–41). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1990, December 2). Television's real-life cable baron. The New York Times, pp. 16–17, 38, 50, 53.(1990). Brazilian television fiction. In P.Larsen (Ed.), Import/export: International flow of television fiction (pp. 91–94). Paris: UNESCO.(1975). Solid gold: The popular record industry. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.(1986). Postmodern social theory. Sociological Theory, 4, 194–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/201888(1990). Reading cultural texts: comment on Griswold. American Journal of Sociology, 95, 1577–1580. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/229464(1990). Novel readings: The social organization of interpretation. American Journal of Sociology, 95, 887–921. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/229380(1977). Market structure, the creative process, and popular culture: Toward an organizational reinterpretation of mass culture. Journal of Popular Culture, 11, 436–452. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3840.1977.00436.x(1982). Cultural entrepreneurship in nineteenth-century Boston: The creation of an organizational base for high culture in America. Media, Culture, and Society, 4, 33–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344378200400104(1987). Managers of the arts. Cabin Johns, MD: Seven Locks Press.([Page 178]1990). Participation in the arts by black and white Americans. Social Forces, 68, 753–778., & (1985). Conformity and diversity in American resident theatres. In J.Balfe & M. J.Wyszomirski (Eds.), Art, ideology and politics (pp. 116–139). New York: Praeger., & (1978a). Cultural property and public policy: emerging tensions in government support for the arts. Social Research, 45, 356–389., & (1978b). Social class and arts consumption. Theory and Society, 5, 141–161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01702159, & (1987). Film economics and film content: 1964–1983. In B.Austin (Ed.), Current research in film: Audiences, economics, and law (Vol. 3, pp. 136–153). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.(1982). The position of the press in the U.S. power structure. Social Problems, 29, 298–310. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/800161(1991, March 15). French TV moves in on the movies. International Herald Tribune.(1984). Conditions of music. Albany: State University of New York.(1985). Star Wars: A case study of motion picture marketing. In B. A.Austin (Ed.), Current research in film: Audiences, economics, and law (Vol. 1, pp. 1–18). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.(1979). The role of the reader: Explorations in the semiotics of texts. Bloomington, Indiana University Press.(1965). The causal texture of organizational environments. Human Relations, 18, 21–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872676501800103, & (1983). Music on demand. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.(1987). Short-term projects and emergent careers: Evidence from Hollywood. American Journal of Sociology, 92, 879–909. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/228586, & (Featherstone, M. (Ed.). (1990). Global culture [Special issue]. Theory, Culture and Society, 7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263276900070020011984). Melodrama, serial form and television today. Screen, 25, pp. 4–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/screen/25.1.4(1979). Rethinking subculture: An interactionist analysis. American Journal of Sociology, 85, 1–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/226971, & (1974). Television. Encyclopedia Britannica ((15th ed, vol. 18). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.1984) Popularity and ideology: A structuralist reading of Dr. Who. In W. D.Rowlands & B.Watkins (Eds.), Interpreting television: Current research perspectives (pp. 165–198). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1987). Cagney and Lacey: Reading character structurally and politically. Communication, 9, 399–426.(1989). British cultural studies and television. In R. C.Allen (Ed.), Channels of discourse (pp. 254–289). London: Routledge.(1978). Reading television. London: Methuen. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203356623, & (1987). From prints to posters: The production of artistic value in a popular art world. Symbolic Interaction, 10, 111–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/si.1922.214.171.124(France acts to counter influence of U.S. music. (1986, September 11). The New York Times, sect. III, p. 20.1980). The public's use of television. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., & ([Page 179]1983). Don't look where we're going: The vision of the future in science-fiction films. Science-Fiction Studies, 10, 70–80.(1981). Sound effects: Youth, leisure and the politics of rock. New York: Pantheon.(1987). The industrialization of popular music. In J.Lull (Ed.), Popular music and communication (pp. 53–77). