The Politics of Belonging: Intersectional Contestations
Publication Year: 2011
In this groundbreaking book, Nira Yuval-Davis provides a cutting-edge investigation of the challenging debates around belonging and the politics of belonging. Alongside the hegemonic forms of citizenship and nationalism which have tended to dominate our recent political and social history, the author examines alternative contemporary political projects of belonging constructed around the notions of religion, cosmopolitanism, and the feminist ‘ethics of care’. The book also explores the effects of globalization, mass migration, the rise of both fundamentalist and human rights movements on such politics of belonging, as well as some of its racialized and gendered dimensions. A special space is given to the various feminist political movements that have been engaged as part of or in resistance to the political projects of belonging.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction: Framing the Questions
- Chapter 2: The Citizenship Question: Of the State and beyond
- Chapter 3: The National Question: From the Indigenous to the Diasporic
- Chapter 4: The Religious Question: The Sacred, the Cultural and the Political
- Chapter 5: The Cosmopolitan Question: Situating the Human and Human Rights
- Chapter 6: The Caring Question: The Emotional and the Political
- Chapter 7: Concluding Remarks
© Nira Yuval-Davis 2011
First published 2011
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The project behind this book started shortly after Gender and Nation (1997, Sage) was published, although it took quite a few years before it was crystallized into this format. In a way it is both a continuation and a transformation of the project for that book. I have always approached the issues of gender and gender relations intersectionally (e.g. Yuval-Davis, 1980; Anthias & Yuval-Davis, 1983), given my anti-racist, socialist version of feminist political commitment. More recently, however, it became clear to me that the intersectional approach needs to be adopted in much wider circles than those of Women's and Gender Studies alone. In the introduction to this book I quote Lesley McCall's (2005) assertion that to date intersectionality has been feminist theory's most important theoretical contribution to related fields. I recently published an article on intersectionality and stratification (Yuval-Davis, 2011a), arguing that sociological stratification theory should adopt intersectionality as its major theoretical/methodological perspective in the ways that other disciplines, like critical legal theory and social policy, have started to do. In this book, therefore, gendered analysis is only one of the major axes of its intersectional approach (although feminism as a political project is highlighted throughout).1
Similarly, nationalisms and nations. Growing up in Israel and coming to oppose the Zionist political project and its (anti-)humanitarian effects, I realized early on how central nationalist thinking is in various local and global social orders. However, I came early on in my development as a social scientist to denaturalize and deconstruct nationalisms and to examine their links with racisms, imperialisms and, more recently, neo-liberal globalization. This was deeply affected by my growing understanding of the nature of the links between the so-called ‘Jewish problem’ in Europe, which gave the impetus for the Zionist project in the first place, and its global support in the post-Second World War Holocaust. But this chain of events has also brought about, [Page vii]at the same time, the Naqba, the Catastrophe, for the Palestinian people as a result of the establishment of a Jewish settler society, and especially a warfare ethnocratic state. The links between nationalism and religion have also been very explicit in the Zionist project and more and more so in the Palestinian nationalist project as well.
1Given the importance I assign to intersectional analysis it is not surprising that I agreed to become a co-editor (with Ange-Marie Hancock) of a Palmgrave (NY) book series on ‘the Politics of Intersectionality’
In this book, therefore, the focus widens from an examination of different aspects of nationalist projects to an exploration of different contested contemporary political projects of belonging, with stronger or weaker links with nationalism.
Contemporary political projects of belonging, whether formal state citizenships, memberships in nations and/or religious, ethnic, indigenous and diasporic communities, but also cosmopolitan and transversal ones, are always situated and always multi-layered, which serves to contextualize them both locally and globally, and affect different members of these collectivities and communities differentially. This is where the importance of intersectionality lies.
This situatedness, as illustrated above when discussing what led me to be interested in these topics in the first place, also applies to my own gaze and has obviously affected the many generalizations made in this book. Although I have tried to decentre my perspective and to use illustrative examples from all over the globe, obviously I have been especially informed by debates and developments in Britain, as well as in my various global virtual communities. As Donna Haraway (1988), with her usual wisdom, stated, there is no view from nowhere. So I apologize for the limitations of the perspective of the book and the unevenness of its illustrative examples, but hope that even when it is misguided it will still trigger thoughts on the matter in hand.
