The Modern British Party System

Books

Paul Webb

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Dedication

    To Laura, Michael and Alice

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Preface

    Between 1945 and 1970, it was orthodox to regard Britain as having a very stable, centralized and party-oriented political system. Parties were vital to a number of interconnected and critical aspects of politics in the country: they structured and organized elections and the work of the national legislature; shaped the political agenda and informed citizens about public policy issues; fostered political representation and participation; recruited and socialized the political elites who occupied elective and appointive office; and provided accountable governance. So central were they, that it was quite impossible to conceive of political life in the country without thinking first and foremost of party political life. While there is no doubt that parties remain at the heart of political life in Britain today, it is equally plain that they have come under considerable pressure to adapt in the last third of twentieth century. This book seeks both to show how parties remain of central importance, and the ways in which they and the party system have changed.

    Change in British party politics is not hard to discern. It can be observed in a host of interconnected developments, including: the erosion of two-party electoral domination; partisan and class dealignment within the electorate; the emergence of new lines of political conflict which cut across traditional linkages between parties and voters; the emergence and growing relevance of various minor parties; the growth of backbench dissent within parliamentary parties; an increasingly audible chorus of complaint about the supposed iniquities of the electoral system; a more diverse electoral geography; and greater variety of regional party system dynamics. In the light of these changes, a number of questions arise. What is the exact nature and scope of change? What are the sources of change? What are the effects of change? And how have parties responded to the pressures imposed by their changing environments? Broadly speaking, this book is driven by an underlying concern with these questions.

    The opening chapter seeks to provide a broad overview of party system change. In doing so, it argues that British society as a whole has become more heterogeneous, and that this is reflected in the greater pluralism and diversity of the various party systems found in the UK. Overall, these changes now make the country's traditional ‘two-party’ designation seem inadequate. In Chapter 2, the nature, scope and consequences of electoral change are considered in greater detail; in particular, the gradual opening up of the electoral market since 1970 is traced through a detailed examination of the sources of dealignment and realignment. Such change implies greater scope for competition over voter support, but begs the question of how modern British parties compete: the answer is elaborated over the course of the ensuing three chapters. In Chapters 3 and 4, the importance of party ideologies and election programmes, on which formal models of party competition routinely and justifiably lay emphasis, is discussed. But this only provides a partial insight into the competition for votes, and Chapter 5 therefore investigates the increasingly important realm of political marketing, imagery and media effects. The phenomenon of political marketing, it should be noted, provides an especially powerful example of how parties respond and adapt to their changing environments. This is important, for it serves to make the point that parties are not simply the passive victims of a changing external environment over which they have no control; by adapting, they survive and retain a degree of autonomy to shape public life.

    The next three chapters switch focus to the internal life of political parties. Chapter 6 examines the increasingly important issue of conflict and cohesion within parliamentary parties, while Chapter 7 moves beyond the legislature to consider the changing balance of power between party elites and grass-roots memberships. Here again we shall see parties adapting to changing circumstances, something which is no less true of the way in which they obtain and deploy the resources they need to operate effectively, the subject of Chapter 8. Finally, in Chapter 9 we shift focus from the internal life of modern political parties to their consequences for the wider political system. How well does the party system as a whole function on behalf of the political system and how might it do better? This is a vitally important question which bears heavily on the quality of democracy in modern Britain, and turns on the often-alleged ‘failure’ or ‘decline’ of parties in advanced industrial democracies. Though it is possible, and in some ways justifiable, to argue that their systemic performance is flawed, it will be contended here that the ‘decline of party’ thesis is greatly exaggerated in respect of Britain.

    A feature of this book is the use of general comparative models. It is almost intuitively obvious that it can be instructive to view British politics through the lens of comparative theory, yet it is striking how seldom general books about party politics in the country have embraced such an approach. (See Maor [1997] for a rare counter-example.) This insularity is surprising, for it seems to imply that Britain is so exceptional as to lie beyond the reach of comparative models, something which is plainly not the case. Though any party system comprises a unique blend of institutions, behaviours and practices, this does not usually mean that the tools of comparative empirical analysis are fundamentally inappropriate or valueless. Consequently, the perspectives of comparative politics often surface in the pages that follow, most obviously in respect of subjects such as the classification of party systems, the measurement and explanation of electoral change, processes of party competition and political marketing, the distribution and organization of intra-party power, and the systemic performance of parties. In this sense, then, the book may be regarded as an extended case-study of party system change in the world of contemporary industrial democracies.

    Acknowledgements

    In the course of writing this book, I have incurred a number of debts which I should very much like to acknowledge. Though it seems an unconscionably long time ago now, I must thank Peter Mair for first suggesting the idea of a book on the British party system. In addition, he and a number of others have performed an invaluable service in reading and commenting on various chapter drafts; these include Roger Scully, Ian Holliday, Shaun Bowler, Thomas Poguntke, David Farrell, Susan Scarrow, Jim Tomlinson, Justin Fisher, Ben Seyd, Phil Cowley and Tim Bale. Furthermore, the feedback I have received from conferences and seminar presentations over the years has proved very helpful in respect of some of the ideas and material included in this book, notably the ‘Party Politics in the Year 2000’ conference staged in Manchester (1995) and the British Politics Group panels at APSA Annual Meetings in San Francisco (1996) and Boston (1998). Notwithstanding the intellectual debts I owe to these groups and individuals, the usual disclaimer of responsibility applies, of course.

    I am grateful to the Data Archive at the University of Essex for providing British Election Survey data, Conservative and Labour Party Membership Survey data, and British Candidate Survey data; to Ian Budge for providing me with Comparative Manifesto data, and to Pippa Norris for supplying British Representation Survey data. Frank Cass Publishing kindly permitted me to draw extensively (in Chapter 6) on my article, ‘Attitudinal clustering within British parliamentary elites: patterns of intra-party and cross-party alignment’, which was first published in West European Politics, 20: 89–110; Cambridge University Press permitted me to reproduce Figure 2 of Herbert Kitschelt's article, ‘Class structure and social democratic party strategy’ from the British Journal of Political Science (23/3: 309); and Sage Publications have permitted me to reproduce Table 2.7 from Geoff Evans and Pippa Norris (eds) Critical Elections: British Parties and Voters in Long-Term Perspective (1999: 97). I am much obliged to the British Academy for funding my research on party employees (grant number APN8695), which proved valuable in writing Chapter 8; Jacqueline Stevenson proved a willing and able research assistant in respect of this component of the book, moreover. I should also like to thank a number of individuals working for the political parties who have accommodated my not inconsiderable intrusions on their time: these include Jonathan Seller, Jonathan Upton, Carol Linforth, Neil Bendle, Jackie Stacey, John Braggins, Linda Kelly, Nick Smith and Lesley Quinn (Labour Party); and Lisa Gregory, Stephen Phillips and Philip Smith (Conservative Party).

    It goes without saying, however, that the biggest debts of gratitude are owed to my family, of whose support there is never any doubt. This goes for my wife Susan and my parents, and in a special way for my children, Laura, Michael and Alice, whose births span with uncanny precision the period in which this book was written. There may be some deeper significance to this fact, though if so, I confess it is beyond me; in any case, they remain quite my favourite party animals, so I gladly dedicate this book to them.

    PDW, London
  • Appendix: Cluster Analysis

    The goal of the cluster analysis performed in Chapter 6 is to identify homogeneous groups (or clusters) of MPs in terms of their core ideological values. This is achieved by using SPSS's1 Cluster program, which can measure how close cases are to each other in terms of (squared) Euclidian distance. This may sound like an obscure formulation to readers who are not quantitatively minded, but a simple example demonstrates that it is conceptually quite straightforward. Assume that we are interested to know how far two individuals are from one another in terms of their core beliefs, and that we wish to calculate this in terms of squared Euclidian distance. These individuals are located as follows on our attitudinal scales:

    CaseSocialism–CapitalismLiberty–Authority
    Individual 11.52.0
    Individual 24.54.0
    Euclidian distance3.022.02

    Recall that both scales run from 1–5, with 1 representing the most socialist or the most libertarian possible location, while 5 represents the most capitalist or authoritarian location. In the example, it is clear that we have two rather different cases; individual 1 is obviously nearer to the socialist and libertarian poles of the two scales, while individual 2 is closer to the capitalist and authoritarian extremes. How do we measure their overall distance in Euclidian terms? On the socialism scale the two individuals are fully 3 units apart, while on the libertarianism scale they are 2 units distant from one another. According to the formula, each of these distances must be squared, then totalled to give the overall Euclidian distance in our two-dimensional attitudinal space (thus, 32 + 22 = 13).

    This way of measuring distances provides the basis on which a cluster analysis of MPs in the BCS and BRS samples can be executed. In hierarchical clustering, there are as many clusters as there are cases at the outset of the analysis. At the first stage of analysis, the two cases which are nearest to each other in terms of Euclidian distance are merged into a single cluster. At the next stage, the next nearest case is then added to this cluster, or two other cases which are nearer to each other are joined together to form a new cluster. This proceeds until all cases have been merged into a single cluster, though it is almost certain that this final ‘unified’ formation will actually be very heterogeneous, and therefore substantively uninteresting. Once a cluster has been formed it cannot be split apart at a later stage of analysis; it can only be merged with other cases or clusters (Romesburg 1984; Norusis 1992: chs 3, 4). It is the task of the researcher to interpret cluster analysis results in the light of substantive knowledge and theory, so as to uncover a model in which each cluster consists of MPs who share relatively similar core political beliefs, while each cluster is relatively distinct from others within the party.

