The Instructional Leadership Toolbox: A Handbook for Improving Practice

Books

Sandra Lee Gupton

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Preface

    In a sense, leadership can be likened to a craft where knowledge, skills, and practices are of little use unless there is a functional purpose to one's work. However, one who aspires to a craft or to lead is at a loss if he/she has a functional purpose but lacks the knowledge, skills, or practices to work toward or to achieve that end.

    —Carl D. Glickman (2008)

    No role in school leadership's scope of responsibility today looms larger than that of providing instructional oversight and guidance. Principals—as CEOs of schools—are expected to ensure that good instruction and learning are taking place. Although the principal's desk still symbolizes the place where the buck stops, the principal is by no means the sole source of leadership in most schools today. A more integrated, democratic approach to today's principalship is not merely preferred; it is increasingly essential for dealing well with the nature of today's schools and students. Handling the complex nature of fast-paced change on many fronts and meeting the plurality of student needs demand more participation from stakeholders and the rich resources of multiple talent and skill that can only come from team-based leadership. This book deals most specifically with the principal's role in facilitating leadership that integrates multiple sources, including teachers, students, parents, and community members.

    Although this toolbox text is written from the perspective that shared leadership is the preferred orientation for today's school leaders in all of a principal's domains of responsibility, it clearly focuses on instructional leadership and the principal's role in best fulfilling the responsibilities of this vital function. The job of the principal has evolved to one of mobilizer of these many leadership resources. When a principal is skilled in team building and empowering others, leadership can emerge from many of these stakeholder pools. Especially critical to the important function of instructional leadership is the role of teachers as instructional leaders and partners. Though this book is written expressly for principals, much of the information is rooted in the premise that principals and teachers work as partners to provide instructional leadership, with parents and students also involved appropriately in decisions impacting their education. Thus, a primary role for the principal is facilitating such partnerships.

    Whether one thinks of school leadership as craft, art, or science, tools are basic to each field. This book offers the principal a compendium of skills, strategies, and information that should enhance (not prescribe) principals’ work as craftspersons, artisans, and scientists, especially in the area of instructional leadership. The tools are drawn from the best that research and theory in school administration have to offer today. From this important, but often abstract and obscure knowledge base comes my attempt to organize, synthesize, and reframe the strategies into more practical, thought-provoking formats. Although the text is reader friendly, with frequent abbreviated lists and bulleted points for the principal, it is no monkey-see, monkey-do read. Instead of sure cures and formulas for success, this book offers a set of metaphorical, cognitive tools, which in the hands of reflective educators can help them grow professionally and hone their skills to facilitate better teaching and learning in their own unique settings.

    This, the second edition of the book, includes the following revisions:

    • It includes updated standards, research, and legislation that have emerged since the original 2003 publication. The latest National Association of Elementary School Principals’ and the Interstate Leadership Licensure Consortium's standards are found in Chapters 1 and 2.
    • New, exciting research that more specifically ties principals’ behavior to student achievement is explained and referenced throughout the text.
    • Discussion of the status and impact of the No Child Left Behind legislation is included.
    • Quotes and examples of instructional leadership strategies given by practicing principals and veteran educators are featured, especially in the “Walking the Talk” sections added at the end of chapters.
    • There is a special section at the end of the book titled “Additional Resources,” which includes selected Web sites, workbooks, books, and articles relevant to the chapters.
    Tools as Metaphors

    The tool metaphor is used throughout this text, with each of the ten chapters presented as a tool having particular potential for helping school principals improve their leadership skill, and thus the school's capacity to help children learn.

    Chapter 1 sets the stage for the entire text by helping the reader understand the importance of all educators—and most certainly principals as instructional leaders—to possess and strategically use an internal compass when making decisions, solving problems, and answering difficult professional questions in light of what is best for students and their learning. Glickman (1985) reminds us, “While research and experience help us see the connections between actions and outcomes, they cannot select our goals for us. In this regard, values and beliefs become central” (p. 342). School leaders’ introspection and examination of their beliefs and values, and their assessment and awareness of their professional strengths and weaknesses, are the tools offered in this chapter as essential enablers for principals’ providing instructional guidance at its best.

    Chapter 2 deals with the nuts and bolts of school leadership, which include the importance of school leaders being reflective and well read about today's leadership issues; understanding accountability and standards for twenty-first century school principals; and being up to date and aware of a principal's key role in instructional leadership. These nuts-and-bolts understandings are fundamental tools of a school leader, regardless of the context or the leadership style.

    Chapter 3 is about basic processes and products, the blueprints that guide the daily operation of the school and channel its energy most appropriately toward students and learning. The stakeholder-shared processes involved in creating a school's mission, vision, goals and objectives, and strategies (i.e., the blueprint documents) are as important as the products themselves. Only if the documents are living—that is, only if they truly guide the day-to-day operation of the stakeholders in the school—are they worthwhile. Thus, stakeholders must believe in these blueprints and share in their development if they are to be most passionate and enthusiastic about their roles in implementing them. The organization's blueprints are the processes and products essential to channeling the direction and energy of the various constituencies in schools, often characterized as loosely coupled organizations, inclined not to be well-centered or purposefully unified.

    Chapter 4 is the superglue of a leader's toolbox. It provides insight into ensuring that the school's culture is positive, and centered on teaching and learning. The importance of and how to assess school climate and culture, the behaviors and skills most essential for creating and maintaining a positive school culture, and the importance of moving a school from a collection of classrooms and cubby holes, parents, and community members to school as a learning community are included in this chapter.

    Chapter 5 adds the vital tool—communication conduits—to the principal's toolbox. Strategies for improving the school's communication include the importance of listening and understanding, facilitating dialogue and collaboration among the various school stakeholders, and connecting the school and educators with parents and community members as true partners in the village's shared enterprise of educating its young people.

    Chapter 6 offers the leader a humble metaphor for powerful tools—whetstones for ensuring best practices from professional educators in the form of reflective practice, supportive supervision, and cooperative evaluation. These practices are key to professional educators’ and schools’ continued improvement. As healthy and sane as they may seem, these approaches to very fundamental leadership functions require a major shift in thinking about the roles and responsibilities of today's teacher and principal.

