The Fourth Way: The Inspiring Future for Educational Change
Publication Year: 2009
This book analyzes three previous major change efforts, outlines their strengths and limitations, and offers a successful and sustainable fourth way to integrate teacher professionalism, community engagement, government policy, and accountability.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Advance Praise for The Fourth Way: The Inspiring Future for Educational ChangeByAndy Hargreaves and Dennis Shirley
“Andy Hargreaves and Dennis Shirley provide a wonderful and international perspective on the educational movements we have passed through. They describe what was and was not effective in each, and a good picture of the way forward. The new era—the Fourth Way—holds more than just promise. Elements of this approach are underway in different parts of the world at this very moment and the authors shine light on each as they encourage the reader to tap into the very best practices to assure the next wave truly leaves no child, family, or community behind!”
“The authors propose a new vision for transforming public education for the 21st century. They argue that school systems must move away from a culture of high-stakes testing, encourage innovation and creativity, and engage parents and communities in educational change. Their ideas are timely and relevant for educational leaders today.”
—Daniel A. Domenech
American Association of School Administrators
“Perplexed and demoralized by policies that diminish and routinize their work, many educators fear that public schooling has reached a dead end. In this informed and inspiring book, Hargreaves and Shirley point to a new and promising path for progress. The Fourth Way, as they explain, is not only open to educators, but must be forged by them, with shared purpose, foresight, and common sense.”
—Susan Moore Johnson
Pforzheimer Professor of Teaching and Learning
“In this timely and inspirational book, Andy Hargreaves and Dennis Shirley challenge our current thinking about educational change. Their argument for interdependence, empowerment, collective courage, and professionalism will resonate with all who have wrestled with these issues. It will leave a lasting impression. Read it!”
National College for School Leadership, England
“This is a great book! Andy Hargreaves and Dennis Shirley have an incredible ability to describe important issues in incisive and compelling ways.”
Emeritus Executive Director
Learning Forward (formerly the National Staff Development Council)
Copyright © 2009 by Corwin
All rights reserved. When forms and sample documents are included, their use is authorized only by educators, local school sites, and/or noncommercial or nonproft entities that have purchased the book. Except for that usage, no part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
The fourth way: The inspiring future for educational change/Andy Hargreaves, Dennis Shirley.
“A Joint publication with the Ontario Principal's Council and Learning Forward.”
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4129-7637-4 (pbk. : alk. paper)
1. Educational change—Cross-cultural studies. 2. Comparative education. 3. Education and state—Cross-cultural studies. 4. Motivation in education—Cross-cultural studies. I. Shirley, Dennis, 1955- II. Title.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
09 10 11 12 13 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
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This book comes at the end of a decade of great growth and apparent prosperity. Middle-class America, like the middle classes in many other developed economies, became a culture of shopping, spending, and speculation. Even moderate middle-class earners turned into property owners and speculators, boosting consumer spending and incurring increasing debt with the confidence that ever-rising property values would cover their credit. Meanwhile, those on the lower rungs of the middle and working classes saw their real incomes fall and borrowed more and more money on increasingly risky terms to make ends meet and avoid getting left behind.
But the boom is over. Housing prices are in free fall and the credit crunch is on. Big-time investors played and lost with ordinary people's money, our governments stepped in to bail them out, and we will be paying the price and repaying the debt for years to come. So who needs another book on educational change at this crucial moment in our shared economic destiny? Isn't it time to just hold things right where they are, to put education and schools on the back burner, and attend to bigger priorities instead?
There are those who have said that the greatest financial crisis since the Great Depression should cause us to freeze all public spending at current levels and that boosting public education is a luxury we can no longer afford. They have argued that now is the time to cut back, just as we did in the 1980s. Yet, in When Markets Collide, economic and investment guru Mohammed El-Erian reminds us that it is exactly when we are in a slump and falling behind international competitors, such as the emerging economies, of China, India, and parts of the Middle East, that we most need to invest in the training and skills that will shape our future.1
Then there are those who produce fear-mongering books and videos that depict how much harder and longer the children and young adults of Asian economies work in order to get ahead. We learn about young people who take extra calculus for pleasure, go to cramming schools on the weekends, and study musical instruments with relentless rigor. Like many American reformers in the 1990s argued after visits to Japan, these commentators propose harder work, longer hours, and increased diligence as the savior of our overindulged adolescents.2 Of course, more emphasis [Page x]on hard work compared to making easy money or wanting instant fame is certainly a good thing. But hard work alone is not enough. Indeed, the New Puritans of school reform who see increased effort as the answer overlook the problematic aspects of some of the countries with top test scores. Many of these competitors are rarely or barely democracies. Civic engagement is often sacrificed for personal advancement, humanitarianism is sometimes a casualty of increased entrepreneurialism, and social studies and the humanities can mean content memorization and drill rather than critical and independent thinking.
Then there are those who see in Chinese and Indian spaceships the same economic and educational threats that U.S. politicians saw in the Soviet Union's launch of Sputnik in 1957. And their answers are equally askew—more science, mathematics, and technology; less art, music, physical education, history, and literature.3 These pundits ignore how the world's most educationally and economically successful democracies do not succeed by science and mathematics alone, or by just throwing more content at young people as if they were force-fed geese. Instead, these nations prosper through a broad and challenging curriculum that teaches people what to do with knowledge, how to apply it and move it around among others, and how to come up with new knowledge when change requires it. These prosperous democracies are successful knowledge societies.
Finally, there are those who believe that people in business have the answer to educational change and that they know best where to go next. They want more data and performance targets. They advise more competition among schools, along with performance-based pay for teachers—proposing that young and hungry teachers would gladly choose a more front-loaded salary they could invest in a stock-market pension of defined contributions rather than gradually accumulating rewards that lead to defined benefits.4 After the catastrophic collapse of the free market and the stock market, along with the loss of many people's defined-contribution pensions, these undiscriminating business admirers must now feel a bit embarrassed, at best.
At a time of global economic meltdown, increasing dependence on oil, and accelerating climate change, we need bold new solutions, not stale old slogans. Cutbacks do not equip us to be competitive in the future. The unregulated markets that got us into our current financial mess and pushed market-driven solutions into the public sector are not going to get us out of it. Educational standardization has dumbed down our curriculum and burdened our schools with bigger government and overbearing bureaucracy, and has not enabled us to adapt flexibly to the future. These Old Ways of educational change in the 20th century are ill suited to the fast, flexible, and vulnerable New World of the 21st century.[Page xi]
It is time, now more than ever, for a New Way of educational change that is suited to the dramatically new problems and challenges we are encountering. This New Way should build on the best of what we have learned from the Old Ways of the past without retreating to or reinventing the worst of them. It should look abroad for intelligent alternatives and be especially alert to those educational and economic successes that also express and advance democratic and humanitarian values. It should attend to the advancement of the economy and the restoration of prosperity but not at the price of other educational elements that contribute to the development of personal integrity, social democracy, and the advancement of human decency.
