The Earth's Land Surface: Landforms and Processes in Geomorphology


Kenneth J. Gregory

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Visualizing the Land Surface

    Part II: Dynamics of the Land Surface

    Part III: Landform Evolution

    Part IV: Environments of the Land Surface

    Part V: Management of the Land Surface - Future Prospects

  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page


    In common with many others of my generation I first met geomorphology through Horrocks (1954) and then Wooldridge and Morgan (first published 1937, my copy 1954) as a school prize. Geomorphology then, in the 1950s, was so different - pre satellite, pre processes, pre techniques, pre computers, pre geo-morphological journals. It is a paradox that now, when the emphasis in the environmental sciences has been towards a more holistic view, the trend in education has been to focus selectively upon particular areas. Thus the fissiparist reductionist approach contrasts starkly with the holistic imperative. Is this a time for reflection, in the light of the progress of the last 100 years, on how we make the journey, and whether we are going in the right direction? In this volume the emphasis upon landforms will be seen as retrograde by some - possibly as a return to rote learning or to “capes and bays”. Whereas geomorphology started with a focus on landforms, it developed to the study of process and then may have become over-selective by concentrating on particular environments to the exclusion of others. But it is landforms that are the stuff of scenery and it is surely of interest to know how they have been studied and have produced reactions in landscape interpretations. Although detailed explanation of suggested origins cannot be given in the space available here, it can be explored using books, articles and the resources of the internet. Because the way in which we understand the land surface of the Earth depends upon those who have studied it, each chapter contains a short profile of at least one individual whose contributions have advanced our understanding of that land surface. Such profiles are included because to understand the epistemology of a discipline it is necessary to know something about the people who have influenced the epistemological development. Although not every one will agree with the choice of scientists, especially as they are all male (but see topic suggested at end of Chapter 1), they do provide a range of the types of influence - some within and some external to geomorphology, some from previous centuries and some comparatively modern. Readers can investigate for themselves the contributions of other influential individuals. In the past, larger books were required which were comprehensive and could be followed up by reference to articles in research journals. Now the internet resource suggests perhaps a shorter book is needed as a basis for rapid searching - many of the themes introduced in the following pages can initially be explored through the internet. As many graphic illustrations are now available on the internet figures have deliberately been kept as few as possible. Colour plates are located at the end of the book. Terms in the Glossary (p. 303) are shown in bold when first mentioned. Writing a book of this kind at the end of my career has been an attempt to reflect the enjoyment that I have derived from study of the land surface of the Earth. I hope that similar enjoyment may be experienced by some readers.


    I much appreciate the advice received from several individuals who have commented on portions of the text, including Professor Vic Baker, Professor Tony Brown, Professor Anne Chin, Dr Peter Downs, Professor Andrew Goudie, Professor Will Graf, Professor Angela Gurnell, Professor Peter Haggett, Professor Vishwas Kale, Dr Colin Prowse, Professor Matti Seppala, Professor Mike Thomas and Professor Des Walling. I also appreciate Robert Rojek's suggestion that stimulated the idea for this book.

    Every effort has been made to establish copyright, make acknowledgement and to obtain appropriate permissions for figures and plates but, if any have been missed, please let me know.

    It is customary to acknowledge one's wife: Chris helped in so many ways, not only reading through the whole text and making helpful comments but she continues to provide unfailing support, which is greatly appreciated.

  • Glossary of Key Advances

    Many definitions have been included throughout the preceding chapters, often placed in tables to avoid fragmenting the text. However studies of the land surface of the Earth over the last 100 years have reflected a number of fundamental changes in how we approach, investigate and value the land surface - all reflected in the way that geomorphology has developed. Some of these changes are reflected in foundation milestones (see Table 2.1), in debates (see Table 2.5), or in conceptual thinking (see Table 5.4), but the definitions provided here reflecting major changes and also linking mentions in the text, could therefore be thought of as forming a conclusion - to which you may wish to add further items.

    Adaptive cycle (Figure 5.3) acknowledges that systems may exist in multiple steady states, flipping from one state to another as thresholds are transgressed (Table 5.4). A related idea is adaptive management which proceeds in the face of uncertainty, does not assume that the system being managed is understood, and adapts management in the light of experience.

    Anthropogeomorphology is the study of humans as geomorphological agents, so that investigation of the land surface included human impacts in the noosphere and anthroposphere (see Tables 3.1, 8.3 and 8.6).

    Biomes are major ecological communities characterized by a dominant type of vegetation, and their association with major climates was basic for climatic and climatogenetic geomorphology (p. 159) and, recently, 18 anthropogenic biomes have been identified as a basis for integrating human and ecological systems p. 67, Chapter 3).

    Catastrophism is the notion that land surface processes are affected by sudden and violent events; it complements uniformitarianism and gradualism (e.g. see Chapter 2, p. 22).

    Closure applies to the limits of disciplines. The land surface is studied by several disciplines, each one cannot study all aspects, and closure refers to the extent of a single discipline.

    Culture is associated with a particular form or stage of civilisation, now realised to affect how the land surface is perceived, managed and developed (see p. 296, Table 12.6).

    Databases are an integrated collection of logically-related records or files which consolidate information in a consistent way, can easily be accessed, managed and updated, and can provide material for many applications.

    Dating methods for time estimation are necessary to establish stages of land surface development and the age of landforms. They became more precise with the advent of radiocarbon dating establishing the age of organic materials up to c.40,000 years old based on the decay of the radioactive isotope 14C within organic materials. Recent advances (see Tables 2.1 and 2.3) have greatly advanced knowledge of rates of land surface development including oxygen isotope stages and cosmogenic methods (see Table 5.3).

    Design with nature is managing the land surface to imitate nature as much as possible rather than using hard engineering. It is sometimes referred to as soft engineering and can be achieved by restoration or rehabilitation of environment (see Chapter 11).

    Digital elevation model (DEM) models land surface height whereas a digital terrain model (DTM) models shape of the land surface; both are used in Geographic Information Systems.

    Ecological footprint is the amount of land required to sustain cities and expresses their environmental impact (see Chapter 11).

    Electronic distance measurement (EDM) is a highly accurate method of measuring distance between two points based on transit time of electromagnetic waves between an emitting instrument, a reflector and back again; it displaced traditional distance measuring survey instruments.

    Environmental awareness, now often thought of as awareness of environmental issues, was important as the environmental movement developed in the 1960s with greater public knowledge of the land surface encouraging public participation in decision-making.

    Environmental change occurs naturally in response to forcing factors operating over a range of time scales, embracing human impacts and global climate change. Appreciation of the range of changes advanced understanding of the land surface and has embraced concepts of resilience (pp. 134), vulnerability, and panarchy (p. 135).

    Environmental hazards are natural processes that can damage the land surface or property and take human lives; management is required to manage and mitigate hazards (see Tables 3.7 and 12.2).

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is the process of determining and evaluating the positive and negative effects of a proposed action on the environment before a decision is taken to proceed or not. Environmental Impact Statements (EIS) are required in many countries prior to planning proposals being approved so that implications of impacts need to be estimated.

    Equilibrium, the state of balance created by a variety of forces so that the state remains unchanged over time unless the controlling forces change, was developed for different types of equilibrium and succeeded by recognition of non-equilibrium situations, realizing that characteristic (steady-state) equilibrium, zonal, and mature forms may be complemented by systems that have multiple potential characteristic or equilibrium forms, and others having no particular normative state at all (see Table 5.4).

    Factor of safety, the ratio of resistance to force, means that when <1 failure can occur; it is used most frequently in studying slope stability (Chapter 4, p. 71).

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS), the collection, analysis, storage and display of data spatially referenced to the surface of the Earth, became possible with digital computers; they enable discovery of relationships and patterns between characteristics and processes, for example in land systems.

    Global Positioning Systems (GPS), a navigation system using a constellation of 24 orbiting satellites, available since 1994, enables determination of a specific location anywhere on the surface of the Earth and so speeds up survey and measurement.

    Global warming, the rise in near-surface atmospheric temperature due to human activities, especially increased amounts of greenhouse gases, has consequences for the land surface as a result of the greenhouse effect, part of a high CO2 world.

    Historical contingency recognizes that the state of a system or environment is partially dependent on one or more process states or upon events in the past, thus including inheritance which relates to features inherited from previous conditions, so that management of the land surface has to be designed for the particular area.

    Holistic view acknowledges the need to understand how a land surface system operates as well as to know the sum of its component parts. Thus any problem should not be considered exclusively by a single discipline but in the wider context, by looking at relationships as a whole.

    International System of Uunits (SI) is the most widely used metric system of measurement since 1960.

    Land system, an area with a recurring pattern of topography, soils and vegetation, was used for resource surveys but is now also employed for the grouping of land-forms in type areas (for example, Tables 8.1 and 8.8).

    Modelling expresses theories, processes, events or systems in concepts or mathematical terms; models are any abstraction or simplification of reality, enabling progress in studies of the land surface since the quantitative revolution of the 1960s (see Table 5.9).