    Chapter 7's tool, the instructional leadership lens, is to the principal what safety goggles are to the carpenter. It protects the leader from having his or her vision blurred or damaged by political and other extraneous debris. Using the research-based, learner-centered principles as the reliable lens for making decisions and guiding one's work facilitates leaders by keeping them focused and free from the barrage of distracters to clearheaded, student-centered thinking.

    Chapter 8 contains the tools of accountability—tape measures, plumb lines, and common sense. For the principal, these tools are thoroughly understanding accountability issues; appropriately using well-designed standards to facilitate school improvement; and focusing on the classroom as the centerpiece for finding out just how well students are performing.

    Chapter 9 adds the muscle tool to the leader's toolbox, the power saw of cutting-edge strategies, which include the important concept of proactive leadership, wherein school leaders make change work for, rather than impede, school improvement; the various processes for dealing responsibly and most productively with data to improve teaching and learning; and the power of technology to transform schools with large populations of students who are at risk of failing into learning communities where all adults and children are most likely to succeed.

    Chapter 10 brings us full circle to focusing once again, as we did in the early chapters, on the leader as an individual, rounding out the points in Chapters 1 and 2, which deal with the importance of a principal's self-understanding and thorough examination of his or her beliefs and values, awareness of the standards and professional requirements of today's school leaders, and analysis of his or her strengths and weaknesses in light of those expectations. This chapter brings closure to the text by emphasizing the significance of attending to personal fitness, the undeniably ultimate tool for peak performance: physical stamina, intellectual prowess, social and emotional stability, and spiritual bounty. Sustained neglect in any of these facets of our humanity eventually leads to deficits that take their toll on other dimensions of our lives. Overemphasis on one area does not compensate for deficits in another. Balance is the key. Personal and professional lives are not lived separately; each impacts the other, for better or for worse. Achieving balance across all areas of our lives is challenging, but the better we manage this, the more wholesomely productive we become, at work and at home.

    This handbook for principals has much flexibility for individuals to put their own spin on leadership. Oversimplification of the complex work of leadership by reducing the content to recipes or formulas for success is avoided. Instead, readers are encouraged throughout the book to reflect on various sets of questions that can help a principal find direction most fitting to the situation and the school context. The text's tools are cognitive and work best for the reader who is reflective and sensitive to how the tools can best facilitate school improvement in one's particular situation. Good tools in the hands of a thoughtful, dedicated craftsperson are merely facilitators of the person's drive and passion to improve and to excel at leadership. My hope is that this book finds its way to those educators who have the stamina, ambition, intelligence, and disposition to want the best for our schools and our children, and that it helps them in finding their own way and achieving their dreams and mine for all students to grow up healthy, happy, and well educated. After eight years of focusing on “no child left behind,” it seems a far more noble goal for the country to redirect its attention to ensuring that no child's potential go untapped, unnoticed, under-nurtured or, worse yet, stifled during his or her formative, developmental years. America's greatest achievement yet would be our ability to help each child be all that he or she can possibly be. My very best wishes to you as you seek to maximize your own potential in our mutual pursuit of making America's schools and the world a better place by investing our very best in children.

    Acknowledgments

    My special thanks to Corwin for their support of this book from its inception in 2002 to this, its second edition. Corwin's dedication to education and its longstanding commitment to providing top-quality books and media related to the field are exemplary. Special thanks to the Corwin editors who worked so cooperatively with me, Arnis Burvikovs and Desiree Bartlett, Amy Schroller, and Susan Jarvis.

    I am deeply indebted and am proud to acknowledge the following outstanding educators who graciously gave feedback for this book's revision and examples of experiences they had as instructional leaders in schools. Their recommendations and contributions are used throughout this revised edition, many of them in the form of quoted pieces added at the end of chapters in the section titled “Walking the Talk”—voices of experience from the field—a new feature of this revised edition:

    Dr. Nancy Adams is a veteran educator with many outstanding, award-winning years in the position of elementary school principal in Texas. She has recently moved to the position of Assistant Professor of Educational Leadership at Lamar State University in Beaumont, Texas.

    Dr. Amy Lingren is a veteran educator and school principal. She has served in many capacities including, most recently, Chief Officer for Curriculum and Instructional Services for the Duval County Schools in Jacksonville, Florida, a position she has recently given up to move back to the school principalship. Amy has extensive experience as a school principal in three states—Wisconsin, Missouri, and now Florida.

    Karen Sue Noble is a veteran educator and principal of Hillcrest Elementary School in Nederland, Texas, since 1992. Karen is the recipient of many prestigious principal awards. Her outstanding leadership seems best demonstrated, however, by the numerous awards bestowed upon the school during her stint at Hillcrest that include the school's recognition as a Title I Distinguished School for nine consecutive years (1998–2007).

    Dr. Ricky P. Sahady is currently Curriculum Director of the Resiliency Preparatory School in Fall River, Massachusetts. He is a thirty-three-year veteran educator in the Fall River School District, where he was formerly the principal of John J. Doran Elementary School for twelve years.

    Dr. Jan Walker is Associate Professor of Educational Leadership at Drake University in Iowa. Before coming to higher education, Jan served the Iowa public schools in various capacities including being an elementary school principal for many years, an assistant superintendent, curriculum coordinator, and a classroom teacher for twelve years with the honor of having been nominated twice for the Teacher of the Year Award.

    Corwin gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following individuals:

    • John W. Adamus, Assistant Professor
    • Rutgers, Graduate School of Education
    • New Brunswick, NJ
    • Barbara Gerard, Secretary
    • Alaska Charter School Association
    • Academy Charter School
    • Palmer, AK
    • Sharon Madsen Redfern, Principal
    • Highland Park Elementary
    • Lewistown, MT

    About the Author

    Sandra Lee Gupton, EdD, is Professor of Educational Leadership at the University of North Florida in Jacksonville, Florida, where she has been serving for the past six years as Chairperson of the Department of Curriculum and Instruction. Before coming to UNF, she was Professor of Educational Leadership at the University of Southern Mississippi for eleven years. Her experiences before coming to higher education include more than twenty years in various positions in PreK–12 public schools, including English and reading teacher, high school principal, director of instruction, assistant superintendent for curriculum and instruction, and superintendent in Georgia and North Carolina schools.