This book sets out such a way of educational and social change: the Fourth Way. Caught writing part of this book in a local coffee shop, a customer at a neighboring table, perhaps bored with his date (or maybe she was bored with him), leaned over and asked what we were writing. On being told this was a book called The Fourth Way, he retorted, “Wow, that's really interesting.” Asked why, he replied, “Because it really makes me wonder what the other three are!”
We hope you will have the same response. We identify three prior Ways of change since World War II and then describe foundational principles of a new Fourth Way of change. Among the alternatives from which we can choose as we pass today's critical turning point, it is the Fourth Way that will move us towards a more inclusive, inspiring, and sustainable future.
Our argument is a kind of journey. It begins with a first chapter that sets out the three Ways of change that have gone before:
- a First Way of state support and professional freedom, of innovation but also inconsistency;
- a Second Way of market competition and educational standardization in which professional autonomy is lost; and
- a Third Way that tries to navigate between and beyond the market and the state and balance professional autonomy with accountability.
Chapter 1 identifies the legacies each Way has left us and distinguishes what we should keep or retrieve, and what we should leave behind.
In Chapter 2, we argue that the great promise of the Third Way has not been fulfilled because three paths of distraction have diverted us from it: (1) autocratic imposition of targets and testing, (2) technocratic obsessions with data and spreadsheets, and (3) effervescent indulgence in securing quick lifts in test gains. These distractions make education short sighted and superficial, preventing deeper transformations in the quality [Page xii]of teaching and learning that can produce higher-order thinking skills and develop deeper virtues and values.
Chapter 3 delineates four horizons of hope—images of promising practice that give clues about the most desirable way forward. These images comprise the world's highest-performing nation on many international indicators of educational and economic success, the most turned-around school district in England, a professional network of 300 underachieving schools that improved results dramatically by promoting schools working with schools, and outstanding instances of community organizing and development that demonstrate how positive change does not always begin with government but must sometimes work aside from and even in opposition to it.
Building on these research-based examples, we set out the new direction of the Fourth Way in Chapter 4 by describing six pillars of purpose that support change, three principles of professionalism that drive it, and four catalysts of coherence that hold it together.
All the elements of the Fourth Way we point to are real. Every one of them already exists. We have seen them with our own eyes in the nations, networks, and systems we have evaluated and in the schools with which we work. We describe them fully in this book. These examples are not selective and rose-tinted celebrations of success based on second-hand sources or swift visits to districts to listen to senior leaders praise their own systems in ways that echo our own biases. We pinpoint the limitations as well as strengths of our examples and show how we can and should push beyond them. In this respect, the Fourth Way is based upon substantial first-hand assessments of high performing systems and promising practices from around the world.
A world dominated by wealth and might has diminished and almost destroyed us. But in the depths of crisis, a new spirit is emerging in which service and sacrifice in a commonwealth of hope can elevate us to a higher purpose and a humane exercise of our powers. The song lines from Leonard Cohen that we have selected to open this volume remind us that historical change is real, not illusory. Greed and a culture of narcissism can give way to public spirit. Secrecy and surveillance can give way to transparency and democracy. There is no finer place to pursue this quest than through the education of the young—the generations of our future. This is the moment that has summoned our effort to chart a better course in social and educational change—a Fourth Way of innovation, inspiration, and sustainability.
No book like this is ever the product of solitary scholarship. We could never have undertaken or completed this manuscript without the immeasurable patience, candid feedback, and humbling humor of our wives, Pauline and Shelley. They endured mountains of clutter strewn across the furniture and stuffed inside our heads as we worked through endless drafts of this book. Their understanding and encouragement have meant the world to us both in personal and professional terms as they have reflected with us on their own realities in teaching and school administration, and on how these relate to the arguments of our book.
We would like to thank Alan Boyle, J.-C. Couture, Linda Darling-Hammond, Dean Fink, Michael Fullan, Atul Gawande, Anthony Giddens, Alma Harris, Jenny Lewis, Steve Munby, Edvin Østergaard, Beatriz Pont, Vivianne Robinson, Pasi Sahlberg, Michael Schratz, Dennis Sparks, Marla Ucelli, Duncan Waite, and the doctoral students in our International Educational Change Study Group at Boston College for their close readings of the texts and their helpful comments.
The extensive research on which this book is based also comes out of stimulating and productive collaborations with valued colleagues and friends over many years. Ivor Goodson, Dean Fink, Michael Baker, Martha Foote, Corrie Giles, Shawn Moore, and Sonia James-Wilson made exceptional contributions to the Spencer Foundation-funded Change Over Time research in the United States and Canada on which much of our analysis of the first three Ways of change rests.5
Michael Evans, Corrie Stone-Johnson, and Deanna Riseman have exemplified the remarkable quality and character of graduate students with whom we are fortunate to work. In collaborating with us on evaluating the Raising Achievement, Transforming Learning (RATL) network in England, they offered not only indispensable support but also intellectual collegiality, personal camaraderie, and the shared commitment to social justice that sustains all of us at Boston College. RATL leaders in England—David Crossley and Graham Corbyn—provided exemplary support and assistance through all phases of the research activity, and we have learned much of enduring value from them.6
One of us was honored to be invited by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development to work with a small team to investigate [Page xiv]and report on the relationship between leadership and school improvement in Finland—the world's leading nation on many international indicators of educational and economic performance. Beatrice Pont and Gábor Halász—the other members of this team—worked with tireless effort and exercised incisive judgment from before dawn and beyond dusk every day to make critical sense of the extensive data we were collecting.7
In one or two places, we draw on an ongoing project funded by England's National College for School Leadership and the Specialist Schools and Academies Trust on organizations that perform beyond expectations in education, health, business, and sport. Alma Harris is codirecting this cross-national project involving research teams from the United States and England with one of us. Alan Boyle has worked most directly on the two examples discussed here of a high-performing local authority and a professional sports team that uses performance data to advance improvement.
A key part of our argument is about the importance of engaging parents and communities in educational change. Wendy Puriefoy, Marion Orr, and John Rogers with the Scholars Forum of the Public Education Network in the United States have informed and inspired us through rich conversations that have made clear the necessity and the nature of community organizing.8 President Barack Obama may have brought community organizing into the public eye, but the everyday community organizers with whom one of us has been privileged to work have lifted up the educational and social contributions and achievements of some of America's most challenged and politically neglected communities for decades.
Elizabeth MacDonald and the Boston Public School teachers in the Mindful Teacher Project funded by the Boston Collaborative Fellows have kept us grounded in and inspired by the everyday lives as well as the vocational commitments of classroom teachers and especially those who choose to teach in urban schools.9 They have reminded us repeatedly why this work must be done; through their positive examples, they have motivated us to keep going.
As we have written this book and undertaken the research behind it, we have become good colleagues and good friends. We have worked through the ideas, evidence, and frustrations in our offices and homes and at a number of conference venues, but two places retain special importance for us. The staff of the Busy Bee Diner in Brookline, Massachusetts, have served us many fine breakfasts over the past two years and often endured our professorial absentmindedness in forgetting what we want to order or even how to pay the bill! The creators and maintainers of the Appalachian Trail have provided us and many others with a truly inspiring and sustainable [Page xv]environment where, literally as well as figuratively, we could walk through the ideas at the heart of our work. The Trail is an ecological testament to the energizing relationship between sound conservation and good conversation.