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1988). Video pop: Picking up the pieces. In S.Frith (Ed.), Facing the music (pp. 88–130). New York: Pantheon.(1989). Media discourse and public opinion: A constructionist approach. American Journal of Sociology, 95, 1–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/229213, & (1974). Popular culture and high culture. New York: Basic Books.(1985). American popular culture and high culture in a changing class structure. In J. H.Balfe & M. J.Wyszomirski (Eds.), Art, ideology and politics (pp. 40–57). New York: Praeger.(1987). Theodor Adorno meets the Cadillacs. In T.Modleski (Ed.), Studies in entertainment (pp. 18–38). Bloomington: University of Indiana Press.(1989, February 13). 3 networks forming trade alliance. New York Times, D11.(1987). Coordination and convention: The organization of the concert world. Symbolic Interaction, 10, 209–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/si.19126.96.36.199(1983). Inside prime time. New York: Pantheon.(1985, November 10). A federal benefactor comes of age. New York Times, sect. 2, pp. 1, 29.(1989, May 7). Donations of art fall sharply after changes in the tax code. The New York Times, p. 32.(1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Garden City, NY: Doubleday Anchor.(1976). Theater behind the Iron Curtain. Society, 13, 30–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02694646(1984). Corporate ownership and control in the contemporary U.S. film industry. Screen, 25, 60–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/screen/25.4-5.60(1984). Arts funding: Growth and change between 1963 and 1983. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 471, 144–157. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002716284471001016(1989, February 13). New VALS 2 takes psychological route. Advertising Age, p. 24.(1988, April 15–21). ‘Cosby Show’ Billy et ses kids. L'Express, pp. 131–132.(1986). Television and the new black man: Black male images in prime-time situation comedy. Media, Culture, and Society, 8, 223–242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344386008002007(1988). Producing jazz: The experience of an independent record company. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.(1980). Life on TV: Content analysis of U.S. TV drama. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.(1985). Mass media in the United States in the 1980s. In E.Rogers & F.Ballé (Eds.), The media revolution in America and in Western Europe, (pp. 43–67). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.(1985). Broadcast media and the pop music audience. Unpublished master's thesis, Stanford University.(1991, February 17). Playing Disney in Parisian fields. The New York Times, sect. 3, p. 1.([Page 180]1987). The fabrication of meaning: Literary interpretation in the United States, Great Britain, and the West Indies. American Journal of Sociology, 92, 1077–1117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/228628(1983). The end of comedy: The sit-com and the comedic tradition. Hamden, CT: Archon.(1981). Working conditions. Artforum, 19, 56–61.(1977). Culture, media, and the ideological effect. In J.Curran, M.Gurevitch, & J.Woollacott (Eds.), Mass communication and society (pp. 315–348). London: Edward Arnold.(Hall, S., & Jefferson, T. (Eds.). (1976). Resistance through rituals: Youth cultures in post-war Britain. London: Hutchinson.1990). Cinematic competence and directorial persona in film school: A study of socialization and cultural production. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.(1984). Punk and avant-garde art. Journal of Popular Culture, 17, 30–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3840.1984.1704_30.x(1972). Paying dues: Changes in the jazz life. In C.Nanry (Ed.), American music: From Storyville to Woodstock (pp. 99–115). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.(1983). The role of rock. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall., & (1988). The rise and fall of social problems: A public arenas model. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 53–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/228951, & (1984). American conservatism and government funding of the social sciences and the arts. Sociological Inquiry, 54, 171–187. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-682X.1984.tb00055.x, & (1978). Television as a national medium: Its cultural and political role in American society. In D.Street (Ed.), Handbook of urban life (pp. 389–427). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.(1980). Television and consumer aesthetics. In E. C.Hirschman & M. B.Holbrook (Eds.), Symbolic consumer behavior (pp. 76–81). Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research.(1989, May 21). Pop's angry voices sound the alarm. The New York Times, sect. 2, pp. 1, 24.