    Natural environment is the environment pre human activity, unlike the built environment which consists of the areas and components strongly influenced by humans; it is the physical character of a place including physical environment which can apply to cities.

    Non-linear methods, unlike linear methods which assume direct relationships between cause and effect, do not have easily derived solutions, have responses which can be chaotic and do not settle down to a fixed equilibrium condition or value. Realization that relatively small events can trigger large and rapid changes encouraged use of non-linear systems; chaos theory and catastrophe theory can account for sudden shifts of a system from one state to another as a result of the system being moved across a threshold condition (see Table 5.4).

    Noosphere, or anthroposphere, is the realm of human consciousness in nature or the ‘thinking’ layer arising from the transformation of the biosphere under the influence of human activity. Importance of direct and indirect impacts of human activity realized to be significant for the land surface and its management (see Table 3.1).

    Palimpsest, inheritance where a suite of landforms are ‘written’ on the landscape beneath, so that new landforms combine with remnants of a previous surface (see p. 165, Chapter 7; p. 187, Chapter 8).

    Paradigms, practices within which science operates, recognition of which facilitated debates progressing understanding of the land surface (see Table 2.5).

    Plate tectonics involves movement of rigid plates of the lithosphere causing seismic and tectonic activity along their boundaries.

    Process domains are combinations of land surface processes often associated with particular zones.

    Quaternary chronology is the sequence of stages of the Pleistocene and Holocene (about the last 2 million years) now identified universally from isotopic studies of deep sea sediments and glacier cores, succeeding chronologies that were difficult to correlate from one continent to another.

    Remote sensing, often thought of as the collection of data from orbital satellites, is the use of electromagnetic sensors to record images of the environment which, since the 1960s, complement ground survey information. Developments continue to occur such as LiDAR (light detection and ranging) which allows accurate measurements of topography, can measure changes of glaciers or of land uplift and, like other techniques, can provide data not accessible by traditional survey methods.

    Resilience is the capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and to reorganize while undergoing change but still retaining essentially the same function, structure, identity and feedbacks.

    Restoration involves restoring part of the land surface to a former or original condition and can be employed as an alternative to hard engineering, with various terms used to signify different ways of making an area appear more ‘natural’.

    Sensitivity is the likelihood of response to slight changes, expressed as the ratio between the magnitude of adjustment and the magnitude of change in the stimulus causing the adjustment (see Figure 5.2).

    Systems are a set of components, and relationships between them, functioning to act as a whole, providing an approach (since 1962) that focuses on the total land surface rather than on selected aspects. Self-organizing systems increase in complexity, their dynamics being a function of positive and negative feedbacks, thus precluding linear explanations and meaning that uncertainty and limited predictability prevail (see Table 3.3).

    Thresholds are stages or tipping points at which essential characteristics change dramatically, they are boundary conditions separating two distinct phases or equilibrium conditions. Although not easy to isolate they potentially indicate where and how much change will occur and may give clues about when and why.

    Uniformitarianism is the present as the key to the past, so that land surface processes have operated for much of Earth's history (see Table 2.1); it includes actualism (effects of present processes) and gradualism (surface changes require long periods of time).

    Colour Plates

    Plate 1

    Figure 3.2 Tectonic plates in (A); main types of plate boundaries in (B); and processes driving landscape evolution in (C) showing (left) convergent settings and (right) extensional (rifting) settings

    Plate 2

    MamTor, Derbyshire - the road on Edale shales subject to frequent mass movement was eventually closed after repeated sliding

    Figure 4.7 Mississippi River Delta

    Plate 3

    Figure 5.1 The geologic time spiral

    Figure 5.5 Last glacial maximum in the northern hemisphere (compiled by Jürgen Ehlers from Ehlers and Gibbard, 2004).

    Plate 4

    Figure 7.3 Patterned ground (top) - polygonal ground (ice wedge polygons), Yukon territory, Canada; (below) - sorted nets, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Plate 5

    Figure 7.4 Pingos in the Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula 1988

    Plate 6

    Figure 7.5 Tasman glacier, Southern Alps, New Zealand, 1990 and 2007 In the false-colour images, pale blue indicates ice and snow, electric blue indicates water, green indicates vegetation, and brown indicates rock or bare ground.

    Plate 7

    Figure 7.6 Huascaran ice avalanches, 1962 and 1970

    Plate 8

    Figure 9.4 Alluvial fan between the Kunlun and Altun mountain ranges, southern Taklimakan Desert, Xin Jiang Province, China