Last but not least, we could be in no finer place than the Lynch School of Education at Boston College to undertake research and teaching that can have a strategic impact on educational practice. Our colleagues and graduate students have always been more than willing to give specific feedback on our work as it has unfolded. But more than this, in all our interactions and conversations, they really help us try to live up to the mission of Boston College: to pursue disciplined inquiry through service to others and with a shared commitment to social justice. Our thanks especially go to those graduate students who selflessly helped us with our diagrams and reference searches in the final frantic weeks of completing the manuscript—Kristin Kew, Michelle Reich, Randall Lahann, Kathryn Sallis, Alex Gurn, and Karla Loya.Further Acknowledgments
This book has been developed from earlier and shorter versions of various parts of our argument that can be found in the following publications on which we have drawn with kind permission of the publishers.Hargreaves, A., & Goodson, I. (Eds.). (2006). Special themed issue on Change Over Time. Educational Administration Quarterly, 42(1).2008). The Finnish approach to system leadership. In Pont, B., Nusche, D., & Hopkins, D. (Eds.) Improving school leadership, Vol. 2: Case studies on system leadership, pp. 69–109. Paris: OECD. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264039551-5-en, , & (2008). Beyond standardization: Powerful new principles for improvement. Phi Delta Kappan, 90(2), 135–143., & (2008, October). The fourth way of educational change. Educational Leadership, 66(2), 56–61., & (2009). The persistence of presentism. Teachers College Record, 111(11)., & (2007). The long and short of school improvement: Final evaluation of the Raising Achievement, Transforming Learning programme of the Specialist Schools and Academies Trust. London: Specialist Schools and Academies Trust., , , , & (The mindful teacher. New York: Teachers College Press., & (2009). [Page xvi]1997). Community organizing for urban school reform. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.(2006). Street-level democrats: Realizing the potential of school, university, and community coalitions. The Educational Forum, 70(2), 116–122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00131720608984882(2006). Data-driven to distraction. Education Week, 26(4), 32–33., & (
About the Authors
Sail on, sail on
O mighty ship of state!
To the shores of need
Past the reefs of greed
Through the squalls of hate
Sail on, sail on, sail on.—Leonard Cohen, “Democracy”Source: Copyright © Sony/ATV Music Publishing.
There is no debt without memory.—MARGARET ATWOOD, PAYBACK (2008)
1. El-Erian, M. A. (2008). When markets collide: Investment strategies for the age of global economic change. New York: McGraw Hill.
2. Raney, A., Heeter, C. (Producers), Heeter, C. (Director/Editor), & Raney, A. (Writer). (2007). Two million minutes [Motion picture]. Indianapolis, IN: Broken Pencil.
3. Farley, J. (2006, March 12). Improving math ed—Bush right about that—But where are the teachers coming from? San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved on November 23, 2008, from http://www.sfgate.com; Kristof, N. (2004, February 11). Watching the jobs go by. New York Times. Retrieved November 24, 2008, from http://www.nytimes.com
4. New Commission on the Skills of the American Workforce. (2007). Tough choices or tough times: The report of the new commission on the skills of the American workforce. Washington, DC: National Center on Education and the Economy.
5. The results of this research are reported in Hargreaves, A., & Goodson, I. (2006). Educational change over time? Special issue of Educational Administration Quarterly, 42(1); Hargreaves, A., & Fink, D. (2006). Sustainable leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; Hargreaves, A. (2003). Teaching in the knowledge society: Education in the age of insecurity. New York: Teachers College Press and Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press.
6. The initial research evaluation of this project is reported in Hargreaves, A., Shirley, D., Evans, M., Johnson, C., & Riseman, D. (2007). The long and short of school improvement: Final evaluation of the Raising Achievement, Transforming Learning Programme of the Specialist Schools and Academies Trust. London: Specialist Schools and Academies Trust.
7. See Hargreaves, A., Halász, G., & Pont, B. (2008). The Finnish approach to system leadership. In Pont, B., Nusche, D., & Hopkins, D. (Eds.), Improving school leadership, Vol. 2: Case studies on system leadership (pp. 69–109). Paris: OECD.
8. Some of this work is contained in Orr, M., & Rogers, J. (Eds.). (Forthcoming). Public engagement for public education. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
9. See MacDonald, E., & Shirley, D. (2009). The mindful teacher. New York: Teachers College Press.[Page 114]
1. The NCLB quote is cited in Hoff, D. (2007). “Growth models” gaining in accountability debate. Education Week, 27(16), 22–25. The survey results of educators can be found in Public Agenda. (2006). Reality check 2006: Issue no 3: Is support for standards and testing fading? New York: Author. The high profile commission is the New Commission on the Skills of the American Workforce. See National Center on Education and the Economy (2007). Tough choices or tough times: The report of the new commission on the skills of the American workforce. Washington, DC: Author.
2. European Commission, declared March 31, 2008, retrieved from http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/08/482
3. See, for example Aho, E., Pitkänen, K., & Sahlberg, P. (2006). Policy development and reform principles of basic and secondary education in Finland since 1968. Washington, DC: World Bank; Hargreaves, A., Halász, G., & Pont, B. (2008). The Finnish approach to system leadership. In B. Pont, D. Nusche, & D. Hopkins (Eds.). (2008). Improving school leadership, Vol. 2: Case studies on system leadership. Paris: OECD, 69–109.
4. On objectives and testing, see Shaw, M. (2004, April 9). End testing of infants: Seven is too young for tests say parents in TES poll. London Times Educational Supplement, p. 1; Mansell, W., & White, P. (2004, November 12). Stop test drilling, primaries warned. London Times Educational Supplement, p. 1. Retrieved from http://www.tes.co.uk/article.aspx?storycode=2047875. The announcement of the end of standardized testing following scandals of incompetence in the testing agency to which the key stage tests at age 14 were contracted out was reported by the BBC in “Tests scrapped for 14-year-olds.” Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/education/7669254.stm
5. Blair, T., & Schröder, G. (1999). Europe: The Third Way—die neue mitte. London: Labor Party and SPD.
6. Giddens, A. (1999). The Third Way: The renewal of social democracy. Malden, MA: Blackwell; Giddens, A. (2000). The Third Way and its critics. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press; Giddens, A. (Ed.). (2001). The global Third Way debate. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
7. Lowenthal, D. (1986). The past is a foreign country. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The phrase was first used by Leslie Poles Hartley, (1953/2002). The go-between. New York: NYRB Classics, p. 17.