(1990). Television fiction made in U.S.A. In P.Larsen (Ed.), Import/export: International flow of television fiction (pp. 83–90). Paris: UNESCO., & (1981). Trials and tribulations—Thirty years of sitcoms. In R. P.Adler (Ed.), Understanding television (pp. 201–223). New York: Praeger.(Inside the recording industry: A statistical overview—1986 update. (1986). New York: Recording Industry Association of America, Inc.Institute of Contemporary Art. (1980). Urban encounters: A map of public art in Philadelphia, 1959–1979. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.1984). Taking soap operas seriously: The world of Guiding Light. New York: Praeger.(1978). The act of reading: A theory of aesthetic response. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.(1979). Movies as social criticism: Aspects of their social psychology. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.(1988). Genre and recalcitrance: Country music's move uptown. Tracking: Popular Music Studies, 1, 30–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-1598.1988.tb00051.x([Page 181]1987). What is cultural studies anyway?Social Text, 6, 38–80.(1976). Film: The democratic art. Boston: Little, Brown.(1974). The American intellectual elite. Boston: Little, Brown.(1976). Networks and circles in the production of culture. In R. A.Peterson (Ed.), The production of culture (pp. 107–122). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1980). Chicano theatre: A popular culture battleground. Journal of Popular Culture, 13, 541–555. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-3840.1980.1303_541.x(1986). A post-modern play of the signifier? Advertising, pastiche and schizophrenia. In P.Drummond & R.Paterson (Eds.), First international television studies conference: Television in transition (pp. 146–163). London: BFI.(1987). Rocking around the clock: Music television, postmodernism, and consumer culture. New York: Methuen.(1982). TV, ideology, and emancipatory popular culture. In H.Newcomb (Ed.), Television: The critical view (pp. 386–421). New York: Oxford University Press.(1978). Reestablishing ‘gemeinschaft’: An examination of the CB radio fad. Urban Life, 7, 337–358., , & (1988, February 19). Philadelphia learns some music. International Herald Tribune, p. 7.(1985, March 11). Little labels: Dreaming of musical gold. Time, p. 37.(1988). Graffiti as career and ideology. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 229–250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/228990(1989). The power-culture link in a comparative perspective. Comparative Social Research, 11, 131–150.(1986). Social communication in advertising. New York: Methuen., , & (1962). Jazz and the white Americans: The acceptance of a new art form. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1980). Youth, generations, and artistic change: The American theater. Youth and Society, 12, 142–172.(1980). Taste cultures and their composition: Towards a new theoretical perspective. In E.Katz & T.Szecsko (Eds.), Mass media and social change (pp. 201–218). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1988). Cultural differences in the retelling of television fiction. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 5, 277–292. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295038809366717(1988). Dallas and Genesis: Primordiality and seriality in popular culture. In J.Carey (Ed.), Media, myths and narratives (pp. 113–135). Newbury Park, CA: Sage., & (1984). “Against the wind:” The class composition of rock and roll music. Knowledge and Society, 5, 269–296.(1984). The freedom principle: Jazz after 1958. New York: W. Morrow.(1985). The American dream and the popular novel. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.(1986). Women, reading, and cultural authority: Some implications of the audience perspective in cultural studies. American Quarterly, 38, 591–612. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2712696(1992). Innovation and diversity in the popular music industry, 1969–1990. American Sociological Review, 57, 56–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2096144([Page 182]1987). Thrashing in the pit: An ethnography of San Francisco punk subculture. In T. R.Lindlof (Ed.), Natural audiences: (Qualitative research of media uses and effects (pp. 225–252). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.(1981). The political economy of Hollywood: The studio system. In P.Davies & B.Neve (Eds.), Cinema, politics, and society in America (pp. 42–58). Manchester: Manchester University Press.(1986). Advertising and the American dream: Making way for the American dream. Berkeley: University of California Press.(1981). A sociology of contemporary cultural change. New York: St. Martin's Press.(1977). The relationship between box office and repertoire: A case study of opera. The Sociological Quarterly, 18, 354–366. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1977.tb01420.x(1982). The sociology of opera. South Hadley, MA: J. F. Bergin.(1990). Corporate art. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.(1977). Public confidence in science. Social Studies of Science, 7, 123–125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631277700700113(1977). Art without a market: creating artistic value in a provincial art world. Symbolic Interaction, 1, 32–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/si.19188.8.131.52(1986, May 27). Small publishers taking big steps. The New York Times, p. C15.(1988, March 4). Authors, coaching and videos. International Herald Tribune, p. 20.(1964). Understanding media. New York: McGraw-Hill.(1984). Making something of ourselves: Culture and politics in the United States. Berkeley: University of California Press.(1960). The jazz community. Social Forces, 38, 211–222. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2574084, & (1985). No sense of place: The impact of electronic media on social behavior. New York: Oxford University Press.(1983). Nine American life styles. New York: Macmillan.(1982). Loving with a vengeance: Mass-produced fantasies for women. Hamden, CT: Shoestring Press.(1987). The terror of pleasure: The contemporary horror film and postmodern theory. In T.Modleski (Ed.), Studies in entertainment (pp. 155–166). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.(1974). News as purposive behavior: The strategic use of accidents, scandals, and routines. American Sociological Review, 39, 101–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094279, & (1979). American film now. New York: New American Library.(1990, November 4). We don't have to like rap music, but we need to listen. The New York Times, sect. IV, p. 18.(1979). Broadcasting in the United States: Innovative challenge and organizational control. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.(1973). Twenty-seven major symphony orchestras. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.(1982). The rationale for public culture. In K. V.Mulcahy & C. R.Swaim (Eds.), Public policy and the arts (pp. 302–322). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.(1985). The NEA as public patron of the arts. In J.Balfe & M. J.Wyszomirski (Eds.), Art, ideology and politics (pp. 315–342). New York: Praeger.([Page 183]1982). Aesthetics and the artistic career: A study of anomie in fine art painting. The Sociological Quarterly, 23, 117–138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1982.tb02224.x, & (1986). Art, craft, and art/craft segments among craft media workers. Work and Occupations, 13, 203–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0730888486013002002(1976). Your God is alive and well and appearing in popular culture. Philadelphia: Westminster Press.(1988). Programming diversity and the future of television: An empty cornucopia? In S.Oskamp (Ed.), Television as a social issue (pp. 346–349). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1984). Television as a cultural forum: Implications for research. In W. D.Rowland, Jr. & B.Watkins (Eds.), Interpreting television: Current research perspectives (pp. 58–73). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., & (1973). The uses and abuses of death: A little ramble through the remnants of literary culture. Tri-Quarterly, 26, 3–41.(1979). Assessing the merger trend. In J.Appelbaum (Ed.), The question of size in the book industry trade today (pp. 13–20). New York: Bowker.(1990, October 28). Soothing bromides? Not on TV. The New York Times, p. C35.(1983). The shaping of a canon: U.S. fiction, 1960–1975. Critical Inquiry, 10, 199–223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/448243(1982). The western hero in film and television: Mass media mythology. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press.(1972). A process model of the folk, pop, and fine art phases of jazz. In C.Nanry (Ed.), American music: From Storyville to Woodstock (pp. 135–151). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.(Peterson, R. A. (Ed.). (1976). The production of culture. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.1978). The production of cultural change: The case of contemporary country music. Social Research, 45, 292–314.(1979). Revitalizing the culture concept. Annual Review of Sociology, 5, 137–166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.05.080179.001033(1986). From impresario to arts administrator: Formal accountability in non-profit organizations. In P.DiMaggio (Ed.), Nonprofit enterprise in the arts (pp. 161–183). New York: Oxford University Press.(1975). Cycles in symbol production: The case of popular music. American Sociological Review, 40, 158–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094343, & (1975). From region to class, the changing locus of country music: A test of the massification hypothesis. Social Forces, 53, 497–506., & (1982). Film conglomerate blockbusters: International appeal and product homogenizetion. In G.Kindem (Ed.), The American movie industry (pp. 325–335). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.