The Imperative of Health: Public Health and the Regulated Body
Publication Year: 1995
In this reappraisal of public health and health promotion in contemporary societies, Deborah Lupton explores public health and health promotion using contemporary sociocultural and political theory, particularly that building on Foucault's writings on subjectivity, embodiment and power relations. The author examines the implications of the new social theories for the study of health promotion and health communication to analyze the symbolic nature of public health practices, and explores their underlying meanings and assumptions.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Governing the Masses: The Emergence of the Public Health Movement
- Chapter 2: Technologies of Health: Contemporary Health Promotion and Public Health
- Chapter 3: Taming Uncertainty: Risk Discourse and Diagnostic Testing
- Chapter 4: Communicating Health: The Mass Media and Advertising in Health Promotion
- Chapter 5: Bodies, Pleasures and the Practices of the Self
© Deborah Lupton 1995
First published 1995. Reprinted 1997
All right reserved. No part this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or utilized in any from or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without permission in writing from the Publishers.
SAGE Publication Ltd
6 Bonhill Street
London EC2A 4PU
SAGE Publications Inc
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
32, M-Block Market
New Delhi 110 048
British Library Cataloguing in Publlcation data
A catalogue record fro this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 0 8039 7935 5
ISBN 0 8039 7936 3 (pbk)
Typeset by Photoprint, Torquay, Devon
I am grateful to the University of Western Sydney, Nepean, for providing me with a grant allowing release from some of my usual teaching duties in second semester 1994 to assist in the completion of this book. I thank the two anonymous reviewers of the penultimate draft of the book for their helpful critical comments. Thanks are due too to Gamini Colless for his continuing support of my work.
Parts of my article ‘Risk as moral danger: the social and political functions of risk discourse in public health’ published in the International Journal of Health Services, 1993, 23(3), 425–35, are reproduced in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 and 5 include reworked excerpts from another of my articles, ‘Consumerism, commodity culture and health promotion’ which was published in Health Promotion International, 1994, 9(2), 111–18.[Page viii]
Throughout this book I have sought to problematize the taken-for-granted nature of health promotion discourses. I have attempted to demonstrate that public health and health promotion act as apparatuses of moral regulation, serving to draw distinctions between ‘civilized’ and ‘uncivilized’ behaviour, to privilege a version of subjectivity that incorporates rationality, to promote notions of the human body as separate from the mind/ will, needful of careful management and control and to represent certain social groups as uncontrolled, and therefore, the threatening Other. However I have also argued that these governmental texts, discourses and practices should not simply be regarded as means of brainwashing, oppression or indoctrination, but as the sites of struggle and the constant renegotiation of meaning, subjectivity and bodily practices. Indeed, as I have shown, the imperatives of public health and health promotion may also be considered both sources of pleasure in themselves and incitements of the ‘sins’ they seek to control. As I have observed in earlier chapters, in health promotional discourses the privileging of rationality may be viewed as an attempt to suppress the disorderly aspects of human nature, as well as those threatened by disease and illness states and death, to deny the body, to project anxieties about contamination and dirt onto marginalized groups. Yet the continued attempts to suppress the body only serve to reincite desire and highlight embodiment. As the psychoanalytic perspective argues, rationality and irrationality are in a dialectical relationship; each could not exist without the other. Indeed, the quest for rationality itself emerging from the Enlightenment could be described as an irrational fantasy of mastery and domination, an expression of the desire for a perfectly ordered universe (Sofia, 1993: 26). Hence the ultimate irrationality and perverse nature of rationality as it is expressed in public health and other governmental sites.
I began this book by discussing the importance of reflexivity on the part of researchers and practitioners in the fields of public health and health promotion. I argued that the adoption of socio-cultural theory and critique encourages workers and researchers to devote more attention to the epistemological and ontological aspects of their endeavours. Their ability to question the practices, knowledges and belief systems of public health and health promotion, including their own privileging of ‘health’, ‘knowledge’ and ‘rationality’, needs to be fostered. The critical analysis of discourse encourages practitioners and researchers constantly to be reflexive [Page 159]and to confront the political dimension of their own use of language and discourse, including their truth claims, as part of their professional activities. Such praxis should include not only analysing the discriminatory or stereotyping characteristics of discourses and practices and interrogating their normalizing assumptions, but also highlighting the multiple and alternative forms of subjectivity, rationality and bodily practices that are available in the dispersed and contested sites of governmentality. Questioning the dualisms, or binary oppositions, that dominate meaning is an important aspect of the critical awareness of language and discourse. For example, as shown throughout this book, the insistence on discriminating between men/women, the masculine/the feminine, moral/depraved, well/ ill, controlled/chaotic, active/passive, Self/Other and disciplined/unruly has been central to medical and public health discourses and remains so. Such essentialisms are too reductive, failing to recognize the plurality of difference that exists in the social world.
One approach to develop reflexivity is the use of writing tasks to encourage individuals to explore the conditions of their own lives in the context of broader power relations. Writing narratives or stories and reading them ‘across and against each other’ is a means of laying bare the socio-political nature of the construction of individual lives and allows for the possibility of ‘rewriting’ stories (Game, 1991: 47–8). There are strong possibilities here for the manner in which health promoters and educators and other public health workers might be trained themselves, and in turn learn to train others in different ‘ways of seeing’. Fox (1993: 114–15) describes a postgraduate programme at a British university training individuals in the caring professions (including health workers) which uses ficto-critical writing as a means of encouraging reflexive thought on work practices. The participants write fictional accounts based on issues in their lives, past or present, on a topic decided by the group each week. They then read their writing aloud and discuss them in a small group setting. The use of fiction is to enable participants to write about potentially sensitive or embarrassing issues without feeling as if they are exposing themselves. Sociological writing and practices are themselves challenged by this approach, including questions concerning the nature of knowledge and theorizing, and the dialectic between subjectivity and the social collective.
Students and practitioners may also be encouraged to engage in media analysis, discourse analysis and other methods of revealing the ways in which knowledges and truths are created and power relations reproduced through language and discourse. For example, the AIDS cultural activist and academic Cindy Patton (1990: 158–9) has described her strategies for teaching about AIDS at the tertiary level, involving encouraging discussion on the political nature of ‘facts’ and how they make a difference to people's experiences and concerns, comparing different genres of writing about and visually portraying AIDS, from New Right pamphlets and government policy documents to novels and plays about living with AIDS, inviting outside speakers who can provide a number of different perspectives on [Page 160]the epidemic, from hospice workers to lawyers, and teaching ‘practical deconstruction’, or reading texts such as pamphlets, media reports, everyday conversations and medical literature for their discursive practices. She gives as an example the interrogation of the term ‘emergency’ to describe the AIDS epidemic. Patton looks at whose interests are served by describing the epidemic as an ‘emergency’, the ways in which this discursive choice implicates certain public health laws, invokes issues of blame, quarantine and the policing of marginalized groups. She and her students pursue discourses related to ‘emergency’, including gender, post-colonial social organization, definitions of ‘public’ and ‘health’ and who is empowered to make such definitions (1990: 107–8; see also Grover, 1992; Lupton, 1994c).