8. Giddens, The Third Way; Giddens, The global Third Way debate.
9. Kohl, H. (1967). 36 children. New York: New American Library; Kozol, J. (1967). Death at an early age: The destruction of the hearts and mind of Negro children in the Boston Public Schools. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
10. Hargreaves, A., & Goodson, I. (2006). Educational change over time? The sustainability and non-sustainability of three decades of secondary school [Page 115]change and continuity. Educational Administration Quarterly, 42(1), 3–41. The data and findings that are reported in this chapter are related to the first two Ways of change and the interregnum between them and can be found in more detail in this journal article and in Hargreaves, A., & Fink, D. (2006). Sustainable leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; Hargreaves, A. (2003). Teaching in the knowledge society: Education in the age of insecurity. New York: Teachers College Press and Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press. Goodson, I. (2003). Professional knowledge, professional lives. Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press.
11. Her Majesty's Inspectorate. (1983). Curriculum 11–16: Towards a statement of entitlement. London: HMSO, p. 16.
12. National Commission on Excellence in Education. (1983). A nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
13. One of us was involved in producing the review of international literature that provided a foundation for this provincial policy. See Hargreaves, A., Earl, L., & Ryan, J. (1996). Schooling for change: Reinventing education for early adolescents. Bristol, PA: Falmer. Evaluation of the policy and its impact can be found in Hargreaves, A., Earl, L., Moore, S., & Manning, S. (2001). Learning to change. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
14. Barber, M. (2007). Instruction to deliver: Fighting to transform Britain's public services. London: Methuen, p. 32; Angus, D., & Mirel, J. (1999). The failed promise of the American high school, 1890–1995. New York: Teachers College Press.
15. Edley, C. (2002). Keeping the promise of “No Child Left Behind”: Success or failure depends largely on implementation by the U.S. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Civil Rights Project; Taylor, W. (2006). Testimony of William L. Taylor Chairman, Citizens' Commission on civil rights before the commission on No Child Left Behind; National Council of La Raza (2007). NCLB Works! New coalition launches breakthrough campaign. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.nclr.org/content/news/detail/47399/
16. Fullan, M., Hill, P., & Crevola, C. (2006). Breakthrough. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
17. MacBeath, J., Gray, J., Cullen, J., Frost, D., Steward, S., & Swaffield, S. (2007). Schools on the edge: Responding to challenging circumstances. London: Paul Chapman; Fullan, M. (2005). Leadership and sustainability: Systems thinkers in action. London: Innovation Unit, Department for Education and Skills.
18. Oakes, J., & Lipton, M. (2002). Struggling educational equity and diverse communities: School reform as a social movement. Journal of Educational Change, 3(3—1), 383—406; Welner, K. (2001). Legal rights, local wrongs: When community control collides with educational equity. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press; Ball, S. (2003). Class strategies and the education market: The middle classes and social advantage. London: RoutledgeFalmer.[Page 116]
19. Ofsted Publications Centre (2004). Reading for purpose and pleasure. An evaluation of the teaching of reading in primary schools. London: Crown.
20. Nichols, S., & Berliner, D. (2007). Collateral damage: How high-stakes testing corrupts America's schools. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.
21. Jehlen, A. (2006). Moving beyond NCLB: There's plenty of room and opportunity for improvement. Retrieved from http://www.nea.org/home/13952.htm; American Federation of Teachers. (2003). Where we stand: Standard-based assessment and accountability. Retrieved from http://www.aft.org/pubs-reports/downloads/teachers/StandAssessRes.pdf
22. This evidence is drawn from a larger body of research reported in Hargreaves, A. (2003). Teaching in the knowledge society: Education in the age of insecurity. New York: Teachers College Press and Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press.
23. Cockburn, A., & Haydn, T. (2004). Recruiting and retaining teachers: Understanding why teachers teach. London: RoutledgeFalmer. For the recent data, see Milne, J. (July 11, 2008). NQTs quit in first few years of job. Times Education Supplement. Retrieved from http://www.tes.co.uk/article.aspx?storycode=2647089
24. Darling-Hammond, L. (2003). Keeping good teachers: Why it matters and what leaders can do. Educational Leadership, 60(8), 6–13.
25. See Hargreaves, Teaching in the knowledge society.
26. See Hargreaves & Fink, Sustainable leadership.
27. Koretz, D. (2008). Measuring up: What educational testing really tells us. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
28. Nichols & Berliner, Collateral damage.
29. The New Progressive Declaration, signed July 10, 1996, by President Bill Clinton. Retrieved from http://www.ndol.org/ndol_ci.cfin?kaid=128&subid=174&contentid=839
30. Blair & Schröder, Europe: The Third Way; Giddens, The Third Way; Giddens, The Third Way and its critics; Giddens, The global Third Way debate.
31. We are grateful to the incisive and insightful analysis of David Hartley on the impact of New Public management in education; see Hartley, D. (2007). The emergence of distributed leadership in education: Why now? British Journal of Educational Studies, 55(2), 202–214.
32. Hartley, The emergence of distributed leadership in education.
33. Alma Harris and one of us have been discovering this in the sport sector data in our current study of Performing Beyond Expectations (forthcoming) funded by the National College for School Leadership and the Specialist Schools and Academies Trust.[Page 117]
34. Barber, M. (2007). Instruction to deliver: Fighting to transform Britain's public services. London: Methuen.
35. Teachernet. (2003). School workforce remodelling. Retrieved from http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/wholeschool/remodelling/
36. Marley, D. (September 26, 2008). Teachers have designs on new buildings. Retrieved from http://www.tes.co.uk/article.aspx?storycode=6002962
37. These quotes are drawn from a wider set of responses reported in Hargreaves, Teaching in the knowledge society.
38. Fullan, Leadership and sustainability; Levin, B. (2008). How to change 5000 schools: A practical and positive approach for leading change at every level. Cambridge: Harvard Education Press.
39. Reported in Fullan, Leadership and sustainability. The most recent statement of Ontario policy at the time this book went to press was Government of Ontario (2008). Reach every student: Energizing Ontario education. Ontario: Queen's Printer for Ontario. Retrieved from http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/document/energize/energize.pdf
40. National Center on Education and the Economy, Tough choices or tough times.
41. Cuban, L., & Usdan, M. (2003). Powerful reforms with shallow roots: Improving America's urban schools. New York: Teachers College Press.
42. Ewell, I. (2008). BAEO-Gates Small Schools Project Report 2007–2008. Retrieved from http://scoter.baeo.org/news_multi_media/(PCI-97)BAEO-Gates_Annual_Report_2008.PDF
43. Mitgang, L. D. (2008). Becoming a leader: Preparing school principals for today's schools. New York: The Wallace Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.wallacefoundation.org/SiteCollectionDocuments/WF/Knowledge%20Center/Attachments/PDF/Becoming%20a%20Leader.pdf
44. Explanations of the work of the New Schools Venture Fund can be found in Datnow, A., Park, V, & Wohlstetter, P. (2007). Achieving with data: How high performing schools use data to improve instruction for students. Retrieved from http://www.newschools.org/files/AchievingWithData.pdf; Datnow, A., Park, V, & Kennedy, B. (2008). Acting on data: How urban high schools use data to improve instruction. Retrieved from http://www.newschools.org/files/ActingonData.pdf
1. Naisbitt, J. (1984). Ten new directions transforming our lives. New York: Warner Books.
2. Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York: Collier, p. 17.[Page 118]
3. Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and education. New York: The MacMillan Company.
