The Essential Guide for Educating Beginning English Learners
Publication Year: 2012
Put all English learners on the path to success—right from the start!
Beginning English learners are at risk of being lost in a system that doesn't know how to reach them. With more and more ELs entering U.S. schools every year, educators need to act quickly to create school- and classroom-based programs that work. Veteran educators Debbie Zacarian and Judie Haynes provide templates and tools—along with vignettes illustrating real-world challenges—to help teachers and administrators: Create a welcoming environment for English learners and their families who are unfamiliar with the American education system; Reach out to students from literacy and non-literacy-oriented homes; Engage parents to become a part of the school community; Learn strategies for teaching beginning level ELs across the curriculum; Develop instructional models for students ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Seeing the Big Picture
- How Are English Learners Doing in U.S. Schools?
- Who Are Beginning English Learners?
- Resources for Leaders and Teachers of Beginning Learners of English
- Challenges Faced by Beginning English Learners and Their Families
- What Is Being Done to Address the Needs of Beginning English Learners?
- Using a Three-Phase Planning Approach for Beginning Learners of English
- Chapter 2: Taking a Closer Look
- Influence of Literacy
- Differences in Literacy and Educational Experiences
- Differences in Orientation to Time
- Three Different Types of Students
- Students Experiencing Trauma
- How Poverty Affects Learning
- Individualistic and Collectivist Cultures
- Addressing the Complex Needs of English Learners
- Chapter 3: Effective Programming for English Learners
- Developing a Districtwide Effort
- Reviewing the Enrollment Process
- Identifying English Learners
- Helping Parents Understand the Enrollment Process
- Chapter 4: Selecting Models of Instruction
- Programs That Promote Bilingualism and Biliteracy
- Early Exit or Transitional Bilingual Programs
- Structured Immersion Models
- ESL Instruction
- Newcomers with Limited Prior Schooling
- Chapter 5: Strengthening Family–School Engagement
- Building Partnerships with Families of Beginning English Learners
- Understanding Barriers
- Establishing a Welcoming School Environment by Building Relationships
- Addressing Differences
- Building Connections with Learning
- Supporting Advocacy and Sharing Power
- Bilingual Parent Advisory Committees
- Home Visits to Involve Parents of English Learners
- Bilingual Parent Volunteer Programs
- Chapter 6: Teaching Beginners
- What Is Culture Shock?
- Stages of Culture Shock
- Supporting English Learners in Content Area Classrooms
- Using Technology and the Internet
- Materials and Resources for Beginning English Learners
- Teaching Essential Basics
- Eight Key Strategies for Teaching Content
- Chapter 7: Working with English Learners Who Have Experienced Trauma
- What Do We Mean by Trauma?
- How Prevalent Are Trauma and Violence?
- What Steps Are Important to Take?
- Chapter 8: Teaching English Learners with Limited or Interrupted Formal Education
- Different Characteristics Among Students with Limited or Interrupted Formal Education
- Different Learning Needs
- The Prior Schooling Experiences of an English Learner
- Building Programming for SLIFE Who Are Also Beginning Learners of English
- What Do SLIFE Need?
- A Different Approach to Learning
- Instructional Programming for SLIFE
- Student Engagement
- Developing Programs for SLIFE
- Drawing on Students' Backgrounds
- Using a Collaborative Learning Process to Build Academic Skills
- Create Culturally Relevant Content to Develop Confident Students Who Value School and Themselves as Learners
- Chapter 9: Providing Effective Professional Development
- What Should Be Included in High-Quality Professional Development?
- Observational Activities
- Reflection Activities
- Interviewing Activities
- Collaborative Professional Development Groups
- Why Is Book Study an Important Format?
