The Media City: Media, Architecture and Urban Space
Publication Year: 2008
Significant changes are occurring in the social spaces of modern cities and the social functioning of media. This erudite, forceful book argues that the spaces and rhythms of contemporary cities are radically different to those described in classic theories of urbanism. Changes in the city have been paralleled by the transformation of media which has become increasingly mobile, instantaneous and pervasive. The media are no longer separate from the city. Offering social commentary at the deepest levels of historical and critical reference, The Media City links Myspace to Howard Hughes; trams to cinema; security cameras to exploding buildings; reality TV to Marx; and Lenin on privacy to Kracauer on the mass ornament.
Wide-ranging and richly illustrated, it intersects disciplines and connects phenomena which are too often ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part One: Thresholds of the Media City
Part Two: Public Space: Streets, Lights and Screens
Part Three: Private Space: From Glass Architecture to Big Brother
Theory, Culture & Society[Page ii]
Theory, Culture & Society caters for the resurgence of interest in culture within contemporary social science and the humanities. Building on the heritage of classical social theory the book series examines ways in which this tradition has been reshaped by a new generation of theorists. It also publishes theoretically informed analyses of everyday life, popular culture and new intellectual movements.
EDITOR: Mike Featherstone, Nottingham Trent University
SERIES EDITORIAL BOARD
Roy Boyne, University of Durham
Mike Hepworth, University of Aberdeen
Scott Lash, Goldsmiths College, University of London
Roland Robertson, University of Aberdeen
Bryan S. Turner, National University of Singapore
THE TCS CENTRE
The Theory, Culture & Society book series, the journals Theory, Culture & Society and Body & Society, and related conference, seminar and postgraduate programmes operate from the TCS Centre at Nottingham Trent University. For further details of the TCS Centre's activities please contact:
The TCS Centre
School of Arts and Humanities
Nottingham Trent University
Clifton Lane, Nottingham NG11 8NS, UK
Recent volumes include:
Informalization: Manners and Emotions Since 1890
The Culture of Speed: The Coming of Immediacy
The Dressed Society: Clothing, the Body and Some Meanings of the World
Advertising in Modern and Postmodern Times
© Scott McQuire 2008
First published 2008
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
London EC1Y 1SP
55 City Road
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
33 Pekin Street #02-01
Far East Square
Library of Congress Control Number: 2007927662
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-0-85702-537-1 (pbk)
Typeset by Newgen Imaging Systems (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed and bound in Great Britain by Biddles Ltd, King's Lynn, Norfolk
Printed on paper from sustainable resources
List of Illustrations[Page vi]
- 2.1 Charles Marville (c1865–1868), Rue des Trois-Canettes 42
- 2.2 Charles Marville (1877), Rue de Rivoli 43
- 3.1 Walther Ruttmann (1927), Berlin, Symphony of a Great City (a) Urban commuters (b) Berlin street scene (c) The modern office (d) Window displays 72
- 3.2 Dziga Vertov (1929), Man with the Movie Camera (a) The camera over the city (b) The accelerated office (c) Trams (d) Reflexive cinema – the audience at work 73
- 5.1 Night view at the Pan-American exposition, Buffalo, New York, 1901 118
- 5.2 Luna park at night, 1904 119
- 6.1 Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, ‘Vectorial Elevation, Relational Architecture 4’, 1999–2004 151
- 6.2 Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, Interface from ‘Vectorial Elevation, Relational Architecture 4’, 1999–2004 152
- 6.3 Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, ‘Body Movies, Relational Architecture 6’, 2001–06 154
Social life in the 21st century is increasingly life lived in media cities. This statement suggests two things simultaneously. First, that the spaces and rhythms of contemporary cities are radically different to those described in classic theories of urbanism; and second, as much as the city has changed, so have media. The broad argument I unfold in this book is that the convergence of media which is increasingly mobile, instantaneous and pervasive with urban space has become a constitutive frame for a distinctive mode of social experience. Rather than treating media as something separate from the city – the medium which ‘represents’ urban phenomena by turning it into an image – I argue that the spatial experience of modern social life emerges through a complex process of co-constitution between architectural structures and urban territories, social practices and media feedback. The contemporary city is a media-architecture complex resulting from the proliferation of spatialized media platforms and the production of hybrid spatial ensembles. While this process has been underway at least since the development of technological images in the context of urban ‘modernization’ in the mid-19th century, its full implications are only coming to the fore with the extension of digital networks. In this respect, the term media city is designed to foreground the role of media technologies in the dynamic production of contemporary urban space, in Lefebvre's (1991) sense of binding affect and cognition to space.
While terms such as ‘informational city’ or ‘digital city’ are more established, media city is my strategic choice for three related reasons. First, I think it is vital to recognize a longer and more diverse history of the mediated production of urban space than a tight concentration on contemporary ICTs enables. In other words, the ‘media city’ has been a long time in the making, and has moved through a number of different iterations in the process. Part of my argument is that distinct instantiations of modern urban space have been articulated with specific media platforms, beginning with photography in the mid-19th century, shifting to cinema in the early 20th century, and more recently to electronic and digital media. While this is by no means a linear succession in which one format simply replaces another, these broad thresholds are nevertheless useful in articulating key transformations affecting the social production of urban space. Second, my interest is more the transformation of spatial experience, rather than the economic forces shaping urbanism through corporate organization and workforce composition on which writers such as Castells, Harvey and Sassen have concentrated. For this reason, I find it more useful to think of ‘media’ as an environment in McLuhan's sense, but also to think of the city as a ‘medium’ in Kittler's (1996) sense. My particular concern here is the social relations of space and time generated in the distinctive nexus of [Page viii]utechnology, architecture and emergent social relationships which characterizes the modern city. Third, I want to emphasize the increasing convergence of computing and telecommunications with older media such as photography, cinema and television. This merging, which is uneven rather than monolithic, has transformed the sites and social functions of media. In the process, it has catalyzed new means of producing social space and created new forms of social agency, and these potentials are fast becoming integral dimensions of 21st-century cities.
The book is structured around three major parts supplemented by an introduction. The introduction offers some conceptual markers for thinking about the transformation of social space in contemporary cities. The remaining chapters attempt not so much to ‘apply’ these approaches as to insinuate their logic into different historical situations. The dominant theme of Part 1 is the link between ‘big city life’ and new media at specific historical thresholds; Part 2 explores the transformation of public space, while Part 3 concerns the reconstruction of private space. Clearly these are overlapping rather than mutually distinctive orientations. While each chapter has its own trajectory and coherence, it is my hope that they establish a collective resonance capable of revealing different facets of the complex social life of modern and contemporary cities. While this book has a substantial historical focus, it is worth noting that its genesis was the spatio-temporal impact of digital media in the present. In my endeavour to theorize this condition I have been guided by a number of writers, including Georg Simmel, Siegfried Kracauer, Henri Lefebvre, Paul Virilio and Scott Lash. But the pivotal figure in this story is Walter Benjamin. Benjamin's pioneering approach to the relation between new media and big-city life developed in the 1920s and 1930s remains instructive: in particular his attention to the ambivalent political currents of what he calls phenomena ‘at the crossroads’.