    It is important to understand that cluster analysis does not necessarily produce any single statistically ‘correct’ solution to our problem. Rather, it provides indications of a range of statistically acceptable solutions, and allows the researcher to select among them in the light of substantive and theoretical knowledge. As Romesburg says, the researcher is ultimately obliged to make a ‘subjective’ decision about the trade-off between the desire for detail (many classes) and simplicity (few classes):

    The guiding rules for subjective decisions are the norms that professional fields sanction. The norms map out the range of what is and is not acceptable, rather than constraining the decision to one possibility. (1984: 241)

    In Chapter 6, a number of statistical and ‘subjective’ criteria are applied. The first statistical criterion to offer us guidance is the distance coefficient.2 This coefficient is based on the value of the distance between the most dissimilar points of the clusters being combined at each stage of the clustering process. Thus, as a general rule, small coefficients indicate that homogeneous clusters are being merged, while large coefficients suggest that clusters containing quite dissimilar cases are being forced together. It makes sense, therefore, to examine the schedule of distance coefficients (sometimes referred to as an agglomeration schedule) at each stage of the cluster analysis in order to observe where sudden, relatively large increases in value occur. In Table 6.1, for instance, this happens as the clustering process takes the data from a six-cluster model to a five-cluster model, and constitutes a prima facie indication that it would be prudent not to accept any solution containing five clusters or less (Norusis 1992: 102–3).

    To rely on the distance coefficient alone would constitute a very crude approach, however. The next criterion on which we focus, therefore, is the mean score on each of the two attitudinal scales of each of the clusters generated by a particular model. This is of obvious importance since it is the basic measure by which we are able to locate the clusters in two-dimensional space. Cluster means inform us on average precisely how left-wing, right-wing, libertarian or authoritarian each of the clusters is, and thus identify the nature of each in a substantive sense. This information can be valuable in choosing between alternative models. Implicit in this part of the discussion is the ‘subjective’ criterion that a solution should be substantively interpretable. More precisely, there should be nothing in an accepted model which is counter-intuitive.

    Beyond this, further statistical criteria are employed, each of which derives from analysis of variance. Specifically, the F-ratios generated by analysis of variance confirm whether the differences between cluster means are statistically significant; in Chapter 6 no model is accepted unless cluster means are significantly different on both the socialism and liberty scales. In addition, we can look to the eta2 coefficient which measures the strength of these cluster differences (or more exactly, the ratio of variation explained by cluster group differences to that which is unexplained by them); as a general rule of thumb, a cluster model is not considered acceptable for our purposes unless eta2 indicates that it explains at least 50% of the variation in each of the attitudinal scales. Finally, the standard deviation around the mean location on each scale is a useful indicator of cluster cohesion.

    The final criterion which is applied is a cornerstone of modern political science, the principle of parsimony. That is, as a general rule, it makes sense to opt for the simplest meaningful model which conforms to the statistical criteria and captures the main nuances of intra-party attitudinal differences. Where, for instance, two alternatives seem acceptable on all other criteria, and both are substantively interpretable, then it is preferable to opt for the model containing fewer clusters.

    These criteria explain the form in which the results of cluster analyses are reported in Chapter 6. That is, the distance coefficients generated by the final few stages of initial exploratory clustering are reported, so that the stage or stages at which the clustering process might cease are illustrated. Thereafter, details of the preferred cluster model are reported; these include cluster means and standard deviations for each of the attitudinal scales, along with significance levels derived from F-ratios, and eta2 for each scale. All cluster models reported have been generated by SPSS's ‘Cluster’ program, which measures distances between cases in terms of squared Euclidian distance, and employs the ‘average linkage between groups’ method (as recommended by Leece and Berrington 1977: 530).

    Notes

    1 For the uninitiated, SPSS is the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences.

    2 Note that distance coefficients can be calculated in a number of different ways, and are sometimes referred to as resemblance, similarity or dissimilarity coefficients. In Chapter 6, the distance between two cases is the sum of the squared differences in values for each variable, given by the formula:

    References

    Aarts, K (1995) ‘Intermediate organizations and interest representation’ in HDKlingemann and DFuchsCitizens and the State (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
    Adonis, A (1996) ‘A guide to Britain's four Tory parties’The Observer 6 October.
    Adonis, A and GMulgan (1994) ‘Back to Greece: the scope for direct democracy’Demos Quarterly3, pp. 2–9.
    Aldrich, JH (1995) Why Parties? The Origin and Transformation of Political Parties in America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).
    Alford, R (1963) Party and Society: Anglo-American Democracies (Chicago: Rand McNally).
    Alt, JE, BSarlvik and ICrewe (1976) ‘Partisanship and policy choice: issue preferences in the British electorate’British Journal of Political Science6, pp. 273–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007123400000703
    Amery, LS (1947) Thoughts on the Constitution (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
    Anderson, P (1961) ‘Sweden: Mr Crosland's dreamland’New Left Review, pp. 7 and 9.
    Anderson, P (1965) ‘Problems of Socialist Strategy’ in PAnderson and RBlackburnTowards Socialism (London: Collins).
    Aughey, A (1994) ‘The political parties in Northern Ireland’ in LRobins, HBlackmore and RPyper (eds) Britain's Changing Party System (London: Leicester University Press), pp. 166–82
    Axelrod, R (1970) Conflict of Interest (Chicago, IL: Markham).
    Baker, D, AGamble and SLudlam (1993a) ‘Conservative splits and European integration’Political Quarterly64/2, pp. 420–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/poqu.1993.64.issue-4
    Baker, D, AGamble and SLudlam (1993b) ‘Whips or scorpions? The Maastricht vote and the Conservative Party’Parliamentary Affairs42/2, pp. 151–66.
    Baker, D, IFountain, AGamble and SLudlam (1994) ‘Conservative parliamentarians and European integration’. Paper presented to the Annual Conference of Elections, Parties and Public Opinion Specialist Group of PSA, Cardiff, September.
    Baker, D, IFountain, AGamble and SLudlam (1995) ‘Sovereignty – the San Andreas fault of Conservative ideology’. Paper presented to Annual Conference of Political Studies Association, York, April.
    Baker, D, AGamble, SLudlam and DSeawright (1999) ‘Backbenchers with attitude: a seismic study of the Conservative Party and dissent on Europe’ in SBowler, DMFarrell and RSKatz (eds) Party Discipline and Parliamentary Government (Columbus: Ohio State University Press), pp. 72–93.
    Banducci, S (1998) ‘Direct legislation: when is it used and when does it pass?’ in SBowler, TDonovan and CTolbert (eds) Citizens as Legislators: Direct Democracy in the United States (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press).
    Barker, R (1978) Political Ideas in Modern Britain (London: Methuen). http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203416044
    Barnes, J (1994) ‘Ideology and factions’ in ASeldon and SBall (eds) The Conservative Century: The Conservative Party Since 1900 (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 315–46.
    Barnes, J and RCockett (1994) ‘Making party policy’ in ASeldon and SBall (eds) The Conservative Century: The Conservative Party Since 1900 (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 347–82.
    Barnes, SH (1974) ‘Italy: Religion and Class in Electoral Behaviour’ in RRose (ed.) Electoral Behaviour: A Comparative Handbook (London: Collier-Macmillan), pp. 171–226.
    Barnes, SH and Kaase, M (1979) Political Action: Mass Participation in Five Western Democracies (Beverly Hills: Sage).
    Bartle, J, ICrewe and AKing (1997) ‘Was it Blair wot won it?: leadership effects in the 1997 British general election’. Paper presented to conference Assessing The 1997 Election, University of Essex, September.
    Bartolini, S and PMair (1990) Identity, Competition and Electoral Availability: The Stabilisation of European Electorates 1885–1985 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
    Bell, D (1959) The End of Ideology (New York: Free Press).
    Belloni, FP and DCBeller (1978) Faction Politics: Political Parties and Factionalism in Comparative Perspective (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio).
    Bennie, L, JCurtice and WRudig (1996) ‘Party members’ in DMacIver (ed.) The Liberal Democrats (Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall), pp. 135–54.
    Berlin, I (1969) ‘Two concepts of liberty’ in IBerlinFour Essays on Liberty (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 118–72
    Berrington, HB (1973) Backbench Opinion in the House of Commons, 1945–55 (Oxford: Pergamon Press).
    Berrington, H and RHague (1997) ‘The Liberal Democrat campaign’ in PNorris and NTGavin (eds) Britain Votes 1997 (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 47–60.
    Beveridge, WH (1942) Social Insurance and Allied Services: A Report (London: HMSO).
    Birch, AH (1984) ‘Overload, ungovernability and delegitimation: the theories and the British case’British Journal of Political Science14, pp. 135–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007123400003501
    Blondel, J (1968) ‘Party systems and patterns of government in western democracies’Canadian Journal of Political Science1, pp. 180–203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0008423900036507
    Bonham-Carter, J (1997) ‘The Liberal Democrats' media strategy’. Paper presented to conference Assessing the 1997 Election, University of Essex, September.
    Bowler, S and TDonovan (1998a) ‘Two cheers for direct democracy or who's afraid of the initiative process?’Representation35, pp. 247–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00344899808523046
    Bowler, S and TDonovan (1998b) Demanding Choices: Opinion, Voting and Direct Democracy (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press).
    Bowler, S, DMFarrell and RSKatz (1999) ‘Party cohesion, party discipline and parliaments’ in SBowler, DMFarrell and RSKatz (eds) Party Discipline and Parliamentary Government (Columbus: Ohio State University Press), pp. 3–22.
    Brack, B (1996) ‘Liberal Democrat policy’ in DMacIver (ed.) The Liberal Democrats (London: Prentice-Hall), pp. 85–110.
    Braggins, J, MMcDonagh and ABarnard (1993) The American Presidential Election 1992 – What Can Labour Learn? (London: Labour Party).
    Brand, J (1989) ‘Faction as its own reward: Groups in the British parliament 1945–1986’Parliamentary Affairs42/2, pp. 148–65.
    Brand, J (1992) British Parliamentary Parties: Policy and Power (Oxford: Clarendon Press).
    Braybrooke, D and CELindblom (1963) A Strategy of Decision (New York: Free Press).
    British Broadcasting Corporation (1999) Vote 99: Local Elections in England, Scotland and Wales (London: BBC).
    Brittan, S (1977) The Economic Consequences of Democracy (London: Temple Smith).
    Brock, M (1983) ‘The Liberal tradition’ in VBogdanor (ed.) Liberal Party Politics (Oxford: Clarendon Press), pp. 15–26.
    Brown, A (1997) ‘Scotland: paving the way for devolution?’ in PNorris and NTGavin (eds) Britain Votes 1997 (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 150–63.
    Budge, I (1994) ‘A new spatial theory of party competition: uncertainty, ideology and policy equilibria viewed comparatively and temporally’British Journal of Political Science24, pp. 443–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007123400006955
    Budge, I (1996a) ‘Great Britain and Ireland: Variations on dominant party government’ in JMColomer (ed.) Political Institutions in Europe (London: Routledge), pp. 18–61.
    Budge, I (1996b) The New Challenge of Direct Democracy (Cambridge: Polity Press)
    Budge, I (1999) ‘Party policy and ideology: reversing the 1950s?’ in GEvans and PNorris (eds) Critical Elections: British Parties and Voters in Long-Term Perspective (London: Sage), pp. 1–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218518
    Budge, I and DFarlie (1983) Explaining and Predicting Elections: Issue Effects and Party Strategies in 23 Democracies (London: George Allen & Unwin).
    Budge, I, I.Crewe and D.Farlie (1976) Party Identification and Beyond (New York: Wiley).
    Bulmer-Thomas, I (1953) The Party System in Great Britain (London: Phoenix House).
    Burke, E (1906) ‘Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontents’ in HFrowde (ed.) The Works of the Right Honourable Edmund Burke (London: Oxford University Press), pp. 1–88; first published 1770.
    Burke, E (1968) Reflections on the Revolution in France (London: Penguin); first published 1790.
    Butler, D and DKavanagh (1988) The British General Election of 1987 (London: Macmillan).
    Butler, D and DKavanagh (1997) The British General Election of 1997 (Basingstoke: Macmillan).
    Butler, D and RRose (1960) The British General Election of 1959 (London: Macmillan).
    Butler, D and DStokes (1974) Political Change in Britain (Harmondsworth: Penguin)
    1st edition
    1969.
    Butler, D, AAdonis and TTravers (1995) Policy Failure in British Government: The Politics of the Poll Tax (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
    Byrd, P (1986) ‘The Labour Party in Britain’ in WEPaterson and AThomasThe Future of Social Democracy (Oxford: Clarendon Press), pp. 59–107
    Byrne, P (1997) Social Movements in Britain (London: Routledge).
    Cambridge Political Economy Group (1974) Britain's Economic Crisis (Nottingham: Spokesman).
    Campbell, A, PConverse, WEMiller and DStokes (1960) The American Voter (New York City: John Wiley).
    Castles, FG (1994) ‘The policy consequences of proportional representation: a sceptical commentary’Political Science46, pp. 161–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/003231879404600202
    Catt, H (1999) Democracy in Practice (London: Routledge).
    Central Statistical Office (1963) Annual Abstract of Statistics 100 (London: HMSO).
    Central Statistical Office (1976) Annual Abstract of Statistics 113 (London: HMSO).
    Central Statistical Office (1989) Annual Abstract of Statistics 125 (London: HMSO).
    Chandler, JA (1996) Local Government Today (Manchester: Manchester University Press).
    Clarke, P (1983) ‘Liberals and social democrats in historical perspective’ in VBogdanor (ed.) Liberal Party Politics (Oxford: Clarendon Press), pp. 27–42.
    Cm. 3883 (1998) Northern Ireland Peace Agreement (London: The Stationery Office).
    Cm. 4413 (1999) The Funding of Political Parties in the UK: The Government's Proposals for Legislation in Response to the Fifth Report of the Committee on Standards in Public Life (London: The Stationery Office).
    Coates, D (1994) The Question of UK Decline: the Economy, State and Society (Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf).
    Coates, K and TTopham (1986) Trade Unions and Politics (Oxford: Basil Blackwell).
    Cockett, R (1994) ‘The party, publicity and the media’ in ASeldon and SBall (eds) The Conservative Century: The Conservative Party Since 1900 (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 547–77.
    Conservative Party (1997) Blueprint for Change: A Consultation Paper for Reform of the Conservative Party (London: Conservative Party).
    Conservative Party (1998) Fresh Future (London: Conservative Party).
    Converse, P (1964) ‘The nature of belief systems in mass publics’ in DApter (ed.) Ideology and Discontent (New York: Free Press).
    Cowley, P and PNorton with MStuart and MBailey (1996) ‘Blair's Bastards: Discontent within the PLP’Centre for Legislative Studies Research Paper1/96 (Hull: University of Hull).
    Cox, GW (1987) The Efficient Secret: The Cabinet and the Development of Political Parties in Victorian England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511571473
    Cox, GW and MDMcCubbins (1993) Legislative Leviathan: Party Government in the House (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press).
