The Impact of Family Violence on Children and Adolescents
Publication Year: 1998
Examining family violence and its effects on children, this volume presents various definitions of family violence and theories for the origin of the problem. The authors: discuss different types of intrafamilial violence, and the effects of each on children and adolescents; explore family violence in non-western contexts; offer clinical and legal intervention and prevention strategies; and suggest future directions for research.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Definition and Nature of Family Violence
- Definition of Family Violence
- Nature of Family Violence
- Chapter 2: Etiology of Family Violence
- Biological Perspective
- Sociobiological Theory
- Intergenerational Transmission
- Family Systems Approaches
- Parental Alcohol Abuse
- Parental Personality Factors and Psychiatric Disorders
- Chapter 3: Caregiver Violence toward Children
- The Impact of Caregiver Violence on the Child
- Physical Injury
- Cognitive Functioning
- Externalizing Problems
- Internalizing Problems
- Parent-Child Attachment and Child Social Development
- Sibling Violence
- Chapter 4: Child Witnessing of Family Violence
- The Nature of Spousal Violence
- Etiology of Spousal Violence
- Impact of Witnessing Spousal Violence on Children
- Externalizing Problems
- Internalizing Problems
- Social Development
- The Extreme Case: Spousal Homicide
- Elder Abuse
- Chapter 5: Psychological Maltreatment within the Family
- Etiology and Prevalence of Psychological Maltreatment
- Impact of Psychological Maltreatment on Children and Adolescents
- Chapter 6: Cross-Cultural Perspective
- Patterns of Violence in other Cultures
- Spousal Violence
- Violence toward Children
- Violence toward Elders
- Perceived Effects of Family Violence
- Societies without Violence
- Chapter 7: Assessment Strategies
- General Child Assessment
- Assessment of Degree of Child Abuse
- Assessment of Degree of Child Witnessing of Family Violence
- Assessment of the Impact of Family Violence on the Child
- Family Assessment
- A Word on Validation of Family Violence
- Chapter 8: Intervention Strategies for the Violent Family
- Legal Responses
- Treatment of the Perpetrator
- Treatment of the Child Who Has Been Abused within the Family
- Treatment of the Child Who Has Witnessed Family Violence
- Family Therapy for the Violent Family
- Chapter 9: The Resilient Child and Prevention Strategies
- Lessons from the Resilient Child
- Prevention Strategies
- Chapter 10: Discussion and Future Directions for Research
- Problems and Future Directions for Research
Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Series[Page ii]
Series Editor: Alan E. Kazdin, Yale University
Recent volumes in this series …
- 8: LIFE EVENTS AS STRESSORS IN CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE
by James H. Johnson
- 9: CONDUCT DISORDERS IN CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE SECOND EDITION
by Alan E. Kazdin
- 10: CHILD ABUSE
by David A. Wolfe
- 11: PREVENTING MALADJUSTMENT FROM INFANCY THROUGH ADOLESCENCE
by Annette U. Rickel and LaRue Allen
- 12: TEMPERAMENT AND CHILD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
by William T. Garrison and Felton J. Earls
- 13: EMPIRICALLY BASED ASSESSMENT OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SECOND EDITION
by Thomas M. Achenbach and Stephanie H. McConaughy
- 14: MARRIAGE, DIVORCE, AND CHILDREN'S ADJUSTMENT
by Robert E. Emery
- 15: AUTISM
by Laura Schreibman
- 18: DELINQUENCY IN ADOLESCENCE
by Scott W. Henggeler
- 19: CHRONIC ILLNESS DURING CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE
by William T. Garrison and Susan McQuiston
- 20: ANXIETY DISORDERS IN CHILDREN
by Rachel G. Klein and Cynthia G. Last
- 21: CHILDREN OF BATTERED WOMEN
by Peter G. Jaffe, David A. Wolfe, and Susan Kaye Wilson
- 22: SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
by Steven P. Schinke, Gilbert J. Botvin, and Mario A. Orlandi
- 23: CHILD PSYCHIATRIC EPIDEMIOLOGY
by Frank C. Verhulst and Hans M. Koot
- 24: EATING AND GROWTH DISORDERS IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN
by Joseph L. Woolston
- 25: NEUROLOGICAL BASIS OF CHILDHOOD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
by George W. Hynd and Stephen R. Hooper
- 26: ADOLESCENT SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND CHILDBEARING
by Laurie Schwab Zabin and Sarah C. Hayward
- 27: EFFECTS OF PSYCHOTHERAPY WITH CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
by John R. Weisz and Bahr Weiss
- 28: BEHAVIOR AND DEVELOPMENT IN FRAGILE X SYNDROME
by Elisabeth M. Dykens, Robert M. Hodapp, and James F. Leckman
- 29: ATTENTION DEFICITS AND HYPERACTIVITY IN CHILDREN
by Stephen P. Hinshaw