In the 1980s and into the 1990s the proliferation of digital media gave rise to a pervasive ‘cyber’ rhetoric characterized by sweeping forecasts that time and space would ‘disappear’. In Chapter 1, I contextualize this outbreak of what I call the rhetoric of the ‘annihilation of space and time’ as a recurrent reaction to the roll-out of new media technologies. However, while I want to move beyond idealistic responses to new media, I don't want to move so far beyond them that emergent phenomena generated by interactions between media and urbanism disappear into ‘the taken-for-granted’. Rather, following Benjamin's concern for phenomena ‘at the crossroads’, each chapter in the book is organized around a particular threshold in the nexus between media technology and urban form; a liminal period in which the social relations for inhabiting that space-time are not yet fully in place, but are instead subject to slippage, contradiction and contestation. My case studies include the photographing of Haussmann's ‘modernized’ Paris beginning in the 1850s (Chapter 2) and the electric lighting of urban space beginning in the 1880s (Chapter 5); the modernist glass house (Chapter 7) and the city-symphony film of the 1920s [Page ix](Chapter 3); and finally the transformative effect of computers and digital media on the city (Chapter 4), public space (Chapter 6) and the private dwelling (Chapter 8) in the present. The timing of these different snapshots was chosen partly to register key socio-economic transformations across the period; namely the initial emergence of mass commodity production, the rise of the Fordist-Taylorist logic of industrial production, and the transition to a post-industrial, global information society. But assembling these different moments is primarily intended to index the emergence of the media-architecture complex: what I am calling the media city. It is also designed to sketch out the ambivalence of this new formation, stretched between utopian aspirations and mundane, if not malignant, actualities.
Attention to ambivalence also structures the conceptual framework I develop through these case studies. In particular, ambivalence informs the concept of ‘relational space’ which I argue is the characteristic frame for the spatial experience of contemporary urban life. Relational space names the ambivalent spatial configuration which emerges as the taken-for-granted nature of social space is withdrawn in favour of the active constitution of heterogeneous spatial connections linking the intimate to the global. Relational space is the experience of subjectivity remade through the expanded demand on individuals to make life choices in the apparent absence of traditional social collectivities. The concept of relational space situates the double role that media technologies have played in the reconstruction of the city as modernity's uncanny home. A ‘crisis’ in urban space has been announced regularly since the rapid expansion of industrial cities in the second half of the 19th century. Media have been an integral part of modern urbanism, seized as a ‘solution’ to urban crisis even as they actively undermine traditional regimes of space-time. Changes in urban form that have diminished the coherence of traditional means of urban representation have also levied increased demands on technological images to ‘map’ the city, and thereby make it available to perception, cognition and action. In the mid-19th century, photography was seized as a solution to the emerging crisis of urban representation. In Chapter 2, I describe the way serial photography offered a novel means of responding to the upheavals of modern urbanism, and registering the growing contingency of modern social relationships exemplified by fleeting public encounters on the street. By the 1920s such hopes were increasingly projected onto cinema, most strikingly manifested by the flowering of the ‘city-symphony’ film. In Chapter 3, I explore the manner in which the city-symphony exemplified the growing influence of industrial production on aesthetic and cultural sensibilities. More recently, hopes for ‘mapping’ urban space have been progressively transferred to high-speed data processing and computer imaging. Chapter 4 analyses the way in which such investment repeats the paradoxical reliance on media as key spatio-temporal frameworks capable of ‘grounding’ contemporary social relations in a radically ungrounded milieu. Flows of digital data are integral to the transformation of [Page x]contemporary urban space, but are also critical tools for apprehending the complex patterns and dynamic forces of contemporary urban life.
The second and third sections of the book dealing with public space and private space respectively are each organized around chapters contrasting key modern and contemporary phenomena. Chapter 5 concerns the impact of electric lighting in producing a fluid and ephemeral urban space, while Chapter 6 explores current trajectories towards ‘performative’ space underpinned by public screens, mobile media and interactive networks. Chapter 7 delves into the revolutionary political ambitions invested in modernist glass construction, while the final chapter explores the contradictory psycho-social forces mobilized by the transposition of the modern desire for ‘openness’ onto the contemporary digitally networked home.
My ambition in this book is to suggest new ways of discerning the ‘logic’ expressed by the transformation of the industrial city of factory production into the media city of pervasive communication flows. The imbrication of media and urban space does not produce a one-way street of negative effects, but a complex series of possibilities and potentials whose outcomes are not yet wholly given. If the ambivalence of relational space is partly the result of the erosion of the certitudes of an earlier era of progress, its positive face is the increased demand to discriminate between differences, and to understand phenomena in terms of relations between different positions or states which are not mutually exclusive. Ambivalence in this sense is not indecision, lack of certainty or the weakening of moral fibre, but recognition that the complexity of intricately related, cascading consequences render all choices problematic in some way or to some degree. Ambivalence is the predicament of contemporary social life in the media city.
This is the critical paradox of the media city which informs my starting point in this book: as much as developments in telematics have been constitutive of the ‘crisis’ of urban space, they are also an essential part of any meaningful response to that crisis. In many respects, the media city of the digital age is currently ‘at the crossroads’. The image of digital ‘flow’ as the harbinger of new freedom is everywhere contradicted by the pervasive use of digital technologies for enhanced forms of instrumental mastery over space. Yet, alongside the trajectory epitomized by the extension of panopticism in the name of state surveillance and corporate practice, other possibilities remain. My aim in this book is to provide a critical political analysis of the new social spaces created by the imbrication of media platforms and urban terrains. This might help to identify some of the fault lines which would enable the media city to be reconstructed on more inclusive terms and thereby realize the promises so often made in its name.