    Crewe, I (1985) ‘Great Britain’ in ICrewe and DDenver (eds) Electoral Change in Western Democracies: Patterns and Sources of Electoral Volatility (Beckenham: Croom Helm), pp 100–50.
    Crewe, I (1986) ‘On the death and resurrection of class voting: some comments on How Britain Votes’Political Studies34, pp. 620–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/post.1986.34.issue-4
    Crewe, I (1988) ‘Why Mrs Thatcher was returned with a landslide’Social Studies Review3, pp. 2–9.
    Crewe, I (1993) ‘Parties and electors’ in IBudge and D.McKay (1994) The Developing British Political System: The 1990s (London: Longman), pp. 83–111.
    Crewe, I and DSearing (1988) ‘Ideological change in the British Conservative Party’American Political Science Review82, pp. 361–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1957391
    Crewe, I, NFox and ADay (1995) The British Electorate: A Compendium of Data from the British Election Surveys 1963–1992 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
    Cronin, TE (1989) Direct Democracy: The Politics of Initiative, Referendum and Recall (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).
    Crosland, CAR (1956) The Future of Socialism (London: Jonathan Cape).
    Crosland, CAR (1975) Social Democracy in Europe (London: Fabian Society).
    CSE-LCC (1980) The Alternative Economic Strategy (London: Conference of Socialist Economists-Labour Coordinating Committee).
    Curtice, J (1988) ‘Great Britain: Social liberalism reborn?’ in EKirchner (ed.) Liberal Parties in Western Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
    Curtice, J and RJowell (1997) ‘Trust in the political system’ in RJowell, JCurtice et al. (eds) British Social Attitudes: 14th Report (Aldershot: Ashgate), pp. 89–109.
    Curtice, J and A.Park (1999) ‘Region: New Labour, new geography?’ in GEvans and PNorris (eds) Critical Elections: British Parties and Voters in Long-term Perspective (London: Sage), pp. 124–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218518
    Curtice, J and HSemetko (1994) ‘Does it matter what the papers say?’ in AHeath, RJowell and JCurtice (eds) Labour's Last Chance? The 1992 Election and Beyond (Aldershot: Dartmouth), pp. 43–64.
    Curtice, J and MSteed (1982) ‘Electoral choice and the production of government: the changing operation of the UK electoral system since 1955’British Journal of Political Science12, pp. 249–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007123400002970
    Curtice, J and MSteed (1993) ‘Appendix 2: the results analysed’ in DButler and DKavanagh (eds) The British General Election of 1992 (Basingstoke: Macmillan), pp. 322–62.
    Dahl, R (1971) Polyarchy (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press).
    Dalton, R (1996) Citizen Politics: Public Opinion and Political Parties in Advanced Western Democracies (Chatham, NJ: Chatham House);
    2nd edition
    .
    Dalton, R (forthcoming) ‘Partisan dealignment’ in RDalton and MWattenberg (eds) Parties Without Partisans: Political Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
    Denham, A and MGarnett (1999) ‘Influence without responsibility? Think tanks in Britain’Parliamentary Affairs52, pp. 46–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pa/52.1.46
    Denver, D (1989) Elections and Voting Behaviour in Britain (Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf);
    2nd edition
    1994.
    Denver, D (1998) ‘The government that could do no right’ in AKing, DDenver, IMcLean, PNorris, PNorton, DSanders and PSeydNew Labour Triumphs: Britain at the Polls (Chatham, NJ: Chatham House), pp. 15–48.
    Denver, D and GHands (1992a) ‘Constituency campaigning’Parliamentary Affairs45, pp. 528–44.
    Denver, D and GHands (1992b) Issues and Controversies in British Electoral Behaviour (Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf).
    Denver, D and GHands (1997) Modern Constituency Campaigning: The 1992 General Election (London: Frank Cass).
    Donovan, T and SBowler (1998) ‘Direct democracy and minority rights’American Journal of Political Science43, pp. 1020–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2991742
    Dorfman, G (1979) Government versus the Trade Unions in Britain since 1968 (London: Macmillan).
    Downs, A (1957) An Economic Theory of Democracy (New York: Harper Row).
    Drucker, H (1979) Doctrine and Ethos in the Labour Party (London: George Allen and Unwin).
    Drucker, H (1982) ‘The influence of the trade unions on the ethos of the Labour Party’ in BPimlott and CCook (eds) Trade Unions in British Politics (London: Longman), pp. 258–71.
    Dunleavy, P (1979) ‘The urban basis of political alignment: social class, domestic property ownership and state intervention in consumption processes’British Journal of Political Science9, pp. 409–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007123400001915
    Dunleavy, P (1980) ‘The political implications of sectoral cleavages and the growth of state employment’Political Studies28, pp. 364–83, 527–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/post.1980.28.issue-3
    Dunleavy, P (1987) ‘Class dealignment revisited: why odds ratios give odd results’West European Politics10, pp. 400–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01402388708424640
    Dunleavy, P and CHusbands (1985) British Democracy at the Crossroads: Voting and Party Competition in the 1980s (London: George Allen & Unwin).
    Dunleavy, P and HMargetts (1997) ‘The electoral system’ in PNorris and NTGavin (eds) Britain Votes 1997 (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 225–41.
    Dunleavy, P and HMargetts (1999) ‘Mixed electoral systems in Britain and the Jenkins Commission on electoral reform’British Journal of Politics and International Relations1, pp. 12–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjpi.1999.1.issue-1
    Dunleavy, P and HWard (1981) ‘Exogenous voter preferences and parties with state power: some internal problems of economic models of party competition’British Journal of Political Science11, pp. 351–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007123400002684
    Dunleavy, P, H.Margetts and SWeir (1993) ‘The 1992 election and the legitimacy of British democracy’ in DDenver, PNorris, DBroughton and CRallings (eds) British Elections and Parties Yearbook 1993 (Hemel Hempstead), pp. 177–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13689889308412930
    Dunleavy, P, HMargetts, BO'Duffy and SWeir (1997) ‘Remodelling the 1997 General Election: how Britain would have voted under alternative electoral systems’. Paper presented to conference on Assessing the 1997 Election, University of Essex, September.
    Duverger, M (1954) Political Parties: Their Organisation and Activity in the Modern State (London: Methuen).
    Ellis, T (1998) ‘The Jenkins Commission: editorial comment’Representation35, pp. 87–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00344899808523371
    English, R and MKenny (1999) ‘British decline or the politics of declinism?’British Journal of Politics and International Relations1, pp. 252–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjpi.1999.1.issue-2
    Epstein, LD (1967) Political Parties in Western Democracies (London: Pall Mall Press).
    Epstein, LD (1986) Political Parties in the American Mold (New York: Madison).
    Esping-Andersen, G (1985) Politics Against Markets: The Social Democratic Path to Power (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).
    Eurig, A (1999) ‘Welsh Assembly elections: history in the making’ in CRallings and MThrasher (eds) New Britain, New Elections: The Media Guide to the New Political Map of Britain (London: Vacher Dod), pp. 89–90.
    Evans, G (1998) ‘How Britain views the EU’ in RJowell, JCurtice, APark, LBrook, KThomson and CBrysonBritish and European Social Attitudes: The 15th Report (Aldershot: Ashgate), pp. 173–90.
    Evans, G (1999) ‘Europe: a new cleavage?’ in GEvans and PNorris (eds) Critical Elections: British Parties and Voters in Long-Term Perspective (London: Sage Publications), pp. 207–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218518
    Evans, G and MDuffy (1997) ‘Beyond the sectarian divide: the social bases and political consequences of Nationalist and Unionist party competition in Northern Ireland’British Journal of Political Science, 1, pp. 47–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007123497000033
    Evans, G and PNorris (eds) (1999) Critical Elections: British Parties and Voters in Long-Term Perspective (London: Sage Publications). http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218518
    Evans, G, AHeath and CPayne (1999) ‘Class: Labour as a catch-all party?’ in GEvans and PNorris (eds) Critical Elections: British Parties and Voters in Long-Term Perspective (London: Sage Publications), pp. 87–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218518
    Ewing, K (1987) The Funding of Political Parties in Britain (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
    Farrell, DM and PDWebb (forthcoming) ‘Political parties as campaign organizations’ in R.Dalton and M.Wattenberg (eds) Parties Without Partisans: Political Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
    Farrell, DM, IMcAllister and DStudlar (1998) ‘Sex, money and politics: sleaze and the Conservative Party in the 1997 election’ in DDenver, JFisher, PCowley and CPattie (eds) British Elections and Parties Review 1998 (London: Frank Cass), pp. 80–94.
    Farrell, S, DKennedy, MHenderson and JLandale (1997) ‘The Millbank tendency’The Times, 21 April.
    Field, W (1997) Regional Dynamics: The Basis of Electoral Support in Britain (London: Frank Cass).
    Finer, SE (1975) Adversary Politics and Electoral Reform (London: Anthony Wigram).
    Finer, SE (1980) The Changing British Party System, 1945–1979 (Washington: American Enterprise Institute).
    Finer, SE (1987) ‘Left and Right’ in VBogdanor (ed.) The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Institutions (Oxford: Blackwell), pp. 324–5.
    Finer, SE, HBBerrington and DJBartholomew (1961) Backbench Opinion in the House of Commons, 1955–59 (Oxford: Pergamon Press).
    Fisher, J (1996a) British Political Parties (Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall).
    Fisher, J (1996b) ‘Party finance’ in PNorton (ed.) The Conservative Party (Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall), pp. 157–69.
    Flanagan, SC and RDalton (1985) ‘Parties under stress: realignment and dealignment in advanced industrial societies’West European Politics7, pp 7–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01402388408424456
    Foley, M (1993) The Rise of the British Presidency (Manchester: Manchester University Press).
    Franklin, B (1994) Packaging Politics (London: Edward Arnold).
    Franklin, M (1985) The Decline of Class Voting in Britain, 1964–83 (Oxford: Clarendon Press).
    Franklin, M (1992) ‘Britain’ in MNFranklin, TTMackie and HValen (eds) Electoral Change: Responses to Evolving Social and Attitudinal Structures in Western Countries (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 101–22.
    Freeden, M (1999) ‘The ideology of New Labour’Political Quarterly70, pp. 42–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/poqu.1999.70.issue-1
    Fuchs, D and H-DKlingemann (1995) ‘Citizens and the state: a relationship transformed’ in HDKlingemann and DFuchsCitizens and the State (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 419–43.
    Gamble, A (1985) Britain in Decline (London: Macmillan).
    Gamble, A (1988) The Free Economy and the Strong State (Basingstoke: Macmillan).
    Game, C and Leach, S (1995) ‘Monopolistic and hung councils: outcomes of the 1995 local elections’Representation33, pp. 66–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00344899508522961
    Garner, R and RKelly (1998) British Political Parties Today (Manchester: Manchester University Press);
    2nd edition