I am also very aware that every intellectual product is an outcome of an accumulation of various collective dialogical narratives. In thinking about and writing this book and related papers, I have been very fortunate to be part of local and global networks of friends and colleagues, activists and scholars, who greatly stimulated my thoughts on these issues as well as informing me of developments and debates in other places. I am greatly indebted to them all, while, of course, I take full responsibility for the final product.
Some of these networks are continuous, although new (usually younger) people have joined them in the years since I started to be associated with them. Among my anti-Zionist Israeli Leftist friends I want to thank especially Avishai Ehrlich, Ruchama Marton, [Page viii]Moshik and Ilana Machover, Haim Bresheeth, Susie Barry and Oren Yiftachel. Women Against Fundamentalism is now celebrating its twentieth anniversary. It was established around the time of the ‘Rushdie Affair’. After several years ‘on remission’ it came back to life when it was greatly needed (the monthly vegetarian soups that helped its resuscitation were a lovely challenge!). As always I'm greatly indebted to them all, but especially to Gita Sahgal, Pragna Patel and Julia Bard, as well as Cass Balchin, Nadje Al-Ali and Sukhwant Dhaliwal (and the honorary member of WAF and WLUML, Chetan Bhatt).
Raya Feldman, another old friend and a WAF member, has been central in establishing the Hackney Migrant Centre where I spend a little time every month (cooking again!). However, the most formative learning experience that I've had in working with refugees in East London has been in the ESRC research project: ‘Identity, performance and social action: community theatre among refugees’. I'm greatly indebted to Erene Kaptani who originally approached me with the idea and then became the project's Research Fellow. In addition to proving to be a wonderful communication tool and great fun, the participatory theatre techniques that we used (Playback and Forum) were also found to be a different and complementary sociological data collection tool (Kaptani &Yuval-Davis, 2008a and b) and these greatly helped me in reconfiguring my ideas on identity (e.g. Yuval-Davis & Kaptani, 2009; Yuval-Davis, 2010). They also taught me much about the politics of belonging within the four refugee communities we worked with in East London and their social and political environments. My ideas on spatial security rights have largely developed while working with them. This project was part of the ESRC research programme on ‘Identities and Social Action and I'm grateful to my colleagues there, especially to Margie Whetherell for her inspirational leadership of that programme as well as for her warmth and support.
This research project was taking place in my new academic ‘home’, the School of Humanities and Social Sciences at the University of East London, which offered me a refuge since 2003 after I (and some other colleagues, especially my long-standing friend and collaborator Floya Anthias) resigned in protest from the University of Greenwich, when they carelessly and short-sightedly destroyed the cutting-edge academic centre within Gender and Ethnic Studies, which we had built up there for more than twenty-five years under [Page ix]difficult ‘polytechnic’ conditions, under the excuse of ‘restructuring’.2 Gavin Poynter and Haim Bresheeth not only offered me office facilities as a Visiting Professor, they also allowed me to transfer my postgraduate programme in Gender, Sexuality and Ethnic Studies, which worked very well, at least for a few years.
It worked so well because the programme attracted so many wonderful students, both MA and PhD, from all over the world, from Zimbabwe to Australia, from Iran to Bangladesh. I cannot name them all, but some of my students have become such first-rate scholars and activists that I must mention them here, together with my love and gratitude for all that I've learned from them while they've been learning themselves. In no particular order: Amira Ahmed, Bahar Taseli, Cass Balchin, Christian Klesse, Christine Achinger, Diana Yeh, Henriette Gunkel, Hoda Rouhana, Jin Haritaworn, Lejla Somun-Krupalija, Liliana Elena, Manar Hassan, Marcel Stotzler, Mastoureh Fathi, Michaela Told, Nicola Samson, Nicos Trimikliniotis, Niloufar Pourzand, Samia Bano, Rumana Hashem, Tijen Uguris, Ulrike Vieten, Umut Erel.
The inspiration and knowledge that these students have brought to me with their situated gazes have enriched my world, as have many colleagues in the School. Again, I cannot mention them all but (again in no particular order), Abel Ugba, Anat Pick, Corrine Squire, Eva Turner, Haim Bresheeth, Maggie Humm, Mica Nava, Molly Andrews, Phil Cohen, Roshini Kampado and Yosefa Loshitzky have been special friends and colleagues. Special thanks are also due to Phil Marfleet, my co-director of the CMRB, the UEL Research Centre on Migration, Refugees and Belonging, in which we have been able to develop, investigate and organize events which interrogate some of the relationships between new and old forms of racism with migration, religion and citizenship, especially within our East London context. Some of this work has been carried out in common projects with the Runnymede Trust and its director Rob Berkeley and the Migrant Rights Network and its director Don Flynn.