Some books get written faster than others. This has been a slow book about a process of acceleration. I first began to develop the idea around 1998, although substantial work didn't begin until 2004. Along the way I have been sidetracked by a number of things – other research projects, other books, a couple of new jobs, the birth of two children, the death of my much-loved father. This extended genesis has allowed me to observe the intensification of the process I began thinking about. It also means I owe thanks to many people who have helped with this project en route. In particular, I would like to acknowledge Peter Lyssiotis and Don Miller with whom I began watching city films so many years ago. I would also like to thank students and staff at various seminars and conferences where parts of this work has been rehearsed, including Victoria Lynn for the ‘Space Odysseys’ symposium at Art Gallery of New South Wales and ‘Deep Space’ at the Australian Centre for the Moving Image; Colin Langridge at the Hobart Art School, University of Tasmania; Suzie Attiwill and Pia Ednie-Brown at RMIT University; John Hutnyk at Goldsmiths College; James Donald at the University of New South Wales; Mirjam Struppek and Geert Lovink for the ‘Urban Screens’ conference in Amsterdam. Thanks also to Rafael Lozano-Hemmer, David Shephard and Eva Riehl for permission to reproduce images. Extended passages are reprinted by permission of the publisher from WALTER BENJAMIN: SELECTED WRITINGS, VOLUME 4, 1938–40, edited by Howard Eiland and Michael W. Jennings, translated by Edmund Jephcott and Others, Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Copyright © 2003 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. I owe a significant debt to my colleagues and postgraduate students from the University of Melbourne. I am especially grateful to Meredith Martin for her unstinting, good-humoured and innovative research assistance, and to Nikos Papastergiadis with whom I have shared so many things. Thanks also to Mike Featherstone for his interest in this project from the beginning. Some parts of this research has appeared in earlier versions in the Space Odysseys exhibition catalogue, Cultural Studies Review, Scan, Space and Culture, and First Monday. Funding from the Australian Research Council has assisted this project, as has study leave provided by the University of Melbourne. On a personal level, my deep gratitude to the Brunswick mothers, especially Bec, Mary-Anne and Maja who pitched in when desperately needed. Special thanks to my mother for her extraordinarily generous practical support in caring for Lachie and Alistair. My biggest hugs go to Lachie and Alistair who have immeasurably enriched this journey. And finally, to my darling Sarah, who has lived with this project through all its stages – this book is dedicated to you.[Page xii]
Bibliography[Page 207]2002) Interviewed for The Media Report, ABC Radio National, May 23. http://www.abc.net.au/rn/mediareport/stories/2002/562394.htm# (accessed 20 December 2002).(1973) Negative Dialectics (trans. E. B.Ashton), New York, The Seabury Press.(1981–82) ‘Transparencies on Film’ (trans. T. Y.Levin), New German Critique, 24/25: 199–205.(1973) Dialectic of Enlightenment (trans. J.Cumming), London, Allen Lane.and (1970) On Painting (trans. J. R.Spencer), New Haven, CT, Yale University Press (first published 1435–36).(1986) Designing Dreams: Modern Architecture in the Movies. New York: Harper & Row in collaboration with the Museum of Modern Art.(Angel, C. (ed.) (1994) The Films of Andy Warhol: Part II, New York, Whitney Museum of American Art.1996) Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions Of Globalization, Minneapolis, MN, University of Minnesota Press.(Apollonio, U. (ed.) (1973) Futurist Manifestos (trans. R.Brain et al.), London, Thames and Hudson.1994) Paris Peasant (trans. S.Watson), Boston, MA, Exact Change (first published 1926).(1958) The Human Condition, Chicago, IL, University of Chicago Press.(1962) Centuries of Childhood: A Social History of Family Life (trans. R.Baldick), New York, Alfred A. Knopf.(1995) ‘The Architecture of Cyberception’ in M.Toy (ed.), Architects in Cyberspace, London, Academy Editions.(1993) Batteries of Life: On the History of Things and Their Perception in Modernity (trans. D.Reneau), Berkeley, CA, University of California Press.(1955) Tomorrow Revealed, London, Neville Spearman.(1960) Theory and Design in the First Machine Age, London, Architectural Press.(1986) ‘CIAM’ in V.Lampugnani (ed.), The Thames & Hudson Encyclopaedia of Architecture, London, Thames and Hudson.(2002) Projected Cities: Cinema and Urban Space, London, Reaktion.(1984) The Tremulous Private Body: Essays on Subjection, London and New York, Methuen.(1964) The Painter of Modern life and Other Essays (trans. J.Mayne), London, Phaidon (first published 1863).(1970) Paris Spleen (trans. L.Varèse), New York, New Directions (first published 1869).(1988) America (trans. C.Turner), London and New York, Verso.(2000) Liquid Modernity, Cambridge, Polity Press.([Page 208]1999) The Languages of Edison's Light, Cambridge, MA and London, The MIT Press.(2006) Posting 15 August to iDC list. http://distributedcreativity.org/ thread ‘Interactive City: irrelevant mobile entertainment?’ (accessed 19 September 2006).(1992) Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity, London, Sage.(1994) ‘The reinvention of politics: towards a theory of reflexive modernization’ in U.Beck, A.Giddens and S.Lash, Reflexive Modernization (1994), Cambridge, Polity and London, Blackwell.(2003) Individualization: Institutionalized Individualism and Its Social and Political Consequences, London, Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218693and (Bell, D. (ed.) (1968) Toward the Year 2000: Work in Progress, Boston, MA, Houghton Mifflin Co.Benedikt, M. (ed.) (1991) Cyberspace: First steps. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.1994) The Correspondence of Walter Benjamin 1910–1940 (ed. G.Scholem and T. W.Adorno; trans. M.R. and E. M.Jacobson), Chicago, IL and London, University of Chicago Press.(1996) Selected Writings, Vol. 1, 1913–26 (eds, M.Bullock and M. W.Jennings; trans. R.Livingstone and others), Cambridge, MA and London, Belknap Press.(1999a) Selected Writings, Vol. 2, 1927–34 (eds, H.Eiland and G.Smith; trans. R.Livingstone and others), Cambridge, MA and London, Belknap Press.(1999b) The Arcades Project (trans. H.Eiland and K.McLaughlin), Cambridge, MA, Belknap Press.(2002) Selected Writings, Vol. 3, 1935–38 (eds, H.Eiland and M. W.Jennings; trans. E.Jephcott and others), Cambridge, MA and London, Belknap Press.(2003) Selected Writings, Vol. 4, 1938–40 (eds, H.Eiland and M. W.Jennings; trans. E.Jephcott and others), Cambridge, MA and London, Belknap Press.(1969) The Moment of Cubism and Other Essays, London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson.(1982) All that is Solid Melts into Air: The Experience of Modernity, New York, Simon and Schuster.(1981) The Gaze of Orpheus (ed. P. A.Sitney; trans. L.Davis), Barrytown, NY: Station Hill.