    Sandra's professional interests are centered on leadership issues related to PreK–12 and higher education leadership effectiveness, gender equity, program reform, and school improvement. Her early research on gender equity in educational leadership led to many presentations, the publication of several articles, and the 1996 Corwin publication Highly Successful Women Administrators: The Inside Stories of How They Got There, offering advice to prospective women administrators in education. Her research and writing in recent years have been focused on the role of academic chairpersons and leadership in higher education.

    Sandra has two grown daughters who live near Denver, where she spends much of her free time these days—especially since the birth of her grandchild, Ryan, four years ago. She reports that nothing is much better these days than watching Ryan Parker grow and reveling in his marvelous companionship and passion for living, loving, and learning.

    Dedication

    “in whose interest”

    For Ryan, who has rekindled my life-long passion for and dedication to helping schools and educators be their best at nurturing children, helping them learn, and loving them for their individualities.

  • Recommended Toolbox Resources

    Compass and Nuts and Bolts of Leadership
    Web Sites

    http://www.ccsso/ISLLC2008Research: a comprehensive online database provided by the Council of Chief State School Officers, with empirical research reports, policy analyses, leadership texts, and other credible resources which support the six 2008 ISLLC standards

    http://www.naesp.org: Web site of the National Association of Elementary School Principals

    http://www.nassp.org: Web site of the National Association of Secondary School Principals

    http://www.truenorthleadership.com: contains a variety of well-known organizational and leadership assessment instruments (e.g., Inventory of Leadership Style; Myers-Briggs Type Indicator; Emotional Competence Inventory created by Daniel Goleman and Richard Boyatzis; Emotional Quotient Inventory)

    Workbooks
    Bennis, W. G., & Goldsmith, J. (2003). Learning to lead: A workbook on becoming a leader. Reading, MA: Perseus.
    Brubaker, D., & Coble, L. (2005). The hidden leader: Leadership lessons on the potential within. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Daresh, J. C. (2006). Beginning the principalship: A practical guide for new school leaders (
    3rd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Kouzes, J., & Posner, B. (2003). The leadership challenge workbook. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Portfolio Development Guides
    Campbell, D. M., Cignetti, P. B., Melenyzer, B. J., Nettles, D. H., & Wyman, R. M. (1997). How to develop a professional portfolio. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Tuttle, H. G. (1997, January/February). Electronic portfolios. Multimedia Schools, pp. 33–37.
    Blueprints (Mission, Vision, Goals and Objectives)
    Web Sites for Developing a School-Based Vision

    http://www.leading-learning.co.nz

    Quality Learning: Before creating a shared vision, assess your school

    http://www.leading-learning.co.nz/school-vision/assess-school.html: The assessment instrument found here may be helpful.

    Quality Learning: Creating a vision

    http://www.leading-learning.co.nz/creating-vision.html: Visit this Web site to read more about creating a vision for your school. It is instructive for the new principal (step by step).

    Teamwork Survey

    http://www.leading-learning.co.nz/school-vision/teamwork-survey.html: A team aligned behind shared expectations is the key to a modern organization. This is an activity to introduce before a vision-building process. It is also an ideal School Self-Review questionnaire. The survey is titled “How Good is Your Teamwork?”

    http://www.ncrel.org: Web site of the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory

    Article
    Peterson, K. (1995). Critical issue: Building a collective vision!. Retrieved November 26, 2009, from http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/educa/trs/leadrshp/le100.htm.
    Organizational Superglue (School Culture)
    Books
    Daresh, J. C. (2006). Learning your school's culture (p. 125), in Beginning the principalship: A practical guide for new school leaders (
    3rd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Deal, T. E., & Peterson, K. D. (1999). Shaping school culture: The heart of leadership. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
    Organizational Conduits (Communication Strategies)
    Book
    Murphy, C. U., & Lick, W. L. (2005). Whole-faculty study groups: Creating professional learning communities that target student learning (
    3rd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Web Site

    http://www.sedl.org/connections/resources/evidence.pdf: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory's Web site, containing the National Center for Family and Community Connections with Schools

    Whetstones for Facilitating Professional Development
    Books
    Dufour, R., & Eaker, R. (1998). Professional learning communities: Best practices for enhancing student achievement. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.
    Fullan, M. (2005). Leadership and sustainability: System thinkers in action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Fullan, M. (2008). What's worth fighting for in the principalship. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Murphy, C. U., & Lick, D.W. (2005). Whole-faculty study groups: Creating student-based professional development (
    2nd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Web Sites

    http://www.schlechtycenter.org: The Web site of the Schlechty Center for Leadership in School Reform—a private, nonprofit corporation with headquarters in Louisville, Kentucky, established by Dr. Phillip C. Schlechty in 1988. Its stated purpose is “to provide high-quality and responsive support to public school leaders to transform schools from organizations that produce compliance and attendance to organizations that nurture attention and commitment at all levels in the system.”

    http://www.nsdc.org: The Web site of the National Staff Development Council, the largest nonprofit professional association committed to ensuring success for all students through staff development and school improvement. Its stated purpose is that “[e]very educator engages in effective professional learning every day so every student achieves.”