The process of interrogating a text, of laying bare its discursive and ideological dimensions, may create resistant readings which may ‘disarticulate to one extent or another the intertextual articulation of a text’ (Fairclough, 1992: 136). An example of a ‘demystification’ of a commodity through such a critical interrogation of discourse and representation is that conducted by Klein in his book Cigarettes are Sublime (discussed in Chapter 5). According to Klein (1993: ix), one of the purposes of writing his psychoanalytically informed work on the sublime nature of the cigarette and smoking (which process he dubs ‘fumo-analysis’) was to acquire another perspective on the satisfactions that smoking provides. He argues that attempts to elucidate the smoking experience will provide smokers with a new perspective on their habit, perhaps disenthralling cigarettes by removing the mystique around them, and thus stripping them of their very attractiveness (1993: 2–3). Klein himself had written his book as a (successful) strategy for giving up smoking, and therefore describes his work as ‘both an ode and an elegy to cigarettes’ (1993: 3).
It is important to bear in mind that such pedagogical processes have themselves the potential to be confining and authoritarian, perpetuating rather than challenging relations of power. Donald (1992: 142–3) points to the paradox in teaching people to be autonomous and ‘think for themselves’; in doing so, one is directing them to behave in certain ways, thus restricting their autonomy (see also Lather, 1991: 101). This dilemma, I believe, does not negate attempts to demystify the taken-for-granted nature of public health and health promotion, to expose their epistemological bases, to construct alternative positions, viewpoints and knowledges with the awareness of their nature as cultural practices. To disrupt the confining nature of the types of subjects and bodies offered by public health and health promotion, it is necessary to realize their contingent, constantly moving and dispersed nature, to acknowledge that ‘positions of resistance can never be established once and for all. They must, instead, be perpetually refashioned to address adequately the shifting conditions and circumstances that ground them’ (Lather, 1991: 100). The point is not to seek a certain ‘truth’, but to uncover the varieties of truth that operate, to highlight the nature of truth as transitory and political and the position of [Page 161]subjects as inevitably fragmentary and contradictory. If it is acknowledged that discourse formations and subject positions are not bounded systems, but are open to dispersal, contradiction, contestation and opposition, then the opportunity to construct alternative discourses and subject positions is facilitated. Public health and health promotion become recognized as institutions that reproduce accepted understandings of truth and certain versions of the subject within specific historical and social conditions.
There may seem to be a certain lack of security and order in this approach to subjectivity and the social world, particularly in this post-Enlightenment age, when individuals are acculturated to accept the notion of the unified self as the ideal towards which they should strive. But ontological uncertainty, ambivalence and fragmentation need not be negative. As Smart (1993: 103) has asserted, ‘[t]he prospect of living without certainty or necessity may cause us to respond with fear, anxiety, and insecurity, but equally it allows us to live with imagination and responsibility … it constitutes a site, space, or clearing for political possibilities, rather than a distinctive political strategy’. He (1993: 103–6) argues that this perspective allows individuals to assume responsibility with others for their shaping of their destiny, rather than accepting fate, providing a space for the acknowledgment of differences and diversity, new ways of relating, new forms of experience and the social. As this suggests, the ‘resistance’ emerging from such processes of interrogation need not be confined to the micro-level. Individual recognition of the processes by which one's own subjectivity is shaped through the discursive practices and regulatory activities of institutions such as public health and health promotion in ways that are often confining and discriminatory, if articulated and shared by others may lead to collective action that seeks to contest taken-for-granted imperatives and strategies.
References[Page 162]Abrams, M.H. (ed.) (1979) The Norton Anthology of English Literature,4th edn.New York: W.W. Norton and Co.1990) HIV and pregnancy. Hastings Center Report, March/April, pp. 16–21.and (1993) In her own best interests? Women and health education: a review of the last fifty years. Health Education Journal, 52(3), 141–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001789699305200306(1990) Opportunities for improving the nation's health through collaboration with the mass media. Public Health Reports, 105(3), 219–23.(1983) Political Anatomy of the Body: Medical Knowledge in Britain in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1993) Public health spaces and the fabrication of identity. Sociology, 27(3), 393–410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038593027003004(1989) Health and Efficiency: A Sociology of Health Economics. Milton Keynes: Open University Press., and (1988) The New Public Health. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.and (1990) Issues and initiatives in communicating health information to the public. In Atkin, C. and Wallack, L. (eds), Mass Communication and Public Health: Complexities and Conflicts. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, pp. 13–39.and (1992) Designing Health Communication Campaigns: What Works?Newbury Park, CA: Sage., and (1992) Taboos and excesses: lay health moralities in middle class families. Sociology of Health and Illness, 14(2), 255–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep11343709(1942) Health Education of the Public: A Practical Manual of Technic,and (2nd edn, rev. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.1992) Survival as a social construct. Theory, Culture and Society, 9, 1–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026327692009001002(1991) Knowledge and control in health promotion: a test case for social policy and social theory. In Gabe, J., Calnan, M. and Bury, M. (eds), The Sociology of the Health Service. London: Routledge, pp. 162–202.(1992) Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. London: Sage.(1992) Psychology and health promotion. In Bunton, R. and Macdonald, G. (eds), Health Promotion: Disciplines and Diversity. London: Routledge, pp. 23–41.and (Better Health Commission (1986) Looking Forward to Better Health: Volume One. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.1992) The genetic analysis of human behaviour: a new era?Social Science and Medicine, 35(3), 227–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2892%2990019-M, and (1988) Public health and the medical profession in nineteenth-century Canada. In MacLeod, R. and Lewis, M. (eds), Disease, Medicine, and Empire: Perspectives on Western Medicine and the Experience of European Expansion. London: Routledge, pp. 156–75(1993) Consumption. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203313114(1992) AIDS and promiscuity: muddles in the models of HIV prevention. Medical Anthropology, 14, 145–223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01459740.1992.9966072([Page 163]1990) Reading the slender body. In Jacobus, M., Keller, E.F. and Shuttleworth, S. (eds), Body I Politics: Women and the Discourses of Science. New York: Routledge, pp. 83–112.(1984) ∗Distinction: a Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.(1990) In Other Words: Essays Towards a Reflexive Sociology. Cambridge: Polity Press.(1993) How can one be a sports fan? In During, S. (ed.), The Cultural Studies Reader. London: Routledge, pp. 339–57.(1985) No Magic Bullet: A Social History of Venereal Disease in the United States since 1880. New York: Oxford University Press.