(1989) ‘Patterns of fact: photography and the transformation of the early industrial city’ in E.Blau and E.Kaufman (eds), Architecture and Its Image: Four Centuries of Architectural Representation, Montréal, Canadian Centre for Architecture.(Blau, E. and Troy, N. (eds) (1997) Architecture and Cubism, Montréal, Canadian Centre for Architecture and Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.1973) ‘The plastic foundations of futurist sculpture and painting’ in U.Apollonio (ed.), Futurist Manifestos (trans. R.Brain et al.), London, Thames and Hudson.(1967) Fritz Lang in America, New York, Praeger.(1997) CyberCities: Visual Perception in the Age of Electronic Communication, New York, Princeton Architectural Press.(1967) ‘Soft architecture: the design of intelligent environments’, Landscape, 17:1(Autumn): 8–12.([Page 209]2000) ‘Public spheres and network interfaces’ in R.Lozano-Hemmer (ed.), Vectorial Elevation: Relational Architecture No. 4, Mexico City, Conaculta Press, pp. 165–82.(1995) ‘The artificial infinite’ in L.Cooke and P.Wollen (eds), Visual Display: Culture Beyond Appearances, Seattle, WA, Bay Press.(2005) ‘Eisenstein, the glass house and the spherical book. From the comedy of the eye to a drama of enlightenment’, Rouge 7, http://www.rouge.com.au/7/eisenstein.html (accessed 21 March 2006).(2002) ‘Jenni's room: exhibitionism and solitude’ in T. Y.Levin, U.Frohne and P.Weibel (eds), Ctrl Space: Rhetorics of Surveillance from Bentham to Big Brother, Karlsruhe, ZKM Centre for Art and Media and Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.(1990) ‘Some liminal aspects of the technology trade’, Mediamatic, 5-(3).(1984) Crowds and Power (trans, C.Stewart), London, Peregrine, (first published 1960).(1989) Communication as Culture: Essays on Media and Society, Boston, MA: Unwin Hyman.(1969) ‘What's a Wharhal?’ Playboy, September.(1996) The Rise of the Network Society, Cambridge, MA, Blackwell Publishers.(1969) The New World Architecture, New York, AMS Press (first published 1930).(1969) The Modern City: Planning in the Nineteenth Century (trans. M.Hugo and G. R.Collins), New York, George Braziller.(1999) The Painting of Modern Life, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press (first published 1984).(1994) Publicity and Privacy: Modern Architecture as Mass Media, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.(1997) ‘Where are we?’ in E.Blau and N.Troy (eds), Architecture and Cubism, Montréal, Canadian Centre for Architecture and Cambridge, MA, The MIT Press.(1980) ‘Machines of the visible’ in S.Heath and T.De Lauretis (eds), The Cinematic Apparatus, London, Macmillan, pp. 121–43.(1985) Sherlock Holmes. Selected Stories, New York, Avenel Books.(1970) Programs and Manifestoes on Twentieth Century Architecture, London, Lund Humphries.(Constant (1960) ‘Unitary urbanism’ reprinted in M.Wigley (1998) Constant's New Babylon: The Hyper-Architecture of Desire, Rotterdam, Witte de With, Center for Contemporary Art.Constant (1973) ‘The principle of disorientation’ reprinted in M.Wigley (1998) Constant's New Babylon: The Hyper-Architecture of Desire, Rotterdam, Witte de With, Center for Contemporary Art.Cook, P. (ed.) (1999) Archigram, New York, Princeton Architectural Press (first published 1972).Copjec, J. (ed.) (1993) Shades of Noir, London, Verso.Corbusier (1946) Towards a New Architecture (trans. F.Etchells), London, Architectural Press (first published 1923).Corbusier (1964) The Radiant City: Elements of a Doctrine of Urbanism to be Used as the Basis of Our Machine-Age Civilization (trans P.Knight, E.Levieux and D.Coltman), New York, The Orion Press (first published 1935).Corbusier (1971) The City of Tomorrow (trans. F.Etchells), London, The Architectural Press (translation of Urbanisme, first published 1924).[Page 210]Corbusier (1991) Precisions (trans. E. S.Aujame), Cambridge, MA and London, MIT Press (first published 1930).1999) ‘Untitled: (to Jan and Ron Greenberg)’ in Dan Flavin. The Architecture of Light, New York, Guggenheim Museum; Berlin; Deutsche Guggenheim.(1999) Suspensions of Perception: Attention, Spectacle, and Modern Culture, Cambridge, MA and London, MIT.(Crompton, D. (ed.) (1998) Concerning Archigram …, London, Archigram Archives.1966) ‘The underground overflows’, New York Times, December 11:3.(1994) Agrippa, or, the apocalyptic book’ in M.Dery (ed.), Flame Wars: The Discourse of Cyberculture, Durham, NC, Duke University Press.(1993) ‘Electrons or photons: read this before you bet on the outer limits of computing’, Wired (Premier Issue).(1990) City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles, London and New York, Verso.(1992) ‘Fortress Los Angeles: the militarization of urban space’ in M.Sorkin (ed.), Variations on a Theme Park. New York: Hill and Wang, pp. 154–80.(1998), Ecology of Fear: Los Angeles and the Imagination of Disaster, New York, Metropolitan Books.(1992) Media Events: The Live Broadcasting of History, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.and (1957) ‘Report on the construction of situations and on the international situationist tendency's conditions of organization and action’, reprinted in K.Knabb (ed. and trans.) (1981) Situationist International Anthology, Berkeley, CA, Bureau of Public Secrets.(1994) Society of the Spectacle, New York, Zone Books.(1956) ‘Methods of detournement’, reprinted in K.Knabb (ed. and trans.) (1981) Situationist International Anthology, Berkeley, CA, Bureau of Public Secrets.and (1992) ‘Postscript on the societies of control’, October 59 (Winter): 3–7.(1997) Architecture where the desire may live’ in N.Leach (ed.), Rethinking Architecture: A Reader in Cultural Theory, New York, Routledge.(2002) Echographies of Television: Filmed Interviews (trans. J.Bajorek), Cambridge, Polity Press.(2004) ‘Public spheres’ in Media Arts Nethttp://www.medienkunstnetz.de/www.medienkunstnetz.de/themes/public_sphere_s/public_sphee_s/13/ (accessed 30 August 2005).(1997) ‘From Berlin to Bunker Hill: urban space, late modernity and film noir in F. Lang and J. Losey, M’, Wide Angle19(4): 62–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/wan.1997.0018(2004) Film Noir and the Spaces of Modernity, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.(1999) Imagining the Modern City, London, Athlone.(1991) Notes from the Underground and The Grand Inquisitor (trans. Ralph E.Matlaw), New York: Meridian (first published 1864).(2003) ‘Relational architecture: the work of Rafael Lozano-Hemmer’ in T.Goryucheva and E.Kluitenberg (eds), Debates and Credits: Media/Art /Public Domain, Amsterdam, De Balie Centre for Culture and Politics, pp. 69–72.(1994) A magna carta for the knowledge age’, New Perspectives Quarterly, 11 (Fall): 26–37., , and ([Page 211]1976) The Life of the Automobile (trans. J.Neugroschel), New York, Urizen.(1920) Relativity: The Special and General Theory. A Popular Exposition (trans. R.Lawson), London, Methuen and Co.(1949) Film Form: Essays in Film Theory (trans. and ed. JayLeyda), London, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.(1963) The Film Sense (trans. J.Leyda), London, Faber and Faber.(1967) The Technological Society (trans. J.Wilkinson), Vintage, New York. [Translation of La Technique: L'enjeu du siecle, 1954].