    Lens of Instructional Leadership
    Books and Articles
    Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (2004). The new principal's fieldbook: Strategies for success. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    Heifetz, R. A., & Laurie, D. L. (1997). The work of leadership. Harvard Business Review, 75(1), 124–134.
    Reeves, D. B. (2006). The learning leader: How to focus school improvement for better results. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    Schmoker, M. (2004). Tipping point: From reckless to substantive instructional improvement. Phi Delta Kappan, 85, 424–432.
    Web Sites

    http://www.ecs.org: Education Commission of the States, a nonpartisan interstate compact created in 1965 by the states and the U.S. Congress to help governors, legislators, state education officials, business leaders, and others identify, develop, and implement public policies to improve student learning at all levels

    http://www.gse.harvard.edu/~principals: The Principals’ Center at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, dedicated to the personal and professional development of school principals

    http://www.nlns.org: New Leaders for New Schools aims to improve education for every child by attracting and preparing the next generation of outstanding leaders for urban public schools.

    Tape Measures, Plumb Lines, and Common Sense (Accountability and Testing)
    Web Sites

    http://www.ecs.org/nclbreauthorization: a database on NCLB issues maintained by the Education Commission of the States

    http://www.nea.org/esea/nearesources-esea.html: updates on the federal legislation related to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and its 2002 version, No Child Left Behind, maintained on the Web site of the National Education Association

    http://www.resultsforamerica.org/education/toolkit

    http://www.fairtest.org: National Center for Fair and Open Testing (FairTest) works to end the misuses and flaws of standardized testing and to ensure that evaluation of students, teachers, and schools is fair, open, valid, and educationally beneficial.

    http://www.bc.edu/research/nbetp: The National Board on Educational Testing and Public Policy, housed in the Lynch School of Education at Boston College, is an independent organization that monitors testing in the United States. The Board provides ongoing information on the uses and outcomes of educational testing for decision-making purposes, paying special attention to groups historically underserved by the educational system

    Power Tools (Technology and Data)
    Book
    Fullan, M. (2005). Leadership and sustainability: System thinkers in action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Web Site

    http://www.ed.gov.about/office/list/os/technology: the official site of the National Technology Plan for the U.S. Department of Education

    Personal Fitness
    Books
    Covey, S. (2004). The seven habits of highly effective people: Power lessons in personal change. New York: Free Press.
    Dyer, W. W. (2007). Change your thoughts—change your life: Living the wisdom of the Tao. Carlsbad, CA: Hay House.
    Workbooks
    Bennis, W. G., & Goldsmith, J. (2003). Learning to lead: A workbook on becoming a leader. Reading, MA: Perseus.
    Brubaker, D., & Coble, L. (2005). The hidden leader: Leadership lessons on the potential within. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Daresh, J. C. (2006). Beginning the principalship: A practical guide for new school leaders (
    3rd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Kouzes, J., & Posner, B. (2003). The leadership challenge workbook. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    References

