The Essential Guide for Educating Beginning English Learners

Books

Debbie Zacarian & Judie Haynes

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Praise for the Essential Guide for Educating Beginning English Learners

    The Essential Guide for Educating Beginning English Learners is a direct, concise, and straight-forward volume for practitioners serving newly arrived English language learners. It captures the assets and resources beginning ELLs bring into the classroom and focuses on effective educational responses for each group of beginning English learners, built around a solid understanding of key learner characteristics, including literacy levels, cultural characteristics, and other important learner factors that may come into play such as poverty and/or trauma experienced. The authors have created a useful working guide, supported by plenty of helpful examples and tools, which schools can use to facilitate professional development communities, following a structured book study process.”

    Nancy Cloud, Professor and Director of the MEd in TESL Program
    Rhode Island College, Providence, RI

    “At a time when the U.S. is experiencing a record number of English learners, this carefully researched, practical guide will serve as the primary support for both teachers and administrators seeking to do a more comprehensive job of responding to what is arguably their most vulnerable student population. Zacarian and Haynes provide a close examination of the diversity within the group of beginner ELs, who are often lumped together based on language proficiency alone.”

    Helaine W. Marshall, Associate Professor of Education, Director of Language Education Programs
    Long Island University Hudson, Purchase, NY

    “Debbie Zacarian and Judie Haynes joined forces again and created a much needed, comprehensive text in The Essential Guide for Educating Beginning English Learners. Students who are new to the English language and often new to the United States and the U.S. school system frequently encounter complex challenges, so their teachers need to be prepared and ready to help. This book will serve as an indispensable resource for teachers to tackle this task, and to do so with knowledge, skills, confidence, and advocacy for new English learners!”

    Andrea Honigsfeld, Professor
    Molloy College

    “More than ever, educators are facing large numbers of English learners, each coming with specific needs. The authors present a comprehensive text of how educators can and should work with these students and their families. Many of the strategies presented can be applied to other students as well. This book will be a valuable asset to every educator who wants each of his or her students to succeed.”

    Glen Ishiwata, Former Superintendent
    Moreland School District, San Jose, CA

    “This book is a must-read for teachers and administrators. It provides a comprehensive approach to helping EL students learn academic language, which is key to success in the content areas. This book provides an excellent opportunity for leaders as a book study with its guidance and reflections throughout the chapters.”

    Maria H. Gillentine, Title III Program Specialist
    Gwinnett County Public Schools, Suwanee, GA

    Dedication

    With a combined six decades of experience, we continue to promote the ideals of public education—to help students become active members and successful learners in their school communities and beyond. We dedicate this book to them and their families and to the educators from whom we continue learn so much.

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Acknowledgments

    This was our second project together and a great experience from start to finish. We could not have done it without the support of many people. Special thanks to

    • Dan Alpert, whose outstanding editorial support from inception to the final product was always positive, patient, and encouraging.
    • Sara Boyd, from North Kansas City Schools, for sharing her knowledge and stories about students from Africa with limited and interrupted formal education.
    • Monica Schnee, from River Edge Public Schools in New Jersey, who informed us about the learning needs of English learner kindergartners entering school in the United States.
    • Ken Pransky, from the Collaborative for Educational Services in Northampton, Massachusetts, who expanded our thinking about culturally and linguistically diverse learners—especially those who have experienced cultural disruptions.
    • Audrey Morse, also from the Collaborative for Educational Services, whose background as a speech and language pathologist, an ESL teacher, and a teacher educator helped our thinking about English learners with learning differences and disabilities.
    • the many classroom teachers, specialists, and school leaders from across the country who graciously shared their work with us.
    • the external reviewers of the manuscript whose ideas and suggestions greatly strengthened the book.
    • Cassandra Seibel and Sarah Duffy, from Corwin, who polished our writing to make it shine.

    We spent many long hours collaborating on the Essential Guide for Educating Beginning English Learners. We couldn't have written it without the steadfast encouragement of our families and especially our husbands, Matt Zacarian and Joe Haynes.