4. Fullan, M. (2006). Turnaround leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, p. 81.
5. New Commission on the Skills of the American Workforce. (2007). Tough choices or tough times: The report of the new commission on the skills of the American workforce. Washington, DC: National Center on Education and the Economy.
6. UNICEF (2007). Child poverty in perspective: An overview of child well-being in rich countries, Innocenti Report Card 7. Florence, Italy: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.
7. McKinsey & Company. (2007, September). How the world's best-performing school systems come out on top. Retrieved from http://www.mckinsey.com/clientservice/socialsector/resources/pdf/Worlds_School_systems_final.pdf
8. McKinsey & Company, How the world's best-performing school systems come out on top, p. 35.
9. McKinsey & Company, How the world's best-performing school systems come out on top, pp. 36–37.
10. Barber, M. (2007). Instruction to deliver: Fighting to transform Britain's public services. London: Methuen, pp. 79–101.
11. This National Challenge was launched by the secretary of state on June 10, 2008. In the Challenge, 30% of pupils in 638 identified schools were challenged to meet or to achieve 5*-C GCSEs, including English and math, by 2011. Retrieved from http://www.dcsf.gov.uk/nationalchallenge. For a critique, see Harris, A. (2009). Big change question: Does politics help or hinder educational change? Journal of Educational Change, 10(1), 63–67.
12. Barber, Instruction to deliver, pp. 64–65.
13. Barber, Instruction to deliver, p. 32.
14. Barber, Instruction to deliver, p. 348.
15. Barber, Instruction to deliver, p. 371.
16. Barber, Instruction to deliver.
17. Government of Ontario. (2008). Reach every student: Energizing Ontario education. Ontario: Queen's Printer for Ontario.
18. Langer, E. J. (1997). The power of mindful learning. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
19. Argyris, C. (1976). Increasing leadership effectiveness. New York: Wiley; Argyris, C., & Schön, D. (1978). Organizational learning: A theory of action perspective. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.[Page 119]
20. Sennett, R. (2008). The craftsman. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, pp. 167–168.
21. Sennett, The craftsman, p. 171.
22. von Donnersmarck, F. H. (Writer/director). (2007). The lives of others [Motion picture]. United States: Sony Pictures Entertainment.
23. Rogers, J. (2006). Forces of accountability? The power of poor parents in NCLB. Harvard Educational Review, 76(4), 611–641.
24. Harris, A. (2006). Leading change in schools in difficulty. Journal of Educational Change, 7(1–2), 9–18.
25. Sanders, W. L., & Horn, S. P. (1994). The Tennessee value-added assessment system (TVAAS): Mixed-model methodology in educational assessment. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 8, 299–311; Sanders, W. L., & Horn, S. P. (1998). Research findings from the Tennessee value-added assessment system (TVAAS) database: Implications for educational evaluation and research. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 12(3), 247–256.
26. McCaffrey, D. S., Sass, T. R., & Lockwood, J. (2008). The intertemporal stability of teacher effect estimates. Nashville, TN: National Center on Performance Incentives, pp. 25, 40.
27. McCaffrey et al., The intertemporal stability of teacher effect estimates, p. 25.
28. Hargreaves, A., Shirley, D., Evans, M., Johnson, C., & Riseman, D. (2007). The long and short of school improvement: Final evaluation of the raising achievement, transforming learning programme of the Specialist Schools and Academies Trust. London: Specialist Schools and Academies Trust.
29. Gawande, A. (2002). Complications: A surgeon's notes on an imperfect science. New York: Metropolitan Books; Gawande, A. (2007). Better: A surgeon's notes on performance. New York: Picador.
30. Gawande, Complications, p. 7.
31. Gawande, Better.
32. Gawande, Better, p. 25.
33. Gawande, Better, p. 26.
34. Lewis, M. (2004). Moneyball: The art of winning an unfair game. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
35. Lewis, Moneyball, p. xii.
36. Lewis, Moneyball, p. 15.
37. Lewis, Moneyball, p. 38.
38. This example is drawn from Performing Beyond Expectations (forthcoming), a study directed by Andy Hargreaves and Alma Harris, and funded [Page 120]by the Specialist Schools and Academies Trust and the National College for School Leadership.
39. A. Hargreaves & Harris, Performing Beyond Expectations.
40. A. Hargreaves & Harris, Performing Beyond Expectations.
41. A. Hargreaves & Harris, Performing Beyond Expectations.
42. Datnow, A., Park, V, & Wohlstetter, P. (2007). Achieving with data: How high performing schools use data to improve instruction for students. Los Angeles, CA: Center on Educational Governance; Datnow, A., Park, V, & Kennedy, B. (2008). Acting on data: How urban high schools use data to improve instruction. Los Angeles, CA: Center on Educational Governance.
43. The term “turnstile world” is used by Sennett, R. (1998). The corrosion of character: The personal consequences of work in the new capitalism. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, p. 112.
44. Achinstein, B., & Ogawa, R. (2006, Spring). (In)fidelity: What the resistance of new teachers reveals about professional principles and prescriptive educational policies. Harvard Educational Review, 76(1), 30—63.
45. For more details on this study, see Hargreaves, A. (2003). Teaching in the knowledge society: Education in the age of insecurity. New York: Teachers College Press and Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press. For the magnet school in particular see Baker, M., & Foote, M. (2006). Changing spaces: Urban school interrelationships and the impact of standards-based reform. Educational Administration Quarterly, 42(1), 90—123.
46. This school has been studied as part of A. Hargreaves & Harris, Performing Beyond Expectations (forthcoming).
47. Shirley, D., & Hargreaves, A. (2006). Data-driven to distraction, Education Week, 26(6), 32—33.
48. For a discussion of schools as addictive organizations see Hargreaves, A., & Shirley, D. (2009). The persistence of presentism. Teachers College Record, 111(11). For the concept of addictive organizations read Schaef, A. W., & Fassel, D. (1988). The addictive organization. New York: Harper Collins.
49. A. Hargreaves et al., The long and short of school improvement.
50. Shirley, D. (2002). Valley interfaith and school reform: Organizing for power in South Texas. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
51. MacDonald, E., & Shirley, D. (2009). The mindful teacher. New York: Teachers College Press.
52. A. Hargreaves et al., The long and short of school improvement.
53. Durkheim, É. (1965). Elementary forms of religious life. New York: Free Press, p. 250.[Page 121]
54. Mestrovic, S. G. (1997). Postemotional society. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, p. 69.
55. Orwell, G. (1949). 1984. New York: Harcourt, p. 32.
56. Christensen, C. M., Horn, M. B., Johnson, C. W. (2008). Disrupting class: How disruptive innovation will change how the world works. New York: McGraw-Hill; Christensen, C. M. (1997). The innovator's dilemma: When new technologies cause great firms to fail. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
1. Santayana, G. (1905). The life of reason or the phases of human progress: Reason in common sense. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
2. McLaughlin, M. (2008). Beyond “misery research”—New opportunities for implementation research, policy and practice. In C. Sugrue (Ed.) The future of educational change: International perspectives (pp. 175–190). New York: Routledge.