    Figure 11.2 Palm Jumeirah, human-made island on the Dubai coast


    Adams, J., Maslin, M. and Thomas, E. (1999) Sudden climate transitions during the Quaternary. Progress in Physical Geography23: 1–36.
    Alexander, D.E. (1982) Leonardo da Vinci and fluvial geomorphology. American Journal of Science282: 735–755.
    Alexander, D. (1989) Urban landslides. Progress in Physical Geography13: 157–191.
    Alexander, D.E. (1999) Natural hazards. In D.E.Alexander and R.W.Fairbridge (eds), Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London, pp. 421–425.
    Alexander, J.F. (1979) A global systems ecology model. In R.A.Fazzolare and C.B.Smith (eds), Changing Energy Use Futures. Pergamon, New York and Oxford, pp. 443–456.
    Allen, J.R.L. (1970) Physical Processes of Sedimentation. Allen and Unwin, London.
    Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) (2004) Impacts of a Warming Arctic (a 140-page synthesis report of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment).
    Ashman, M.R. and Puri, G. (2002) Essential Soil Science. Blackwell Publishing, Malden USA.
    Bagnold, R.A. (1941) The Physics of Blown Sand and Desert Dunes. Methuen, London (
    2nd edn 1954
    Bagnold, R.A. (1960) Sediment discharge and stream power: A preliminary announcement. US Geological Survey Circular42, 1.
    Bagnold, R.A. (1990) Sand, Wind and War: Memoirs of a Desert Explorer. Tucson, University of Arizona Press.
    Baker, V.R. (1978a) Palaeohydraulics and hydrodynamics of scabland floods. In V.R.Baker and D.Nummedal (eds), The Channeled Scabland. NASA, Washington, pp. 59–79.
    Baker, V.R. (1978b) Large-scale erosional and depositional features of the channeled scabland. In V.R.Baker and D.Nummedal (eds), The Channeled Scabland. NASA, Washington, pp. 81–115.
    Baker, V.R. (1981) Catastrophic Flooding: The Origin of the Channeled Scabland. Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Stroudsburg, PA.
    Baker, V.R. (1986) from Space is an out of print 1986 NASA publication edited by Nicholas M. Short, Sr. and Robert W. Blair.
    Baker, V.R. (1996) Hypotheses and geomorphological reasoning. In B.W.Rhoads and C.E.Thorn (eds), The Scientific Nature of Geomorphology. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 57–85.
    Baker, V.R. (1998) Palaeohydrology and the hydrological sciences. In G.Benito, V.R.Baker and K.J.Gregory (eds), Palaeohydrology and Environmental Change. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 1–10.
    Baker, V.R. (2008a) Paleoflood hydrology: origin, progress, prospects. Geomorphology101:1–13.
    Baker, V.R. (2008b) Planetary landscape systems: a limitless frontier. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms33: 1341–1353.
    Baker, V.R. and Bunker, R.C. (1985) Cataclysmic late Pleistocene flooding from Glacial Lake Missoula: a review. Quaternary Science Reviews4: 1–41.
    Baker, V.R. and Costa, J.E. (1987) Flood power. In L.Mayer and D.Nash (eds), Catastrophic Flooding. Allen and Unwin, Boston, pp. 1–21.
    Baker, V.R. and Twidale, C.R. (1991) The reenchantment of geomorphology. Geomorphology4: 73–100.
    Baker, V.R., Bowler, J.M., Enzel, Y. and Lancaster, N. (1995) Late Quaternary Palaeohydrology of arid and semi-arid regions. In K.J.Gregory, L.Starkel and V.R.Baker (eds), Global, Continental Palaeohydrology. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 203–231.
    Ballantyne, C.K. (2002a) Paraglacial geomorphology. Quaternary Science Reviews21: 1935–2017.
    Ballantyne, C.K. (2002b) A general model of paraglacial landscape response. The Holocene12: 371–376.
    Ballantyne, C.K. (2003) Paraglacial land systems. In D.J.A.Evans (ed.), Glacial Landsystems. Hodder Arnold, London, pp. 432–461.
    Barnes, C.P. (1954) The geographic study of soils. In P.E.James and C.F.Jones (eds), American Geography Inventory and Prospect. Syracuse University Press: Association of American Geographers, pp. 382–395.
    Barry, R.G. (1997) Palaeoclimatology, climate system processes and the geomorphic record. In D.R.Stoddart (ed.), Process and Form in Geomorphology. Routledge, London and New York, pp. 187–214.
    Bates, R.L. and Jackson, JA. (1980) Glossary of Geology. American Geological Institute, Falls Church Virginia.
    Beaumont, C., Fullsack, P. and Hamilton, J. (2000) Erosional control of active compressional orogens. In K.McClay (ed.), Thrust Tectonics. Chapman Hall, London, pp. 1–18.
    Beauvais, A., Parisot, J.C. and Savin, C. (2007) Ultramafic rock weathering and slope erosion processes in a South West Pacific tropical environment. Geomorphology83: 1–13.
    Beckinsale, R.P. (1997) Richard J. Chorley: A reformer with a cause. In D.R.Stoddart (ed.), Process and Form in Geomorphology. Routledge, London and New York, pp. 3–12.
    Beckinsale, R.P. and Chorley, R.J. (1991) The History of the Study of Landforms or The Development of Geomorphology Vol. 3: Historical and Regional Geomorphology 1890–1950. Routledge, London.
    Beer, T. (1983) Environmental Oceanography. Pergamon, Oxford.
    Benito, G., Baker, V.R. and Gregory, K.J. (eds) (1998) Palaeohydrology and Environmental Change. Wiley, Chichester.
    Benito, G., Thorndycraft, V.R., Rico, M., Sánchez-Moya, Y. and Sopeña, A. (2008) Palaeoflood and floodplain records from Spain: Evidence for long-term climate variability and environmental changes. Geomorphology101: 68–77.
    Benn, D.I. and Evans, D.J.A. (1998) Glaciers and Glaciation. Arnold, London.
    Bennett, M.R. and Glasser, N.F. (1996) Glacial Geology. Ice Sheets and Landforms. Wiley, Chichester.
    BGS (2009) Rock classification scheme at, accessed 17 April 2009.
    Bierman, PR., Reuter, J.M., Pavich, M., Gellis, A.C., Caffee, M.W. and Larsen, J. (2005) Using cosmogenic nuclides to contrast rates of erosion and sediment yield in a semi-arid, arroyo-dominated landscape, Rio Puerco Basin, New Mexico. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms30: 935–953.
    Bird, E.C.F. (1996) Beach Management. Wiley, Chichester.
    Bird, E.C.F. (2000) Coastal Geomorphology: An Introduction. Wiley, Chichester.
    Birkeland, P.W. (1984) Pedology, Weathering and Geomorphological Research. Oxford University Press, New York.
    Bishop, P. (2007) Long-term landscape evolution: linking tectonics and surface processes. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms32: 329–365.
    Biswas, A. (1970) History of Hydrology. Amsterdam, North Holland Publishing Company.
    Blackwelder, E. (1931) Desert plains. Journal of Geology39: 133–140.
    Bolling, D.M. (1994) How to Save a River. A Handbook for Citizen Action. Island Press, Washington, DC.
    Bonell, M. and Askew, A. (2000) Report of 2nd International Conference on Climate and Water, Espoo, Finland.
    Boulton, G.S., Smith, G.D., Jones, A.S. and Newsome, J. (1985) Glacial geology and glaciology of the last mid-latitude ice sheets. Journal of the Geological Society142: 447–474.
    Bowler, S. (2002) Restless Earth. DK Publishers, New York.
    Brabec, E., Schulte, S. and Richards, PL. (2002) Impervious surfaces and water quality: a review of current literature and its implications for watershed planning. Journal of Planning Literature16: 499–514.
    Bravard, J.P. and Gilvear, D.J. (1996) Hydrological and geomorphological structure of hydrosystems. In G.E.Petts and C.Amoros (eds), Fluvial Hydrosystems. Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 98–116.
    Bretz, J.H. (1923) The channelled scabland of the Columbia plateau. Journal of Geology3 (6): 17–49.
    Bridge, J.S. (2003) Rivers and Floodplains. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.
    Brookes, A. (1988) Channelized Rivers: Perspectives for Environmental Management. Wiley, Chichester.
    Brookes, A., Chalmers, A. and Vivash, R. (2005) Solving an urban river erosion problem on the Tilmore Brook, Hampshire (UK). Journal of the Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management19 (3): 199–206.
    Brookes, A., Gregory, K.J. and Dawson, F.H. (1983) An assessment of river channelization in England and Wales. The Science of the Total Environment27: 97–111.
    Brooks, S.M. (2003) Modelling in physical geography. In A.Rogers and H.A.Viles (eds), The Student's Companion to Geography. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp. 161–166.
    Brown, A.G. (1987) Long term sediment storage in the Severn and Wye catchments. In K.J.Gregory, J.Lewin and J.B.Thornes (eds), Palaeohydrology in Practice. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 307–332.
    Brown, A.G. (1991) Hydrogeomorphological changes in the Severn Basin during the last 15,000 years: orders of change in a maritime catchment. In L.Starkel, K.J.Gregory and J.B.Thornes (eds), Temperate Palaeohydrology. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 147–170.
    Brown, A.G. (1997) Alluvial Geoarchaeology: Floodplain Archaeology and Environmental Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    Brown, A.G. (2003) Time, space and causality in floodplain palaeoecology. In A.J.Howard, M.G.Macklin and D.G.Passmore (eds), Alluvial Archaeology in Europe. Rotterdam, Swets & Zeitlinger, pp. 15–26.
    Brown, A.G. and Quine, T. (1999) Fluvial processes and environmental change: an overview. In A.G.Brown and T.Quine (eds), Fluvial Processes and Environmental Change. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 1–27.
    Brown, A.G., Carey, C., Erkens, G., Fuchs, M., Hoffmann, T., Macaire, J.J., Moldenhauer, K.M. and Walling, D.E. (2009) From sedimentary records to sediment budgets: multiple approaches to catchment sediment flux. Geomorphology108: 35–47.