    Preface
    Glickman, C. (1985). Supervision and instruction: A developmental approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Glickman, C. D. (2008). Leadership for purposeful schools: Fulfilling the promise of a whole education. Special feature lecture, ASCD annual conference, New Orleans.
    Barth, R. (1990). Improving schools from within: Teachers, parents, and principals can make a difference. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Bennis, W., & Goldsmith, J. (2003). Learning to lead: A workbook on becoming a leader. Reading, MA: Perseus.
    Brubaker, D., & Coble, L. (2005). The hidden leader: Leadership lessons on the potential within. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Covey, S. (1991). Principle-centered leadership. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Covey, S. (2004). The seven habits of highly effective people: Power lessons in personal change. New York: Free Press.
    Daresh, J. C. (2006). Beginning the principalship: A practical guide for new school leaders (
    3rd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin
    Fullan, M. (2008). What's worth fighting for in the principalship: Strategies for taking charge in the elementary school principalship. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Greenfield, W. (1985, June). Instructional leadership: Muddles, puddles, and pioneers. Paper presented at the Dogue M: Smith Lecture, University of Georgia, Athens.
    Hersey, P., Blanchard, K., & Johnson, D. (2008). Management of organizational behavior (
    7th ed.
    ). Mahwah, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Hodgkinson, C. (1991). Educational leadership: The moral art. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
    Hoerr, T. (2008). Stop, look, and listen. Educational Leadership, 65 (8), 88–89.
    Interstate School Leader Licensure Consortium (ISLLC). (2008). Standards for school leaders. Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers.
    Kouzes, J., & Posner, B. (2008). The student leadership challenge. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Marzano, Waters, & McNulty with the Mid-Continental Research on Education Laboratory, 2003.
    National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP). (1991). Proficiencies for principals: Elementary and middle schools. Alexandria, VA: NAESP.
    National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP). (2008). Leading learning communities: Standards for what principals should know and be able to do. Alexandria, VA: NAESP.
    National Policy Board for Educational Administration (NPBEA). (1993). Principals for our Changing schools: Knowledge and skill base. Fairfax, VA: NPBEA.
    Razik, T., & Swanson, A. (2001). Fundamental concepts of educational leadership (
    2nd ed.
    ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Rooney, J. (2008). What do we believe?Educational Leadership, 65 (5), 88–90.
    Schwahn, C., & Spady, W. (1998). Total leaders: Applying the best future-focused change strategies to education. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrations.
    Sergiovanni, T. (1996). Moral leadership: Getting to the heart of school improvement. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Sergiovanni, T. (2006). The principalship: A reflective practice perspective (
    5th ed.
    ). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Sergiovanni, T., & Starratt, R. (2007). Supervision: A redefinition (
    8th ed.
    ). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Bennis, W., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: The strategies for taking charge. New York: Harper and Row.
    Blase, J. R., & Blase, R. R. (2004). Handbook of instructional leadership: How successful principals promote teaching and learning (
    2nd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Cotton, K. (2003). Principals and student achievement: What the research says. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO). (2008). Educational Leadership Policy Standards: ISLLC 2008. Adopted by the National Policy Board for Educational Administration. Washington, DC: CCSSO.
    Daresh, J., & Playko, M. (1995). Supervision as a proactive process: Concepts and cases (
    2nd ed.
    ). Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
    Goodlad, J. (1994). Educational renewal: Better teachers, better schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Hallinger, P., & Heck, R. (1998). Exploring the principal's contribution to school effectiveness: 1980–1995. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 9 (2), 157–191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0924345980090203
    Jacques, E. (1989). Requisite organization: The CEO's guide to creative structures of leadership. London: Cason Hall.
    Leiberman, A. (1995). Practices that support teacher development. Phi Delta Kappan, 76, 591–596.
    Leithwood, K., Jantzi, D., & Steinbach, R. (1999). Changing leadership for changing times. Philadelphia, PA: Open University Press.
    Leithwood, K., Louis, K., Andersen, S., & Wahlstrom, K. (2004). How leadership influences student learning: Review of research. Minneapolis, MN: Center for Applied Research, University of Minnesota.
    Leithwood, K., & Riehl, C. (2005). What do we already know about educational leadership? In W.Firestone & C.Riehl (Eds.), A new agenda for research in educational leadership (pp. 12–27). New York: Teachers College Press.
    Lunenburg, F. C., & Ornstein, A. C. (2008). Educational administration: Concepts and practices (
    5th ed.
    ). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
    Marzano, R., Waters, T., & McNulty, B. (2005). School leadership that works: From research to results. Aurora, CO: Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL).
    National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP). (1990). Principals for 21st century schools. Alexandria, VA: NAESP.
    National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP). (2008). Leading learning communities: Standards for what principals should know and be able to do. Alexandria, VA: NAESP.
    National Commission for the Principalship (NCP). (1990). Principals for our changing schools. (ScottThomson, Ed.). Fairfax, VA: NCP.
    Peterson, K. (1999, March). The role of principals in successful schools. Reform Talk: Comprehensive Regional Assistance Center Consortium-Region, 3.
    Razik, T., & Swanson, A. (2008). Fundamental concepts of educational leadership (
    3rd ed.
    ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Reeves, D. (2006). The learning leader: How to focus school improvement for better results. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    Rooney, J. (2008, February). What do we believe?Educational Leadership, 65 (5), 88–90.
    Schlechty, P. (1990). Schools for the 21st century: Leadership imperatives for educational reform. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Allen, L. (2001). From plaques to practice: How schools can breathe life into their guiding beliefs. Phi Delta Kappan, 83 (4), 289–293.
    Beck, L. G. (1994). Reclaiming educational administration as a caring profession. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Bennis, W. G. (1997). Managing people is like herding cats. Provo, UT: Executive Excellence Publishers.
    Bennis, W. G., & Goldsmith, J. (1997). Learning to lead: A workbook on becoming a leader. Reading, MA: Perseus Books.
    Blase, J. R., & Blase, R. R. (1997). The fire is back! Principals sharing school governance. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Block, P. (1987). The empowered manager: Positive political skills at work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Brown, G., & Irby, B. (2001). The principal portfolio (
    2nd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Covey, S. (1991). Principle-centered leadership. New York: Summit Books.
    Drucker, P. (1993). Managing for the future: The 1990s and beyond. New York: Truman Talley Books/Plume.
    Fullan, M. (1997). What's worth fighting for in the principalship? Strategies for taking charge in the elementary school principalship. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Fullan, M. (2008). What's worth fighting for in the principalship? Strategies for taking charge in the elementary school principalship (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Teachers College Press.