(Elssaesser, T. (ed.) (1990) Early Cinema: Space, Frame, Narrative, London, British Film Institute.2003) ‘Weimar cinema, mobile selves and anxious males: Kracauer and Eisner revisited’ in D.Scheunemann (ed.), Expressionist Film: New Perspectives, Rochester and Suffolk, Camden House, pp. 33–71.(1970) The Housing Question, Progress, Moscow (originally published 1872–73).(1971) The Condition of the Working Class in England (trans. and ed. W. O.Henderson and W. H.Chaloner), Oxford, Basil Blackwell (originally published 1844).(Fear, B. (ed.) (2000) Architecture Film, II, London, Wiley-Academy, 2000.1992) ‘Postmodernism and the aestheticization of everyday life’ in Lash and Friedman (eds), Modernity and Identity, Oxford, Blackwell.(Featherstone, M. and Burrows, R. (eds) (1995) Cyberspace/Cyberbodies/Cyberpunk: Cultures of Technological Embodiment, London, Sage, 1995. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/97814462501981995) ‘Globalization, modernity and the spatialization of social theory’ in M.Featherstone, S.Lash and R.Robertson (eds), Global Modernities. London and Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446250563and (1994) ‘Civil society as a polyarchic form: the city’ in P.Kasinitz (ed.), Metropolis: Center and Symbol of Our Times, London, Macmillan.(1986) The Metropolis of Tomorrow, New York, Princeton Architectural Press and the Avery Library, Columbia University (first published 1929).(2003) The Glass State: The Technology of The Spectacle, 1981–1998, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.(1994) ‘Megalopolis unbound’ in P.Kasinitz (ed.), Metropolis: Center and Symbol of our Times, Macmillan, London.(1980) Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972–1977 (trans. and ed. C.Gordon), Brighton, Sussex, Harvester Press.(1984) ‘What is Enlightenment?’ in P.Rabinow (ed.), Foucault Reader, New York, Pantheon Books.(1983) Circles of Confusion, New York, Visual Studies Workshop Press.(1982) Modern Architecture: A Critical History, Thames and Hudson, London.(1955/1919) ‘The “uncanny”’ in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud (trans. under the general editorship of J.Strachey), vol. XVII, London, The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psychoanalysis, pp. 219–52.(1984) ‘Beyond the pleasure principle’ in On Metapsychology, vol. 11, The Pelican Freud Library (trans. as per SE VOL XVIII 1955), Harmondsworth, Penguin, pp. 269–338 (first published 1921).([Page 212]1999) Structures Serving the Unpredictable, Rotterdam, NAI Publishers.(1985) Fragments of Modernity: Theories of Modernity in the Work of Simmel, Kracauer and Benjamin, Cambridge and Oxford, Polity Press and Basil Blackwell.(2002) ‘Media narcissism, theatricality and the internalised observer’ in T. Y.Levin, U.Frohne and P.Weibel (eds), Ctrl Space: Rhetorics Of Surveillance from Bentham to Big Brother, Karlsruhe, ZKM Centre for Art and Media; Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.(1996) ‘The next thing now, designing the 21st century museum’ in Museum News. 75 (Jan/Feb): 34–45.(1968) L.J.M Daguerre, New York, Dover.and (1995) Neuromancer, London, HarperCollins (first published 1983).(1988) Mona Lisa Overdrive, London, Victor Gollanz.(1991) Modernity and Self-identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age, Cambridge, Polity Press.(1994) ‘Living in a post-traditional society’ in U.Beck, A.Giddens and S.Lash, Reflexive modernization, Cambridge and London, Polity and Blackwell.(1967) Space, Time and Architecture: The Growth of a New Tradition, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.(1992) ‘Visions of the grail’ in D. J.Kevles and L.Hood (eds), The Code of Codes, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, pp. 83–97.(1990) ‘It ain't where you're from, it's where you're at…. The dialectics of diasporic identification’, Third Text, 13 (Winter)): 3–16.(1998) ‘Public sphere or public sphericules?’ in T.Liebes and J.Curran (eds), Media Ritual and Identity, London, Routledge.(1999) The Art of Taking a Walk: Flânerie, Literature Film in Weimar Culture, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press.(1969) The presentation of self in everyday life, London, Allen Lane.(1962) Pages from the Goncourt Journal (ed. and trans. RobertBaldick), London, Oxford University Press.(1979) in B.Buchloh (ed.), Video, Architecture, Television: Writings on Video and Video Works, 1970–1978/Dan Graham, Halifax, NS, and New York, Press of the Nova Scotia College of Art & Design and New York University Press.(1997) Architecture. London: Architecture Association.(Graham, S. (ed.) (2004) The Cybercities Reader, London, Routledge.2001) Splintering Urbanism: Networked Infrastructures, Technological Mobilities and the Urban Condition, London, Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203452202and (1999) ‘The ice man’ in E.Holding, Mark Fisher – Staged Architecture, London, Wiley-Academy.(1984) Molecular Revolution (trans. R.Sheed), Penguin, Harmondsworth.(1964) The Spectrum of Social Time, Dordrecht.(1966) Constant (trans. M.Schuchart), Amsterdam, Meulenhoff.(1989) Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society (trans. T.Burger with the assistance of F.Lawrence), Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.(1990) The Taming of Chance, Cambridge and New York, Cambridge University Press.(1981) ‘Charles Marville's old Paris’ in J.Chambord (ed.), Charles Marville: Photographs of Paris 1852–1878, New York, French Institute and Alliance Français.([Page 213]1991) Babel and Babylon: Spectatorship in American Silent Film, Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press.(1993) ‘ “With skin and hair”: Kracauer's theory of film, Marseille 1940’, Critical Inquiry19 (Spring): 437–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/448682(Metropolis, London, The Reader's Library.(no date)1990) The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change, Oxford and Cambridge, MA, Blackwell.(2003) Paris, Capital of Modernity, New York and London, Routledge.(1999) How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics, Chicago, IL, University of Chicago Press.(1977) ‘The age of the world picture’ in The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays (trans.W.Lovitt), New York, Harper and Row (originally delivered 1938).(1999) Pandemonium: The Rise of Predatory Locales in the Postwar World, New York and Houston, TX, Princeton Architectural Press and Rice University School of Architecture.(2000) ‘Re-positioning vectorial elevation: media archaeological considerations’ in R.Lozano-Hemmer (ed.), Vectorial Elevation: Relational Architecture No. 4, Mexico, City, Conaculta Press.(1946) Here is the Television: Your Window to the World, New York, Hastings House.(1961) The Death and Life of Great American Cities, New York, Random House.(1992) ‘Scopic regimes of modernity’ in Lash and Friedman (eds), Modernity and Identity, Oxford, Blackwell.(2002) ‘Nothing special: Andy Warhol and the rise of surveillance’ in T. Y.Levin, U.Frohne and P.Weibel (eds) Ctrl Space: Rhetorics of Surveillance from Bentham to Big Brother, Karlsruhe and Cambridge, MA, ZKM Centre for Art and Media and MIT Press.