    Brown, H.I. (1996) The methodological roles of theory in science. In B.W.Rhoads and C.E.Thorn (eds), The Scientific Nature of Geomorphology. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 3–20.
    Brown, J., Ferrians, O.J.Jr., Heginbottom, J.A. and Melnikov, E.S. (1998) (revised February 2001) Circum-Arctic map of permafrost and ground-ice conditions. National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center for Glaciology Digital Media, Boulder, CO.
    Brunsden, D. (1999) Geomorphology in environmental management: an appreciation. East Midland Geographer22: 63–77.
    Brunsden, D. and Thornes, J.B. (1979) Landscape sensitivity and change. Transactions Institute of British GeographersNS4, 463–484.
    Brunsden, D., Doornkamp, J.C. and Jones, D.K.C. (1979) The Bahrain surface materials resources survey and its application to regional planning. Geographical Journal145: 1–35.
    Brunsden, D., Doornkamp, J.C. and Jones, D.K.C. (eds) (1980) Geology, Geomorphology and Pedology of Bahrain. Geo Books, Norwich.
    Budel, J. (1957) Die ‘Doppelten Einebnungsflachen, in den feuchten Tropen. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie1: 201–228.
    Budel, J. (1963) Klima-genetische Geomorphologie. Geographische Rundschau15: 269–285.
    Budel, J. (1969) Das System der klima-genetischen Geomorphologie. Erdkunde23: 165–182.
    Budel, J. (1977) Klima-Geomorphologie. Berlin/Stuttgart: Borntraeger.
    Budel, J. (1982) Climatic Geomorphology. Trans. L.Fischer and D.Busche. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
    Budyko, M.I. (1958) The Heat Balance of the Earth's Surface. Trans. N.Steepanova from original dated 1956. Washington, US Weather Bureau.
    Budyko, M.I. (1974) Climate and Life. Academic Press, New York.
    Budyko, M.I. (1986) The Evolution of the Biosphere. D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht.
    Bullard, J.E. and Nash, D.J. (2000) Valley-marginal sand dunes in the south-west Kalahari: their nature, classification and possible origins. Journal of Arid Environments45: 369–383.
    Bunge, W. (1973) The Geography. Professional Geographer25: 331–337.
    Burbank, D.W., Leland, J., Fielding, E., Anderson, R.S., Brozovic, N. and Reid, M.R. (2003) De-coupling of erosion and precipitation in the Himalayas. Nature379: 505–510.
    Burt, T.P., Chorley, R.J., Brunsden, D., Cox, N.J. and Goudie, A.S. (2008) The History of the Study of Landforms or the Development of Geomorphology volume4: Quaternary and Recent Processes and Forms (1890–1965) and the Mid-Century Revolutions. Geological Society, London.
    Butler, B.E. (1959) Periodic Phenomena in Landscapes as a Basis for Soil Studies. Soil Publication 14, CSIRO, Australia.
    Butzer, K.W. (1976) Geomorphology from the Earth. Harper Row, New York, London.
    Calow, P. and Petts, G.E. (eds) (1992) The Rivers Handbook, vol. 1. Blackwell Science, Oxford.
    Campbell, R.W. (ed.) (2001) Mount St. Helens, Washington: 1973, 1983, 1988, 1992, 1999. Earthshots: Satellite Images of Environmental Change. U.S. Geological Survey. This article was released 14 February 1997 and last revised 14 August 2001.
    Carey, P. (2001) The History of the Kelly Gang. Faber and Faber, London.
    Carson, R. (1962) Silent Spring. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
    Carter, R.W.G. (1988) Coastal Environments: An Introduction to the Physical, Ecological and Cultural Systems of Coastlines. Academic Press, London.
    CATENA (2005) Gully Erosion: A Global Issue, Volume 63, Issues 2–3, 31 October 2005.
    Changming, L. (2000) A remarkable event of human impacts on the ecosystems: the Yellow River drained dry. Paper read to 29th International Geographical Congress, 17th August, Seoul, Korea.
    Charlesworth, J. K. (1957) The Quaternary Era. 2 volumes. Arnold, London.
    Charman, J. and Lee, M. (2005) Mountain environments. In P.G.Fookes, E.M.Lee and G.Milligan (eds), Geomorphology for Engineers. Whittles Publishing Dunbeath, Scotland, pp. 501–534.
    Chepil, W.S. (1945) Dynamics of wind erosion: II Initiation of soil movement. Soil Science60: 397–411.
    Chin, A. (2006) Urban transformation of river landscapes in a global context. Geomorphology79: 460–487.
    Chin, A. and Gregory, K.J. (2005) Managing urban river channel adjustments. Geomorphology69: 28–45.
    Chin, A. and Gregory, K.J. (2009) From research to application: management implications from studies of urban river channel adjustment. Geography Compass3/1: 297–328.
    Chocat, B., Ashley, R., Marsalek, J., Matos, M.R., Rauch, W., Schilling, W. and Urbonas, B. (2007) Towards the sutainable management of urban storm water. Indoor and Built Environment16: 273–285.
    Chorley, R.J. (1962) Geomorphology and general systems theory. US Geological Survey Professional Paper500-B: 1–10.
    Chorley, R.J. (ed.) (1969) Water, Earth and Man. Methuen, London.
    Chorley, R.J. (1978) Bases for theory in geomorphology. In C.Embleton, D.Brunsden and D.K.C.Jones (eds), Geomorphology. Present Problems and Future Prospects. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
    Chorley, R.J., Dunn, A.J. and Beckinsale, R.P. (1964) The History of the Study of Landforms, Vol. I, Geomorphology before Davis. Methuen, London.
    Chorley, R.J. and Kennedy, B.A. (1971) Physical Geography: A Systems Approach. Prentice Hall, London.
    Chorley, R.J., Beckinsale, R.P. and Dunn, A.J. (1973) The History of the Study of Landforms Vol. II The Life and Work of William Morris Davis. Methuen, London.
    Chorley, R.J., Dunn, A.J. and Beckinsale, R.P. (1964) The History of the Study of Landforms, Vol. I, Geomorphology before Davis. Methuen, London.
    Chorley, R.J., Schumm, S.A. and Sugden, D.E. (1984) Geomorphology. Methuen, London and New York.
    Christian, C.S. and Stewart, G.A. (1953) Survey of the Katherine-Darwin region 1946. CSIRO Land Research Series1, Melbourne.
    Church, M. (2005) Continental drift. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms30:129–130.
    Church, M. and Ryder, J.M. (1972) Paraglacial sedimentation, a consideration of fluvial processes conditioned by glaciations. Geological Society of America Bulletin83: 3059–3072.;2
    Church, M. and Slaymaker, O. (1989) Disequilibrium of Holocene sediment yield in glaciated British Columbia. Nature337: 452–454.
    CIA World Factbook (2003) At accessed 5 March 2009.
    CIRIA (Construction Industry Research and Information Association) (2001) Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems. Best Practice Manual for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. CIRIA C523 Westminster, London.
    Clark, M.J. (2002) Dealing with uncertainty:adaptive approaches to sustainable management. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems12: 347–363.
    Clayton, J.A. and Knox, J.C. (2008) Catastrophic flooding from Glacial Lake Wisconsin. Geomorphology93: 384–397.
    Clements, T. (1981) Leonardo da Vinci as a geologist. In F.H.T.Rhodes (ed.), Language of the Earth. Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 310–314.
    Clifford, N.J. (2007) River restoration: paradigms, paradoxes and the urban dimension. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply7: 57–68.
    Clifford, N.J. and Richards, K.S. (2005) Earth system science: an oxymoron?Earth Surface Processes and Landforms30: 379–383.
    Coates, D.R. (ed.) (1971) Environmental Geomorphology. State University of New York Publications in Geomorphology, Binghamton.
    Coates, D.R. (1976) Geomorphic Engineering. Geomorphology and Engineering. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Stroudsburg, pp. 3–21.
    Coates, D.R. (1990) Perspectives on environmental geomorphology. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie Supplement 79: 83–117.
    Cockburn, H.A.P. and Summerfield, M.A. (2004) Geomorphological applications of cosmogenic isotope analysis. Progress in Physical Geography28: 1–42.
    Colgan, P.M., Mickelson, D.M. and Cutler, P.M. (2003) Ice-marginal terrestrial landsystems: southern Laurentide ice sheet margin. In D.J.A.Evans (ed.), Glacial Landsystems. Hodder Arnold, London, pp. 111–142.
    Commoner, B. (1972) The Closing Circle: Confronting the Environmental Crisis. Cape, London.
    Conacher, A.J. (1988) The geomorphic significance of process measurements in an ancient landscape. In A.M. Harvey and M. Sala (eds), Geomorphic Processes in Environments with Strong Seasonal Contrasts. Vol. 2 Geomorphic Systems. Catena Supplement 13: 147–164.
    Conacher, A.J. and Dalrymple, J.B. (1977) The nine-unit landsurface model: an approach to pedogeomorphic research. Geoderma18: 1–154.
    Cooke, R.U. (1992) Common ground, shared inheritance: research imperatives for environmental geography. Transactions Institute of British GeographersNS 17: 131–151.
    Cooke, R.U. and Doornkamp, J.C. (1974) Geomorphology in Environmental Management. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    Cooke, R.U. and Doornkamp, J.C. (1990) Geomorphology in Environmental Management. A New Introduction. Clarendon Press, Oxford,
    2nd edn.
    Cooke, R.U., Brunsden, D., Doornkamp, J.C. and Jones, D.K.C. (1982) Urban Geomorphology in Drylands. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    Cooke, R.U., Warren, A. and Goudie, A.S. (1993) Desert Geomorphology. UCL Press, London.