- 30: LEARNING DISABILITIES
by Byron P. Rourke and Jerel E. Del Dotto
- 31: PEDIATRIC TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY
by Jeffrey H. Snow and Stephen R. Hooper
- 32: FAMILIES, CHILDREN, AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF DYSFUNCTION
by Mark R. Dadds
- 33: ADOLESCENTS AND THE MEDIA
by Victor C. Strasburger
- 34: SCHOOL-BASED PREVENTION PROGRAMS FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
by Joseph A. Durlak
- 35: CHILDHOOD OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER
by Greta Francis and Rod A. Gragg
- 36: TREATING CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS IN RESIDENTIAL AND INPATIENT SETTINGS
by Robert D. Lyman and Nancy R. Campbell
- 37: THE IMPACT OF FAMILY VIOLENCE ON CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
by Javad H. Kashani and Wesley D. Allan
Copyright © 1998 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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SAGE Publications Ltd.
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SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
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Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Kashani, Javad H., 1937-
The impact of family violence on children and adolescents / Javad H. Kashani and Wesley D. Allan.
p. cm. — (Developmental clinical psychology and psychiatry; v. 37)
Includes bibliographical references (p.) and index.
1. Family violence—Psychological aspects. 2. Abused children–Mental health. 3. Abused teenagers—Mental health. 4. Victims of family violence—Mental health. I. Allan, Wesley D. II. Title. III. Series.
98 99 00 01 02 03 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquiring Editor: Jim Nageotte
Editorial Assistant: Kathleen Derby
Production Editor: Michele Lingre
Production Assistant: Denise Santoyo
Typesetter/Designer: Danielle Dillahunt
Cover Designer: Candice Harman
Series Editor's Introduction[Page ix]
Interest in child development and adjustment is by no means new. Yet only recently has the study of children and adolescents benefited from advances in both clinical and scientific research. Advances in the social and biological sciences, the emergence of disciplines and subdisciplines that focus exclusively on childhood and adolescence, and greater appreciation of the impact of such influences as the family, peers, and school have helped accelerate research on developmental psychopathology. Apart from interest in the study of child development and adjustment for its own sake, the need to address clinical problems of adulthood naturally draws one to investigate precursors in childhood and adolescence.
Within a relatively brief period, the study of psychopathology among children and adolescents has proliferated considerably. Several different professional journals, annual book series, and handbooks devoted entirely to the study of children and adolescents and their adjustment document the proliferation of work in the field. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of resource material that presents information in an authoritative, systematic, and disseminable fashion. There is a need within the field to convey the latest developments and to represent different disciplines, approaches, and conceptual views in the topics of childhood and adolescent adjustment and maladjustment.
The Sage series Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry is designed to serve uniquely several needs of the field. The series encompasses individual monographs prepared by experts in the fields of clinical child psychology, child psychiatry, child development, and related disciplines. The primary focus is on developmental psychopathology, which here refers broadly to the diagnosis, assessment, treatment, and prevention of problems that arise in the period from infancy through adolescence. A working assumption of [Page x]the series is that to understand, identify, and treat problems of youth, we must draw on multiple disciplines and diverse views within a given discipline.
The task for individual contributors is to present the latest theory and research on various topics including specific types of dysfunction, diagnostic and treatment approaches, and special problem areas that affect adjustment. Core topics within clinical work are addressed by the series. Authors are asked to bridge potential theory, research, and clinical practice, and to outline current status and future directions. The goals of the series and the tasks presented to individual contributors are demanding. We have been extremely fortunate in recruiting leaders in the fields who have been able to translate their recognized scholarship and expertise into highly readable works on contemporary topics.