(Kasinitz, P. (ed.) (1994) Metropolis: Center and Symbol of Our Times, Macmillan, London.1979) An interview with Mikhail Kaufman’, October, 11: 54–76.(1975) A Homemade World: The America Modernist Writers, New York, Morrow.(1996) ‘The city is a medium’, New Literary History, 27(4): 717–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/nlh.1996.0051(Knabb, K. (ed. and trans.) (1981) Situationist International Anthology, Berkeley, CA, Bureau of Public Secrets.1994) Delirious New York: A Retroactive Manifesto for Manhattan, Rotterdam, 010 Publishers.(1996) Rem Koolhaas: Conversations with Students (ed. S.Kwinter), Houston, TX and New York, Rice University School of Architecture and Princeton Architectural Press.(2000) ‘Junk space’, OMA@work.a+u (special edition of Architecture and Urbanism, May), Tokyo, a+u Publishing.(1985) Constructivist Architecture in the USSR, Academy, London, St Martin's Press, New York.(1960) Theory of Film: The Redemption of Physical Reality, London, Oxford University Press.(1974) From Caligari to Hitler: A Psychological History of the German Film, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press.([Page 214]1994) ‘Girls and crisis’ in A.Kaes, M.Jay and E.Dimendberg, The Weimar Republic Sourcebook, Berkeley, CA, University of California Press (first published in 1931).(1995) The Mass Ornament (trans. & ed. T. Y.Levin), Cambridge, Mass. & London, England, Harvard University Press.(2002) Jacques Offenbach and the Paris of his Time (trans. G.David and E.Mosbacher), Zone Books, New York (first published 1937).(1997) ‘Something more than night: tales of the noir city’ in Clarke, D.B. (ed.) The Cinematic City, Routledge, London.(1974) Kuleshov on Film: Writings of Lev Kuleshov (trans. R.Levaco), Berkeley, CA, University of California Press.(1986) ‘La Città Nuova: modernity and continuity’, Zone I/II, 80–127.(2001) Architectures of Time, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.(1977) The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psycho-analysis (trans. A.Sheridan and ed. A.Miller), London, Hogarth Press.(1988) The Seminar of Jacques Lacan Book 1 (ed. J. A.Miller and trans. J.Forrester) Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.(Lamster, M. (ed.) (2000) Architecture and film, New York, Princeton Architectural Press.1994) ‘Reflexivity and its doubles: structure, aesthetics, community’ in U.Beck, A.Giddens and S.Lash, Reflexive Modernization: Politics, Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order, Oxford, Polity, pp. 110–73.(1999) Another Modernity, A Different Rationality, Oxford, Blackwell.(2002a) Critique of Information, London, Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446217283(2002b) ‘Informational totemism’ in J.Brouwer and A.Mulder (eds), TransUrbanism, Rotterdam, V2: 49–64.(2003) ‘Foreword’ in U.Beck and E.Beck-Gernsheim, Individualization: Institutionalized Individualism and its Social and Political Consequences, London, Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218693(2005) ‘From realpolitik to dingpolitik or how to make things public’ in B.Latour and P.Weibel (eds), Making Things Public: Atmospheres of Democracy, Cambridge, MA and Karlsruhe, MIT Press and ZKM Centre for Art and Media, pp. 14–41.(1991) The Production of Space (trans. DonaldNicholson-Smith), Oxford and Cambridge, MA, Blackwell.(1996) Writings on Cities (trans and ed. E.Kofman and E.Lebas), London and Cambridge, MA, Blackwell.(1960) Collected Works, vol. 31, Moscow, Foreign Languages Publishing House.(1964) ‘The Taylor system: man's enslavement by the machine’ in Collected Works, vol. 20 ((4th English Edition, trans. B.Isaacs and J.Fineberg), Moscow, Progress Publishers.1991–98) ‘Communism is Soviet power plus the electrification of the whole country’ reprinted in R.Wade (ed.), Documents of Soviet history, vol. 2, Triumph and retreat, Gulf Breeze, FL, Academic International Press, pp. 154–57., VI. (1984) Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution, New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday.(1982) Eisenstein at Work, London, Methuen.and (Lillyman, W.J., Moriarty, M.F. and Neuman, D.J. (eds) (1994) Critical Architecture and Contemporary Culture, New York, Oxford University Press.[Page 215]2006) ‘Blogging and building: The Netherlands after digitalisation’ in Zero Comments; Blogging and Critical Internet Culture, Routledge, 2007 forthcoming.(Lozano-Hemmer, R. (ed.) (2000) Vectorial Elevation: Relational Architecture No.4, Mexico City, Conaculta Press.2002) ‘Alien relationships from public space. A winding dialogue with Rafael Lozano-Hemmer’ (with AlexAdriaansens and JokeBrouwwer) in J.Brouwer and A.Mulder (eds), TransUrbanism, Rotterdam, V2, pp. 139–60.(2003) ‘Introduction to relational architecture’, http://www.lozano-hemmer.com (accessed 13 October 2003) This text is not on the rebuilt site at http://www.lozano-hemmer.com/eprlh.html(1960) The Image of the City, Cambridge, MA and MIT Press.(1994) The Electronic Eye: The Rise of the Surveillance Society, Cambridge, Polity Press.(2001) Surveillance Society: Monitoring Everyday Life, Philadelphia, Open University.(2003) Surveillance after September 11, Malden, MA, Polity Press in association with Blackwell.(1984) The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge (trans. G.Bennington and B.Massumi), Manchester: Manchester University Press.(1974) Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man, London, Abacus (first published 1964).(1994) ‘ “The go-for-broke game of history”: the camera, the community and the scene of politics’, Arena Journal4: 201–27.(1997) Crossing the Digital Threshold, Brisbane, Australian Key Centre for Culture and Media Policy, Griffith University.(1998) Visions of Modernity: Representation, Memory, Time and Space in the Age of the Camera, London, Sage.(1999) ‘Blinded by the (speed of) light’, Theory Culture and Society, 16(5): 143–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02632769922050917(2001) ‘Space creation: lessons from the city’ in V.Lynn (ed.), Space Odysseys: Sensation and Immersion, Sydney, Art Gallery of New South Wales, pp. 64–70.(2002) ‘Space for rent in the last suburb’, in A.Cavallaro, A.Johnson and D.Tofts (eds), Prefiguring Cyberculture: An Intellectual History, Power Publications and MIT Press, 2002, pp. 166–78.(2004) ‘Slow train coming? The transition to digital distribution and exhibition in cinema’, Media International Australia, no. 110 (February 2004): 105–19.(2005a) After empire’ in S.McQuire and N.Papastergiadis (eds), Empires, Ruins + Networks: The Transcultural Agenda in Art, London and Melbourne, Rivers Orams Press and Melbourne University Press, pp. 2–10.and (2005b),’From parafunctional spaces to shiny ruins’ in N.Tsoutas (ed.), Knowledge+Dialogue+Exchange: Remapping Cultural Globalisms From the South, Artspace, Sydney, pp. 83–100.and (2006) ‘Technology’, Theory, Culture and Society (special issue, New Encyclopaedia Project ‘problematizing global knowledge’) 25(2/3): 253–65.