    Costa, J.E. (1987) A comparison of the largest rainfall-runoff floods in the United States with those of the People's Republic of China and the world. Journal of Hydrology96: 101–115.
    Coulthard, T.J., Kirkby, M.J. and Macklin, M.G. (1999) Modelling the impacts of Holocene environmental changes in an upland river catchment, using a cellular automation approach. In A.G.Brown and T.A.Quine (eds), Fluvial Processes and Environmental Changes. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 31–46.
    Cowell, P.J. and Thom, B.G. (1997) Morphodynamics of coastal evolution. In R.W.G.Carter and C.D.Woodroffe (eds), Coastal Evolution, Late Quaternary Shoreline Morphodynamics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 33–86.
    Crozier, M.J. (1986) Landslides: Causes, Consequences and Environment. Croom Helm, London.
    Czudek, T. and Demek, K.J. (1970) Thermokarst in Siberia and its influence on the development of lowland relief. Quaternary Research1: 103–120.
    Dackcombe, R.V. and Gardiner, V. (1983) Geomorphological Field Manual. George Allen and Unwin, London.
    Dalyrmple, J.B., Conacher, A.J. and Blong, R.J. (1969) A nine-unit hypothetical land-surface model. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie12: 60–76.
    Darby, S. and Sear, D. (eds) (2008) River Restoration. Managing the Uncertainty in Restoring Physical Habitat. Wiley, Chichester.
    Davies, J.L. (1980) Geographical Variations in Coastal Development. Longman, London.
    Davis, W.M. (1884) Gorges and waterfalls. American Journal of Science28: 123–132.
    Davis, W.M. (1900) The physical geography of the lands. Popular Science Monthly57: 157–170.
    de Wit, M. and Stankiewicz, J. (2006) Changes in surface water supply across Africa with predicted climate change. Science311: 1917–1921.
    Dearing, J.A. (2008) Landscape change and resilience theory: a palaeoenvironmental assessment from Yunnan, SW China. The Holocene18: 117–127.
    Derbyshire, E., Gregory, K.J. and Hails (1979) Geomorphological Processes. Dawson, Folkestone.
    Dietrich, WE. and Perron, J.T. (2006) The search for a topographic signature of life. Nature439: 411–418.
    Douglas, I. (1983) The Urban Environment. Arnold, London.
    Douglas, I. (2005a) Hot wetlands. In P.G.Fookes, E.M.Lee and G.Milligan (eds), Geomorphology for Engineers. Whittles Publishing, Dunbeath, Caithness, pp. 473–500.
    Douglas, I. (2005b) Urban geomorphology. In P.G.Fookes, E.M.Lee and G.Milligan (eds), Geomorphology for Engineers. Whittles Publishing, Dunbeath, Caithness, pp. 757–779.
    Douglas, I. and Lawson, N. (2000) The human dimensions of geomorphological work in Britain. Journal of Industrial Ecology4: 9–33.
    Douglas, I. and Spencer, T. (eds) (1985) Environmental Change and Tropical Geomorphology. George Allen and Unwin, London.
    Downs, P.W. and Gregory, K.J. (1995) Approaches to river channel sensitivity. Professional Geographer47: 168–175.
    Downs, P.W. and Gregory, K.J. (2004) River Channel Management. Towards Sustainable Catchment Hydrosystems. Arnold, London.
    Drew, F. (1873) Alluvial and lacustrine deposits and glacial records of the upper Indus basin. Pt 1: Alluvial deposits. Geological Society of London Quarterly Journal29: 441–471.
    Driver, T.S. and Chapman, G.P. (eds) (1996) Time-scales and Environmental Change. Routledge, London and New York.
    Duchaufour, P. (1977) Pédologie: 1. Pédogenèse et Classification. Masson, Paris.
    Dury, G.H. (1965) Theoretical implications of underfit streams. US Geological Survey Professional Paper 452C.
    Ehlers, J. and Gibbard, P. (2004) Quaternary Glaciations - Extent and Chronology. Part I: Europe. Part II: North America. Part III: South America, Asia, Africa, Australasia, Antarctica. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
    Ehlers, J. and Gibbard, PL. (2004) Quaternary Glaciations: Extent and Chronology2: Part II: North America. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
    Ehlers, J. and Gibbard, PL. (2007) The extent and chronology of Cenozoic Global Glaciation. Quaternary International164–165: 6–20.
    Eide, E. (2008) Input sought on earth surface processes. EOS, Transactions American Geophysical Union89: 10.1029/2008EO230003.
    Ellis, E.C. and Ramankutty, N. (2008) Putting people in the map: anthropogenic biomes of the world. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment6: 439–447.
    Elsenbeer, H. (2001) Hydrologic flowpaths in tropical rainforest soilscapes - a review. Hydrological Processes15: 1751–1759.
    Emanuel, W.R., Shugart, H.H. and Stevenson, M.P. (1985) Climatic change and the broad-scale distribution of terrestrial ecosystem complexes. Climatic Change7: 29–43.
    Embleton, C. and King, C.A.M. (1968) Glacial and Periglacial Geomorphology. Arnold, London.
    Embleton-Hamann, C. (2004) Proglacial landforms. In A.S.Goudie (ed.), Encyclopedia of Geomorphology Vol. 2, Routledge, London, pp. 810–813.
    Endreny, T.A. (2001) A global impact for hydro-socio-ecological watershed research. Water Resources Impact3: 20–25.
    Environmental Research Funders Forum (ERFF) (2003) Analysis of Environmental Science in the UK. At, accessed 21 January 2010.
    Evans, N.C. and King, J.P. (1997) The Natural Terrain Landslide Study: Debris Avalanche Susceptibility. GEO Technical note TN 1/98.
    Evans, D.J.A. (ed.) (2003) Glacial Landsystems. Arnold, London.
    Eyles, N., Dearman, W.R. and Douglas, T.D. (1983) The distribution of glacial land systems in Britain and North America. In N.Eyles (ed.), Glacial Geology. Pergamon, Oxford, pp. 213–228.
    Ezcurra, E. (ed.) (2006) Global Deserts Outlook. United Nations.
    Fairbridge, R.W. (1968) Mountain and hilly terrain, mountain systems: mountain types. In R.W.Fairbridge (ed.), Encyclopedia of Geomorphology. Reinhold, New York, pp. 745–761.
    Fairbridge, R.W. (1999) Von Richthofen, Ferdinand, Baron (Freiherr) (1833–1905). In D.E.Alexander (ed.), Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 662–663.
    FAO Millenium assessment 2005. At, accessed 25 June 2009.
    Favis-Mortlock, D.T. (2007) The soil erosion website.
    Fenneman, N.M. (1931) Physiography of the Western United States. McGraw-Hill, New York.
    Fenneman, N.M. (1938) Physiography of the Eastern United States. McGraw-Hill, New York.
    Ferrigno, J.G., Cook, A.J., Mathie, A.M., Williams, R.S., Swithinbank, C., Foley, K.M., Fox, A.J., Thomson, J.W. and Sievers, J. (2008) Coastal change and glaciological map of the LKarsen ice shelf area, Antarctica 1940–2005. USGS Geologic Investigations Series Map I-2600-B.
    Findlay, S.J. and Taylor, M.P. (2006) Why rehabilitate river systems?Area38: 312–325.
    Finnegan, D.A. (2004) The work of ice: glacial theory and scientific culture in early Victorian Edinburgh. British Journal for the History of Science37: 29–52.
    Firestone, R.B., West, A., Kennett, J.P., Becker, L., Bunch, T.E., Revay, Z. S., Schultz, PH, Belgya, T., Kennett, D.J., Erlandson, J.M., Dickenson, O.J., Goodyear, A.C., Harris, R.S., Howard, G.A., Kloosterman, J.B., Lechler, P., Mayewski, PA, Montgomery, J., Poreda, R., Darrah, T., Que Hee, S.S., Smith, A.R., Stich, A., Topping, W., Wittke, J.H. and Wolbach, WS. (2007) Evidence for an extraterrestrial impact 12,900 years ago that contributed to the megafaunal extinctions and the Younger Dryas cooling. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences104: 16016–16021.
    Fischer, L. and Busche, D. (eds) (1982) Climatic Geomorphology. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
    Folk, R.L., Roberts, H.H. and Moore, C.H. (1973) Black phytokarst from Hell, Cayman Islands, British West Indies. Bulletin Geological Society of America84: 2351–2360.;2
    Fookes, P.G. (1976) Road geotechnics in hot deserts. Highway Engineer23: 11–29.
    Fookes, P.G. (1997) Tropical Residual Soils. Geological Society, London.
    Fookes, P. and Lee, M. (2005) Introduction to engineering geomorphology. In P.G.Fookes, E.M.Lee and G.Milligan (eds), Geomorphology for Engineers. Whittles Publishing, Dunbeath, Caithness, pp. 1–28.
    Fookes, P.G. and Vaughn, PR (eds) (1986) A Handbook of Engineering Geomorphology. Surrey University Press, London.
    Fookes, P.G., Lee, E.M. and Milligan, G. (eds) (2005) Geomorphology for Engineers. Whittles Publishing, Dunbeath, Caithness.
    Ford, D.C. and Williams, P.W. (1989) Karst Geomorphology and Hydrology. Unwin Hyman, London.
    Francis, P. (1993) Volcanoes: A Planetary Perspective. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    Francis, R.A., Petts, G.E. and Gurnell, A.M. (2008) Wood as a driver of past landscape change along river corridors. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms33: 1622–1626.
    Freerain Rainwater Management Solutions (2006) At, accessed 18 December 2006.
    French, H.M. (1987) Permafrost and ground ice. In K.J.Gregory and D.E.Walling (eds), Human Activity and Environmental Processes. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 237–269.
    French, H.M. (1996) The Periglacial Environment. Addison Wesley Longman, London,
    2nd edn.
    French, H.M. and Williams, P. (2007) The Periglacial Environment. Wiley, Chichester,
    3rd edn.
    Fryirs, K. and Brierley, G. (2000) A geomorphic approach to the identification of river recovery potential. Physical Geography21: 244–277.
    Gabrovek, F. (2009) On concepts and methods for the estimation of dissolutional denudation rates in karst areas. Geomorphology106: 9–14.