(1978) Health education: can the reformers be reformed?International Journal of Health Services, 8(1), 3–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/7Y3V-YN72-XAR6-L6D5and (1992) More than a woolly jumper: health promotion as social regulation. Critical Public Health, 3(2), 4–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09581599208406845(1992) Introduction. In Bunton, R. and Macdonald, G. (eds), Health Promotion: Disciplines and Diversity. London: Routledge, pp. 1–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203412848and (1991) Theories of behavioural change and their use in health promotion: some neglected areas. Health Education Research, 6(2), 153–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/her/6.2.153, and (1991) Peculiar interests: civil society and governing ‘the system of natural liberty’. In Burchell, G., Gordon, C. and Miller, P. (eds), The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality. Hempel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, pp. 119–50.(1991) Rethinking the role of television advertising during health crises: a rhetorical analysis of the federal AIDS campaigns. Journal of Advertising, 20(1), 28–37.and (1991) Style of life and the salience of health: an exploratory study of health related practices in households from differing socio-economic circumstances. Sociology of Health and Illness, 13(4), 516–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9566.1991.tb00525.xand (1993) The importance of social theory for health promotion: from description to reflexivity. Health Promotion International, 8(2), 147–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/8.2.147(1993) Most are tolerant of others smoking. Sydney Morning Herald, 9 October.(1990) Towards an understanding of risk behaviour: an AIDS risk reduction model (ARRM)Health Education Quarterly, 17(1), 53–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819001700107, and (1987) Epidemiology: An Introductory Text for Medical and Other Health Science Students. Sydney: New South Wales University Press., and (1992) Miasmas and Disease: Public Health and the Environment in the Pre-Industrial Age. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.(1991) Health education in Australia. Annual Review of Health Social Sciences, 1, 7–29.(1992) The new corporate health ethic: lifestyle and the social control of work. International Journal of Health Services, 22(1), 89–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/FGYX-6EBJ-70QT-0T4Eand (1986) The Foul and the Fragrant: Odour and the French Social Imagination. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1985) Life style - an emergent concept in the sociomedical sciences. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 9, 423–37., and (1993) Foucault and psychoanalysis. Arena, 1, 63–105.(1989) The Whole Truth: the Myth of Alternative Health. London: Faber and Faber.(1977) You are dangerous to your health: the ideology and politics of victim blaming. International Journal of Health Services, 1, 663–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/YU77-T7B1-EN9X-G0PN(1980) Healthism and the medicalization of everyday life. International Journal of Health Services, 19, 365–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/3H2H-3XJN-3KAY-G9NY([Page 164]1984) A cultural account of ‘health’: control, release, and the social body. In McKinlay, J.B. (ed.), Issues in the Political Economy of Health Care. New York: Tavistock, pp. 60–103.(1994) The boundaries of the self and the unhealthy other: reflections on health, culture and AIDS. Social Science and Medicine, 38(10), 1347–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2894%2990273-9(1985) Times of Crisis: Epidemics in Sydney, 1788–1900. Sydney: Sydney University Press.(1989) Innocent murmurs: echocardiography and the diagnosis of cardiac normality. Sociology of Health and Illness, 11(2), 99–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep10844255(1990) Sex, Death and Punishment: Attitudes to Sex and Sexuality in Britain since the Renaissance. London: Collins.(1991) The Historical Origins of Health Fascism. London: Forest.(1991) Lay epidemiology and the prevention paradox: the implications of coronary candidacy for health education. Sociology of Health and Illness, 13(1), 1–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep11340301, and (1992) The limits of lifestyle: re-assessing ‘fatalism’ in the popular culture of illness prevention. Social Science and Medicine, 34(6), 675–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2892%2990195-V, and (1994) The potential social impact of predictive genetic testing for susceptibility to common chronic diseases: a review and proposed research agenda. Sociology of Health and Illness, 16(3), 340–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep11348762, and (1993) Young women and smoking: towards a sociological account. Health Promotion International, 8(2), 95–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/8.2.95(1991) The Constitution of Poverty: Toward a Genealogy of Liberal Governance. London: Routledge.(1994) ‘A social structure of many souls’: moral regulation, government, and self-formation. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 19(2), 145–68.(1990) Health risk appraisal in the 1990s: opportunities, challenges, and expectations. Annual Review of Public Health, 11, 401–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pu.11.050190.002153and (1990) The use of mass media in substance abuse prevention. Health Affairs, 9(2), 30–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.9.2.30and (1991) On the threshold: psychoanalysis and cultural studies. In Donald, J. (ed.), Psychoanalysis and Cultural Theory: Thresholds. Houndsmills: Macmillan, pp. 1–10.(1992) Sentimental Education: Schooling, Popular Culture and the Regulation of Liberty. London: Verso.(1993) The natural man and the virtuous woman: reproducing citizens. In Jenks, C. (ed.), Cultural Reproduction. London: Routledge, pp. 36–54.(1991) Public health advertising: execution guidelines for health promotion professionals. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 1(1), 40–5.(1979) The Policing of Families. New York: Pantheon Books.(1983) Alcohol, Youth and the State: Drinking Practices, Controls and Health Education. London: Croom Helm.(1980) Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.(1986) Risk Acceptability According to the Social Sciences. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.(1987) A distinct anthropological perspective. In Douglas, M. (ed.), Constructive Drinking: Perspectives on Drink from Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 3–15.(1990) Risk as a forensic resource. Daedalus, Fall, 1–16.(1990) The self as risk-taker: a cultural theory of contagion in relation to AIDS. Sociological Review, 38(3), 445–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sore.1990.38.issue-3and (1978) The World of Goods. Harmondsworth: Penguin.and (1982) Risk and Culture. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.and ([Page 165]1992) Genetic secrets: social issues of medical screening in a genetic age. Hastings Center Report, July/August Supplement, pp. 15–18.(1990) The Sanitarians: A History of American Public Health. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.(1992) Screening, ethics, and the law. British Medical Journal, 305, 267–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.305.6848.267and (1978) The Civilizing Process. New York: Urizen.(1990) Losing the war against cancer: who's to blame and what to do about it. International Journal of Health Services, 20(1), 53–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/W318-FRD5-KVX8-9QJJ(1991) Insurance and risk. In Burchell, G., Gordon, C. and Miller, P. (eds)The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality. Hempel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, pp. 197–210.(1992) Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge: Polity Press.(1993) Critical discourse analysis and the marketization of public discourse. Discourse and Society, 14(2), 133–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0957926593004002002(1991) Addressing the contradictions: health promotion and community health action in the United Kingdom. International Journal of Health Services, 21(3), 423–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/2DP4-J4UP-R3MG-N75G(1991a) The body in consumer culture. In Featherstone, M., Hepworth, M. and Turner, B.S. (eds), The Body: Social Process and Cultural Theory. London: Sage, pp. 170–96(1991b) Consumer Culture and Postmodernism. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446212424(1991) The mask of ageing and the postmodern life course. In Featherstone, M., Hepworth, M. and Turner, B.S. (eds), The Body: Social Process and Cultural Theory. London: Sage, pp. 371–89.and (Fee, E. and Fox, D.M. (eds)(1988) AIDS: The Burdens of History. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.FeeE. and Fox, D.M. (eds) (1992) AIDS: The Making of a Chronic Disease. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.1992) Public health, preventive medicine and professionalization: England and America in the nineteenth century. In Wear, A. (ed.), Medicine in Society: Historical Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 249–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511599682.009and (1988) Pensive women, painful vigils: consequences of delay in assessment of mammographic abnormalities. Lancet, i, 1041–2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736%2888%2991854-5(1982) Appraising the health of health risk appraisal. American Journal of Public Health, 72(4), 337–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.72.4.337(1987) The lost subject of medical sociology. In Scambler, G. (ed.), Sociological Theory and Medical Sociology. London: Tavistock, pp. 77–109.(1989) Unconscious aspects of health and the public sphere. In Richards, B. (ed.), Crises of the Self: Further Essays on Psychoanalysis and Politics. London: Free Association Books.(1993) The Classing Gaze: Sexuality, Class and Surveillance. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.(1990) Introduction to Communication Studies. London: Routledge.(1987) Evaluation of the development, dissemination and effectiveness of mass media health programming. Health Education Research: Theory and Practice, 2(2), 123–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/her/2.2.123(1990) Health promotion and mass media use: translating research into practice. Health Education Research: Theory and Practice, 5(1), 73–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/her/5.1.73and (1975) The Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medical Perception. New York: Vintage Books.(1979) The History of Sexuality: Volume I, An Introduction. London: Allen Lane.(1980a) Body/Power. In Gordon, C. (ed.), Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972–1977. New York: Pantheon Books, pp. 55–62.(1980b) Two lectures. In Gordon, C. (ed.), Power!Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972–1977. New York: Pantheon Books, pp. 78–108.([Page 166]1980c) The eye of power. In Gordon, C. (ed.), Power!Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972–1977. New York: Pantheon Books, pp. 146–65.(1984a) The politics of health in the eighteenth century. In Rabinow, P. (ed.), The Foucault Reader. New York: Pantheon Books, pp. 273–89.(1984b) Nietzche, genealogy, history. In Rabinow, P. (ed.), The Foucault Reader. New York: Pantheon Books, pp. 76–100.(1985) The Use of Pleasure: Volume 2 of the History of Sexuality. New York: Pantheon Books.(1986) The Care of the Self: Volume 3 of the History of Sexuality. New York: Pantheon Books.(1988a) Technologies of the self. In Martin, L.H., Gutman, H. and Hutton, P.H. (eds), Technologies of the Self: A Seminar with Michel Foucault. London: Tavistock, pp. 16–49.(1988b) The political technology of individuals. In Martin, L.H., Gutman, H. and Hutton, P.H. (eds), Technologies of the Self: A Seminar with Michel Foucault. London: Tavistock, pp. 145–62.(1991) Governmentality. In Burchell, G., Gordon, C. and Miller, P. (eds), The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, pp. 87–104.(1988) Photographing Medicine: Images and Power in Britain and America since 1840. New York: Greenwood.and (1991) Postmodernism, rationality and the evaluation of health care. Sociological Review, 39(4), 709–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.1991.tb00873.x(1993) Postmodernism, Sociology and Health. Buckingham: Open University Press.(1992) The other who is also the same: the relevance of epidemics in space and time for prevention of HIV infection. International Journal of Health Services, 22(1), 73–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/6VN3-9JAE-RQD5-U03M(1994) The impact of HIV/AIDS on concepts relating to risk and culture within British community epidemiology: candidates or targets for prevention. Social Science and Medicine, 38(10), 1325–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2894%2990271-2(1990) Is there a hard-to-reach audience?Public Health Reports, 105(3), 232–8and (1982) Attendance at a breast screening clinic: a problem of administration or attitudes. British Medical Journal, 285, 617–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.285.6342.617, , , , and (1994) Dissent in science: styles of scientific practice and the controversy over the cause of AIDS. Social Science and Medicine, 38(8), 1017–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2894%2990219-4and (1991) Undoing the Social: Towards a Deconstructive Sociology. Buckingham: Open University Press.(1990) Rubber wars: struggles over the condom in the United States. Journal of the History of Sexuality, 1(2), 262–82.(1993) Introduction: the project of Michel Foucault. In Gane, M. and Johnson, T. (eds), Foucault's New Domains. London: Routledge, pp. 1–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203419892and (1986) The meaning of lumps: a case study of the ambiguities of risk. In Janes, C.R., Stall, R. and Gifford, S.M. (eds), Anthropology and Epidemiology: Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Study of Health and Disease. Dordrecht: Reidel, pp. 213–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-3723-9_8(1989) Fitness and the postmodern self. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 30, 180–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2137012(1989) AIDS and the social contract. In Carter, E. and Watney, S. (eds), Taking Liberties: AIDS and Cultural Politics. London: Serpent's Tail, pp. 81–94.(1993) Tobacco in History: The Cultures of Dependence. London: Routledge.(1991) Government rationality: an introduction. In Burchell, G., Gordon, C. and Miller, P. (eds), The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, pp. 1–52.([Page 167]1993) A practical man: portraiture between word and image. Continuum, 6(2), 156–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10304319309359404(1991) The marketing of empowerment and the construction of the health consumer: a critique of health promotion. International Journal of Health Services, 21(2), 329–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/G4DA-8L3H-EDYH-P6C6(1987) Women's smoking and family health. Social Science and Medicine, 25(1), 47–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2887%2990206-1(1993) Psychosomatic subjects and the ‘duty to be well’: personal agency within medical rationality. Economy and Society, 22(3), 357–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03085149300000024(1987) Being HIV antibody positive. British Medical Journal, 295, 256–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.295.6592.256(1989) Sexual Subversions: Three French Feminists. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.(1994) Volatile Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.(1992) AIDS, keywords, and cultural work. In Grossberg, L., Nelson, C. and Treichler, P. (eds), Cultural Studies. New York: Routledge, pp. 227–39.(1987) Passage to play: rituals of drinking time in American society. In Douglas, M. (ed.), Constructive Drinking: Perspectives on Drink from Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 73–90.(1990) The Taming of Chance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1994) Medical risk: implicating poor pregnant women. Social Science and Medicine, 38(5), 665–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2894%2990457-X(1989) The biopolitics of postmodern bodies: determinations of self in immune system discourse. Differences, 1(1), 3–44.(1986) Sport, Power and Culture: A Social and Historical Analysis of Popular Sports in Britain. Cambridge: Polity Press.(1987) The body, sport and power relations. In Home, J., Jary, D. and Tomlinson, A. (eds), Sport, Leisure and Social Relations. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, pp. 139–59.