3. McKinsey & Company. (2007, September). How the world's best-performing school systems come out on top. Retrieved from http://www.mckinsey.com/clientservice/socialsector/resources/pdf/Worlds_School_systems_final.pdf
4. Gadamer, H.-G. (1991). Truth and method. New York: Crossroad, p. 302.
5. Stein, M., Hubbard, L., & Mehan, H. (2004). Reform ideas that travel far afield: The two cultures of reform in New York City's District #2 and San Diego. Journal of Educational Change, 5(2), 161–197.
6. This report on Finland draws on an evaluation report of leadership and school improvement in Finland coauthored by one of us for OECD. See Hargreaves, A., Halász, G., & Pont, B. (2008). The Finnish approach to system leadership. In Pont, B. Nusche, D. & Hopkins, D. (Eds.). (2008). Improving school leadership, Vol. 2: Case studies on system leadership. Paris: OECD. Other key resources on educational performance and reform strategies in Finland include Aho, E., Pitkänen, K., & Sahlberg, P. (2006). Policy development and reform principles of basic and secondary education in Finland since 1968. Washington, DC: World Bank; Castells, M., & Himanen, P. (2004). The information society and the welfare state: The Finnish model. New York: Oxford University Press; Grubb, W. N. (2007, October). Dynamic inequality and intervention: Lessons from a small country. Phi Delta Kappan, 105–114; Sahlberg, P. (2006). Education reform for raising economic competitiveness. Journal of Educational Change, 7(4), 259–287.
7. UNICEF (2007). Child poverty in perspective: An overview of child well-being in rich countries, Innocenti Report Card 7. Florence, Italy: UNICEF [Page 122]Innocenti Research Centre. Retrieved from http://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/rc7_eng.pdf
8. See Sheffi, Y. (2005) The resilient enterprise: Overcoming vulnerability for competititve advantage. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 7–8. For more information on Nokia, see Haikio, M. (2002). Nokia, the inside story. London: Prentice Hall.
9. This section draws on our original evaluation of RATL, reported in Hargreaves, A., Shirley, D., Evans, M., Johnson, C., & Riseman, D. (2007). The long and short of school improvement: Final evaluation of the Raising Achievement, Transforming Learning programme of the Specialist Schools and Academies Trust. London: Specialist Schools and Academies Trust.
10. A. Hargreaves et al., The long and short of school improvement, p. 36.
11. For an evaluation that reports favorably on the success of RATL in its subsequent phase of transformation in a sample of 20 schools, see Harris, A., Allen, T., & Goodall, J. (2008). Capturing transformation: How schools secure and sustain improvement. London: Specialist Schools and Academies Trust.
12. A. Hargreaves first applied the term “market fundamentalism” to education (Hargreaves, A. . Teaching in the knowledge society: Education in the age of insecurity. New York: Teachers College Press, p. 4). Its original use can be found in Soros, G. (2002). George Soros on globalization. New York: Perseus.
13. Warren, M. R. (2001). Dry bones rattling: Community building to revitalize American democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; Oakes, J., & Rogers, J. (2006). Learning power: Organizing for education and justice. New York: Teachers College Press; Payne, C. (2007). I've got the light of freedom: The organizing tradition and the Mississippi freedom struggle. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
14. Obama, B. (1995). Dreams from my father: A story of race and inheritance. New York: Times Books.
15. Stone, C., Henig, J., Jones, B., & Pierannunzi, C. (2001). Building civic capacity: The politics of reforming urban schools. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.
16. Skocpol, T. (2004). Diminished democracy: From membership to management in American civic life. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
17. Stone et al., Building civic capacity, pp. 85–86.
18. Usdan, M. D., & Cuban, L. (2003). Powerful reforms with shallow roots: Improving America's urban schools. New York: Teachers College Press.
19. Academy for Educational Development. (2006). Lead teacher report: Second year report submitted to the community collaborative to improve Bronx schools. Washington, DC: Author.[Page 123]
20. Shah, S., & Mediratta, K. (2008, April). Negotiating reform: Young people's leadership in the educational arena. New Directions in Youth Development, pp. 43–59.
21. Warren, M. R. (2005). Communities and schools: A new view of urban education reform. Harvard Educational Review, 75, 133–173; Warren, M. R., Hong, S., Rubin, C. H., & Uy, P. S. (2009). Beyond the bake sale: A community-based relational approach to parent engagement in schools. Teachers College Record, 111(9). Retrieved from http://www.tcrecord.org, ID Number: 15390.
22. Shirley, D. (1997). Community organizing for urban school reform. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
23. Oakes & Rogers, Learning power.
24. Obama, Dreams from my father.
25. Mediratta, K., Shah, S., & McAlister, S. (2008). Organized communities, stronger schools: A preview of research findings. Providence, RI: Annenberg Institute for School Reform.
26. Bryk, A. S., & Schneider, B. (2005). Trust in schools: A core resource for improvement. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. On the importance of trust and betrayal in education, see also Hargreaves, A. (2002). Teaching and betrayal. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 8(3/4), 393–407
27. This school district case study is drawn from data collected in the Performing Beyond Expectations study conducted by Andy Hargreaves and Alama Harris (forthcoming) in collaboration with team member Alan Boyle, and funded by the Specialist Schools and Academies Trust and the National College for School Leadership.
28. The first classic community study of this “East End” working-class community was Young, M., & Willmott, P. (1957). Family and kinship in East London. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. (Reprinted 1992 and 2007.) Additional information on Tower Hamlets is available in a special themed issue of the Annenberg Institute for School Reform's (2008) Voices in Urban Education, 21.
29. Fletcher, C., Caron, M., & Williams, W. (1985). Schools on trial. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press; Watts. J. (Ed.). (1977). The Countesthorpe experience. London: George Allen & Unwin.
30. Hargreaves & Harris (forthcoming). These benign effects of workforce remodeling on relationships between teachers and communities in disadvantaged schools have also been documented by Gordon, J. A. (2008). Community responsive schools, mixed housing and community regeneration. Journal of Education Policy, 23(2), 181–192.
31. Finn, J. D., & Achilles, C. M. (1999). Tennessee's class size study: Findings, implications, misconceptions. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 21(2), 97–109; Nye, B., Hedges, L. V, & Konstantopoulos, S. (2000). [Page 124]The effects of small classes on academic achievement: The results of the Tennessee class size experiment. American Educational Research Journal, 37(1), 123–151; Word, E. R., Johnston, J., Bain, H. P., & Fulton, B. D. (1990). The State of Tennessee's Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio (STAR) Project: Technical Report 1985–90. Nashville, TN: Tennessee State University.
32. Shirley, D. (2006). Street-level democrats: Realizing the potential of school, university, and community coalitions. The Educational Forum, 70(2), 116–122.
33. Barber, M. (2007). Instruction to deliver: Fighting to transform Britain's public services. London: Methuen, p. 70.
1. Darling-Hammond, L. (2008). Teaching and the change wars: The professionalism hypothesis. In A. Hargreaves & M. Fullan (Eds.), Change wars (pp. 45–68). Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.