    .
    Garrett, G (1994) ‘Popular capitalism: the electoral legacy of Thatcherism’ in AHeath, RJowell, JCurtice and BTaylorLabour's Last Chance? The 1992 Election and Beyond (Aldershot: Dartmouth), pp. 107–24.
    Garry, J (1995) ‘The British Conservative Party: Divisions over European policy’West European Politics18, pp. 170–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01402389508425112
    Gavin, NT and DSanders (1995) ‘The impact of televisual economic news on public perceptions of the economy and government, 1993–1994’. Paper presented to specialist PSA conference on Parties, Elections and Public Opinion, London: Guildhall University, September.
    George, S and MSowemimo (1996) ‘Conservative foreign policy towards the European Union’ in SLudlam and MJSmithContemporary British Conservatism (Basingstoke: Macmillan).
    Giddens, A (1994) ‘What's left for Labour?’New Statesman and Society (30 September).
    Giddens, A (1998) The Third Way: The Renewal of Social Democracy (Cambridge: Polity Press).
    Goldthorpe, J and C.Payne (1986) ‘Trends in inter-generational class mobility in England and Wales, 1972–1983’Sociology20, pp. 1–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038586020001003
    Goldthorpe, JH, DLockwood, FBechofer and JPlatt (1968) The Affluent Worker: Political Attitudes and Behaviour (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
    Goodhart, CAE and RJBhansali (1970) ‘Political economy’Political Studies18, pp. 43–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/post.1970.18.issue-1
    Goodman, LA (1972) ‘A modified multiple regression approach to the analysis of dichotomous variables’American Sociological Review37, pp. 28–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2093491
    Graetz, B and IMcAllister (1987) ‘Party leaders and election outcomes in Britain, 1974–1983’Comparative Political Studies19, pp. 484–507. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0010414087019004002
    Graham, BD (1993) Representation and Party Politics (Oxford: Blackwell).
    Gray, J (1994) The Undoing of Conservatism (London: Social Market Foundation).
    Green, TH (1888) ‘Liberal legislation and freedom of contract’ in RLNettleship (ed.) The Works of Thomas Hill Green, Volume 3 (London: Longmans, Green & Co.).
    Guardian, The (1999) ‘Lilley the pink’Leading article, 24 April, p. 19.
    Gunter, B, JSancho-Aldridge and PWinstone (1994) Television and the Public's View (London: John Libbey).
    Gyford, J, SLeach, and CGame (1989) The Changing Politics of Local Government (London: Unwin Hyman).
    Hall, PA (1998) ‘Social capital in Britain’. Paper presented to Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, September.
    Ham, C and MHill (1993) The Policy Process in the Capitalist State (Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf).
    Hansard Society (1982) Paying for Politics (London: Hansard Society).
    Harrison, M (1982) Trade Unions and the Labour Party since 1945 (London: Allen & Unwin).
    Haseler, S (1969) The Gaitskellites (London: Macmillan).
    Hatfield, M (1978) The House The Left Built: Inside Labour Policy Making, 1970–1975 (London: Victor Gollancz).
    Hay, C and MWatson (1998) ‘Rendering the contingent necessary: New Labour's neo-liberal conversion and the discourse of globalization’. Paper presented to the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, 3–6 September, Boston, MA.
    Heath, A and RJowell (1994) ‘Labour's policy review’ in A.Heath, RJowell and JCurtice (eds) Labour's Last Chance? The 1992 Election and Beyond (Aldershot: Dartmouth), pp. 191–212.
    Heath, A and S-KMcDonald (1988) ‘The demise of party identification theory?’Electoral Studies7, pp. 95–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0261-3794%2888%2990025-X
    Heath, A, GEvans and JMartin (1993) ‘The measurement of core beliefs and values: The development of balanced socialist/laissez faire and libertarian/authoritarian scales’British Journal of Political Science24, pp. 115–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007123400006815
    Heath, A with GGarrett (1991) ‘The extension of popular capitalism’ in AHeath, JCurtice, RJowell, GEvans, JField and SWitherspoon (eds) Understanding Political Change: The British Voter 1964–1987 (Oxford: Pergamon Press), pp. 120–35.
    Heath, A, RJowell and JCurtice (1985) How Britain Votes (Oxford: Pergamon).
    Heath, A, RJowell and JCurtice (1987) ‘Trendless fluctuation: A reply to Crewe’Political Studies35, pp. 256–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/post.1987.35.issue-2
    Heath, A, IMcLean, BTaylor and JCurtice (1999) ‘Between first and second-order: a comparison of voting behaviour in European and local elections in Britain’European Journal of Political Research35, pp. 389–414.
    Heath, A, RJowell, JCurtice, GEvans, JField and SWitherspoon (1991) Understanding Political Change (Oxford: Pergamon).
    Held, D (1996) Models of Democracy (Oxford: Polity Press);
    2nd edition
    .
    Hencke, D and LWard (1998) ‘Tories purge staff over 50’The Guardian, 20 July, p. 1.
    Heywood, A (1994) ‘Britain's dominant party system’ in LRobins, HBlackmore and RPyper (eds) Britain's Changing Party System (London: Leicester University Press), pp. 10–25.
    Hibbs, J (1999) ‘Resignation call over Sainsbury's £2m gift to Labour’The Daily Telegraph, 9 September.
    Hill, R (1998) Social Democracy and Economic Strategy: The Labour Party in Opposition 1979–1992. Doctoral thesis, Brunel University, Middlesex.
    Himmelweit, HT, PHumphreys and MJaeger (1981) How Voters Decide (Milton Keynes: Open University Press);
    2nd edition
    1985.
    Hine, D (1982) ‘Factionalism in West European parties: A framework for analysis’West European Politics5, pp. 36–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01402388208424345
    Hirst, P and GThompson (1996) Globalisation in Question (Cambridge: Polity Press).
    Hix, S (1998) ‘Elections, parties and institutional design: a comparative perspective on European Union democracy’West European Politics21, pp. 19–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01402389808425256
    Hix, S and CLord (1997) Political Parties in the European Union (Basingstoke: Macmillan).
    Hobhouse, LT (1964) Liberalism (Oxford: Oxford University Press), first published 1911.
    Hobsbawm, E (1981) ‘The forward march of Labour halted?’ in MJacques and FMulhearn (eds) The Forward March of Labour Halted? (London: New Left Books).
    Hobson, JA (1909) The Crisis of Liberalism: New Issues of Democracy (London: PS King and Son).
    Hogwood, B (1992) Trends in British Public Policy (Buckingham: Open University Press).
    Holland, S (1975) The Socialist Challenge (London: Quartet).
    Holme, R and AHolmes (1998) ‘Sausages or policeman? The role of the Liberal Democrats in the 1997 general election campaign’ in ICrewe, JBartle and BGosschalk (eds) Political Communications: Why Labour Won the General Election of 1997 (London: Frank Cass).
    Holroyd-Doveton, J (1996) Young Conservatives: A History of the Young Conservative Movement (Durham: Pentland Press).
    Houghton, Lord (1976) Report of the Committee on Financial Aid to Political Parties. (London: HMSO).
    House of Commons Select Committee on Home Affairs (1994) Report on the Funding of Political Parties, HC301 (London: HMSO).
    Hughes, C and Wintour, P (1990) Labour Rebuilt: The New Model Party (London: Fourth Estate).
    Ingle, S (1996) ‘Party organisation’ in DMacIver (ed.) The Liberal Democrats (Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall), pp. 113–33.
    Inglehart, R (1971) ‘The silent revolution in Europe: political change in post-industrial societies’American Political Science Review66, pp. 991–1017. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1953494
    Inglehart, R (1977) The Silent Revolution (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).
    Inglehart, R (1990) Culture Shift in Advanced Industrial Society (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).
    Inglehart, R (1997) Modernization and Postmodernization: Cultural, Economic and Political Change in 43 Societies (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).
    Iyengar, S and DKinder (1987) News That Matters: Television and American Opinion (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press).
    Jacques, M (1993) The Amazing Case of the Shrinking Politicians, Broadcast on BBC2, 25 October.
    Jenkins, Lord (1998) Report of the Independent Commission on the Voting System (London: The Stationery Office).
    Jenkins, R (1979) Bevanism: Labour's High Tide (Nottingham: Spokesman).
    Jenkins, S (1995) Accountable to None: The Tory Privatization of Britain (London: Penguin).
    Johnston, RJ and CJPattie, (1989) ‘The changing electoral geography of Great Britain’ in JMohan (ed.) The Political Geography of Contemporary Britain (Basingstoke: Macmillan).
    Johnston, RJ, CPattie and JAllsopp (1988) A Nation Dividing? The Electoral Map of Great Britain 1979–1987 (Harlow: Longman), pp. 51–68.
    Johnston, RJ, CPattie and EFieldhouse (1994) ‘The geography of voting and representation: regions and the declining importance of the cube law’ in AHeath, RJowell and RCurtice (eds) Labour's Last Chance? The 1992 Election and Beyond (Aldershot: Dartmouth), pp. 255–74.
    Jones, T (1996) ‘Liberal Democrat thought’ in DMacIver (ed.) The Liberal Democrats (Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall), pp. 63–84.
    Jordan, G and JRichardson (1982) ‘The British policy style or the logic of negotiation?’ in JRichardson (ed.) Policy Styles in Western Europe (London: George Allen & Unwin), pp. 80–110.
    Katz, RS (1986) ‘Party government: a rationalistic conception’ in FGCastles and RWildenmann (eds) Visions and Realities of Party Government (Berlin: de Gruyter), pp. 31–71.
    Katz, RS (1990) ‘Parties as linkage: a vestigial function?’European Journal of Political Research18, pp. 143–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejpr.1990.18.issue-1
    Katz, RS (1997) Democracy and Elections (New York: Oxford University Press). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195044294.001.0001
    Katz, RS and PMair (1995) ‘Changing models of party organization and party democracy: the emergence of the cartel party’Party Politics1, pp. 5–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1354068895001001001
    Kavanagh, D (1995) Election Campaigning: The New Marketing of Politics (Oxford: Basil Blackwell).
    Kavanagh, D (1997) ‘The Labour campaign’ in PNorris and NTGavin (eds) Britain Votes 1997 (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 24–33.
    Keating, M (1997) ‘The political economy of regionalism’ in MKeating and JLoughlinThe Political Economy of Regionalism (London: Frank Cass).
    Kellner, P (1997) ‘Virgin MPs set a radical agenda’The Observer 11 May.
    Kelly, RN (1989) Conservative Party Conferences: The Hidden System (Manchester: Manchester University Press).
    Key, VO (1955) ‘A theory of critical elections’Journal of Politics17, pp. 3–18.
    Keynes, JM (1936) The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (London: Macmillan).
    King, A (1976a) ‘Modes of executive-legislative relations: Great Britain, France and West Germany’Legislative Studies Quarterly1, pp. 11–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/439626
    King, A (1976b) Why is Britain becoming harder to govern? (London: BBC Publications).
    King, A (1993) ‘The implications of one-party government’ in AKing, ICrewe, DDenver, KNewton, PNorton, DSanders and PSeydBritain at the Polls 1992 (Chatham, NJ: Chatham House), pp. 223–48.
    King, A (1998) ‘Why Labour won – at last’ in A.King, DDenver, IMcLean, PNorris, PNorton, DSanders and PSeydNew Labour Triumphs: Britain at the Polls (Chatham, NJ: Chatham House), pp. 177–207.