    Kouzes, J. M., & PosnerB.Z. (2007). The Leadership Challenge (
    4th ed.
    ). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Newman, M., & Simmons, W. (2000). Leadership for student learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 82 (1), 9–12.
    Reeves, D. (2006). The learning leader: How to focus school improvement for better results. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    Rossow, L. F. (1990). The principalship: Dimensions in instructional leadership. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Rossow, L. F. (2000). The principalship: Dimensions in instructional leadership (
    2nd ed.
    ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    SchwahnC.J., & Spady, W. G. (1998). Total leaders: Applying the best future-focused change strategies to education. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators.
    Senge, P. M. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Doubleday Currency.
    Senge, P. M. (2006). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization (
    2nd ed
    ). New York: Doubleday Currency.
    Austin, G., & Holowenzak, S. (1985). An examination of ten years of research on exemplary schools. In G.Austin & H.Garber (Eds.), In search of exemplary schools (pp. 65–82). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
    Bennis, W. G., & Goldsmith, J. (1997). Learning to lead: A workbook on becoming a leader. Reading, MA: Perseus.
    Cotton, K. (1995). Effective schooling practices: A research synthesis: 1995 update. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.
    Daresh, J. C. (2006). Beginning the principalship: A practical guide for new school leaders (
    3rd ed
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Deal, T. E., & Peterson, K. D. (1999). Shaping school culture: The heart of leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Glatthorn, A. (1993). Learning twice. New York: HarperCollins.
    Hallinger, P., Bickman, L., & Davis, K. (1990, June). What makes a difference? School context, principal leadership and student achievement. The National Center for Educational Leadership, Occasional Paper No. 3 (ED 332 341).
    Halpin, A., & Croft, D. (1963). The organizational climate of schools. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Hoy, W., & Tarter, J. (1997). The road to open and healthy schools: A handbook for change (Elementary and middle school ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Hoyle, J., English, F., & Steffy, B. (1994). Skills for successful school leaders (
    2nd ed.
    ). Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators.
    Kouzes, J. M., & PosnerB.Z. (2007). The Leadership Challenge (
    4th ed.
    ). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Larsen, T. J. (1987, April). Identification of instructional leadership behaviors and the impact of their implementation on academic achievement. University of Colorado (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 281 286).
    Leithwood, K., Louis, K., Andersen, S., & Wahlstrom, K. (2004). How leadership influences student learning: Review of research. Minneapolis, MN: Center for Applied Research, University of Minnesota.
    Leithwood, K., & Riehl, C. (2003, March). What do we already know about successful school leaders? Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL.
    Lunenburg, F., & Ornstein, A. (2000). Educational administration: Concepts and practices (
    3rd ed.
    ). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
    Lunenburg, F., & Ornstein, A. (2008). Educational administration: Concepts and practices (
    5th ed.
    ). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
    Marzano, R., Waters, T., & McNulty, B. (2005). School leadership that works: From research to results. Aurora, CO: Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL).
    National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP). (1991). Proficiencies for principals: Elementary and middle schools. Alexandria, VA: NAESP.
    Peters, T. J., & Waterman, R. H. (2004). In search of excellence. New York: HarperCollins.
    Sergiovanni, T. (1991). The principalship: A reflective practice perspective (
    2nd ed.
    ). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Sergiovanni, T. (2009). The principalship: A reflective practice perspective (
    6th ed.
    ). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Snowden, P. E., & Gorton, R. A. (1998). School leadership and administration: Important concepts, case studies, and simulations. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Snowden, P. E., Gorton, R.A., & Alston, J. A. (2007). School leadership and administration: Important concepts, case studies, and simulations (
    7th ed.
    ). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Weick, K. (1985). The significance of culture. In P.Frost, L.Moore, M.Reis, J.Lundberg, & J.Martin (Eds.), Organizational culture. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD). (1998). The principal series: Facilitator's guide. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
    Blase, J. R., & Blase, R. R. (2004). Handbook of instructional leadership: How successful principals promote teaching and learning (
    2nd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Covey, S. (1992). Principle-centered leadership. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Daresh, J. (2006). Beginning the principalship: A practical guide for new school leaders. (
    3rd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Dolan, P. (1994). Restructuring our schools. Kansas City, MO: Systems and Organizations.
    Fullan, M. (1994). What's worth fighting for in the principalship?New York: Teachers College Press.
    Gallagher, D. R., Bagin, D., & Kindred, L. W. (1996). The school and community. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Green, R. L. (2001). Practicing the art of leadership. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Henderson, A. T., & Mapp, K. L. (2002). A new wave of evidence: The impact of school, family, and community connections on student achievement. National Center for family & Community Connections with Schools–Southwest Educational Development Laboratory: Austin, Texas. Retrieved November 26, 2008, from http://www.sedl.org/connections/resources/evidence.pdf.
    Houston, P. (2001). It takes a village to raise achievement. The School Administrator, 6 (58), 46.
    Lunenburg, F. C., & Ornstein, A. C. (2000). Educational administration: Concepts and practices (
    4th ed.
    ). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
    Lunenburg, F. C., & Ornstein, A. C. (2008). Educational administration: Concepts and practices (
    5th ed.
    ). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
    Lysaught, J. P. (1984). Toward a comprehensive theory of communication: A review of selected contributions. Educational Administration Quarterly, 20 (3), 10–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013161X84020003006
    McEwan, E. (2003). Seven steps to effective instructional leadership (
    2nd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP). (1991). Proficiencies for principals: Elementary and middle schools. Alexandria, VA: NAESP.
    National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP). (2008). Leading learning communities: Standards for what principals should know and be able to do. Alexandria, VA: NAESP.
    Newman, M., & Simmons, W. (2000). Leadership for student learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 82 (1), 9–12.
    Sashkin, M., & Walberg, H. J. (Eds.). (1993). Educational leadership and school culture. Berkeley, CA: McCutchan.
    Schwahn, C., & Spady, W. (1998). Total leaders: Applying the best future-focused change strategies to education. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators.
    Sergiovanni, T. (1992). Moral leadership: Getting to the heart of school improvement. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Snowden, P., & Gorton, R. (1998). School leadership and administration. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Tanck, M. L. (1994). Celebrating education as a profession. In D. R.Walling (Ed.), Teachers as leaders (pp. 83–99). Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.