I also want to thank my colleagues in international research networks, especially WICZNET, which focuses on research on women in militarized conflict zones (including Audrey Macklin, Cynthia Cockburn, Cynthia Enloe, Lepa Mladjenovic, Malathi de Alwis, [Page x]Nadera Kevorkian, Nadje Al-Ali and, of course, Wenona Giles), as well as the ISA Research Committee (RC)05 on Racism, Nationalism and Ethnic Relations, of which I was President during 2002–06 (including Ann Denis, Avishai Ehrlich, Kogila Moodley, Michael Banton, Natividad Guitierez, Peter Radcliffe and Zlatko Skrbis).
2A process which now takes place in many British universities, including UEL, given the barbaric government cuts to higher education and especially Social Sciences and Humanities.
The 2001 UN World Conference Against Racism (WCAR), which took place a few days before 9/11, in which ISA RC05 organized an interim conference, was a very important and formative (as well as depressing) experience, as has been my membership of the international women's delegation to the Gujarat in 2002, after the pogroms against the Muslims there. It was in Gujarat that I was exposed to some of the nastiest and most violent aspects of intersectional contemporary politics of belonging. I could not have asked for better guidance and sisterhood than from the local feminist and human rights activists who invited us there as well as from the other members of the delegation, including Anissa Helie, Gaby Mishkovsky, Sunila Abeysekara and the late wonderful Rhonda Kopelon.
There were many other specific forums, places and times which have given me new insights concerning the subjects discussed in this book. These included international feminist and human rights forums, especially Amnesty International, the UNDP and the UN Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women, and the various academic institutions in which I have spent shorter or longer periods as a Visiting Professor during the time I was thinking about and writing this book. They have all offered me warmth, support and new insights, including Aalborg, Ben-Gurion, Bristol, Roskilde, Tel-Aviv, Wisconsin, my Rockfeller Fellowship on women, human security and globalization in CUNY and NCRW, and my three years part-time visiting professorship at the Centre for Gender Studies in Umea University in Sweden, which offered me sufficient space in which to write much of the final draft of this book. Special thanks for the friendship, warmth and support they have all offered me. Here I can mention just a couple of names, the Centre's Director, Professor Ann Ohman, and its Administrator, Monica Forsell-Allergen.
There is no way I can do justice to all the friends who have inspired me all these years but I want to mention here also Alison Assiter, Avtar Brah, Ann Phoenix, Birte Siim, Gina Vargas, Helma Lutz, Helen Meekosha, Jindi Pettman, Marie deLepervanche, Martha Ackelsberg, Nora Ratzel, Paula Rayman, Peter Waterman, Pnina Werbner, Ronit Lentin, Shula Ramon and Spike Peterson.
[Page xi]Cass Balchin, Avishai Ehrlich, Gita Sahgal, Ann Phoenix and Mastoureh Fathi have, in addition, also read smaller or larger parts of the manuscript and given me invaluable feedback. However, I have learned about belonging and the politics of belonging not just from my friends but also from their families, especially their children, among them Benjo, Kabir, Zum, Pikel, Luz and Aisha.
I also want to thank here Karen Phillips and the other editors from Sage, as well as the anonymous readers of the first draft of the manuscript who gave me such generous and insightful feedback on the draft.
Last but not least, I want to thank my family. Alain, for his continuous support, warmth, knowledge and love, and Gul who, in addition to being my wonderful son, has also taught me more than anyone else in the world about love, pain and what life is actually all about.
And Ora, my sister, who – in her mid-seventies – rediscovered dancing.
I can't end this preface without confessing a certain reluctance to let the manuscript, the project of the book, go. Any ending is artificial, as the subject matter of this book is dynamic, processual and contested while the written word (or any medium of expression) is necessarily static. These are days of major glocal crises and transformation, in which new political projects of belonging are going to emerge, at least in the Middle East, the region I come from, but most probably much more widely. Since continuing to amend/add to/revise the manuscript will never be complete or fully satisfactory, I would ask the reader to see in this book just an interim account and analysis, to be revisited, in one form or another, at a future date.London, March 2011[Page xii]
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