    Publisher's Acknowledgments

    Corwin gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following reviewers:

    • Torii Bottomley
    • ESL Teacher and Trainer
    • Boston Public Schools
    • Cambridge, MA
    • Michelle DaCosta
    • Bilingual Resource Teacher
    • Framingham Public Schools
    • Framingham, MA
    • Glen Ishiwata
    • Former Superintendent
    • Moreland School District
    • San Jose, CA
    • Katherine Lobo
    • ESL Teacher and Teacher Trainer
    • Belmont Public Schools
    • Belmont, MA
    • Beth Madison
    • Principal
    • George Middle School
    • Portland, OR
    • Amy Mares
    • Coordinator for Bilingual/ESL Instructional Services
    • Region One Education Service Center
    • Edinburg, TX
    • Jen Paul
    • ELL Assessment Consultant
    • Michigan Department of Education
    • Lansing, MI

    About the Authors

    Debbie Zacarian, EdD has authored numerous publications including Mastering Academic Language (2013), The Essential Guide for Educating Beginning English Learners (2012), Transforming Schools for English Learners: A Comprehensive Framework for School Leaders (2011), and Teaching English Language Learners Across the Content Areas (2010), and was a columnist for TESOL's Essential Teacher. A national expert in policies and practices, she cowrote the Massachusetts Department of Early Education and Care's policies for dual language learners; wrote Serving English Learners: Laws, Policies, and Regulations, a user-friendly guide about U.S. federal laws, a project funded with support from the Carnegie Foundation for Colorín Colorado; and served as expert consultant with the Kindergarten Entry Assessment Advisory Committee of the Delaware Governor's Office, Delaware Children's Department, and Delaware's Office of Education. With over three decades of combined experience directing a professional development and consulting center at an educational service agency about English language education and advancing student achievement, administering public school English learner programs, serving on the faculty of the University of Massachusetts Amherst, and engaging in various state and national initiatives, Dr. Zacarian consults with state agencies and school districts in the United States on policies, programming, and professional development for culturally and linguistically diverse populations.

    Judie Haynes is a freelance professional development provider and teacher with 28 years' experience in teaching English as a second language. She has published six books, including Getting Started With English Language Learners (ASCD, 2007) and Teaching English language Learners Across the Content Areas (ASCD, 2010). Judie also contributed chapters to Integrating the ESL Standards Into Classroom Practice, Grades K–2 (TESOL, 2000) and Authenticity in the Language Classroom and Beyond (TESOL, 2010). She was also a columnist for TESOL's Essential Teacher. Judie is the editor and owner of http://everythingESL.net, a website for teachers of English learners. She is cofounder and moderator of #ELLCHAT, an online chat for teachers of English learners. She also provides keynote addresses and workshops to TESOL affiliates and school districts all over the United States.