    Garland, G.G. (1999) Soil erosion. In D.E.Alexander and R.W.Fairbridge (eds), Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 570–573.
    Garvin, CD., Hanks, T.C., Finkel, R.C. and Heimsath, A.J. (2005) Episodic incision of the Colorado River in Glen Canyon, Utah. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms30: 973–984.
    Gerrard, J. (1990) Mountain Environments: An Examination of the Physical Geography of Mountains. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Gibbard, P. and van Kolfschoten, Th. (2005) The Pleistocene and Holocene Epochs. In F.Gradstein, J.Ogg and A.Smith (eds), A Geologic Time Scale 2004. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 441–452.
    Gilbert, G.K. (1875) Report on the Geology of portions of Nevada, Utah, California and Arizona (1871–72). US Geological and Geographical Survey, 3: 17–187.
    Gilbert, G.K. (1914) The transportation of debris by running water. US Geological Survey Professional Paper86: 263.
    Glantz, M.H. (1995) In Central Asia, a sea dies: a sea also rises. Climate-Related Impacts International Network Newsletter10 (2): 1.
    Glasser, N.F. and Bennett, M.R. (2004) Glacial erosional landforms: origins and significance for palaeoglaciology. Progress in Physical Geography28: 43–75.
    Goswami, B.N., Venugopal, V., Sengupta, D., Madhusoodanan, M.S. and Xavier, P.K. (2006) Increasing trend of extreme rain events over India in a warming environment. Science314: 1442–1445.
    Goudie, A.S. (1986) The Human Impact: Man's Role in Environmental Change. Blackwell, Oxford,
    2nd edn.
    Goudie, A.S. (1988) The geomorphological role of termites and earthworms in the tropics. In H.A.Viles (ed.), Biogeomorphology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 166–192.
    Goudie, A.S. (1992) Environmental Change. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
    Goudie, A.S. (1995) The Changing Earth: Rates of Geomorphological Processes. Blackwell, Oxford.
    Goudie, A.S. (1999) Weathering. In D.E.Alexander and R.W.Fairbridge (eds), Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston and London, pp. 693–695.
    Goudie, A.S. (2003) Long-term environmental change: Quaternary climate oscillations and their impacts on the environment. In A.Rogers and H.A.Viles (eds), The Student's Companion to Geography. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp. 13–17.
    Goudie, A.S. (2006) Global warming and geomorphology. Geomorphology79: 384–394.
    Goudie, A.S. (2008) The history and nature of wind erosion in deserts. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences36: 97–119.
    Goudie, A.S. and Viles, H. (1997) The Earth Transformed. Blackwell, Oxford.
    Grabau, W.E., Walker, H.J. and Lee, M. (2005) Estuaries and deltas. In P.G.Fookes, E.M.Lee and G.Milligan (eds), Geomorphology for Engineers. Whittles Publishing, Dunbeath, pp. 535–565.
    Gradstein, F.M., Ogg, J.G. and Smith, A.G. (eds) (2005) A Geologic Time Scale. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    Graf, WL. (1977) The rate law in fluvial geomorphology. American Journal of Science277: 178–191.
    Graf, WL. (ed.) (1987) Geomorphic Systems of North America. Boulder, CO, Geological Society of America, Centennial Special Volume 2.
    Graf, WL. (1988) Fluvial Processes in Dryland Rivers. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, London, Paris and Tokyo.
    Graf, WL. (1992) Science, public policy and western American rivers. Transactions Institute of British GeographersNS 17: 5–19.
    Graf, WL. (2001) Damage control: restoring the physical integrity of America's rivers. Annals of the Association of American Geographers91: 1–27.
    Graf, WL. (ed.) (2003) Dam Removal Research: Status and Prospects. The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment, Washington, DC.
    Graf, WL. (2006) Downstream hydrologic and geomorphic effects of large dams on American rivers. Geomorphology79: 336–360.
    Gregory, K.J. (1977) Channel and network metamorphosis in northern New South Wales. In K.J.Gregory (ed.), River Channel Changes. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 389–410.
    Gregory, K.J. (1979) Drainage basin processes. In E.Derbyshire, K.J.Gregory and J.R.Hails (eds), Geomorphological Processes. Dawson, Folkestone.
    Gregory, K.J. (1985) The Nature of Physical Geography. Arnold, London.
    Gregory, K.J. (1987) The power of nature - energetics in physical geography. In K.J.Gregory (ed.), Energetics of Physical Environment: Energetic Approaches to Physical Geography. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 1–31.
    Gregory, K.J. (1995) Human activity in palaeohydrology. In K.J.Gregory, L.Starkel and V.R.Baker (eds), Global Continental Palaeohydrology. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 151–172.
    Gregory, K.J. (ed.) (1997) Fluvial Geomorphology of Great Britain. Geological Conservation Review Series, Joint Nature Conservation Committee. Chapman and Hall, London.
    Gregory, K.J. (2000) The Changing Nature of Physical Geography. Arnold, London.
    Gregory, K.J. (2002) Urban channel adjustments in a management context. Environmental Management29: 620–633.
    Gregory, K.J. (2003) Palaeohydrology, environmental change and river channel management. In K.J.Gregory and G.Benito (eds), Palaeohydrology: Understanding Global Change. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 357–378.
    Gregory, K.J. (2004a) Human activity transforming and designing river landscapes: a review perspective. Geographica Polonica77: 5–20.
    Gregory, K.J. (2004b) Palaeohydrology and river channel management. Journal of the Geological Society of India64: 383–394.
    Gregory, K.J. (2005a) Temperate environments. In P.G.Fookes, E.M.Lee and G.Milligan (eds), Geomorphology for Engineers. Whittles Publishing, Dunbeath, Caithness, pp. 400–418.
    Gregory, K.J. (ed.) (2005b) Editor's Introduction. In Physical Geography. Sage, London, 4 volumes, pp. xix-lviii.
    Gregory, K.J. (2006) The human role in changing river channels. Geomorphology79: 172–191.
    Gregory, K.J. (2009) Place: The management of sustainable physical environments. In N.Clifford, S.L.Holloway, S.P.Rice and G.Valentine (eds), Key Concepts in Geography. Sage, London,
    2nd edn
    , pp. 173–198.
    Gregory, K.J. and Benito, G. (eds) (2003) Palaeohydrology: Understanding Global Change. Wiley, Chichester.
    Gregory, K.J. and Downs, P.W. (2008) The sustainability of restored rivers: catchment scale perspectives on long term response. In S.Darby and D.Sear (eds), River Restoration: Managing the Uncertainty in Restoring Physical Habitat. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 253–286.
    Gregory, K.J. and Walling, D.E. (1973) Drainage Basin Form and Process. Arnold, London.
    Gregory, K.J., Benito, G. and Downs, P.W. (2008) Applying fluvial geomorphology to river channel management: background for progress towards a palaeohydrology protocol. Geomorphology98: 153–172.
    Gregory, J.M., Huybrechts, P. and Raper, S.C.B. (2004) Climatology: threatened loss of the Greenland ice-sheet. Nature428: 616.
    Gregory, K.J., Macklin, M.G. and Walling, D.E. (2006) Past hydrological events related to understanding global change. Catena66: 1–187.
    Gregory, K.J., Simmons, I.G., Brazel, A.J., Day, J.W., Keller, E.A., Sylvester, A.G. and Yanez-Arancibia, Y. (2009) Environmental Sciences: A Student's Companion. Sage, London.
    Gregory, K.J., Starkel, L. and Baker, V.R. (eds) (1995) Global Continental Palaeohydrology. Wiley, Chichester.
    Guerra, A., Marcal, M., Polivanov, H., Sathler, R., Mendonça, J., Guerra, T., Bezerra, F., Furtado, M., Lima, N., Souza, U., Feitosa, A., Davies, K., Fullen, M.A. and Booth, C.A. (2009) Environment management and health risks of soil erosion gullies in São Luís (Brazil) and their potential remediation using palm-leaf geotextiles. Transactions of the Wessex Institute, 28 May 2009, Paper DOI: 10.2495/EHR050461, see
    Gunderson, L.H. and Holling, C.S. (2001) Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Systems of Humans and Nature. Island Press, New York.
    Gunn, J. (1986) Solute processes and karst landforms. In S.T.Trudgill (ed.), Solute Processes. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 363–437.
    Gupta, A. (1993) The changing geomorphology of the humid tropics. Geomorphology7: 165–186.
    Gupta, A. and Ahmad, R. (1999) Geomorphology and the urban tropics: building an interface between research and usage. Geomorphology31: 133–149.
    Gurnell, A.M. (1998) The hydrogeomorphological effects of beaver dam-building activity. Progress in Physical Geography22: 167–189.
    Gurney, S.D. (1998) Aspects of the genesis and geomorphology of pingos: perennial permafrost mounds. Progress in Physical Geography22: 307–324.
    Haines-Young, R. (2000) Sustainable development and sustainable landscapes: defining a new paradigm for landscape ecology. Fennia178: 7–14.
    Haines-Young, R. and PetchJ.R. (1986) Physical Geography: Its Nature and Methods. Harper Row, London.
    Hanson, G.N. (2007) Did an extra-terrestrial impact over the Laurentian Ice Sheet cause the extinction of North America's mega-fauna and the Clovis culture? At, accessed 29 June 2009.
    Harbor, J. (1999) Engineering geomorphology at the cutting edge of land disturbance: erosion and sediment control. Geomorphology31: 247–263.
    Hare, F.K. (1980) The planetary environment: fragile or sturdy. Geographical Journal146: 379–395.