- Structure for Professional Book Study Groups
Praise for the Essential Guide for Educating Beginning English Learners[Page i]
“The Essential Guide for Educating Beginning English Learners is a direct, concise, and straight-forward volume for practitioners serving newly arrived English language learners. It captures the assets and resources beginning ELLs bring into the classroom and focuses on effective educational responses for each group of beginning English learners, built around a solid understanding of key learner characteristics, including literacy levels, cultural characteristics, and other important learner factors that may come into play such as poverty and/or trauma experienced. The authors have created a useful working guide, supported by plenty of helpful examples and tools, which schools can use to facilitate professional development communities, following a structured book study process.”Nancy Cloud, Professor and Director of the MEd in TESL ProgramRhode Island College, Providence, RI
“At a time when the U.S. is experiencing a record number of English learners, this carefully researched, practical guide will serve as the primary support for both teachers and administrators seeking to do a more comprehensive job of responding to what is arguably their most vulnerable student population. Zacarian and Haynes provide a close examination of the diversity within the group of beginner ELs, who are often lumped together based on language proficiency alone.”Helaine W. Marshall, Associate Professor of Education, Director of Language Education ProgramsLong Island University Hudson, Purchase, NY
“Debbie Zacarian and Judie Haynes joined forces again and created a much needed, comprehensive text in The Essential Guide for Educating Beginning English Learners. Students who are new to the English language and often new to the United States and the U.S. school system frequently encounter complex challenges, so their teachers need to be prepared and ready to help. This book will serve as an indispensable resource for teachers to tackle this task, and to do so with knowledge, skills, confidence, and advocacy for new English learners!”Andrea Honigsfeld, ProfessorMolloy College
[Page ii]“More than ever, educators are facing large numbers of English learners, each coming with specific needs. The authors present a comprehensive text of how educators can and should work with these students and their families. Many of the strategies presented can be applied to other students as well. This book will be a valuable asset to every educator who wants each of his or her students to succeed.”Glen Ishiwata, Former SuperintendentMoreland School District, San Jose, CA
“This book is a must-read for teachers and administrators. It provides a comprehensive approach to helping EL students learn academic language, which is key to success in the content areas. This book provides an excellent opportunity for leaders as a book study with its guidance and reflections throughout the chapters.”Maria H. Gillentine, Title III Program SpecialistGwinnett County Public Schools, Suwanee, GA
[Page iv]With a combined six decades of experience, we continue to promote the ideals of public education—to help students become active members and successful learners in their school communities and beyond. We dedicate this book to them and their families and to the educators from whom we continue learn so much.
Copyright © 2012 by Corwin
All rights reserved. When forms and sample documents are included, their use is authorized only by educators, local school sites, and/or noncommercial or nonprofit entities that have purchased the book. Except for that usage, no part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
All trade names and trademarks recited, referenced, or reflected herein are the property of their respective owners who retain all rights thereto.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
The essential guide for educating beginning
English learners / Debbie Zacarian, Judie Haynes.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4522-2615-6 (pbk.)
1. English language—Study and teaching—United States—Foreign speakers. I. Haynes, Judie. II. Title.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
12 13 14 15 16 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquisitions Editor: Dan Alpert
Associate Editor: Megan Bedell
Editorial Assistant: Heidi Arndt
Production Editor: Cassandra Margaret Seibel
Copy Editor: Sarah J. Duffy
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Proofreader: Wendy Jo Dymond
Indexer: Jean Casalegno
Cover Designer: Michael Dubowe
Permissions Editor: Karen Ehrmann
This was our second project together and a great experience from start to finish. We could not have done it without the support of many people. Special thanks to
- Dan Alpert, whose outstanding editorial support from inception to the final product was always positive, patient, and encouraging.
- Sara Boyd, from North Kansas City Schools, for sharing her knowledge and stories about students from Africa with limited and interrupted formal education.
- Monica Schnee, from River Edge Public Schools in New Jersey, who informed us about the learning needs of English learner kindergartners entering school in the United States.
- Ken Pransky, from the Collaborative for Educational Services in Northampton, Massachusetts, who expanded our thinking about culturally and linguistically diverse learners—especially those who have experienced cultural disruptions.
- Audrey Morse, also from the Collaborative for Educational Services, whose background as a speech and language pathologist, an ESL teacher, and a teacher educator helped our thinking about English learners with learning differences and disabilities.
- the many classroom teachers, specialists, and school leaders from across the country who graciously shared their work with us.
- the external reviewers of the manuscript whose ideas and suggestions greatly strengthened the book.
- Cassandra Seibel and Sarah Duffy, from Corwin, who polished our writing to make it shine.
We spent many long hours collaborating on the Essential Guide for Educating Beginning English Learners. We couldn't have written it without the steadfast encouragement of our families and especially our husbands, Matt Zacarian and Joe Haynes.[Page xii]Publisher's Acknowledgments
Corwin gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following reviewers:
- Torii Bottomley
- ESL Teacher and Trainer
- Boston Public Schools
- Cambridge, MA
- Michelle DaCosta
- Bilingual Resource Teacher
- Framingham Public Schools
- Framingham, MA
- Glen Ishiwata
- Former Superintendent
- Moreland School District
- San Jose, CA
- Katherine Lobo
- ESL Teacher and Teacher Trainer
- Belmont Public Schools
- Belmont, MA
- Beth Madison
- George Middle School
- Portland, OR
- Amy Mares
- Coordinator for Bilingual/ESL Instructional Services
- Region One Education Service Center
- Edinburg, TX
- Jen Paul
- ELL Assessment Consultant
- Michigan Department of Education
- Lansing, MI
About the Authors
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Corwin: A SAGE Company[Page 138]
The Corwin logo—a raven striding across an open book—represents the union of courage and learning. Corwin is committed to improving education for all learners by publishing books and other professional development resources for those serving the field of PreK–12 education. By providing practical, hands-on materials, Corwin continues to carry out the promise of its motto: “Helping Educators Do Their Work Better.”