    Kingdom, J (1991) Local Government and Politics in Britain (Hemel Hempstead: Philip Alan).
    Kingdom, J (1999) Government and Politics in Britain: An Introduction (Cambridge: Polity Press);
    2nd edition
    .
    Kirchheimer, O (1966) ‘The transformation of western European party systems’ in JLaPalombara and MWeiner (eds) Political Parties and Political Development (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press), pp. 177–200.
    Kitschelt, H (1993) ‘Class structure and social democratic party strategy’British Journal of Political Science23, pp. 299–337. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007123400006633
    Klingemann, H-D, RHofferbert and IBudge (1994) Parties, Policies and Democracy (Boulder, CO: Westview Press).
    Kobach, KW (1994) ‘Switzerland’ in DButler and ARanneyReferendums Around the World (Basingstoke: Macmillan), pp. 98–152.
    Kogan, M and DKogan (1982) The Battle For The Labour Party (London: Fontana).
    Koole, R (1994) ‘The vulnerability of the modern cadre party in the Netherlands’ in RSKatz and PMair (eds) How Parties Organize: Change and Adaptation in Party Organizations in Western Democracies (London: Sage), pp. 278–303. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446250570
    Koole, R (1996) ‘Cadre, catch-all or cartel? A comment on the notion of the cartel party’Party Politics2, 507–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1354068896002004004
    Kuhnle, S (1997) ‘Reshaping the welfare state’ in IBudge, KNewton, RMcKinley, EKirchner, DUrwin, KArmingeon, FMüller-Rommel, MWalter, MShugart, MNentwich, SKuhnle, HKeman, H-DKlingemann, BWessels and PFrankThe Politics of the New Europe: Atlantic to Urals (Harlow: Addison Wesley Longman), pp. 241–358.
    Laakso, M and PTaagepera (1979) ‘Effective number of parties: a measure with application to Western Europe’Comparative Political Studies12, pp. 3–27.
    Labour Party (1918) ‘Labour and the new social order: a report on reconstruction, revised in accordance with the resolutions of the Labour Party conference, June 1918’ (London: Labour Party).
    Labour Party (1983) New Hope for Britain (London: Labour Party).
    Labour Party (1989) Meet the Challenge, Make the Change: The Final Report of Labour's Policy Review for the 1990s (London: Labour Party).
    Labour Party (1992) It's Time to Get Britain Working Again (London: Labour Party).
    Labour Party (1997a) Labour into Power: A Framework for Partnership (London: Labour Party).
    Labour Party (1997b) Partnership in Power (London: Labour Party).
    Labour Party (1998) Selecting Labour's European Candidates for 1999 (London: Labour Party).
    Labour Party (1999) Benefits of Labour Party Membership (London: Labour Party).
    Lane, JE and SOErsson (1999) Politics and Society in Western Europe (London: Sage);
    4th edition
    .
    Laver, M (1997) Private Desires, Political Action: An Invitation to the Politics of Rational Choice (London: Sage). http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446217047
    Laver, M (1998) ‘Party policy in Britain 1997: results from an expert survey’Political Studies46, pp. 336–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/post.1998.46.issue-2
    Laver, M and WBHunt (1992) Policy and Party Competition (London: Routledge).
    Laver, M and NSchofield (1998) Multiparty Government: the Politics of Coalition in Europe (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press).
    Laver, M and KShepsle (1999) ‘How political parties emerged from the primeval slime: party cohesion, party discipline and the formation of governments’ in S.Bowler, DMFarrell and RSKatz (eds) Party Discipline and Parliamentary Government (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press), pp. 23–52.
    Laver, M, CRallings and MThrasher (1987) ‘Coalition theory and local government coalition payoffs in Britain’British Journal of Political Science pp. 501–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007123400004890
    Lawson, K and PMerkl (1988) When Parties Fail: Emerging Alternative Organizations (New Jersey: Princeton University Press).
    Leach, R (1991) British Political Ideologies (Hemel Hempstead: Philip Allan).
    Leece, J and H.Berrington (1977) ‘Measurement of backbench attitudes by Guttman scaling of Early Day Motions: a pilot study, Labour–1968–69’British Journal of Political Science7, pp. 529–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007123400001150
    Liberal Party (1928) Britain's Industrial Future: Being the Report of the Liberal Industrial Inquiry (London: Benn).
    Lievesley, D and DWaterton (1985) ‘Measuring individual attitude change’ in RJowell and SWitherspoonBritish Social Attitudes the 1985 Report (Aldershot: Gower), pp. 177–94.
    Lijphart, A (1984) Democracies: Patterns of Majoritarian and Consensus Government in Twenty-One Countries (New Haven and London: Yale University Press).
    Lijphart, A (1999) Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries (New Haven and London: Yale University Press).
    Lindblom, CE (1959) ‘The science of “muddling through’”Public Administration Review19. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/973677
    Lindblom, CE (1965) The Intelligence of Democracy (New York: The Free Press).
    Lindblom, CE (1977) Politics and Markets (New York: Basic Books).
    Linder, W (1994) Swiss Democracy (New York: St. Martin's Press).
    Linton, M (1992) ‘Unblocking the block vote’Fabian Review104/4.
    Linton, M (1994a) Money and Votes (London: Institute for Public Policy Research).
    Linton, M (1994b) ‘The mad hatter's Tory party’The Guardian 14 April, p. 22.
    Lipow, A and PSeyd (1996) ‘The politics of anti-partyism’Parliamentary Affairs, 49, pp. 273–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.pa.a028679
    Lipset, SM and SRokkan (1967) ‘Cleavage structures, party systems and voter alignments: an introduction’ in SMLipset and SRokkan (eds) Party Systems and Voter Alignments: Cross National Perspectives (New York: Free Press), pp. 1–64.
    Lowell, AL (1908) The Government of England, Volume 1 (London: Macmillan).
    Ludlam, S (1996) ‘The spectre haunting Conservatism: Europe and backbench rebellion’ in SLudlam and MJSmith (eds) Contemporary British Conservatism (Basingstoke: Macmillan), pp. 98–120.
    Lynch, P (1998) ‘Devolution in the UK and new territorial politics’. Paper presented to Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, September.
    MacAskill, E (1998) ‘Party membership: Stuff that envelope, say the activists’The Guardian, 23 June, p. 17
    Magleby, DB (1984) Direct Legislation: Voting on Ballot Propositions in the United States (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press).
    Magleby, DB (1994) ‘Direct legislation in the United States’ in DButler and ARanneyReferendums Around the World (Basingstoke: Macmillan), pp. 218–54.
    Magleby, DB and KDPatterson (1998) ‘Consultants and direct democracy’Political Science and Politics31, pp. 160–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/420244
    Maguire, M (1983) ‘Is there still persistence? Electoral change in Western Europe, 1948–1979’ in HDaalder and PMair (eds) Western European Party Systems: Continuity and Change (London: Sage) pp. 67–94.
    Mair, P (1984) ‘Party politics in contemporary Europe: a challenge to party?’West European Politics6, pp. 128–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01402388408424464
    Mair, P (1990) ‘Introduction’ in PMair (ed.) The West European Party System (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 1–22.
    Mair, P (1994) ‘Party organizations: from civil society to state’ in RSKatz and PMair (eds) How Parties Organize: Change and Adaptation in Party Organizations in Western Democracies (London: Sage Publications), pp. 1–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446250570
    Mair, P (1995) ‘Political parties, popular legitimacy and public privilege’West European Politics18, pp. 40–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01402389508425090
    Mair, P (1997) Party System Change: Approaches and Interpretations (Oxford: Clarendon Press).
    Maor, M (1997) Political Parties and Party Systems: Comparative Approaches and the British Experience (London: Routledge).
    Marr, A (1998) ‘Blair's big secret: he's a Liberal’The Observer, 26 July, p. 21.
    Marquand, D (1988) The Unprincipled Society: New Demands and Old Politics (London: Fontana).
    Marshall, G, HNewby, DRose and CVogler (1988) Social Class in Modern Britain (London: Hutchinson).
    Maslow, A (1954) Motivations and Personality (New York City: Harper & Row).
    May, JD (1973) ‘Opinion structure of political parties: the special law of curvilinear disparity’Political Studies21, pp. 135–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/post.1973.21.issue-2
    McAllister, I and RRose (1984) The Nationwide Competition for Votes (London: Frances Pinter).
    McCombs, M and DShaw (1972) ‘The agenda-setting function of the mass media’Public Opinion Quarterly36, pp. 176–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/267990
    McIver, J (1995) ‘The first elections to the new Scottish unitary councils – April 1995’Representation33, pp. 73–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00344899508522962
    McKee, V (1991) ‘Fragmentation on the Labour right, 1975–77’Politics.
    McKee, V (1996) ‘Factions and groups’ in DMacIver (ed.) The Liberal Democrats (Hemel Hempstead: Prentice-Hall), pp. 155–70.
    McKenzie, RT (1955) Political Parties (London: Heinemann).
    McLean, I (1989) Democracy and New Technology (Cambridge: Polity).
    McLean, I, AHeath and BTaylor (1995) ‘Were the 1994 Euro- and local elections in Britain really second-order?’ Paper presented to Annual Conference on Elections, Public Opinion and Parties, London Guildhall University, September.
    McSmith, A (1999) ‘Major vents fury as Hague slams Tory record in office’The Observer, 14 March, p. 2.
    Mellors, C (1989) ‘Non-majority British local authorities in a majority setting’ in CMellors and BPijnenburg (eds) Political Parties and Coalitions in European Local Government (London: Routledge), pp. 68–112.
    Menard, S (1995) Applied Logistic Regression Analysis (London: Sage Publications).
    Mezey, ML (1979) Comparative Legislatures (Durham, NC: Duke University Press).
    Miliband, R (1972) Parliamentary Socialism: A Study in the Politics of Labour (London: Merlin).
    Miller, W, HClarke, MHarrop, Lle Duc and PWhiteley (1990) How Voters Change: The 1987 British Election Campaign in Perspective (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
    Miller, WE and Shanks, JM (1996) The New American Voter (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).
    Miller, WL (1978) ‘Social class and party choice in England: a new analysis’British Journal of Political Science8, pp. 257–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S000712340000137X
    Miller, WL (1983) ‘The denationalisation of British politics: The reemergence of the periphery’West European Politics6, pp. 103–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01402388308424442
    Miller, WL and Mackie, T (1973) ‘The electoral cycle and the assymetry of government and opposition popularity’Political Studies21, pp. 263–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/post.1973.21.issue-3
    Miller, WL, STagg and KBritto (1986) ‘Partisanship and party preference in government and opposition: the mid-term perspective’Electoral Studies5, pp. 31–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0261-3794%2886%2990027-2
    Minkin, L (1980) The Labour Party Conference: A Study in the Politics of Intra-Party Democracy (Manchester: Manchester University Press); first published by Allen Lane in 1978.
    Moran, M (1985) Politics and Society in Britain (Basingstoke: Macmillan).