(1969). Serious music—And all that jazz. New York: Simon & Schuster.(1971). The theory of the avant-garde. New York: Harper & Row.(1982). From craft to corporation: The impact of outside ownership on book publishing. In J. S.Ettema & D. C.Whitney (Eds.), Individuals in mass media organizations (pp. 33–52). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1983). Political and organizational influences on public television programming. In E.Wartella & D. C.Whitney (Eds.), Moss communication review yearbook, vol. 4 (pp. 413–438). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., & ([Page 184]1986). Industrialization of entertainment in the United States. In B. A.Austin (Ed.), Current research in film: Audiences, economics, and law (Vol. 2, pp. 117–135). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.(1984). Reading the romance: Women, patriarchy, and popular culture. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.(1979). The black bar in the making of a jazz musician: Bird, Mingus, and Stan Hope. Journal of Jazz Studies, 5, 76–90.(1991, March 19). French TV seeks a slice of the Hollywood pie. The New York Times, p. C11.(1990). I love my TV. American Demographics, 12, 24–27.(1985). Public participation in the arts: Final report on the 1982 survey. Report to the National Endowment for the Arts, Research Division, College Park, MD., , , & (1980). Books in the marketplace of ideas. Journal of Communication, 30, 81–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1980.tb01969.x, & (1983). All American music: Composition in the late twentieth century. New York: Knopf.(1991, March 31). Hollywood looks to Oscar for clues. New York Times, IV, p. 7.(1986). The American profile poster. New York: Pantheon.(1991, March 18). French producing more and bigger pics. Variety, p. 42.(Rosenberg, B., & White, D. M. (Eds.). (1957). Mass culture: The popular arts in America. New York: The Free Press of Glencoe.1987). Commercial radio and popular music: Processes of selection and factors of influence. In J.Lull (Ed.), Popular music and communication (pp. 78–96). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1982). Popular music. Journal of Communication, 32, 143–149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1982.tb00485.x, & (1982). The product image: The fate of creativity in country music songwriting. In J. S.Ettema & D. C.Whitney (Eds.), Individuals in mass media organizations: Creativity and constraint (pp. 11–32). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., & (1989, September 29). Columbia's place in Sony's new strategy. International Herald Tribune, p. 17.(1989). Populism, decentralization, and arts policy in California: The Jerry Brown years and afterward. Administration and Society, 20, 446–464. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009539978902000403(1980). The consumption of historical romance novels: Consumer aesthetics in popular literature. In E. C.Hirschman & M. B.Holbrook (Eds.), Symbolic consumer behavior (pp. 46–51). Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research., & (1984, November 14). The Cable TV law hurts the public. New York Times, A35., & (1984). The uneasy persuasion. New York: Basic Books.(1989a). Government leverage of private support Matching grants and the problem of new money. In M. J.Wyszomirski & P.Clubb (Eds.), The cost of culture: Patterns and prospects of private arts patronage (pp. 63–97). New York: American Council for the Arts Books.([Page 185]1989b). The search for international models: Results from recent comparative research in arts policy. In M. C.Cummings, Jr., & J. M. D.Schuster (Eds.), Who's to pay for the arts? The international search for models of arts support (pp. 15–42). New York: American Council for the Arts Books.(1982). Eco's TV guide—The soaps. Tabloid, (5), 4.(765 parades: Too much cost, too little honor. (1991, June 7). The New York Times, p. A34.1983). The crossroads of business and music: A study of the music industry in the United States and internationally. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms International.(1979). The dealer and his art: The merchandising of a contemporary aesthetic. Paper presented at the Meetings of the American Sociological Association, New York.(1981). SoHo: The artist in the city. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1983). The political and epistemological constituents of critical communication. Journal of Communication, 33, 208–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1983.tb02421.x, & (A small price for art. (1990, October 19). The New York Times, p. 34.1983). Creating media culture. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1969). Against interpretation and other essays. New York: Dell.(1985, December 4). Turning on our TV habit. USA Today.(1972). A theory of the jazz community. In C.Nanry (Ed.), American music: From Storyville to Woodstock (pp. 115–134). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.