(2003) ‘Ruttmann, rhythm, and “reality”: a response to Siegfried Kracauer's interpretation of Berlin, the symphony of a great city’ in D.Scheunemann (ed.), Expressionist Film: New Perspectives, Rochester, NY, Camden House.([Page 216]1997) ‘George Lucas: past, present and future’, American Cinematographer78(2): 48–54.(2003) The Organizational Complex: Architecture, Media and Corporate Space, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.(2000) The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America, New York, Oxford University Press.(1863) Theories of Surplus-Value (Addenda I) (accessed 19 July 2006) http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1863/theories-surplus-value/add3.htm(1973) Grundrisse: Foundations of the Critique of Political Economy (trans. M.Nicolaus), London, Allen Lane/NLR.(1977) Capital, vol. 1 (trans, B.Fowkes), New York, Vintage (first published 1867).(2000) ‘The Zócalo: ephemeral interventions’ in R.Lozano-Hemmer (ed.), Vectorial Elevation: Relational Architecture no. 4, Mexico, Mexico City, Conaculta and Ediciones San Jorge, 2000.(1976a) ‘History/Discourse: a note on two voyeurisms’, Edinburgh ‘76 Magazine.(1976b) The Imaginary Signifier. Psychoanalysis and Cinema (trans. C.Britton et al.), Bloomington, IN, Indiana University Press.(1951) White collar: The American Middle Classes, New York: Oxford University Press.(1995) City of Bits: Space, Place, and the Infobahn, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.(2003) ME + + The Cyborg Self and the Networked City, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.(1969) Painting, Photography Film, London, Lund Humphries (first published 1925).(1947) The New Vision: And, Abstract of an Artist, New York, Wittenborn, Shultz.(1969) With Eisenstein in Hollywood, New York, International Publishers.(1998) Frankenstein's children: electricity, exhibition and experiment in early nineteenth century London, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press.(2004) The Digital Sublime: Myth, Power, and Cyberspace, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.(Multiplicity (2005) ‘Borders: the other side of globalisation’ in S.McQuire, N.Papastergiadis (eds), Empires, Ruins + Networks: The Transcultural Agenda in Art, Melbourne, Melbourne University Press.1973) The City in History, Penguin, Harmondsworth.(1979) The Man without Qualities (trans. E.Wilkins and E.Kaiser), London, Secker and Warburg (first published 1930–33).(1980) in B.Marbot (ed.), After Daguerre: Masterworks of French Photography (1848–1900) from the Bibliothèque Nationale, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, in association with Berger-Levrault, Paris.and (Naked News (1995) dir: John Alexander, (part 1 of 4 part documentary United States/United Kingdom).1970) The Architecture Machine, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.(1975) Soft Architecture Machines, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.([Page 217]Neumann, D. (ed.) (1996) Film Architecture: Set Designs from Metropolis to Blade Runner, New York and Munich, Prestel-Verlag.1998) On the Genealogy of Morality (trans. by M.Clark and A.Swensen), Indianapolis, IN, Hackett Publishing Company (first published 1887).(1968) The Will to Power (trans. W.Kaufmann and R. J.Hollingdale), New York, Vintage Books (first published 1901).(1991) ‘Liquid architectures in cyberpsace’ in M.Benedikt (ed.), Cyberspace: First Steps, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.(1996) ‘Transmitting architecture: the transphysical city’, CTheory (online resource, accessed 11 December 2005) http://www.ctheory.net/articles.aspx?id=76(1994) Time: The Modern and Postmodern Experience (trans. N.Plaice), Cambridge, Polity Press and Cambridge, MA, Blackwell.(1990) Electrifying America: Social Meanings of New Technology 1880–1940, Cambridge, MA and London, MIT Press.(1994) American Technological Sublime, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.(1997) Narratives and Spaces: Technology and the Construction of American Culture, Exeter, University of Exeter Press.(1978) The Drawing-Room: Its Decorations and Furniture, London and New York: Garland (first published 1877).(1984) Nineteen Eighty-Four, Oxford, Clarendon Press (first published 1948).(1969) Renaissance and Renascences in Western Art, New York, Harper and Row.(2000) The Turbulence of Migration: Globalization, Deterritorialization, and Hybridity, Malden, MA: Polity Press.(2005) ‘Small gestures in specific places: on collaboration and the politics of art’ in S.McQuire and N.Papastergiadis (eds), Empires, Ruins+Networks: The Transcultural Agenda in Art, London and Melbourne, Rivers Orams Press and Melbourne University Press, pp. 287–302.(1995) ‘The new Hollywood’, Wired, 3.12(1995). (On-line version: http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/3.12/).(1985) Moholy-Nagy (trans. E.Gruz et al.), London, Thames and Hudson.(Penz, F. and Thomas, M. (eds) (1997) Cinema and Architecture: Melies, Mallet-Stevens, Multimedia, London, BFI.1987) Constructivism in Film, Cambridge, MA, Cambridge University Press.(1991) The Electric City: Energy and the Growth of the Chicago Area, 1880–1930, Chicago and London, University of Chicago Press.(1938) The Complete Tales and Poems of Edgar Allen Poe, New York, Random House.(1994) A second media age?’, Arena Journal, 3: 49–91.(1921) ‘Review of Cocteau's “Poesies 1917–1920”’, The Dial (January).(1974) Soft City. London, Hamish Hamilton.(2003) ‘The cell phone and the crowd: messianic politics in the contemporary Philippines’, Public Culture, 15(3): 399–425. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/08992363-15-3-399(2001) Light Architecture: New Edge City, Basel and Boston, MA, Birkhäuser.([Page 218]1984) ‘The pros and cons of the horizontal window’, Daidalos, 13: 65–78.(1991) Virtual Reality, New York, Summit Books.(1993) The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier, Reading, MA, Addison-Wesley.(2002) Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution, Cambridge, MA, Perseus Publishing.(1997) Parisian Views, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.(1995) Light Construction, New York, Museum of Modern Art.(1999) FAQ page at http://www.jennicam.org (accessed 22 April 1999).(1975) Skyscraper Style: Art Deco New York, Oxford, Oxford University Press.and (1987) Architecture Transformed, Cambridge, MA and New York, MIT Press and The Architecture League of New York.and (2001) ‘Real entertainment: new factual hybrid television’, Media International Australia, 100: 9–20.(1982) The Architecture of the City, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.(1978) Collage City, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.and (1973) Private Lives and Public Surveillance, London: Allen Lane.(1998) The Situationist City. Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.(1973) ‘Manifesto of futurist architecture’ in U.Apollonio (ed.), Futurist Manifestos (trans. R.Brain et al.) London, Thames and Hudson.(1991) The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press.