2. Haidt, J. (2006). The happiness hypothesis: Finding modern truth in ancient wisdom. New York: Basic Books; Hargreaves, A. (2001). The emotional geographies of teaching. Teachers College Record, 103(6), 1056–1080; Hargreaves, A. (2001). The emotional geographies of teachers' relations with their colleagues. International Journal of Educational Research, 35, 503–527; Seligman, M.E.P. (2002). Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfillment. New York: Free Press.
3. Werner, E., & Smith, R. (1992). Overcoming the odds: High risk children from birth to adulthood. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press; Werner, E., & Smith, R. (2001). Journeys from childhood to the midlife: Risk, resilience, and recovery. New York: Cornell University Press.
4. Werner & Smith, Overcoming the odds; Werner & Smith, Journeys from childhood to the midlife.
5. Harris, A. (2006). Leading change in schools in difficulty. Journal of Educational Change, 17(1–2), 9–18.
6. Tucker, M. S. (2009). Industrial benchmarking: A research method for education. In A. Hargreaves & Fullan, Change wars, pp. 117–133.
7. For example, on the eve of the G-20 summit in November 2008, President George W. Bush offered a vigorous defense of laissez-faire capitalism. For the text of the speech, see “President Bush Discusses Financial Markets and World Economy.” Retrieved from http://www.heartland.org/article/24166/President_Bush_Discusses_Financial_Markets_and_World_Economy_.html
8. See UNICEF. (2007). Child poverty in perspective: An overview of child well-being in rich countries, Innocenti Report Card 7. Florence, Italy: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.[Page 125]
9. This is now advocated in many places, but especially in Fullan, M. (2008). The six secrets of change: What the best leaders do to help their organizations survive and thrive. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
10. See, for example, Barber, M. (2008). From system effectiveness to system improvement: Reform paradigms and relationships. In A. Hargreaves & Fullan, Change wars, pp. 87–88.
11. This is as advocated in the classic United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) report by Delors, J. (1996). Learning: the treasure within—Report to UNESCO of the International Commission on Education for the twenty-first century. Paris: Author; see also Sahlberg, P. (2006). Education reform for raising economic competitiveness. Journal of Educational Change, 7(4), 259–287.
12. Weil, S. (1997). The need for roots: Prelude to a declaration of duties towards mankind. New York: Routledge.
13. Obama, B. (1995). Dreams from my father: A story of race and inheritance. New York: Times Books.
14. As reported in Fullan, M. (2006). Turnaround leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; Fullan, The six secrets of change.
15. See, for example, Harris, A., Bennett, N., & Reynolds, D. (Eds.). (2005). School effectiveness and school improvement: Alternative perspectives. London: Continuum International; Reynolds, D. (Ed.). (1985). Studying school effectiveness. London: Falmer Press.
16. Carter, S. C. (1999). No excuses: Seven principals of low-income schools who set the standard for high achievement. Washington, DC: The Heritage Foundation; Carter, S.C. (2000). No excuses: Lessons from 21 high-performing, high-poverty schools. Washington, DC: The Heritage Foundation.
17. Harris et al., School effectiveness and school improvement.
18. Fleisch, B. (2008). Primary education in crisis: Why South African schoolchildren underachieve in reading and mathematics. Cape Town, South Africa: Juta.
19. Berliner, D. (2006). Our impoverished view of educational research. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 949–995. In particular, see tables on pp. 964–966.
20. Berliner, Our impoverished view of educational research.
21. Townsend, T. (2008, September). Third millennium leaders: Thinking and acting both locally and globally. Keynote speech presented at Commonwealth Council for Educational Administration and Management (CCEAM) Conference, Durban, South Africa.
22. Information on Building Schools for the Future (BSF). Retrieved from http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/resourcesfinanceandbuilding/bsf/[Page 126]
23. S. Alinsky, cited in Shirley, D. (1997). Community organizing for urban school reform. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, pp. 244–245.
24. Honoré, C. (2008) Under pressure: rescuing our children from the culture of hyper-parenting. New York: HarperOne.
25. Apple, M. (2001). Educating the “right” way: Markets, standards, God, and inequality. New York: RoutledgeFalmer.
26. These cases are drawn from Hargreaves, A., & Shaw, P. (2006). Knowledge and skills development in developing and transitional economies. An analysis of World Bank/DfID knowledge and skills for the modern economy. Report to the World Bank. Chestnut Hill, MA: Boston College.
27. A. Hargreaves & Shaw, Knowledge and skills development.
28. Obama, Dreams from my father.
29. On student involvement in change, see Rudduck, J., Day, J., & Wallace, G. (1997). Students' perspectives on school improvement. In A. Hargreaves (Ed.), Rethinking educational change with heart and mind (the 1997 ASCD Yearbook, pp. 73–91), Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development; Ben Levin, “Sustainable, large-scale education renewal,” Journal of Educational Change, 8(4), 323–336.
30. Grubb, Dynamic inequality and intervention; Honoré, C. (2004). In praise of slowness: How a worldwide movement is challenging the cult of speed. New York: HarperCollins.
31. Mediratta, K., Shah, S., & McAlister, S. (2008). Organized communities, stronger schools: A preview of research findings. Providence, RI: Annenberg Institute for School Reform; McLaughlin, M., Scott, W. R., Deschenes, S., Hopkins, K., & Newman, A. (2009). Between movement and establishment: Organizations advocating for youth. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press; Oakes, J., & Rogers, J. (2006). Learning power: Organizing for education and justice. New York: Teachers College Press; Su, C. (2009). Streetwise for book smarts: Grassroots organizing and education reform in the Bronx. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
32. Department for Children, Schools and Families (2008). Personalised learning: A practical guide. London: DCSF Publications. Retrieved from http://publications.teachernet.gov.uk/eOrderingDownload/00844-2008DOM-EN.pdf; Miliband, D. (2004). Personalised learning: Building a new relationship with schools. London: DCSF Publications. Retrieved from http://publications.teachernet.gov.uk/eOrderingDownload/personalised-learning.pdf
33. Hargreaves, D. (2006). A new shape for schooling? London: Specialist Schools and Academies Trust, p. 24.
34. D. Hargreaves, A new shape for schooling? On the importance of projects versus ubiquitous short lessons within the concept of personalization, see [Page 127]Hargreaves, D. (2004). Learning for life: The foundations for lifelong learning. London: Policy Press, p. 2.
35. European Commission. (2001). A memorandum on lifelong learning. Brussels: European Commission; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (1996). Lifelong learning for all. Paris: Author.