In this book, Javad Kashani and Wesley Allan examine the impact of family violence on children and adolescents. The authors cover multiple forms of family violence, including abuse toward spouses, children, and elders, psychological maltreatment, and the witnessing of violence. The authors convey the interrelations, commonalities, and broad impact on the child. The book is remarkable in its coverage of theory, research, and clinical and legal issues. Theories regarding etiological views, research on the effects and underpinnings of violence, and efforts to intervene to treat as well as to prevent violence are well developed. Critical issues confronting the field are raised as well, including the advances and limitations in assessing violence and questions that have been neglected in research. Many excellent topics are integrated into the discussion to place violence in context. As one example, patterns of violence in other cultures are discussed, including countries without violence. Cross-cultural perspectives are critically important in light of the different forms, prevalence, views, and meanings or interpretations of family violence. The book is broad in its scope, detailed in its coverage, and engaging in style. Current research is interspersed with case studies to convey details about the tragedy of abuse and its consequences. The book draws on the remarkable research and clinical experience of the authors on a topic that is clinically and socially critical.—, PhD
Violence within the family increasingly is identified as a profound societal problem that can exert a multitude of short- and long-term effects on youngsters and can take a variety of forms including abuse perpetrated by parents or siblings. Additionally, vicariously observing familial violence, such as spousal abuse, has documented untoward sequelae on children and adolescents.
In an earlier paper we wrote on the topic of family violence (Kashani, Daniel, Dandoy, & Holcomb, 1992), we explained that “it is important to note at the outset that no single behavioral or emotional reaction epitomizes the abused child” (p. 183). Nevertheless, a plentitude of research has been conducted that attempts to elucidate relationships between different types of family violence, varying child characteristics, and the resulting impact of this violence on the child. This interplay of variables will constitute the main focus of this book.
In Chapter 1, the book will commence with a discussion regarding the definition, history, and societal costs of family violence. Chapter 2 will present a delineation of various proposed theories concerning the etiology of family violence as well as documentation for these frameworks. In Chapter 3, an exploration of the impact of intrafamilial violence directed toward youngsters by caregivers and siblings will be considered. Child witnessing of varying types of family violence will be the focus of Chapter 4, which will discuss spousal and elder abuse. Chapter 5 will consider a different type of family violence that can also be extremely destructive: psychological maltreatment.
Additionally, to provide a contrast to the current conditions in the United States, Chapter 6 will present a cross-cultural exploration of family violence. Chapter 7 will explore available assessment procedures, and Chapter 8 will examine intervention techniques. Chapter 9 will recount the “resilient child” and lessons learned from this type of youngster. Prevention strategies are also explicated in this chapter. Future research directions will be described in [Page xii]Chapter 10 to aid mental health professionals and researchers who address the needs of this population.
This book will address primarily physical and verbal/psychological violence within the family. Sexual abuse and child neglect constitute other significant forms of child abuse, but these topics are beyond the scope of the current review. We would also like to note that, throughout the book, cases we have seen in our clinical work will be described to help illustrate particular points. For the purposes of confidentiality, the names and identifying data of these children and their families have been altered.
This book was made possible by the research of numerous individuals who are cited throughout the text. We would like to thank these researchers and encourage them and future scientists to continue to address the important topic of family violence. Wesley Allan also wishes to thank his research and professional mentors (in alphabetical order), Dr. Debora Bell-Dolan, Dr. Javad H. Kashani, and Dr. Christopher A. Kearney, for their help and encouragement through the years.
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About the Authors[Page 111]
Javad H. Kashani (M.D.) is Chief, Division of Psychiatry in the Department of Psychiatry and Neurology at the University of Missouri—Columbia. He is also Professor of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Pediatrics as well as Director of Children and Adolescent Services at Mid-Missouri Mental Health Center. His research interests are in the area of child internalizing disorders and family violence, and have resulted in the publication of more than 100 scientific articles. His clinical studies in the last two decades merited him the most prestigious award in child psychiatry in North America—the Blanche F. Ittleson Award (1989).
Wesley D. Allan (M.A., University of Nevada at Las Vegas) is completing his Ph.D. in child clinical psychology at the University of Missouri—Columbia. His major research interests are child internalizing disorders and family violence, and he helped develop the School Anxiety Project, a research and treatment clinic for children with school anxiety, at the University of Missouri—Columbia. He is coauthor of numerous journal articles on child anxiety and depression as well as family abuse among juveniles who commit homicide.