    Mughan, A (1995) ‘Party leaders and presidentialism in the 1992 election: a postwar perspective’ in DDenver, PNorris, CRallings and DBroughton (eds) British Elections and Parties Yearbook 1993 (Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf), pp. 193–204.
    Mulgan, G (1994a) ‘Party-free politics’New Statesman and Society 15 April.
    Mulgan, G (1994b) Politics in an Anti-Political Age (Cambridge: Polity Press).
    National Union of Conservative and Unionist Associations (1988) Rules and standing orders of the National Union of Conservative and Unionist Associations (London: National Union).
    Neill, Lord (1998) Report of the Committee on Standards in Public Life on the Funding of Political Parties in the UK, vol. 1, Cm 4057–1 (London: The Stationery Office).
    Newton, K (1991) ‘Do people believe everything they read in the papers?’ in ICrewe et al. (eds) British Elections and Parties Yearbook 1991 (Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf).
    Newton, K (1993) ‘Caring and competence: the long, long campaign’ in AKing, ICrewe, DDenver, KNewton, PNorton, DSanders and PSeydBritain at the Polls 1992 (Chatham, NJ: Chatham House), pp. 129–70.
    Norris, P (1990) British By-elections: The Volatile Electorate (Oxford: Clarendon Press).
    Norris, P (1994) ‘Labour party factionalism and extremism’ in AHeath, RJowell and JCurtice (eds) Labour's Last Chance? The 1992 Election and Beyond (Aldershot: Dartmouth), pp. 173–190.
    Norris, P (1995) ‘May's law of curvilinear disparity revisited: leaders, officers, members and voters in British political parties’Party Politics1, pp. 29–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1354068895001001002
    Norris, P (1996) Electoral Change Since 1945 (Oxford: Basil Blackwell).
    Norris, P (1997) ‘Anatomy of a Labour landslide’ in PNorris and NTGavin (eds) Britain Votes 1997 (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 1–24.
    Norris, P (1998) ‘The battle for the campaign agenda’ in AKing, DDenver, IMcLean, PNorris, PNorton, DSanders and PSeydNew Labour Triumphs: Britain at the Polls (Chatham, NJ: Chatham House), pp. 113–44.
    Norris, P (1999) ‘Introduction: the growth of critical citizens?’ in P.Norris (ed.) Critical Citizens: Global Support for Democratic Governance (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 1–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/post.1994.42.issue-3
    Norris, P and JLovenduski (1995) Political Recruitment: Gender, Race and Class in the British Parliament (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
    Norris, P, JCurtice, DSanders, MScammell and HSemetko (1999) On Message: Communicating The Campaign (London: Sage Publications). http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218587
    Norton, P (1975) Dissension in the House of Commons: Intra-Party Dissent in the House of Commons Division Lobbies 1945–74 (London: Macmillan).
    Norton, P (1978) Conservative Dissidents: Dissent Within the Parliamentary Conservative Party 1970–74 (London: Temple-Smith).
    Norton, P (1980) Dissension in the House of Commons 1974–79 (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
    Norton, P (1990) ‘The lady's not for turning, but what about the rest? Margaret Thatcher and the Conservative Party 1979–89’Parliamentary Affairs43, pp. 41–58.
    Norton, P (1994a) ‘The parties in parliament’ in LRobins, HBlackmore and RPyperBritain's Changing Party System (London: Leicester University Press), pp. 57–74.
    Norton, P (1994b) ‘The parliamentary party and party committees’ in ASeldon and SBallThe Conservative Century: The Conservative Party Since 1900 (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 97–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198202387.003.0003
    Norton, P (1996) ‘Philosophy: the principles of Conservatism’ in P.Norton (ed.) The Conservative Party (Hemel Hempstead: Prentice Hall), pp. 68–82.
    Norton, P (1998) ‘The Conservative Party: “in office but not in power”’ in AKing, DDenver, IMcLean, PNorris, PNorton, DSanders and PSeydNew Labour Triumphs: Britain at the Polls (Chatham, NJ: Chatham House), pp. 75–112.
    Norton, P and AAughey (1981) Conservatives and Conservatism (London: Temple Smith).
    Norton, P and PCowley (1996) ‘Are Conservative MPs revolting? Dissension by Government MPs in the British House of Commons 1976–96’Centre for Legislative Studies Research Paper2/96 (Hull: University of Hull).
    Norusis, MJ (1992) SPSS/PC+ Professional Statistics Version 5.0 (Chicago, IL: SPSS Inc).
    Norusis, MJ (1994) SPSS Advanced Statistics Version 6.1 (Chicago, IL: SPSS Inc).
    Office for National Statistics (1999) Annual Abstract of Statistics 135 (London: The Stationery Office).
    O'Leary, B and GEvans (1997) ‘Northern Ireland: La fin de siecle, the twilight of the second protestant ascendancy and Sinn Fein's second coming’ in PNorris and NTGavin (eds) Britain Votes 1997 (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 164–72.
    Olson, M (1965) The Logic of Collection Action (New York: Schocken Books).
    O'Shaughnessy, N (1990) The Phenomenon of Political Marketing (London: Macmillan).
    Ostrogorski, M (1902) Democracy and the Organisation of Political Parties, Volume 1 (London: Macmillan).
    Owen, D (1981) Face the Future (London: Jonathan Cape).
    Panebianco, A (1988) Political Parties: Organisation and Power (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
    Panitch, L (1976) Social Democracy and Industrial Militancy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511898266
    Parry, G and GMoyser (1990) ‘A map of political participation in Britain’Government and Opposition25, pp. 147–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-7053.1990.tb00753.x
    Parry, G, GMoyser, and NDay (1992) Political Participation and Democracy in Britain (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511558726
    Paterson, WE and AThomas (1977) Social Democratic Parties in Western Europe (London: Croom Helm).
    Pattie, C, RJohnston and EFieldhouse (1993) ‘Plus ca change? The changing electoral geography of Great Britain, 1979–92’ in DDenver, PNorris, DBroughton and CRallings (eds) British Elections and Parties Yearbook 1993 (Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf), pp. 85–99.
    Pattie, CJ, RJJohnston and JGAllsopp (1988) A Nation Dividing?: Electoral Map of Great Britain 1979–87 (London: Longman), pp. 41–66.
    Pattie, CJ, RJJohnston and EAFieldhouse (1995) ‘Winning the local vote: the effectiveness of constituency campaign spending in Great Britain, 1983–1992’American Political Science Review89, pp. 969–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2082521
    Pattie, CJ, PWhiteley, RJohnston and PSeyd (1994) ‘Measuring local campaign effects: Labour Party constituency campaigning at the 1987 general election’Political Studies42, pp. 469–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/post.1994.42.issue-3
    Pedersen, M (1979) ‘The dynamics of European party systems: changing patterns of electoral volatility’European Journal of Political Research7, pp. 1–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejpr.1979.7.issue-1
    Pedersen, M (1983) ‘Changing patterns of electoral volatility in European party systems 1948–1977: explorations in explanation’ in HDaalder and P.Mair (eds) Western European Party Systems: Continuity and Change (London: Sage), pp. 29–66.
    Pinto-Duschinsky, M (1980) British Political Finance, 1932–1980 (Washington: American Enterprise Institute).
    Poguntke, T (1994) ‘Parties in a legalistic culture: the case of Germany’ in RSKatz and PMair (eds) How Parties Organize: Change and Adaptation in Party Organizations in Western Democracies (London: Sage), pp. 185–215. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446250570
    Poguntke, T (1996) ‘Anti-party sentiment – conceptual thoughts and empirical evidence: explorations in a minefield’European Journal of Political Research29, pp. 319–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejpr.1996.29.issue-3
    Poguntke, T and SScarrow (1996) ‘Anti-Party Sentiment’. Special issue ofEuropean Journal of Political Research29/3.
    Pulzer, P (1967) Political Representation and Elections in Britain (London: George Allen & Unwin).
    Punnett, RM (1992) Selecting The Party Leader: Britain in Comparative Perspective (Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf).
    Radice, G (1992) Southern Discomfort (London: Fabian Society pamphlet 555).
    Raelin, JA (1991) The Clash of Cultures: Managers Managing Professionals (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press).
    Rallings, C (1987) ‘The influence of election programmes: Britain and Canada, 1945–79’ in IBudge, DRobertson and DHearlIdeology, Strategy and Party Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), pp. 1–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511558771
    Rallings, C and MThrasher (1997a) Local Elections in Britain (London: Routledge). http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203412756
    Rallings, C and MThrasher (1997b) ‘The local elections’ in PNorris and NTGavin (eds) Britain Votes 1997 (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 173–84.
    Rallings, C and MThrasher (1999) New Britain, New Elections: The Media Guide to the New Political Map of Britain (London: Vacher Dod).
    Reif, K, and HSchmitt (1980) ‘Nine second-order national elections’European Journal of Political Research8, pp. 3–45, 146–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejpr.1980.8.issue-1
    Riker, W (1962) The Theory of Political Coalitions (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press).
    Robbins, K (1994) The Eclipse of a Great Power (London: Longman).
    Robertson, D (1984) Class and the British Electorate (Oxford: Basil Blackwell).
    Romesburg, HC (1984) Cluster Analysis for Researchers (Belmont, CA: Lifetime Learning Publications).
    Romzek, BS and JAUtter (1997) ‘Congressional legislative staff: political professionals or clerks?American Journal of Political Science41, pp. 1251–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2960489
    Rose, R (1964) ‘Parties, factions and tendencies in Britain’Political Studies12, pp. 33–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/post.1964.12.issue-1
    Rose, R (1980) Do Parties Make a Difference? (Chatham, NJ: Chatham House);
    2nd edition
    , London, Macmillan, 1984.
    Rose, R (1992) What are the Economic Consequences of PR? (London: Electoral Reform Society).
    Rose, R and IMcAllister (1986) Voters Begin to Choose: From Closed-Class to Open Elections in Britain (London: Sage).
    Rose, R and D.Urwin (1970) ‘Persistence and change in Western party systems since 1945’Political Studies18, pp. 287–319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/post.1970.18.issue-3
    Rosenbaum, M (1997) From Soapbox to Soundbite: Party Political Campaigning in Britain Since 1945 (Basingstoke: Macmillan).
    Saggar, S (1998) Race and British Electoral Politics (London: UCL Press).
    Saggar, S and AHeath (1999) ‘Race: Towards a multicultural electorate?’ in GEvans and PNorris (eds) Critical Elections: British Parties and Voters in Long-Term Perspective (London: Sage), pp. 102–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218518
    Sanders, D (1991) ‘Government popularity and the next general election’Political Quarterly64, pp. 235–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/poqu.1991.62.issue-2
    Sanders, D (1993) ‘Why the Conservatives won – again’ in AKing, ICrewe, DDenver, KNewton, PNorton, DSanders and PSeydBritain at the Polls 1992 (Chatham, NJ: Chatham House), pp. 171–213.
    Sanders, D (1996) ‘Economic performance, management competence and the outcome of the next general election’Political Studies64, pp. 203–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/post.1996.44.issue-2