36. D. Hargreaves, A new shape for schooling?, p. 3.
37. D. Hargreaves, A new shape for schooling?, p. 2. In late 2008, D. Hargreaves testified to the House of Commons Children's Committee that he favored the analogy with business, which had geared itself to meet a customized market. At the same time, he contended, given increasing contentiousness in the use of the term, he only now used the term if pressed and felt that it was a “total waste of time trying to find a definition.” See Baker, M. (2008). “Let's not get personal.” Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/education/7741943.stm
38. Wagner, T. (2008). The global achievement gap. New York: Basic.
39. Bauman, Z. (2008). The art of life. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
40. MacDonald, E., & Shirley, D. (2006). Growing teacher leadership in the urban context: The power of partnerships. In K. R. Howey, L. M. Post, & N. L. Zimpher (Eds.), Recruiting, preparing and retaining teachers for urban schools (pp. 125–144). Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges of Teacher Education; MacDonald, E., & Shirley, D. (2009). The mindful teacher. New York: Teachers College Press.
41. Ancess, J. (2003). Beating the odds: High schools as communities of commitment. New York: Teachers College Press; Perry, T., Steele, C., & Hillard, A. (2003). Young, gifted, and black: Promoting high achievement among African-American students. Boston: Beacon Press; Scheurich, J. (1998). Cultural characteristics populated mainly by low-SES children of color: Core beliefs and highly successful and loving, public elementary schools. Urban Education, 33(4), 451–191.
42. Hess, F. (2001). Tear down this wall: The case for a radical overhaul of teacher certification. Washington, DC: Progressive Policy Institute.
43. This percentage is an estimate based on data for the number of teachers certified by the NBPTS (as reported by NBPTS, retrieved from http://www.nbpts.org/resources/nbct_directory/nbcts_by_year), compared with the total number of public elementary and secondary teachers in 2005 (as reported in U.S. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 2008. Education: elementary and secondary education: Staff and finances. Washington, DC, 2007. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/cats/education/elementary_and_secondary_education_staff_and_finances.html).
44. For an extended discussion on this issue, see Hargreaves, A., & Evans, R. (1997). Beyond educational reform. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.[Page 128]
45. For information on TURN, see http://www.turnexchange.net
46. Lortie, D. C. (1975). Schoolteacher: A sociological study. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
47. Hargreaves, A. (2003). Teaching in the knowledge society. New York: Teachers College Press.
48. A. Hargreaves, Teaching in the knowledge society.
49. The term “contrived collegiality” is introduced and discussed in Hargreaves, A. (1994). Changing teachers, changing times: Teachers' work and culture in the postmodern age. New York: Teachers' College Press.
50. See Hargreaves, A. (2007). Leading professional learning communities. In A. M. Blankstein, P. D. Houston, R. W. Cole (Eds.). (2008). Sustaining professional learning communities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
51. MacDonald & Shirley, The mindful teacher.
52. Sennett, R. (2008). The craftsman. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
53. Alinsky, S. (1965). The war on poverty—political pornography. Journal of Social Issues, 11(1), 41–47. Quote is on p. 42.
54. This percentage was calculated after reviewing the third edition of Florida's Educational Leadership Examination (FELE) competencies and skills. Retrieved on November 25, 2008, from http://www.fldoe.org/asp/fele/. The State Board of Education approved these FELE changes in June 2008, and the Florida Department of Education began administration of the new examination in January 2009.
55. On the reasons for principal supply shortage related to the conditions of educational change and work overload, see, for example, Price Waterhouse Coopers. (2007). Independent study into school leadership. Nottingham, UK: Department for Education and Skills; Hewitt, P., Pijanowski, J., Carnine, L., & Denny, G. (2008). The status of school leadership in Arkansas. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas; Cusick, P. A. (2002). A study of Michigan's school principal shortage. East Lansing, MI: Education Policy Center, Michigan State University.
56. Hatch, T. (2002). When improvement plans collide. Phi Delta Kappan, 83(8), 626–634.
57. For more information on distributed leadership, see Spillane, J. P. (2006). Distributed leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; Fink, D., & Hargreaves, A. (2008). Distributed leadership: Delivery or democracy. Journal of Educational Administration, 46(2), 229–240.
58. The concept of “sustainable leadership” and the seven principles drawn from it were first discussed in Hargreaves, A., & Fink, D. (2006). Sustainable leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
59. See, for example, Hill, R., & Matthews, P. (2008, November 21). Captains to steer through the storm. Times Educational Supplement, pp. 30–31; [Page 129]Hill, R., & Matthews, P. (2008). Schools leading schools: The power and potential of national leaders of education. Nottingham, UK: National College for School Leadership.
60. On the necessity of balancing emergence and design, see Capra, F. (2002). The hidden connection: A science for sustainable living. New York: Harper Collins. On the application of Capra's ideas to sustainable improvement and leadership, see Fink & Hargreaves, Distributed leadership.
61. Hargreaves, D. (2004). Education epidemic: Transforming secondary schools through innovation networks. London: Demos.
62. Castells, M. (2001). The Internet galaxy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
63. Ainscow M., Dyson A., Goldrick, S., Kerr, K., & Miles, S. (2008). Equity in education: Responding to context. Manchester, UK: Center for Equity in Education, University of Manchester.
64. Lindsay, G., Muijs, D., Chapman, C., & Harris, A. (2007). Final report of the federations policy. London: Department for Education and Skills.
65. Nichols, S., & Berliner, D. (2007). Collateral damage: How high-stakes testing corrupts America's schools. Cambridge: Harvard Education Press; Booher-Jennings, J. (2005). Below the bubble: Educational triage and the Texas accountability system. American Educational Research Journal, 42(2), 231–268; McNeill, L. M. (2000). Contradictions of school reform: The educational costs of standardized testing. New York: Routledge; A. Hargreaves, Teaching in the knowledge society.
66. Rust, K. F., Krenzke, T., Qian, J., & Johnson, E. G. (2001) Sample design for the national assessment. In Allen, N. L., Donoghue, J. R., & Schoeps, T. L. (Eds.) (2001). The NAEP 1998 technical report. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, pp. 31–50.
67. Hargreaves, D. H. (2004). Learning for life: The foundations for lifelong learning. Bristol, UK: Policy Press.
68. Skerrett, A. (2008). Going the race way: Biographical influences on multicultural and antiracist English curriculum practices. Teaching & Teacher Education, 24(7), 1813–1826; Skerrett, A., & Hargreaves, A. (2008). Student diversity and secondary school change in a context of increasingly standardized reform. American Educational Research Journal, 45(4), 913–945.
69. Nathan, L. (2008). What's been lost in the bubbles. Educational Leadership, 66(2), 52–55.
70. This example is drawn from the Performing Beyond Expectations study (forthcoming) directed by Andy Hargreaves and Alma Harris.
71. Frost, R. (1946). The poems of Robert Frost. New York: Random House, 177.[Page 130]
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The Corwin logo—a raven striding across an open book—represents the union of courage and learning. Corwin is committed to improving education for all learners by publishing books and other professional development resources for those serving the field of PreK-12 education. By providing practical, hands-on materials, Corwin continues to carry out the promise of its motto: “Helping Educators Do Their Work Better.”
The Ontario Principals’ Council (OPC) is a voluntary professional association for principals and vice-principals in Ontario's public school system. We believe that exemplary leadership results in outstanding schools and improved student achievement. To this end, we foster quality leadership through world-class professional services and supports. As an ISO 9001 registered organization, we are committed to our statement that “quality leadership is our principal product.”[Page 148]