(2000) ‘Spatialities and temporalities of the global: elements for a theorization’Public Culture, 12(1): 215–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/08992363-12-1-215(1972) Glass Architecture (trans. J.Palmes), New York, Praeger (first published 1914).(2002) ‘Digital dream house’, Forbes, May, http://www.forbes.com/2002/05/17/0517home.html (accessed 12 December 2002).(1986) The Railway Journey: The Industrialization of Time and Space in the Nineteenth Century, Berkeley, CA, University of California Press.(1988) Disenchanted Night: The Industrialization of Light in the Nineteenth Century (trans. A.Davies), Berg, Oxford.(1992) ‘Cartes Postales: representing Paris 1900’, Critical Inquiry no. 18(Winter): 188–241.(2004) Houses and Gardens. Arts and Crafts Interiors, Suffolk, Antique Collectors’ Club (first published 1906).(1989) ‘Reading an archive’ in B.Wallis (ed.), Blasted Allegories: An Anthology of Writings by Contemporary Artists, foreword by MarciaTucker, New York, New Museum of Contemporary Art and Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.(1977) The Fall of Public Man: On the Social Psychology of Capitalism, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.(1994) Flesh and Stone: The Body and the City in Western Civilization, New York, W.W. Norton.(Sheller, M. and Urry, J. (eds) (2006) Mobile Technologies of the City, London and New York, Routledge.1985) Frankenstein, Harmondsworth and New York, Penguin (first published 1818).(Shiel, M. and Fitzmaurice, T. (eds) (2001) Cinema and the City: Film and Urban Societies in a Global Context, Oxford, Blackwell Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470712948[Page 219]1991) Imagined Country: Society, Culture and Environment, London, Routledge.(Siegal, J. (ed.) (2002) Mobile: The Art of Portable Architecture, New York, Princeton Architectural Press.1997) Simmel on Culture (eds. D.Frisby and M.Featherstone), London, Sage.(2000) Postmetropolis: Critical Studies of Cities and Regions, Malden, Blackwell Publishers.(2002) ‘Restructuring the industrial capitalist city’ in J.Brouwer and A.Mulder (eds) Transurbanism, Rotterdam, V2: 89–102.(1979) On Photography, London, Penguin.(Sorkin, M. (ed.) (1992) Variations on a Theme Park: The New American City and the End of Public Space, New York, Hill and Wang.1992) Make Room for TV: Television and the Family Ideal in Postwar America, Chicago, IL, University of Chicago Press.(Spiller (ed.) (1998) Architects in Cyberspace II, London, Academy Editions.2002) ‘The structure of vagueness’ in J.Brouwer and A.Mulder (eds), Transurbanism, Rotterdam, V2, pp. 65–88.(2004) Nox: Machining Architecture, London, Thames and Hudson.(1999) ‘Urban congregations of capital and communications: redesigning social and spatial boundaries’, Social Text, 17(3): 35–51.(1995) ‘I am a videocam’ in M.Toy (ed.), Architects in Cyberspace, London, Academy Editions, pp. 14–19.(1988) The Burden of Representation: Essays on Photographies and Histories, Basingstoke, Macmillan Education.(1994) Marville: Paris, Hazan.(1994) ‘Mediarchitecture: stages in the evolution’, Architecture and Urbanism, 282(March): 94–111.(Toy, M. (ed.) (1994) Architecture & film, London: Academy Editions.1981) The Manhattan Transcripts, London, Academy Editions.(United Nations (2004) World Urbanization Prospects. The 2003 Revision. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, New York.1997) ‘Robert Mallet-Stevens. architecture, cinema and poetics’ in F.Penz and M.Thoma (eds), Cinema & Architecture: Méliès, Mallet-Stevens, Multimedia, London, British Film Institute, pp. 28–33.(1964) ‘The conquest of ubiquity’ in Aesthetics (trans. R.Mannheim), vol. 13 of The Collected Works of Paul Valéry (1956–75), New York, Pantheon.(1966) Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture. New York, Museum of Modern Art; Doubleday.(1978) ‘Kinoki. Perevorot’ Lef no. 3 (June/July 1923), reprinted in S. R.Feldman, Dziga Vertov: A Guide to References and Sources, Boston, MA, GK. Hall.(1984) Kino-eye: The Writings of Dziga Vertov (trans. K.O'Brien and ed. A.Michelson), Berkeley, CA and University of California Press.(1978) ‘The scenes of the street: transformations in ideal and reality 1750–1871’ in S.Anderson (ed.) On Streets, Cambridge, MA and London, The MIT Press, pp. 29–111.(1992) The Architectural Uncanny: Essays in the Modern Unhomely, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press.(1986) Speed and Politics (trans. M.Polizzotti), New York, Semiotext(e).(1988) ‘The third window’ in C.Schneider and B.Wallis (eds), Global Television, Cambridge, MA and New York, MIT Press and Wedge Press, pp. 185–97.([Page 220]1991a) The Lost Dimension (trans. D.Moshenberg), New York, Semiotexte.(1991b) The Aesthetics of Disappearance (trans. P.Beitchman), New York, Semiotext(e).(1994a) The Vision Machine (trans. J.Rose), London, BFI.(1995) The Art of the Motor (trans. J.Rose), Minneapolis, MN and London, University of Minnesota Press.(1994b) ‘Cyberwar, god and television: interview with Paul Virilio’, CTheory.and (1994) Entertainment Industry Economics: A Guide for Financial Analysis, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.(2001) http://www.anacam.com.anatomy (accessed 4 December 2001).(Wade, R. (ed.) (1991–98) Documents of Soviet History, vol. 2 Triumph and Retreat, Gulf Breeze, FL, Academic International Press.1997) ‘The city in twilight: charting the genre of the “city film” 1900–1930’ in F.Penz and M.Thomas (eds), Cinema and Architecture: Melies, Mallet-Stevens, Multimedia, London, BFI.(2001) ‘Physical place and cyber place: the rise of networked individualism’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 25: 227–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.00309(1967) Privacy and Freedom. New York, Atheneum.(2002) Virtual Reality and the Built Environment, Oxford, Architectural.(1969) The Organization Man, Harmondsworth, Penguin.(1948) Cybernetics, or, Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, Cambridge, MA, Technology Press.(1998) Constant's New Babylon: The Hyper-Architecture of Desire, Rotterdam, Witte de With, Center for Contemporary Art.(1974) Television, Technology and Cultural Form, London: Fontana. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203426647(1988) ‘Covering holes in the wall’, Architecture, 77(8): 95–99.(1965) ‘The capacity to be alone’ in The Maturational Processes and the Facilitating Environment: Studies in the Theory of Emotional Development, New York, International Press.(1993) ‘Cinema, Americanism, the robot’ in Raiding the Icebox Reflections on Twentieth-Century Culture, London, Verso.(1950) ‘The Cinema’, The Captain's Death Bed: and Other Essays. New York: Harcourt Brace.(1971) The Life of Mayakovsky (trans. B.Taborski), New York, Orion.(1972) We (trans. M.Ginsburg), New York, The Viking Press.(2002) ‘Big brother, or the triumph of the gaze over the eye’ in Levin, Frohne and Weibel (eds), Ctrl Space: Rhetorics of Surveillance from Bentham to Big Brother, Cambridge, MA and Karlsruhe, MIT Press and ZKM Centre for Art and Media.(1992) The Ladies Paradise (trans. K.Ross), Berkeley, CA, University of California Press.(2000) L'Assommoir (The Dram Shop), trans. R.Buss, London, Penguin (originally published 1876).(