    Harris, S.A. (1988) The alpine periglacial zone. In M.J.Clark (ed.), Advances in Periglacial Geomorphology. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 369–413.
    Harvey, A.M. (2002) Effective timescales of coupling within fluvial systems. Geomorphology44: 175–201.
    Hawking, S. (1988) A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes. Bantam Books, New York.
    Hayakawa, YS. and Matsukura, Y. (2010) Factors influencing the recession rate of Niagara Falls since the 19th century. Geomorphology110: 212–216.
    Heimsath, A.M. and Ehlers, T.A. (2005) Quantifying rates and timescales of geomorphic processes. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms30: 917–921.
    Heinrich, H. (1988) Origin and consequences of cyclic ice rafting in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean during the past. Quaternary Research29: 142–152.
    Herrington Consulting (2006) Retrieved 18 December 2006 from
    Heywood, I., Cornelius, S. and Carver, S.C. (1998) An Introduction to Geographical Information Systems. Pearson Education, Harlow,
    3rd edn.
    Higgitt, D.L. and Lee, E.M. (eds) (2001) Geomorphological Processes and Landscape Change: Britain in the last 1000 years. Blackwell, Oxford.
    Holdridge, L.R. (1947) Determination of world plant formations from simple climatic data. Science105: 367–368.
    Holdridge, L.R. (1967) Life Zone Ecology. Tropical Science Center, San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Holling, C.S. (2001) Understanding the complexity of economic and social systems. Ecosystems4: 390–405.
    Holmes, A. (1944) Principles of Physical Geology. Nelson, London and New York.
    Holzner, L. and Weaver, G.D. (1965) Geographic evaluation of climatic and climatogenetic geomorphology. Annals Association of American Geographers55: 592–602.
    Hooke, J.M. (ed.) (1988) Geomorphology in Environmental Planning. Wiley, Chichester.
    Hooke, J.M. (1999) Decades of change: contributions of geomorphology to fluvial and coastal engineering and management. Geomorphology31: 373–389.
    Hooke, J.M. and Kain, R.J.P. (1982) Historical Change in the Physical Environment: A Guide to Sources and Techniques. Butterworth, London.
    Horrocks, N.K. (1954) Physical Geography and Climatology. Longman, London.
    Houghton, J. (1997) Global Warming: The Complete Briefing. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
    2nd edn.
    Howard, J.A. and Mitchell, C.W. (1985) Phytogeomorphology. Wiley, New York.
    Huggett, R.J. (1975) Soil landscape systems: a model of soil genesis. Geoderma13: 1–22.
    Huggett, R.J. (1980) Systems Analysis in Geography. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
    Huggett, R.J. (1985) Earth Surface Systems. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg and New York.
    Huggett, R.J. (1995) Geoecology: An Evolutionary Approach. Routledge, London.
    Huggett, R.J. (1997) Environmental Change. The Evolving Ecosphere. Routledge, London.
    Hupp, C.R. (1999) Relations among riparian vegetation, channel incision processes and forms, and large woody debris. In S.E.Darby and A.Simon (eds), Incised River Channels. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 219–245.
    Huybrechts, P. (2009) Global change: West-side story of Antarctic ice. Nature458: 295–296.
    Isachenko, A.G. (1973) On the method of applied landscape research. Soviet Geography14: 229–243.
    Iturrizaga, L. (2008) Paraglacial landform assemblages in the Hindukush and Karakoram Mountains. Geomorphology95: 1–102.
    IUCN, UNEP and WWF (1991) Caring for the Earth: A Strategy for Sustainable Living. International Union for the Conservation of Nature, Earthscan, London.
    Jamieson, S.S.R. and Sugden, D.E. (2008) Landscape evolution of Antarctica. In A.K. Cooper, P.J. Barrett, H. Stagg, B. Storey, E. Stump, W. Wise and the 10th ISAES editorial team (ed (eds), Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World. Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, pp. 39–54.
    Johnsson, M. (2000) Chemical weathering and soils. In WG.Ernst (ed.), Earth Systems: Processes and Issues. CUP, Cambridge, pp. 119–132.
    Kale, V.S. (2002) Fluvial geomorphology of Indian rivers: an overview. Progress in Physical Geography26: 400–433.
    Kale, V.S. (2003) Geomorphic effects of monsoon floods on Indian rivers. Natural Hazards28: 65–84.
    Kale, V.S., Gupta, A. and Singhvi, A.K. (2003) Late Pleistocene-Holocene palaeo-hydrology of Monsoon Asia. Journal Geological Society of India64: 403–417.
    Kalicki, T. and Sanko, A.F. (1998) Palaeohydrological changes in the upper Dneper valley, Belarus, during the last 20,000 years. In G.Benito, V.R.Baker and K.J.Gregory (eds), Palaeohydrology and Environmental Change. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 125–135.
    Kearey, P. and Vine, F.J. (1990) Global Tectonics. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.
    Keller, E.A. (1996) Environmental Geology. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ,
    7th edn.
    Keller, E.A. and Pinter, N. (1996) Active Tectonics. Earthquakes, Uplift and Landscape. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
    Kennett, D.J., Kennett, J.P., West, A., Mercer, C., Que Hee, S.S., Bement, L., Bunch, T.E., Sellers, M. and Wolbach, WS. (2009) Nanodiamonds in the Younger Dryas boundary sediment layer. Science323: 94.
    Kerr, R.A. (2009) Did the mammoth slayer leave a diamond calling card?Science323: 26.
    Kilburn, C.R.J. and Petley, D.N. (2003) Forecasting giant, catastrophic slope collapse: lessons from the Vajont, northern Italy. Geomorphology, 54: 21–32.
    Kimball, D. (1948) Denudation chronology. The dynamics of river action. Occasional Paper No. 8, University of London, Institute of Archaeology.
    King, L.C. (1953) Canons of landscape evolution. Bulletin Geological Society of AmericaC4: 721–752.
    King, L.C. (1962) The Morphology of the Earth. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh.
    Kleman, J. and Borgstrom, I. (1996) Reconstruction of palaeo-ice sheets: the use of geomorphological data. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms21: 893–909.;2-U
    Knox, J.C. (1995) Fluvial systems since 20,000 years BC. In K.J.Gregory, L.Starkel and V.R.Baker (eds), Global Continental Palaeohydrology. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 87–108.
    Knox, J.C. (1999) Long-term episodic changes in magnitudes and frequency of floods in the Upper Mississippi River Valley. In A.G.Brown and T.Quine (eds), Fluvial Processes and Environmental Change. Chichester, Wiley, pp. 255–282.
    Kondolf, G.M., Piegay, H. and Sear, D. (2003) Integrating geomorphological tools in ecological and management studies. In G.M.Kondolf and H.Piegay (eds), Tools in Geomorphology. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 633–660.
    Kong, P., Na, C., Fink, D., Ding, L. and Huang, F. (2007) Erosion in northwest Tibet from in-situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al in bedrock. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms32: 116–125.
    Kooi, H. and Beaumont, C. (1996) Large-scale geomorphology: classical concepts reconciled and integrated with contemporary ideas via a surface processes model. Journal of Geophysical Research101: 3361–3386.
    Koppen, W. (1931) Grundriss der Klimakunde. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.
    Kowal, J.M. and Kassam, A.H. (1976) Energy load and instantaneous intensity of rainstorms at Samaru, Northern Nigeria. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad)53: 185–197.
    Kuhn, T.S. (1970) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
    Lancaster, N. (2008) Desert dune dynamics and development: insights from luminescence dating. Boreas37: 559–573.
    Lane, S. (2003) Environmental modeling. In A.Rogers and H.A.Viles (eds), The Student's Companion to Geography. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp. 64–76.
    Larsen, L. and Harlan, S.L. (2006) Desert dreamscapes: residential landscape preference and behaviour. Landscape and Urban Planning78: 85–100.
    Larsen, M.C. (1997) Tropical geomorphology and geomorphic work: A study of geomorphic processes and sediment and water budgets in montane humid-tropical forested and developed watersheds, Puerto Rico. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Colorado Geography Department, accessed online 20 December 2008.
    Lee, M. and Fookes, P. (2005) Hot drylands. In P.G.Fookes, E.M.Lee and G.Milligan (eds), Geomorphology for Engineers. Whittles Publishing, CRC Press, Dunbeath, pp. 419–453.
    Lemons, J. (ed.) (1987) Special focus on environmental ethics. Environment Professional 9.
    Lemons, J. (1999) Environmental ethics. In D.E.Alexander and R.W.Fairbridge (eds), Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp. 204–206.
    Leopold, L.B. (1969) Landscape esthetics. Natural History Oct: 37–44.
    Leopold, L.B. (1973) River channel change with time: an example. Bulletin Geological Society of America84: 1845–1860.;2
    Leopold, L.B. (1974) Water - A Primer. WH. Freeman and Co., San Francisco.
    Leopold, L.B. (1977) A reverence for rivers. Geology5: 429–430.;2
    Leopold, L.B. (1994) A View of the River. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
    Leopold, L.B. and Maddock, T., Jr. (1953) The hydraulic geometry of stream channels and some physiographic implications. US Geological Survey Professional Paper252, Washington, DC.
    Leopold, L.B. and Marchand, M.O. (1968) On the quantitative inventory of river-scape. Water Resources Research4: 709–717.