(1989, April 16). Hollywood takes to the global stage. New York Times, sect. 3, pp. 1, 8.(1991, April 14). Taming Hollywood's spending monster. New York Times, sect. 3, pp. 1, 6.(1984). An alternative approach to television research: Developments in British cultural studies at Birmingham. In W. D.Rowlands & B.Watkins (Eds.), Interpreting television (pp. 74–97). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1986). Format and formula in prime-time television. In S. J.Ball-Rokeach & M. G.Cantor (Eds.), Media, audience, and social structure (pp. 324–337). Newbury Park, CA: Sage., , & (1989). Prime-time families: Television in postwar America. Berkeley: University of California.(1987). The romance revolution: Erotic novels for women and the quest for a new sexual identity. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois.(1988). Mass media institutions. In N.Smelser (Ed.), Handbook of sociology (pp. 601–626). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1972). The shadow of an airplane climbs the Empire State Building: A world theory of film. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.(U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1975). Historical statistics of the United States, Colonial times to 1970 (Bicentennial ed.). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1984). Household wealth and asset ownership. Current Population Reports (Ser. P-70, No. 7).U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1985). Statistical abstract of the United States: 1986 ([Page 186]106th ed.). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1990). Statistical abstract of the United States: 1990 (110th ed.). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.1989). Corporate support for culture and the arts. In M. J.Wyszomirski & P.Clubb (Eds.), The cost of culture: Patterns and prospects of private arts patronage (pp. 45–62). New York: American Council for the Arts Books.(1985). International flow of television programmes. Paris: UNESCO.(1979). Archie Bunker's bigotry: A study in selective perception and exposure. In R. P.Adler (Ed.), All in the Family: A critical appraisal (pp. 123–138). New York: Praeger Special Studies., & (1987). Cultural policy and Socialist France. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.(1985). Trends in program variety and prime time access rules. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 29, 23–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08838158509386561, & (1982). Art in the age of the mass media. London: Pluto Press.(1984). Big sounds from small peoples: The music industry in small countries. New York: Pendragon Press., & (1988, January 11). Let's do the time warp again. Time, p. 52.(1989). The clustering of America. New York: Harper & Row.(1989). Ideological analysis of television. In R. C.Allen (Ed.), Channels of discourse (pp. 134–171). London: Routledge.(1987). Mozart in the metropolis: The arts coalition and the urban growth machine. Urban Affairs Quarterly, 23, 15–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/004208168702300103(1988). The performing arts as an urban development strategy: Transforming the central city. Research in Politics and Society, 3, 155–177., & (1978). Decoding advertisements: Ideology and meaning in advertising. London: Boyars.(Winick, C. (Ed.). (1979). Deviance and the mass media. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.World Almanac and Book of Facts. (1989). New York: Pharos Books.World Almanac and Book of Facts. (1991). New York: Pharos Books.1983). The encoding/decoding model: Criticisms and redevelopments for research on decoding. Media, Culture and Society, 5, 179–197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344378300500205(1982). The American class structure. American Sociological Review, 47, 709–726. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095208, , , & (1975). Sixguns and society: A structural study of the western. Berkeley: University of California Press.(1989). Sources of private support for the arts: An overview. In M. J.Wyszomirski & P.Clubb (Eds.), The cost of culture: Patterns and prospects of private arts patronage (pp. 1–8). New York: American Council for the Arts Books.(1982). Loft living: Culture and capital in urban change. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.(1988, June 7). Branford Marsalis: Of pride and prejudice, Sting and jazz. International Herald Tribune.(
About the Author[Page 198]
Diana Crane is Professor of Sociology at the University of Pennsylvania and has also taught at Yale University, Johns Hopkins University, and the University of Poitiers. She has received a Guggenheim Fellowship and a Fulbright Award and has been a member of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. She has published numerous articles and several books, including Invisible Colleges: Diffusion of Knowledge in Scientific Communities and The Transformation of the Avant-Garde: The New York Art World, 1940–1985.