    Beck, L. G. (1994). Reclaiming educational administration. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Blase, J. R., & Blase, R. R. (2004). Handbook of instructional leadership: How really good principals promote teaching and learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Brown, G., & Irby, B. (2001). The principal portfolio (
    2nd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Cawelti, G. (1993). Foreword. In R.Goldhammer, R. H.Anderson, & R. J.Krajewski (Eds.), Clinical supervision: Special methods for the supervision of teachers (
    3rd ed.
    ). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
    Daresh, J. C., & Playko, M.A. (1995). Supervision as a proactive process: Concepts and cases (
    2nd ed.
    ). Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
    Ellett, C. (1987). Emerging teacher performance assessment practices: Implications for the instructional supervision role of school principals. In W.Greenfield (Ed.), Instructional leadership: Concepts, issues, and controversies (pp. 302–327). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Fullan, M. (1994). Teacher leadership: A failure to conceptualize. In D. R.Walling (Ed.), Teachers as leaders (pp. 241–253). Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.
    Glatthorn, A. A. (1984). Differentiated supervision. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    Glickman, C. (1985). Supervision and instruction: A developmental approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Glickman, C., Gordon, S., & Ross-Gordon, J. (2007). SuperVision and instructional leadership: A developmental approach (
    7th ed.
    ). Boston: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon.
    Goldhammer, R., Anderson, R. H., & Krajewski, R. J. (1993). Clinical supervision: Special methods for the supervision of teachers (
    3rd ed.
    ). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
    Hawley, W. D., & Valli, L. (2000). Learner-centered professional development. News, Notes, & Quotes, 45 (1), 7–9.
    Iwanicki, E. F. (2001). Focusing teacher evaluations on student learning. Educational Leadership, 58 (5), 57–59.
    Leiberman, A. (1995). Practices that support teacher development. Phi Delta Kappan, 76, 591–596.
    Maeroff, G. I. (1994). On matters of body and mind: Overcoming disincentives to a teaching career. In D. R.Walling (Ed.), Teachers as leaders (pp. 45–57). Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.
    McEwan, E. (2003). Seven steps to effective instructional leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning. (2000). Leadership for school improvement. Retrieved February 16, 2001, from http://www.mcrel.org/topics/SchoolImprovement/products/137 and http://www.mcrel.org/topics/SchoolImprovement/products/130.
    Murphy, C. U., & Lick, D. W. (2005). Whole-faculty study groups: Creating student-based professional development (
    3rd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Oliva, P. F., & Pawlas, G. E. (1997). Supervision for today's schools (
    5th ed.
    ). White Plains, NY: Longman.
    Ornstein, A. C. (1993). How to recognize good teaching. The American School Board Journal, 180 (1), 24–27.
    Razik, T. A., & Swanson, A. D. (1995). Fundamental concepts of educational leadership. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Rogers, C. R., & Freiberg, H. J. (1994). Freedom to learn (
    3rd ed.
    ) New York: Merrill.
    Rubin, L. (1975). The case for staff development. In T. J.Sergiovanni (Ed.), Professional supervision for professional teachers (pp. 33–49). Washington, DC: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    Sarason, S. B. (1993). So you are thinking of teaching? Opportunities, problems, realities. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Sergiovanni, T. J. (1991). The principalship: A reflective practice perspective (
    2nd ed.
    ). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Sergiovanni, T. J. (1995). The principalship: A reflective practice perspective (
    3rd ed.
    ). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Sparks, D. (2001). Being an informed consumer of electronic learning. The School Administrator, (3), 56.
    Stiggins, R. J. (1997). Student-centered classroom assessment (
    2nd ed.
    ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Sullivan, S., & Glanz, J. (2005). Supervision that improves teaching: Strategies and techniques (
    2nd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Tanck, M. L. (1994). Celebrating education as a profession. In D. R.Walling (Ed.), Teachers as leaders (pp. 83–97). Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.
    American Psychological Association (1997). Learner-centered psychological principles: A framework for reform and redesign. Washington, DC: Center for Psychology in Schools and Education. Retrieved April 13, 2009, from http://www.apa.org/ed/cpse/LCPP.pdf.
    Austin, G. R., & Holowenzak, S. (1985). An examination of ten years of research on exemplary schools. In G. A.Austin & H.Garner (Eds.), In search of exemplary schools (pp. 65–82). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
    Canter, L., & Canter, M. (1991). Parents on your side: A comprehensive parent involvement program for teachers. Santa Monica, CA: Canter & Associates.
    Ciliberto, A. (2001). In this issue. NASSP's Bulletin, 85 (621), 1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019263650108562901
    Cohen, D. K., & Ball, D. L. (2001). Making change: Instruction and its improvement. Phi Delta Kappan, 83 (1), 73–77.
    Cotton, K. (1995). Effective schooling practices: A research synthesis 1995 update. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.
    Epstein, J. L. (1987). Parent involvement: What research says to administrators. Education and Urban Society, 19 (2), 119–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013124587019002002
    Henderson, A. T., & Mapp, K. L. (2002). A new wave of evidence: The impact of school, family, and community connections on student achievement. National Center for Family & Community Connections with Schools–Southwest Educational Development Laboratory, Austin, Texas. Retrieved November 26, 2008, from http://www.sedl.org/connections/resources/evidence.pdf.
    Hoyle, J. R., English, F., & Steffy, B. (1994). Skills for successful school leaders (
    2nd ed.
    ). Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators.
    Keefe, J. M., & Jenkins, J. W. (2002). Two schools: Two approaches to personalized learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 83 (6), 449–456.
    Leithwood, K., Louis, K., Andersen, S., & Wahlstrom, K. (2004). How leadership influences student learning: Review of research. Minneapolis, MN: Center for Applied Research, University of Minnesota.
    Leithwood, K., & Riehl, C. (2005). What do we already know about educational leadership. In W.Firestone & C.Riehl (Eds.), A new agenda for research in educational leadership (pp. 12–27). New York: Teachers College Press.
    Lewis, A. C. (2001). Toward a nation of “equal kids.”Phi Delta Kappan, 82 (9), 647–648.
    McCombs, B., & Whisler, J. S. (1997). The learner-centered classroom and school: Strategies for increasing student motivation and achievement. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Ornstein, A. (1993). How to recognize good teaching. The American School Board Journal, 180 (1), 24–27.
    Rossi, R., & Montgomery, A. (Eds.). (1994, January). Educational reforms and students at risk: A review of the current state of the art. Studies of Education Reform. Retrieved September 15, 2000, from http://www.ed.gov/pubs/EdReformStudies/EdReforms/title.html.
    Shephard, L., & Smith, M. (1990). Synthesis of research on grade retention. Educational Leadership, 47 (8), 84–88.
    Thomas, M., & Bainbridge, W. (2001). The contamination of the effective schools movement. The School Administrator, 58 (3), 55.
    Van Horn, R. (2008). Bridging the chasm between research and practice: A guide to major educational research. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Education.
    Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 80 (2), 139–148.
    Bohn, A., & Sleeter, C. (2000). Multicultural education and the standards movement: A report from the field. Phi Delta Kappan, 82 (2), 156–159.