  • References

    Advocates for Children of New York. (2010). Students with interrupted formal education: A challenge for New York City Public Schools. New York, NY: Author. Retrieved from http://www.advocatesforchildren.org/sites/default/files/library/sife_2010.pdf
    Ariza, E. N. W. (2006). Not for ESOL teachers: What every classroom teacher needs to know about the linguistically, culturally, and ethnically diverse student. New York, NY: Pearson.
    August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.) (2006). Executive summary: Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. (2011). WIDA's ELD standards, 2012 edition. Retrieved from http://www.wida.us/standards/elp.aspx
    Brown, H. D. (1994). Principles of language learning and teaching. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Burt, M., Peyton, J. K., & Adams, R. (2003). Reading and adult English language learners: A review of the research. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=ED505537
    Calderón, M. (2007). Teaching reading to English language learners, grades 6–12: A framework for improving achievement in the content areas. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Calderón, M. E., & Minaya-Rowe, L. (2011). Preventing long-term ELs: Transforming schools to meet core standards. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Capps, R., Fix, M., Murray, J., Ost, J., Passel, J., & Herwantoro, S. (2005). The new demography of America's schools: Immigration and the No Child Left Behind Act. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
    Center for Applied Linguistics. (1999). Two-way bilingual education programs in practice: A national and local perspective. Retrieved from http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/ed379915.html
    Cole, S. (2008). Foreword. In S. E.Craig, Reaching and teaching children who hurt: Strategies for your classroom (pp. ix–xii). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
    Collier, V. P., & Thomas, W. P. (2009). Educating English learners for a transformed world. Albuquerque, NM: Fuente Press.
    Common Core State Standard Initiative. (2011). Mathematics, grade 3, number and operations—fractions. Retrieved from http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards/mathematics/grade-3/number-and-operations-fractions/
    Craig, S. (2008). Reaching and teaching children who hurt: Strategies for your classroom. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
    Crawford, S. (2011, December 3) The new digital divide. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/
    Cummins, J. (2001). Language, power, and pedagogy. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    DeCapua, A., & Marshall, H. W. (2010). Serving ELLs with limited or interrupted education: Intervention that works. TESOL Journal, 1, 49–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.5054/tj.2010.214878
    DeCapua, A., & Marshall, H. W. (2011). Breaking new ground: Teaching students with limited or interrupted formal education in U.S. secondary schools. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10459880903291680
    Denny, K. (2002). New methods for comparing literacy across populations: Insights from the measurement of poverty. Journal of the Statistical Society, Series A (Statistics in Society), 165, 481–493. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/action/showPublication?journalCode=jroyastatsocise3http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-985X.00249
    A distinct population. (2009). Quality Counts, 28(17), 15.
    Donohue, Z., Van Tassel, M. A., & Patterson, L. (Eds.). (1996). Research in the classroom: Talk, texts, and inquiry. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
    Duke, K., & Mabbot, A. (2001). An alternative model for novice-level elementary ESL education. WITESOL Journal, 17, 11–30.
    Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., & Short, D. J. (2004). Making content comprehensible for English learners: The SIOP model (
    2nd ed.
    ). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Echevarria, J., Vogt, M. E., & Short, D. J. (2008). Making content comprehensible for English learners: The SIOP model (
    3rd ed.
    ). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Egbert, J. L., & Ernst-Slavit, G. (2010). Access to academics: Planning instruction for K–12 classrooms with ELLs. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Fairbairn, S. V., & Jones-Vo, S. (2010). Differentiating instruction and assessment for English language learners: A guide for K–12 teachers. Philadelphia, PA: Caslon.
    Ferlazzo, L. (2011). Involvement or engagement?Educational Leadership, 68(8), 10–14.
    Frankenberg, E., Siegel-Hawley, G., & Wang, J. (2010). Choice without equity: Charter school segregation and the need for civil right standards. Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angeles, Civil Rights Project/Proyecto Direchos Civiles. Retrieved from http://civilrightsproject.ucla.edu/research/k-12-education/integration-and-diversity/choice-without-equity-2009-report/frankenberg-choices-without-equity-2010.pdf
    Freeman, Y. S., & Freeman, D. E. (2002). Closing the achievement gap: How to reach limited-formal-schooling and long-term English learners. Portsmouth, NH: Heinneman.
    Gándara, P. (2010). Overcoming triple segregation: Latino students often face language, cultural, and economic isolation. Educational Leadership, 68(3), 60–65.
    Garcia, E. E. (2005). Teaching and learning in two languages. New York, NY: Teacher's College Press.
    Garcia, E. E., Jensen, B. T., & Scribner, K. P. (2009). The democratic imperative. Educational Leadership, 66(7), 8–13.
    Garcia, G. E., & Godina, H. (2004). Addressing the literacy needs of adolescent English language learners. In. T.Jetton & J.Dole (Eds.), Adolescent literacy: Research and practice (pp. 304–320). New York, NY: Guildford Press.
    Garcia, O. (1999). Educating Latino high school students with little formal schooling. In C. J.Faltis & P.Wolfe (Eds.), So much to say: Adolescents, bilingualism, and & ESL in the secondary school (pp. 61–82). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