(1992) ‘Relapse’ to unsafe sexual behaviour among gay men: a critique of recent behavioural HIV/AIDS research. Sociology of Health and Illness, 14(2), 216–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/shil.1992.14.issue-2, , , and (1991) Social marketing and communication in health promotion. Health Promotion International, 6(2), 135–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/6.2.135and (1992) On the epistemology of risk: language, logic and social science. Social Science and Medicine, 35 (4), 401–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2892%2990332-K(1991) An exploration of the relationships between memory and sport. Sociology of Sport Journal, 8, 213–27.(1984) Theorizing subjectivity. In Henriques, J., Hollway, W., Urwin, C, Venn, C. and Walkerdine, V. (eds), Changing the Subject: Psychology, Social Regulation and Subjectivity. London: Methuen, pp. 203–26., , , and (1987) Illness and Self in Society. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.and (1992) The Creatures Time Forgot: Photography and Disability Imagery. London: Routledge.(1991) Bio-politics and social policy: Foucault's account of welfare. In Feather-stone, M., Hepworth, M. and Turner, B.S. (eds), The Body: Social Process and Cultural Theory. London: Sage, pp. 225–55.(1989) Rationality and modern society. Political Theory Newsletter, I, 111–25.(1992) Theory in health education practice. Health Education Quarterly, 19(3), 295–313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819201900303, and (1992) Something old, something new: perspectives on five ‘new’ public health movements. Health Promotion Journal of Australia, 2(3), 4–11.(1986) Introduction. In Hoy, D.C. (ed.), Foucault: A Critical Reader. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, pp. 1–26.([Page 168]1984) Personal courage is not enough: some hazards of childbearing in the 1980s. In Arditti, R., Klein, R.D. and Minden, S. (eds), Test-tube Women: What Future for Motherhood?London: Pandora, pp. 331–55.(1993) Subjectivity and government. Economy and Society, 22(1), 123–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03085149300000007(1976) Limits to Medicine: Medical Nemesis: the Expropriation of Health. London: Marion Boyers.(1992) The implications of increased life expectancy for family and social life. In Wear, A. (ed.), Medicine in Society: Historical Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 347–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511599682.013(1993) Why I don't treat cigarette smokers. Tobacco Control, 2, 236.(1991) The qualitative tradition in social science inquiry: contributions to mass communication research. In Jensen, K.B. and Jankowski, N.W. (eds), A Handbook of Qualitative Methodologies for Mass Communication Research. London: Routledge, pp. 44–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203409800and (1991) Reception analysis: mass communication as the social production of meaning. In Jensen, K.B. and Jankowski, N.W. (eds), A Handbook of Qualitative Methodologies for Mass Communication Research. London: Routledge, pp. 135–48http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203409800(1991) Learning to live again: the process of adjustment following a heart attack. In Morse, J.M. and Johnson, J.L. (eds), The Illness Experience: Dimensions of Suffering. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, pp. 13–88.(1993) Expertise and the state. In Gane, M. and Johnson, T. (eds), Foucault's New Domains. London: Routledge, pp. 139–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203419892(1986) Social Hygiene in Twentieth Century Britain. Beckenham: Croom Helm.(1993) Redefining health: living with cancer. Social Science and Medicine, 37(3), 295–314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2893%2990261-2(1975) The social nature of the definition problem in health. International Journal of Health Services, 5(4), 625–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/X5H6-TC5W-D36T-K7KY(1991) Health education and the problem of knowledge. Health Promotion International, 6(4), 291–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/6.4.291(1992) Health and the social body. In Scott, S., Williams, G., Platt, S. and Thomas, H. (eds), Private Risks and Public Dangers. Aldershot: Avebury, pp. 8–18.and (1989) Healthism and physical education. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 10(4), 417–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0142569890100403and (1993) Schooling for docility-utility: drill, gymnastics and the problem of the body in Victorian elementary schools. In Meredyth, D. and Tyler, D. (eds), Child and Citizen: Genealogies of Schooling and Subjectivity. Brisbane: Griffith University Institute for Cultural Policy Studies, pp. 103–27.and (1988) Mind and body as metaphors: hidden values in biomedicine. In Lock, M. and Gordon, D.R. (eds), Biomedicine Examined. Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 57–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-2725-4_4(1993) Cigarettes are Sublime. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.(1977) Responsibility for health. Science, 198(4322), 1103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.198.4322.1103(1982) Powers of Horror: An Essay on Abjection. New York: Columbia University Press.(1992) Mission and Method: The Early Nineteenth-Century French Public Health Movement. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511529245(1987) Orgasm, generation, and the politics of reproductive biology. In Gallagher, C. and Laqueur, T. (eds), The Making of the Modern Body: Sexuality and Society in the Nineteenth Century. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, pp. 1–41.(1994) Smoking said to increase birth risk. Sydney Morning Herald, 3 February.(1991) Genealogy and the body: Foucault/Deleuze/Nietzche. In Featherstone, M., Hepworth, M. and Turner, B.S. (eds), The Body: Social Process and Cultural Theory. London: Sage, pp. 256–80.(1991) Post-critical pedagogies: a feminist reading. Education and Society, 9(2), 100–111.([Page 169]1988) The Pasteurization of France. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1989) American advertising and the reconstruction of the body, 1880–1930. In Grover, K. (ed.), Fitness in American Culture: Images of Health, Sport, and the Body, 1830–1940. Amherst and New York: University of Massachusetts Press and the Margaret Woodbury Strong Museum, pp. 47–66.(1992) The social marketing imbroglio in health promotion. Health Promotion International, 7(1), 61–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/7.1.61(1988) Revolution at the Table: The Transformation of the American Diet. New York: Oxford University Press.(1987) Sex selection in India: girls as a bad investment. Science as Culture, 1(1), 141–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09505438709526181(1986) What Price Community Medicine? The Philosophy, Practice and Politics of Public Health Since 1919. Brighton: Wheatsheaf Books.(1992) The medical journals and the politics of public health 1918–90. In Bynum, W.F., Lock, S. and Porter, R. (eds), Medical Journals and Medical Knowledge: Historical Essays. London: Routledge, pp. 207–27.(1988) The ‘health of the race’ and infant health in New South Wales: perspectives on medicine and empire. In MacLeod, R. and Lewis, M. (eds), Disease, Medicine, and Empire: Perspectives on Western Medicine and the Experience of European Expansion. London: Routledge, pp. 301–15.(1989) A fatalistic attitude to health amongst smokers in Cardiff. Health Education Research: Theory and Practice, 4(3), 361–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/her/4.3.361, , and (1994) Health communication research reconsidered: reading the signs. Journal of Communication, 44(1), 90–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1994.tb00666.x(1989) New communicable diseases: a communication challenge. Health Communication, 1(4), 253–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327027hc0104_5(1992) Social marketing: its place in public health. Annual Review of Public Health, 13, 341–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pu.13.050192.002013, , and (1992) Led (astray) by genetic maps: the cartography of the human genome and health care. Social Science and Medicine, 35(12), 1469–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2892%2990049-V(1985) Some notions about assumptions underlying health education. Health Education Quarterly, 12(3), 231–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019818501200302and (1994a) Medicine as Culture: Illness, Disease and the Body in Western Societies. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446254530(1994b) The condom in the age of AIDS—newly respectable or still a dirty word? A discourse analysis. Qualitative Health Research, 4(3), 304–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104973239400400304(1994c) Moral Threats and Dangerous Pesires: AIDS in the News Media. London: Taylor and Francis.(1994d) ‘Everything in moderation’: responses to news media coverage of the cholesterol controversy. Presented at the British Sociology Association Medical Sociology Group 26th Annual Conference, York, England, September.(1995) ‘Panic bodies’: discourses on risk and HIV antibody testing. Sociology of Health and Illness, 17(1), 89–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep10934489, and (‘Doing the right thing’: the symbolic meanings and experiences of having an HIV antibody test. Social Science and Medicine., and (in press)1986) The cultural impact of the ‘AIDS’ test: the American experience. Social Science and Medicine, 23(5), 455–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2886%2990003-1(1994) Health promotion: the ethical dimension. Lancet, 344, 390–1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736%2894%2991407-9(1988) Culture and Consumption: New Approaches to the Symbolic Character of Consumer Goods and Activities. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.(1992) Communication theory and health promotion. In Bunton, R. and Macdonald, G. (eds), Health Promotion: Disciplines and Diversity. London: Routledge, pp. 182–201.(1990) Communication for better health. Public Health Reports, 105(3), 217–18.([Page 170]1994) Belief systems and social circumstances influencing the health choices of people in Lochaber. Health Education Journal, 53, 58–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001789699405300107and (1976) The Role of Medicine: Dream, Mirage or Nemesis?London: Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust.(1984) Women who decline breast screening. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 38, 278–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.38.4.278, , and (1992) Foucault and Feminism: Power, Gender and the Self. Cambridge: Polity Press.(1992) The construction of subjectivity and the paradox of resistance: reintegrating feminist anthropology and psychology. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 18(1), 44–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/494778and (1993) Pumping irony: the muscular and the feminine. In Scott, S. and Morgan, D. (eds), Body Matters: Essays on the Sociology of the Body. London: Falmer, pp. 49–68.and (1987) Longshore drinking, economic security and union politics in Newfoundland. In Douglas, M. (ed.), Constructive Drinking: Perspectives on Drink from Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 91–101.(1990) Picturing deviancy. In Boffin, T. and Gupta, S. (eds), Ecstatic Antibodies: Resisting the AIDS Mythology. London: Rivers Oram Press, pp. 19–36.(1990) Reducing the psychological costs. British Medical Journal, 310, 26–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.301.6742.26(1993) Resistance to peer group pressure: an inadequate basis for alcohol education. Health Education Research: Theory and Practice, 8(2), 159–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/her/8.2.159(1988) ‘The dreadful scourge’: responses to smallpox in Sydney and Melbourne, 1881–2. In MacLeod, R. and Lewis, M. (eds), Disease, Medicine, and Empire: Perspectives on Western Medicine and the Experience of European Expansion. London: Routledge, pp. 219–41.(1992) High Anxiety: Catastrophe, Scandal, Age and Comedy. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.(1993) Modernity, self-identity and the sequestration of death. Sociology27(3), 411–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038593027003005and (1992) Norbet Elias: An Introduction. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.(1993) Women, AIDS, and power in heterosexual sex: a discourse analysis. Women's Studies International Forum, 16(5), 497–511. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-5395%2893%2990099-U(1993) Governing economic life. In Gane, M. and Johnson, T. (eds), Foucault's New Domains. London: Routledge, pp. 75–105.and (1989) Health education, health promotion and the open society: an historical perspective. Health Education Quarterly, 16(1), 17–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019818901600105(1990) Promoting health through entertainment television. In Atkin, C. and Wallack, L. (eds), Mass Communication and Public Health: Complexities and Conflicts. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, pp. 114–28.(1992) Beyond the bottle: introducing anthropological debate to research into Aboriginal alcohol use. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 27(3), 173–93.(1993) You too can have a body like mine: reflections on the male body and masculinities. In Scott, S. and Morgan, D. (eds), Body Matters: Essays on the Sociology of the Body. London: Falmer, pp. 69–88.(1992) Television, Audiences and Cultural Studies. London: Routledge.(1987) Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-Moral Politics in England Since 1830. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.(1990) The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and Gender in England, 1800–1929. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1989) Sport in American life: from national health to personal fulfilment, 1890–1940. In Grover, K. (ed.), Fitness in American Culture: Images of Health, Sport, and the Body, 1830–1940. Amherst and New York: University of Massachusetts Press and the Margaret Woodbury Strong Museum, pp. 18–46.([Page 171]1987) The beliefs and attitudes of a group of men in mid-life towards tobacco use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 20 (3), 235–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0376-8716%2887%2990033-0(1992) A question of balance: health behaviour and work context among male Glaswegians. Sociology of Health and Illness, 14(1), 73–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep11007168(1993) Peering through the smoke screen. New Scientist, 9 October, 14–15.(1988) Quarantine and the problem of AIDS. In Fee, E. and Fox, D.M. (eds), AIDS: the Burdens of History. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, pp. 67–85.(1992) Changing Cultures: Feminism, Youth and Consumerism. London: Sage.(1989) Communicating technological risk: the social construction of risk perception. Annual Review of Public Health, 10, 95–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pu.10.050189.000523(1984) Workers At Risk: Voices from the WorkplaceChicago: University of Chicago Press.and (1986) Disputed dimensions of risk: a public school controversy over AIDS. Milbank Quarterly, 64(Suppl. 1), 118–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3350044and (1989) Dangerous Diagnostics: the Social Power of Biological Information. New York: Basic Books.and (1991) Wisdom, diligence and teeth: discursive practices and the creation of mothers. Sociology of Health and Illness, 13(1), 98–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep11340329(1991) ‘I don't believe in needles’: qualitative aspects of a study into the uptake of infant immunisation in two English health authorities. Social Science and Medicine, 33(4), 509–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2891%2990333-8and (1994) HIV: beyond reasonable doubt. New Scientist, 15 January, 24–8.and (1993) Goals and Targets for Australia's Health in the Year 2000 and Beyond. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service., , , and (1992) Healers in the medical market place: towards a social history of GraecoRoman medicine. In Wear, A. (ed.), Medicine in Society: Historical Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 15–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511599682(1989) Smoking in pregnancy: smokescreen or risk factor? Towards a materialist analysis. Sociology of Health and Illness, 11(4), 311–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/shil.1989.11.issue-4(1992) Social Support and Motherhood: the Natural History of a Research Culture. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.(1988) In the eye of the storm: the epidemiological construction of AIDS. In Fee, E. and Fox, D.M. (eds), AIDS: the Burdens of History. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, pp. 267–300.(1993) On liberalism, neo-liberalism and the liberal profession' of medicine. Economy and Society, 22(3), 345–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03085149300000023(1957) The Hidden Persuaders. London: Penguin.