    Sanders, D (1997) ‘Conservative incompetence, Labour responsibility and the feelgood factor: why the economy failed to save the Conservatives in 1997’. Paper presented to the conference on Assessing the 1997 general election: voters, parties, polls and the media, University of Essex, September.
    Sanders, D (1999) ‘The impact of left-right ideology’ in GEvans and PNorris (eds) Critical Elections: British Parties and Voters in Long-Term Perspective (London: Sage), pp. 181–206. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218518
    Sanders, D and MBrynin (1999) ‘The dynamics of party preference change in Britain, 1991–1996’Political Studies47, pp. 219–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/post.1999.47.issue-2
    Sanders, D and PNorris (1997) ‘Does negative news matter? The effect of television news on party images in the 1997 British general election’. Paper presented to the conference Assessing the 1997 general election: voters, parties, polls and the media, University of Essex, September.
    Sanders, D, DMarsh and HWard (1992) ‘Macroeconomics, the Falkands War and the popularity of the Thatcher government: a contrary view’ in HNorpoth, J-DLafay and MLewis-Beck (eds) Economics and Politics: The Calculus of Support (Ann Arbor: Michigan University Press), pp. 161–84.
    Sanders, D, DMarsh and HWard (1993) ‘The electoral impact of press coverage of the British economy 1979–1987’British Journal of Political Science23, pp. 175–210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007123400009728
    Sarlvik, B and ICrewe (1983) Decade of Dealignment: The Conservative Victory of 1979 and Electoral Trends in the 1970s (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
    Sartori, G (1976) Parties and Party Systems: A Framework for Analysis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
    Scammell, M (1995) Designer Politics: How Elections Are Won (Basingstoke: Macmillan)
    Scammell, M (1999) ‘Political marketing: lessons for political science’Political Studies47, pp. 718–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/post.1999.47.issue-4
    Scarbrough, E (1984) Political Ideology and the Electorate (Oxford: Clarendon).
    Scarbrough, E (1986) ‘The British electorate twenty years on: Reviewing electoral change and election surveys’Essex Papers in Politics and Government (Colchester: Essex University).
    Scarrow, SE (1994) ‘The paradox of enrolment: Assessing the costs and benefits of party memberships’European Journal of Political Research25, pp. 41–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejpr.1994.25.issue-1
    Scarrow, SE (1996) Parties and Their Members (Oxford: Oxford University Press). http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0198279183.001.0001
    Scarrow, SE (1997) ‘Party competition and institutional change: the expansion of direct democracy in Germany’Party Politics3, pp. 451–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1354068897003004001
    Scarrow, SE (forthcoming) ‘Parties without members? Party organization in a changing electoral environment’ in RDalton and MWattenberg (eds) Parties Without Partisans: Political Change in Advanced Industrial Democracies (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
    Schmidt, M (1996) ‘When parties matter: a review of the possibilities and limits of partisan influence on public policy’European Journal of Political Research30, pp. 155–183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejpr.1996.30.issue-2
    Schumpeter, JA (1952) Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (London: George Allen & Unwin);
    5th edition
    (1st edition 1942).
    Scottish Labour Party (1998) Labour's Future, Scotland's Future: Procedural Guidelines for the Scottish Parliament Selections (Glasgow: Scottish Labour Party).
    Scruton, R (1980) The Meaning of Conservatism (London: Macmillan).
    Seenan, G and EMcAskill (1999) ‘Angry Lib Dems finally agree coalition deal’The Guardian, 14 May.
    Seyd, B (1998) ‘Regulating the referendum’Representation35, pp. 191–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00344899808523040
    Seyd, P (1987) The Rise and Fall of the Labour Left (New York City: St. Martin's Press).
    Seyd, P (1998) ‘Tony Blair and New Labour’ in A.King, DDenver, IMcLean, PNorris, PNorton, DSanders and PSeydNew Labour Triumphs: Britain at the Polls (Chatham, NJ: Chatham House), pp. 49–73.
    Seyd, P (1999) ‘New parties/new politics: a case study of the British Labour party’Party Politics5, pp. 383–405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1354068899005003007
    Seyd, P and PWhiteley (1992) Labour's Grassroots: The Politics of Party Membership (Oxford: Clarendon Press).
    Seyd, P, PWhiteley, and JRichardson (1993) ‘Who are the true blues? The Conservative Party members’. Paper to the Annual Conference of the Political Studies Association, April.
    Seymour-Ure, C (1997) ‘Newspapers: editorial opinion in the national press’ in PNorris and NTGavinBritain Votes 1997 (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 78–100.
    Sharpe, LJ and KNewton (1984) Does Politics Matter? The Determinants of Public Policy (Oxford: Clarendon Press).
    Shaw, E (1994) The Labour Party Since 1979: Crisis and Transformation (London: Routledge).
    Simon, HA (1945) Administrative Behaviour (Glencoe, IL: Free Press).
    Sked, A (1987) Britain's Decline (Oxford: Basil Blackwell).
    Smith, G (1979) ‘Western European party systems: on the trail of a typology’West European Politics2, pp. 128–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01402387908424230
    Smith, G (1989) ‘Core persistence: change and the “people's party”’ in PMair and GSmith (eds) Understanding Party System Change in Western Europe (London: Frank Cass), pp. 157–68. (Originally a special issue of West European Politics12.)
    Smith, M (1992) ‘A return to revisionism? The Labour Party's policy review’ in M.Smith and JSpear (eds) The Changing Labour Party (London: Routledge), pp. 13–28.
    Sowemimo, M (1996) ‘The Conservative Party and European Integration 1988–95’Party Politics2, pp. 77–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1354068896002001004
    Steed, M and Curtice, J (1982) ‘Electoral choice and the production of government: the changing operation of the UK electoral system 1955–79’British Journal of Political Science12, pp. 249–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007123400002970
    Stewart, J and GStoker (1989) The Future of Local Government (Basingstoke: Macmillan).
    Stewart, MC and Clarke, HD (1992) ‘The (un)importance of party leaders: leader images and party choice in the 1987 British election’Journal of Politics54, pp. 447–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2132034
    Taggart, P (1996) ‘Rebels, sceptics and factions: Euroscepticism in the British Conservative Party and the Swedish Social Democratic Party’Contemporary Political Studies 1996, pp. 589–97.
    Taylor, A (1987) The Trade Unions and the Labour Party (London: Croom Helm).
    Taylor, M and JCruddas (1999) New Labour, New Links (London: Unions 21).
    Thatcher, M (1988) ‘Britain and Europe’, text of speech to the College d'Europe, Bruges, 20 September.
    Thorpe, A (1997) A History of the British Labour Party (Basingstoke: Macmillan).
    Tomlinson, J (1999) ‘Nothing new under the sun? Understanding New Labour’Brunel Discussion Paper in Government, 99/2 (Uxbridge: Brunel University).
    Topf, R (1994) ‘Party manifestos’ in AnthonyHeath, RJowell and JCurtice with BTaylor (eds) Labour's Last Chance? The 1992 Election and Beyond (Aldershot: Dartmouth), pp. 149–72.
    Viney, J and JOsborne (1995) Modernising Public Appointments (London: Demos).
    von Beyme, K (1985) Political Parties in Western Democracies (Aldershot: Gower).
    Wald, KD (1983) Crosses on the Ballot: Patterns of British Voter Alignment Since 1885 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).
    Walker, A (1986) ‘The future of the British welfare state: privatization or socialization?’ in AEvers et al. (eds) The Changing Face of Welfare (Aldershot: Gower).
    Ware, A (1987) Citizens, Parties and the State (Oxford: Polity Press).
    Ware, A (1996) Political Parties and Party Systems (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
    Watt, N (1998) ‘The fall of Mandelson: knives out for Chancellor's ebullient confidant’The Guardian, 28 December.
    Webb, PD (1992a) Trade Unions and the British Electorate (Aldershot: Dartmouth).
    Webb, PD (1992b) ‘Election campaigning, organisational transformation and the professionalisation of the British Labour Party’European Journal of Political Research21, pp. 267–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejpr.1992.21.issue-3
    Webb, PD (1992c) ‘The United Kingdom’ in RSKatz and PMairParty Organizations: A Data Handbook (London: Sage), pp. 837–70.
    Webb, PD (1994) ‘Party organizational change in Britain: the iron law of centralization?’ in RSKatz and PMair (eds) How Parties Organize: Change and Adaptation in Party Organizations in Western Democracies (London: Sage Publications), pp. 109–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446250570
    Webb, PD (1995) ‘Reforming the party-union link: an assessment’ in DBroughton, DFarrell, DDenver and CRallingsBritish Parties and Elections Yearbook 1994 (London: Frank Cass) pp. 1–14.
    Webb, PD (1996) ‘Apartisanship and anti-party sentiment in the UK: correlates and constraints’European Journal of Political Research29, pp. 365–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejpr.1996.29.issue-3
    Webb, PD (1997) ‘Attitudinal clustering within British parliamentary elites: Patterns of intra-party and cross-party alignment’West European Politics20, pp. 89–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01402389708425219
    Webb, PD and DMFarrell (1999) ‘Party members and ideological change’ in GEvans and PNorris (eds) Critical Elections: British Parties and Voters in Long-term Perspective (London: Sage), pp. 44–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218518
    Webster, P (1993) ‘Citizen Smith ends Labour backing for state control’The Times, 8 February.
    Webster, P (1995) ‘Tory MP defects to Liberal Democrats’The Times, 30 December.
    Weir, S and WHall (1994) Ego Trip (London: Demos).
    Wellhofer, ES (1979) ‘Strategies for Party Organisation and Voter Mobilisation: Britain, Norway and Argentina’Comparative Political Studies, 12.
    White, M (1998) ‘On the edge, ex-Tory admirer of Blair’The Guardian, 20 April, p. 18.
    White, M (1999) ‘Howard refuses to back Lilley public service stand’The Guardian, 26 April, p. 10.
    Whiteley, P and PSeyd (1992) ‘The Labour vote and local activism: The local constituency campaigns’Parliamentary Affairs45, pp. 582–95.
    Whiteley, P and PSeyd (1998) ‘New Labour – new grass-roots party?’. Paper presented to the Annual meeting of the Political Studies Association, Keele, April.
    Whiteley, P, PSeyd and JRichardson (1994) True Blues: The Politics of Conservative Party Membership (Oxford: Clarendon Press).
    Wilensky, HL (1959) Intellectuals in Labor Unions (New York: The Free Press).
    Willetts, D (1992) Modern Conservatism (London: Penguin).
    Wintour, P (1991) ‘Labour in cash crisis over subscriptions’The Guardian, 26 November.
    Wintour, P and AMcSmith (1997) ‘Last post sounds for first past the post system’The Observer2 March, p. 1.
    Wring, D (1996a) ‘From Mass Propaganda to Political Marketing’ in CRallings, DFarrell, DDenver and DBroughton (eds), British Elections and Parties Yearbook 1995 (London: Frank Cass), pp. 105–24.
    Wring, D (1996b) ‘Political Marketing and Party Development in Britain’European Journal of Marketing30, pp. 100–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/03090569610149818
    Young, H (1999) ‘Lilley knocks up the first plank in Tory life raft’The Guardian, 22 April, p. 20.

    • Loading...
Back to Top