    Gersten, R., & Woodward, J. (1995). A longitudinal study of transitional and immersion bilingual education programs in one district. Elementary School Journal, 95, 223–239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/461800
    Gibbons, P. (2009). English learners, academic literacy, and thinking: Learning in the challenge zone. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Giller, E. (1999). What is psychological trauma? Retrieved from http://www.sidran.org/sub.cfm?contentID=88&sectionid=4
    Goldenberg, C., & Coleman, R. (2010). Promoting academic achievement among English learners: A guide to the research. Thousand Oaks, CA. Corwin.
    Gonzalez, N., Moll, L. C., & Amanti, C. (2005). Funds of knowledge: Theorizing practices in households, communities, and classrooms. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Gottlieb, M., Katz, A., & Ernst-Slavit, G. (2009). Paper to practice: Using the English language proficiency standards in preK–12 classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages.
    Groves, B. M. (2002). Children who see too much. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
    Hall, M. T. (1983). The dance of life: The other dimensions of time. New York, NY: Doubleday.
    Hall, E. T. (1990). The hidden dimension. New York, NY: Knopf Doubleday.
    Hamayan, E., Marler, B, Sanchez-Lopez, C., & Damico, J. (2007). Special education considerations for English language learners: Delivering a continuum of services. Philadelphia, PA: Caslon.
    Haynes, J. (2005a). ESL = Essential student learning. Essential Teacher, 2(1), 6–7.
    Haynes, J. (2005b). Getting started with English language learners: How educators can meet the challenge. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    Haynes, J. (2007a). Can two teachers be better than one?Essential Teacher, 4(3), 6–7.
    Haynes, J. (2007b). Getting started with English learners: How educators can meet the challenge. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    Haynes, J. (2008). Out of the storage room. Essential Teacher, 5(2), 6–7.
    Haynes, J., & Zacarian, D. (2010). Teaching English language learners across the content areas. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    Hays, J. (2009). Japanese mothers and housewives: Having children, duties, education and school lunches. Retrieved from http://factsanddetails.com/japan.php?itemid=625&catid=18
    Henderson, A. T., Mapp, K. L., Johnson, V. R., & Davies, D. (2007). Beyond the bake sale: The essential guide to family-school partnerships. New York, NY: New Press.
    Honawar, V. (2009). Training gets boost. Quality Counts, 28(17). Retrieved from http://www.edweek.org/
    Hollins, E., & Guzman, M. T. (2005). Research on preparing teachers for diverse populations. In M.Cochran Smith & K. M.Zeichner (Eds.), Studying teacher education: The report of the AERA Panel on Research and Teacher Education (pp. 477–548). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Honigsfeld, A., & Dove, M. (2010). Collaboration and co-teaching: Strategies for English learners. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Hyerle, D., Curtis, S., & Alpert, L. (Eds.). (2004). Student successes with using thinking maps: School-based research, results, and models for achievement using visual tools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Isserlis, J. (2000). Trauma and the adult English language learner. Retrieved from http://www.cal.org/caela/printer.php?printRefURL=http%3A//www.cal.org/caela/esl_resources/digests/trauma2.html
    Janzen, J. (2008). Teaching English language learners in the content areas. Review of Educational Research, 78, 1010–1038. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0034654308325580
    Kilgore, J., & Vignaly, J. (2011, May). Culturally and linguistically diverse students and trauma. Presentation at the Massachusetts English Learner Leadership Council Conference, Leominster, MA.
    Krashen, S. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. New York, NY: Longman.
    Krashen, S. (1989). Language acquisition and language education. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Krathwohl, D. R., Bloom, B. S., & Masia, B. B. (1973). Taxonomy of educational objectives, the classification of educational goals. Handbook II: Affective Domain. New York, NY: David McKay.
    Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Multicultural teacher education: Research, practice and policy. In J. A.Banks & C. A.McGee Banks (Eds.), Handbook of research on multicultural education (pp. 747–761). New York, NY: Macmillan.
    Lawrence-Lightfoot, S. (2003). The essential conversation: What parents and teachers can learn from each other. New York, NY: Random House.
    Learning Forward. (2012). Definition of professional development. Retrieved from http://www.learningforward.org/standfor/definition.cfm
    Lindholm-Leary, K. (2001). Dual language education. Avon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
    Loughran, J. J. (2002). Effective reflective practice: In search of meaning in learning about teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 53, 33–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022487102053001004
    McClure, G., & Cahnmann-Taylor, M. (2010). Pushing back against push-in: ESOL teacher resistance and the complexities of coteaching. TESOL Journal, 1. 121–129. http://dx.doi.org/10.5054/tj.2010.214883
    Moll, L., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N. (1992). Funds of knowledge for teaching: Using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory Into Practice, 31, 132–141http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00405849209543534
    National Center for Education Statistics. (2004). English language learners in U.S. public schools: 1994 and 2000. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2004035
    National Center for Education Statistics. (2009). Number and percentage of children ages 5–17 who spoke only English at home, who spoke a language other than English at home and who spoke English with difficulty, and percent enrolled in school: Selected years, 1980–2009. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/tables/table-lsm-1.asp