(1993) In bad odour: smell and its significance in medicine from antiquity to the seventeenth century. In Bynum, W.F. and Porter, R. (eds), Medicine and the Five Senses. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 61–8.(1992) Medicine and society in medieval Europe, 500–1500. In Wear, A. (ed.), Medicine in Society: Historical Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 59–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511599682.003(1992) Lay constructions of genetic risk. Sociology of Health and Illness, 14(4), 437–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep10493083and (1990) Health education: the political tensions. In Doxiadis, S. (ed.), Ethics in Health Education. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 63–79.and (1990) Inventing AIDS. New York: Routledge.(1987) Foetal images: the power of visual culture in the politics of reproduction. In Stanworth, M. (ed.), Reproductive Technologies: Gender, Motherhood and Medicine. Cambridge: Polity Press, pp. 57–80.(1991) Education and empowerment: postmodernism and the critique of humanism. Education and Society, 9(2), 123–34.and ([Page 172]1989) Alcohol control in the age of advertising. Drug Education Journal of Australia, 3(1), 1–8.(1991) Alcohol, the medical model and the politics of defining problems. Drug Education Journal of Australia, 5(2), 89–95.(1994) In a Critical Condition: Health and Power Relations in Australia. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.(1989) Personal control and health promotion. Social Science and Medicine, 28(8), 819–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2889%2990111-1and (1994) The persistence of inoculation in conferring resistance to smoking initiation among adolescents: the second year. Human Communication Research, 20(3), 413–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1994.tb00329.xand (1982) Concepts of illness causation and responsibility: some preliminary data from a sample of working class mothers. Social Science and Medicine, 16, 43–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2882%2990422-1and (1962) Textbook of Health Education. London: Tavistock.and (1988) The enforcement of health: the British debate. In Fee, E. and Fox, D.M. (eds), AIDS: The Burdens of History. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, pp. 97–120.and (1992) The patient in England, c.1660-c.1800. In Wear, A. (ed.), Medicine in Society: Historical Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 91–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511599682(1991) What's in a smear? Cervical screening, medical signs and metaphors. Science as Culture, 2(2), 167–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09505439109526301(1988) Prevention of Cervical Cancer: the Patient's View. London: King Edward's Hospital Fund for London.and (1989) The Social Organization of Death: Medical Discourse and Social Practices in Belfast. Basingstoke: Macmillan.(1993) Why people die: social representations of death and its causes. Science as Culture, 3(3), 346–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09505439309526355and (1990) Positive smear: the emotional issues and what can be done. Health Education Journal, 49(1), 19–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001789699004900107(1988) Chromosomes and communication: the discourse of genetic counselling. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 2(2), 143–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/maq.1988.2.issue-2(1989) Coming clean: the symbolic use of clinical hygiene in a hospital sterilizing unit. Sociology of Health and Illness, 11(3), 279–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/shil.1989.11.issue-3(1992) The growth of health promotion theory and its rational reconstruction. In Bunton, R. and Macdonald, G. (eds), Health Promotion: Disciplines and Diversity. London: Routledge, pp. 202–24.(1988) A field studies project in a city health and leisure club. Sociology of Sport Journal, 5, 50–62.and (1989) Selling safer sex: AIDS education and advertising. Health Promotion, 4(1), 27–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/4.1.27and (1990) Compulsory screening: advertising AIDS in Britain, 1986–89. Policy and Politics, 18(1), 55–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1332/030557390782454620and (1993) The new genetics: some issues for social scientists. Sociology of Health and Illness, 15(5), 567–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep11433335(1992) Cost-utility analyses in health care: present status and future issues. In Daly, J., McDonald, I. and Willis, E. (eds), Researching Health Care: Designs, Dilemmas, Disciplines. London: Routledge, pp. 21–44.(1988) Epidemics and history: ecological perspectives and social responses. In Fee, E. and Fox, D.M. (eds), AIDS: the Burdens of History. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, pp. 33–66.(1992) Medicine in the age of Enlightenment. In Wear, A. (ed.), Medicine in Society: Historical Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 149–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511599682.006([Page 173]1988) Commerce or con: young people and cigarette advertising. Community Health Studies, 12(1), 9–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-6405.1988.tb00568.x(1989) Breast screening: time for a rethink?British Medical Journal, 299, 1155–4.(Rodmell, S. and Watt, A. (eds) (1986) The Politics of Health Education: Raising the Issues. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.1992) Dirt and Disease: Polio Before FDR. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.(1990) Activists, gender and the community health movement. Health Promotional International, 5(3), 209–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/5.3.209(1990) Governing the Soul: the Shaping of the Private Self. London: Routledge.(1992) Political power beyond the State: problematics of government. British Journal of Sociology, 43(2), 173–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/591464and (1974) From Medical Police to Social Medicine: Essays on the History of Health Care. New York: Science History Publications.(1992) Living Laboratories: Woman and Reproductive Technologies. Sydney: Pan Macmillan.(1990) HIV prevention: current health promoting behaviour models for understanding psycho-social determinants of condom use. AIDS Care, 2(1), 69–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540129008257715, and (1993) Healthy bodies, social bodies: men's and women's concepts and practices of health in everyday life. Social Science and Medicine, 36(1), 7–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2893%2990300-S(1990) The politics of risk. Daedalus, Fall, 83–96(1994) Screening without meaning?New Scientist, 19 March, 14–15.(1994) Risky business: the cultural construction of AIDS risk groups. Social Science and Medicine, 38(10), 1337–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2894%2990272-0, and (1984) Advertising, the Uneasy Persuasion: Its Dubious Impact on American Society. New York: Basic Books.(1991) AIDS and the health of nations: the contradictions of public health. Critical Sociology, 18(2), 31–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089692059101800202(1992) To teach them how to live': the politics of public health from tuberculosis to AIDS. Journal of Historical Sociology, 5(1), 61–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/johs.1992.5.issue-1(1993) Axiomatic. In During, S. (ed.), The Cultural Studies Reader. London: Routledge, pp. 243–68.(1991) Romantic Longings: Love in America, 1830–1980. New York: Routledge.(1976) The Fall of Public Man. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1992) Spaces for the subject of consumption. In Shields, R. (ed.), Lifestyle Shopping: the Subject of Consumption. London: Routledge, pp. 1–20.(1991) Educating the body: physical capital and the production of social inequalities. Sociology, 25(4), 653–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038591025004006(1993) The Body and Social Theory. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446215470(1993) Erotic Welfare: Sexual Theory and Politics in the Age of Epidemic. New York: Routledge.(1985) False premises and false promises of breast cancer screening. Lancet, ii, 316–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736%2885%2990362-9(1989) Mass mammography: time for a reappraisal. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care, 5, 423–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0266462300007480(1987) Perception of risk. Science, 230, 280–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.3563507(1993) Postmodernity. London: Routledge.(1990) The Conceptual Practices of Power: A Feminist Sociology of Knowledge. Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press.(1993) Whose Second Self? Gender and (Ir Irrationality in Computer Culture. Geelong, Victoria: Deakin University Press.([Page 174]1985) The elements and process of communication campaigns. In van Dijk, T.A. (ed.), Discourse and Communication. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, pp. 60–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/9783110852141.60and (1993) Mother's smoking outlawed by court. Sydney Morning Herald, 27 July.(1993) Social work discourse and the social work interview. Economy and Society, 22(1), 42–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03085149300000002(1991) Bureaucratic logic in new social movement clothing: the limits of health promotion research. Health Promotion International, 6(4), 281–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/6.4.281and (1990) Epidemic psychology: a model. Sociology of Health and Illness, 12(3), 249–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep11347150(1957) Principles of Epidemiology. London: J. and A. Churchill.and (1988) Hidden Arguments: Political Ideology and Disease Prevention Policy. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.(1987) Sekt versus schnapps in an Austrian village. In Douglas, M. (ed.), Constructive Drinking: Perspectives on Drink from Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 102–112.(1992) What is the relevance of sociology for health promotion? In Bunton, R. and Macdonald, G. (eds), Health Promotion: Disciplines and Diversity. London: Routledge, pp. 42–65.(1990) Ideology and Physical Education: Opening Pandora's Box. Geelong, Victoria: Deakin University Press.(1986) Health education and the ideology of health promotion: a review of alternative approaches. Health Education Research: Theory and Practice, 1(1), 3–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/her/1.1.3(1992) Health promotion, self empowerment and the concept of control. In Colquhoun, D. (ed.), Health Education: Politics and Practice. Geelong, Victoria: Deakin University Press, pp. 29–89.(1993) Changing theory and practice: trends in methods, strategies and settings in health education. Health Education Journal, 52(3), 125–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001789699305200305(1990) Monster stories: women charged with perinatal endangerment. In Ginsburg, F. and Tsing, A.L. (eds), Uncertain Terms: Negotiating Gender in American Culture. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, pp. 282–99.(1984) The Body and Society: Explorations in Social Theory. Oxford: Basil Black well.(1990) The interdisciplinary curriculum: from social medicine to postmodernism. Sociology of Health and Illness, 12(1), 1–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep10844850(1992) Regulating Bodies: Essays in Medical Sociology. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203214183(1994) Theoretical developments in the sociology of the body. Australian Cultural History, 13, 13–30.(1993) Making better children. In Meredyth, D. and Tyler, D. (eds), Child and Citizen: Genealogies of Schooling and Subjectivity. Brisbane: Griffith University Institute for Cultural Policy Studies, pp. 35–60.(1989) AIDS: is health education the answer?Health Policy and Planning, 4(2), 141–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapol/4.2.141(1993) The concept of lifestyle: a review. Leisure Studies, 12(4), 233–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02614369300390231(1988) Concepts of Cleanliness: Changing Attitudes in France since the Middle Ages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1992) Smoking: Making the Risky Decision. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1994) Discriminatory language in medical teaching texts. Presented at the Second International Conference on Biopsycho-social Aspects of AIDS, Brighton, UK, July., , and (1992) Culture, meaning and disability: injury prevention campaigns and the production of stigma. Social Science and Medicine, 35(9), 1093–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2892%2990221-B(1988) Visual AIDS—advertising ignorance. In Aggleton, P. and Homans, H. (eds), Social Aspects of AIDS. London: Falmer, pp. 177–82.([Page 175]1991) AIDS: the second decade: ‘risk’, research and modernity. In Aggleton, P., Hart, G. and Davies, P. (eds), AIDS: Responses, Interventions and Care. London: Falmer, pp. 1–17.(1993) Male body image and health beliefs: a qualitative study and implications for health promotion practice. Health Education Journal, 52(4), 246–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001789699305200412(1992) Making sense of health and the environment in early modern England. In Wear, A. (ed.), Medicine in Society: Historical Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 119–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511599682.005(1992) Identity and the commodification of leisure. Leisure Studies, 11(1), 3–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02614369100390271and (1993) A fragile case for screening?New Scientist, 25 December, 10–11.(1992) From infectious to chronic diseases: changing patterns of sickness in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In Wear, A. (ed.), Medicine in Society: Historical Essays. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 303–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511599682.011(1991) Promotional Culture: Advertising, Ideology and Symbolic Expression. London: Sage.(1989) The role of technology in the co-optation of the women's health movement: the cases of osteoporosis and breast cancer screening. In Ratcliff, K.S., Ferree, M.M., Mellow, G.O., Wright, B.D., Price, G.D., Yanoshik, K. and Freston, M.S. (eds), Healing Technology: Feminist Perspectives. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, pp. 199–220.and (1989) Eating to win: popular conceptions of diet, strength, and energy in the early twentieth century. In Grover, K. (ed.), Fitness in American Culture: Images of Health, Sport, and the Body, 1830–1940. Amherst and New York: University of Massachusetts Press and the Margaret Woodbury Strong Museum, pp. 86–122.(1978) Persuasion and coercion for health: ethical issues in government efforts to change life-styles. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, 56(3), 303–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3349651(1993) Whose breast is it anyway? A feminist consideration of advice and ‘treatment’ for breast cancer. Women's Studies International Forum, 16(3), 229–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-5395%2893%2990053-Cand (1990) Decoding Advertisements: Ideology and Meaning in Advertising. London: Marion Boyers.(1990) Common Culture: Symbolic Work at Play in the Everyday Cultures of the Young. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.(1991) A Primer for Daily Life. London: Routledge.(1991) Condoms, coercion and control: heterosexuality and the limits to HIV/AIDS education. In Aggleton, P., Hart, G. and Davies, P. (eds), AIDS: Responses, Interventions and Care. London: Falmer, pp. 149–56.and (1983) Endangered Lives: Public Health in Victorian Britain. London: J.M. Dent and Sons.(1988) Babyhood: the social construction of infant care as a medical problem in England in the years around 1900. In Lock, M. and Gordon, D. (eds), Biomedicine Examined. Dordrecht: Kluwer, pp. 299–330. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-2725-4_12(1982) Introduction. In Wright, P. and Treacher, A. (eds), The Problem of Medical Knowledge: Examining the Social Construction of Medicine. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp. 1–22.and (1993) Back to the future: our social history and its impact on health education. Health Education Journal, 52(3), 114–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001789699305200303and (1982) Constructing genetic diseases. In Wright, P. and Treacher, A. (eds), The Problem of Medical Knowledge: Examining the Social Construction of Medicine. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press, pp. 144–61.(