    Ciliberto, A. (2001). In this issue. NASSP's Bulletin, 85 (621), 1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019263650108562901
    Education Commission of the States, NCLB Reauthorization database. (2007). Education Issues. Retrieved November 26, 2008, from http://www.ecs.org/html/educationIssues/NCLBreauthorization/NCLB.
    Eisner, E. (2001). What does it mean to say a school is doing well?Phi Delta Kappan, 82 (5), 367–372.
    Franklin, J. (2001). Trying too hard? How accountability and testing are affecting constructivist teaching. ASCD's Education Update, 43 (3), 8.
    Glickman, C. D., Gordon, S. P., & Ross-Gordon, J. M. (2007). Supervision and instructional leadership: A developmental approach (
    7th ed.
    ). Boston: Pearson Education.
    Houston, P. (2001). It takes a village to raise achievement. The School Administrator, 6 (58), 46.
    Jones, A. (2001). Welcome to standardsville. Phi Delta Kappan, 82 (6), 462–464.
    Kohn, A. (2001). Fighting the tests: A practical guide to rescuing our schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 82 (5), 348–357.
    Knowles, R., & Knowles, T. (2001). Accountability for what?Phi Delta Kappan, 82 (5), 390–392.
    Lewis, A.C. (2008) Washington commentary: Clean up the test mess. Phi Delta Kappan, 87 (9).
    Linn, R. L. (2001, Spring). Reporting school quality in standards-based accountability systems. CRESST Policy Brief, 3. Retrieved November 26, 2008, from http://www.cse.ucla.
    McCloskeyW., & McMunn, N. (2000). Strategies for dealing with high-stakes state tests. Phi Delta Kappan, 82 (2), 115–120.
    Merrow, J. (2001). Undermining standards. Phi Delta Kappan, 82 (9), 652–659.
    National Center for Fair and Open Testing. (2008, January). “No Child Left Behind” after six years: An escalating track record of failure. Retrieved November 26, 2008, from http://www.fairtest.org/NCLB-After-Six-Years.
    Mills, R. (2001). Distractions in a season of accountability. The School Administrator, 6 (58), 40.
    Mintzberg, H. (1994). The rise and fall of strategic planning. New York: Free Press.
    Nave, B., Meich, E., & Mosteller, F. A. (2000). A lapse in standards: Linking standards-based reform with student achievement. Phi Delta Kappan, 82 (2), 128–132.
    Razik, T. A., & Swanson, A. D. (1995). Fundamental concepts of educational leadership. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Reeves, D. (2001). Standards make a difference: The influence of standards on classroom assessment. NASSP's Bulletin, 85 (621), 5–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019263650108562102
    Schlechty, P. (1990). Schools for the 21st century: Leadership imperative for educational reform. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Smith, J. (2001, Spring). Are standards improving teaching and learning? MASCD's Noteworthy News, 4–5
    Stiggins, R. J. (1997). Student-centered classroom assessment (
    2nd ed.
    ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall
    Stiggins, R. J. (2001). The principal's leadership role in assessment. NASSP's Bulletin, 85 (621), 13–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019263650108562103
    Students and accountability. (2001). ASCD's Education Update, 43, 6–7.
    Thompson, S. (2001). The authentic standards movement and its evil twin. Phi Delta Kappan, 82 (5), 358–362.
    Tirozzi, G. (2001). The artistry of leadership: The evolving role of the secondary school principalship. Phi Delta Kappan, 82 (6), 434–439.
    Van Horn, R. (2008). Bridging the chasm between research and practice: A guide to major educational research. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Education.
    Bennis, W., & Goldsmith, J. (1997). Learning to lead: A workbook on becoming a leader. Reading, MA: Perseus.
    Bernhardt, V. L. (1998). Data analysis for comprehensive schoolwide improvement. Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.
    Burton, G.A. (2001). Success means our graduates give back. The School Administrator, 58 (4), 42.
    Covey, S. (1991). Principle-centered leadership. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Creighton, T. B. (2001a). Data analysis in administrators’ hands: An oxymoron?The School Administrator, 58 (4), 6–11.
    Creighton, T. B. (2001b). Schools and data: The educator's guide for using data to improve decision making. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Fitzpatrick, K. A. (Project Director). (1998). School improvement: Focusing on student performance. Schaumburg, IL: National Study of School Evaluation.
    Fuhrman, S. H. (2003). Is “reform” the answer for urban education? In Penn GSE: A review of research. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.
    Fullan, M. (1982). The meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Fullan, M. (1995). Contexts for leadership and change: Overview and framework. In M. J.O'Hair & S. J.Odell (Eds.), Educating teachers for leadership and change (pp. 1–10). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Goens, G.A. (2001). Beyond data: The world of scenario planning. Phi Delta Kappan, 58 (4), 27–32.
    Goldberg, M. (2001). Leadership in education. Phi Delta Kappan, 82 (10), 757–761.
    Greenspun, E. (2001). Backtalk. Phi Delta Kappan, 82 (8), 644.
    Hoyle, J. R., English, F., & Steffy, B. (1994). Skills for successful school leaders (
    2nd ed.
    ). Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators.
    Neuman, M., & Pelchat, J. (2001). The challenge to leadership: Focusing on student achievement. Phi Delta Kappan, 82 (10), 732–736.
    Presidential Task Force on Psychology in Education & American Psychological Association. (1993, January). Learner-centered psychological principles: Guidelines for school design and reform. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association/Mid-continent Regional Educational Laboratory.
    Razik, T. A., & Swanson, A. D. (2001). Fundamental concepts of educational leadership (
    2nd ed.
    ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Reeves, D. (2006). The learning leader: How to focus school improvement for better results. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    Schlechty, P. C. (1990). Schools for the 21st century: Leadership imperatives for educational reform. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Schwab, R., & Foa, L. (2001). Integrating technologies throughout our schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 82 (8), 620–624.
    Schwahn, C., & Spady, W. (1998). Total leaders: Applying the best future-focused change strategies to education. Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators.
    Southern Regional Education Board. (1998). Getting results: A fresh look at school accountability. Atlanta, GA: Southern Regional Education Board.
    Streifer, P. A. (2001). The drill-down process. The School Administrator, 58 (4), 16–19.
    Tanck, M. L. (1994). Celebrating education as a profession. In D. R.Walling (Ed.), Teachers as leaders (pp. 83–99). Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation.
    U.S. Department of Education. (2004). National education technology plan: The future is now. Retrieved on August 11, 2008, from http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/os/technology/plan/2004/site/theplan/edlite-Recommendations.
    U.S. Office of Special Education Programs. (2000). Promising practices. Retrieved on September 20, 2000, from http://ericec.org/osep/promprac.htm.
    Wells, G. (2001). Software for data use. The School Administrator, 58 (4), 8.
    Yeagley, R. (2001). Data in your hands. The School Administrator, 58 (4), 12–15.
    Covey, S. (2004). The seven habits of highly effective people: Power lessons in personal change. New York: Free Press.
    Dyer, W. W. (2007). Change your thoughts–change your life: Living the wisdom of the Tao. Carlsbad, CA: Hay House.

    Corwin

    The Corwin logo—a raven striding across an open book—represents the union of courage and learning. Corwin is committed to improving education for all learners by publishing books and other professional development resources for those serving the field of PreK-12 education. By providing practical, hands-on materials, Corwin continues to carry out the promise of its motto: “Helping Educators Do Their Work Better.”


    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website