    National Writing Project. (2009). Literacy, ELL, and digital storytelling: 21st century learning in action. Retrieved from http://www.nwp.org/cs/public/print/resource/2790
    Office for Civil Rights (2005). Questions and answers on the rights of Limited English Proficient students. Retrieved July 4, 2012: http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/qa-ell.html
    Osofsky, J. D., & Osofsky, H. J. (1999). Developmental implications of violence in youth. In M.Levine, W. B.Carey, & A. C.Crocker (Eds.), Developmental and beavhioral pediatrics (
    3rd ed.
    , pp. 493–498). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.
    Passel, J., & Cohn, D. (2012). U.S. foreign-born population: How much change from 2009 to 2010?Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewhispanic.org/files/2012/01/Foreign-Born-Population.pdf
    Pransky, K. (2008). Beneath the surface: The hidden realities of teaching culturally and linguistically diverse young learners, K–6. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    Pransky, K. (2009). There's more to see. Educational Leadership, 66(7), 74–78.
    Ravitch, D. (2011). The death and life of the great American school system: How testing and choice are undermining education. New York, NY: Basic Books.
    Rogoff, B. (1990). Apprenticeship in thinking: Cognitive development in social context. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Rogoff, B. (2003). The cultural nature of human development. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Ruiz-de-Velasco, J., Fix, M. E., & Clewell, B. C. (2000). Overlooked and underserved: Immigrant students in U.S. secondary schools. Retrieved from http://www.urban.org/publications/310022.html
    Schmidt, M. A. (2000). Teacher's attitudes toward ESL students and programs. In S. E.Wade (Ed.), Inclusive education: A casebook and readings for prospective and practicing teachers (pp. 109–116). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Schön, D. A. (1987). Educating the reflective practioner. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Short, D. J., & Boyson, B. A. (2012). Helping newcomer students succeed in secondary school and beyond. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.
    Soltero, S. (2004). Dual language learners: Teaching and learning in two languages. New York, NY: Pearson.
    Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. (1996–2007). PreK–12 English language proficiency standards framework. Retrieved from http://www.tesol.org/s_tesol/sec_document.asp?CID=281&DID=13323
    Terr, L. (1991). Childhood traumas: An outline and overview. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 10–20.
    U.S. Department of Education. (2004). Title IX—General provisions. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/pg107.html
    U.S. Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights. (1991). Policy update on schools' obligations toward national origin minority students with limited-English proficiency. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/lau1991.html
    U.S. Department of Education. (October 6, 2011). Statement of U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan on the passing of Civil Rights Leader Fred Shuttlesworth. Retrieved July 4, 2012: http://www.ed.gov/news/press-releases/statementus-secretary-education-arne-duncan-passing-civil-rights-leader-fred-sh
    Valdes, G. (2001). Learning and not learning English: Latino students in American schools. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
    Vasquez, V. (2010). Getting beyond “I like the book”: Creating space for critical literacy in K–6 classrooms (
    2nd ed.
    ). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
    Wade, S. E., Fauske, J. R., & Thompson, A. (2008). Prospective teachers' problem solving in online peer-led dialogues. American Educational Research Journal, 45, 398–442. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0002831207308224
    Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design (Expanded
    2nd ed.
    ). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    Yoshikawa, H. (2011). Immigrants raising citizens: Undocumented parents and their young children. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
    Yoshikawa, H. (2012, May). Immigrants raising citizens: Undocumented parents and their young children's development: knowing our students. Presentation at the MATSOL 40th Anniversary Conference, Framingham, MA.
    Zacarian, D. (1996). Learning how to teach and design curriculum for the heterogeneous class: An ethnographic study of a task-based cooperative learning group of native English and English as a second language speakers in a graduate education course (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 9639055)
    Zacarian, D. (2007). Mascot or member?Essential Teacher, 4(3), 10–11.
    Zacarian, D. (2011). Transforming schools for English learners: A comprehensive framework for school leaders. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Zacarian, D. (2012). Serving English learners: Laws, policies and regulations. Washington, DC: Colorín Colorado. Retrieved from http://www.colorincolorado.org/pdfs/policy/ELL-Policy-Guide.pdf
    Zacarian, D. (2013). Mastering academic language: A framework for support student achievement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
    Zeichner, K., & Hoeft, K. (1996). Teacher socialization for cultural diversity. In J.Sikula, T.Buttery, & E.Guyton (Eds.), Handbook on research on teacher education (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 525–547). New York, NY: Macmillan.

    Corwin: A SAGE Company

    The Corwin logo—a raven striding across an open book—represents the union of courage and learning. Corwin is committed to improving education for all learners by publishing books and other professional development resources for those serving the field of PreK–12 education. By providing practical, hands-on materials, Corwin continues to carry out the promise of its motto: “Helping Educators Do Their Work Better.”


    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website