    Leopold, L.B. and Miller, J.P. (1954) Postglacial chronology for alluvial valleys in Wyoming. US Geological Survey Water Supply Paper1261: 61–85.
    Leopold, L.B., Clarke, F.E., Hanshaw, B.B. and Balsley, J.R. (197l) A procedure for evaluating environmental impact. US Geological Survey Circular645.
    Leopold, L.B., Wolman, M.G. and Miller, J.P. (1964) Fluvial Processes in Geomorphology. Freeman, San Francisco.
    Leopoldo, PR., Franken, W.K. and Villa Nova, N.A. (1995) Real evapotranspiration and transpiration through a tropical rain forest in central Amazonia as estimated by the water balance method. Forest Ecology and Management73: 185–195.
    Lewin, J. (1980) Available and appropriate time scales in geomorphology. In R.A.Cullingford, D.A.Davidson and J.Lewin (eds), Timescales in Geomorphology. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 3–10.
    Lewin, J. (1987) Stable and unstable environments - the example of the Temperate zone. In M.J.Clark, K.J.Gregory and A.M.Gurnell (eds), Horizons in Physical Geography. Macmillan, Basingstoke, pp. 200–212.
    Li, Y.H. (1976) Denudation of Taiwan Island since the Pliocene epoch. Geology4: 105–107.;2
    Lillesand, T.M., Kiefer, R.W. and Chipman, J.W. (2004) Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation. Wiley, Hoboken NJ,
    5th edn.
    Linnaeus, C. (1735) Systema Naturae. TheodorHaak, Leiden.
    Linton, D.L. (1951) The delimitation of morphological regions. In L.D.Stamp and S.W.Wooldridge (eds), London Essays in Geography. LSE, London, pp. 199–218.
    Lioubimtseva, E. (2004) Climate change in arid environments: revisiting the past to understand the future. Progress in Physical Geography28: 502–530.
    Lovelock, J. (1979) Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    Lovelock, J. (1988) The Ages of Gaia. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    Lovelock, J. (2000) Homage to GAIA - The Life of an Independent Scientist. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    Lovelock, J. (2006) The Revenge of Gaia. Allen and Lane, London.
    Lovelock, J. (2009) The Vanishing Face of Gaia: A Final Warning. Basic Books, New York.
    Lozinski, M.W. (1909) On the mechanical weathering of sandstones in temperate climates (in German). Acad. sci. Cracovie Bull. Internat., cl. sci. math et naturelles1: 1–25.
    Lyell, C. (1830) The Principles of Geology. John Murray, London.
    Lynch, K. (1960) The Image of the City. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
    Mabbutt, J.A. (1977) Desert Landforms. Australian National University Press, Canberra.
    MacCaig, N. (1983) A World of Difference. Chatto & Windus, London.
    Macdonald, G.A. (1972) Volcanoes. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
    Mackay, A., Battarbee, R.W., Birks, H.J.B. and Oldfield, F. (eds) (2003) Global Change in the Holocene. Arnold, London.
    Macklin, M.G. and Lewin, J. (2008) Alluvial responses to the changing Earth system. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms33: 1374–1395.
    Macklin, M.G., Fuller, I.C. and Lewin, J. (2002) Correlation of fluvial sequences in the Mediterranean basin over the last 200ka and their relationship to climate change. Quaternary Science Reviews21, 1633–1641.
    Macmillan, B. (1989) Modelling through: an afterword to Remodelling Geography. In B. Macmillan (ed.), Remodelling Geography:291–313.
    Magee, J.W., Miller, G.H., Spooner, N.A. and Questiaux, D. (2004) Continuous 150 k.y. monsoon record from Lake Eyre, Australia: insolation-forcing implications and unexpected Holocene failure. Geology32: 885–888.
    Magilligan, F.J., GomezB., MertesL.A.K., Smith, L.C., SmithN.D., FinneganD. and GarvinJ.B. (2002) Geomorphic effectiveness, sandur development, and the pattern of landscape response during jökulhlaups: Skeiarársandur, southeastern Iceland. Geomorphology44: 95–113.
    Major, J.J. (2004) Posteruption suspended sediment transport at Mount St. Helens: Decadal-scale relationships with landscape adjustments and river discharges. Journal of Geophysical Research109: F01002, doi:10.1029/2002JF000010.
    Mangerud, J., Ehlers, J. and Gibbard, P. (2004) Quaternary Glaciations: Extent and Chronology 1: Part I Europe. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
    Manning, A.D., Fischer, J., Felton, A., Newell, B., Steffen, W. and Lindenmayer, D.B. (2009) Landscape fluidity - a unifying perspective for understanding and adapting to global change. Journal of Biogeography36: 193–199.
    Maroulis, J.C., Nanson, G.C., Price, D.M. and Pietsch, T. (2007) Aeolian-fluvial interaction and climate change: source-bordering dune development over the past ∼100 ka on Cooper Creek, central Australia. Quaternary Science Reviews26: 386–404.
    Marren, P.M. (2005) Magnitude and frequency in proglacial rivers: a geomorphological and sedimentological perspective. Earth-Science Reviews70: 203–251.
    Marsh, G.P. (1864) Man and Nature or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action. Charles Scribner, New York.
    Martin, B. (1998) See, accessed 27 July 2009.
    Maslin, M., Seidov, D. and Lowe, J. (2001) Synthesis of the nature and causes of rapid climate transitions during the Quaternary. Geophysical Monograph126: 9–52 (see
    Massachusetts Government (2006) Retrieved 18 December 2006 from http://www.mass.gv/envir/smart_growth_toolkit/pages/glossary.html
    Mathews, J.A. (ed.) (2001) The Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Environmental Change. Arnold, London.
    May, R.M. (1977) Thresholds and breakpoints in ecosystems with a multiplicity of stable states. Nature269: 471–477.
    McFarlane, M.J. and Whitlow, R. (1991) Key factors affecting the initiation and progress of gullying in dambos in parts of Zimbabwe and Malawi. Land Degradation & Development2: 215–235.
    McGee, W.J. (1888) The classification of geographic forms by genesis. National Geographic Magazine1: 27–36.
    McGee, W.J. (1897) Sheetflood erosion. Geological Society of America Bulletin8: 87–112.
    McGuire, B., Mason, I. and Kilburn, C. (2002) Natural Hazards and Environmental Change. Arnold, London.
    McHarg, I.L. (1969) Design with Nature. Natural History Press, New York.
    McHarg, I.L. (1992) Design with Nature. Wiley, Chichester.
    McHarg, I.L. (1996) A Quest for Life: An Autobiography. Wiley, New York.
    McHarg, I.L. and Steiner, F.R. (eds) (1998) To Heal the Earth: Selected Writings of Ian L. McHarg. Island Press, Washington, DC.
    McKee, E.D. (ed.) (1979) A study of global sand seas. US Geological Survey Professional Paper 1052.
    McKibben, B. (1989) The End of Nature. Random House, New York.
    McTainsh, G. and Strong, C. (2007) The role of aeolian dust in ecosystems. Geomorphology89: 39–54.
    Mead, WR. (1953) The language of place. Geographical Studies1: 63–68.
    Meigs, P. (1953) The world distribution of arid and semi-arid homoclimates. Reviews of Research on Arid Zone Hydrology, UNESCO, Paris pp. 203–209.
    Mercier, D. and Atienne, S. (2008) Paraglacial geomorphology: processes and paraglacial context. Geomorphology95: 1–2.
    Mickelson, D.M. (1987) Central lowlands. In W.L.Graf (ed.), Geomorphic Systems of North America. Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, pp. 111–118.
    Mitchell, C.W. (1991) Terrain Evaluation. An Introductory Handbook to the History, Principles and Methods of Practical Terrain Assessment. Longman Scientific and Technical, Harlow.
    Mitsch, W.J. and Jorgensen, S.E. (2004) Ecological Engineering and Ecosystem Restoration. Wiley, New Jersey.
    Montgomery, D.R. (1999) Process domains and the River Continuum. Journal of the American Water Resources Association35: 397–410.
    Moon, B.P. (1984) Refinement of a technique for determining rock mass strength for geomorphological purposes. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms9: 189–193.
    Mörner, N.-A. (2007) Terra Nova3: 408–413.
    Morretti, S. and Rodolfi, G. (2000) A typical ‘calanchi’ landscape on the Eastern Apennine margin (Atri, Central Italy): geomorphological features and evolution. Catena40: 217–228.
    Mosley, M.P. and Zimpfer, G.L. (1978) Hardware models in geomorphology. Progress in Physical Geography2: 438–461.
    Murray, B., Lazarus, E., Ashton, A., Baas, A., Coco, G., Coulthard, T., Fondstad, M., Haff, P., McNamara, D., Paola, C., Pelletier, J. and Rheinhardt, L. (2009) Geomorphology, complexity, and the emerging science of the Earth's surface. Geomorphology103: 496–505.
    Murton, J.B. (2008) Global warming and thermokarst. In R.Margesin (ed.), Permafrost Soils. Springer, Amsterdam, pp. 185–204.
    Nace, R.L. (1969) World water inventory and control. In R.J.Chorley (ed.), Water, Earth, and Man. Methuen, London, pp. 31–42.
    Naess, A. (1973) The shallow and the deep, long range ecology movement: a summary. Inquiry16: 95–100.
    Nanson, G.C., Price, D.M. and Short, S.A. (1992) Wetting and drying of Australia over the past 300 ka. Geology20: 791–794.;2
    Nasar, J.L. (1988) Environmental Aesthetics. CUP, New York.
    Nash, R.F. (1967) Wilderness and the American Mind. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.
    National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) at
    National Research Council (1999) New Strategies for America's Watersheds. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
    National Research Council (NRC) (2009) Landscapes on the Edge: New Horizons for Research in Earth Surface Processes. National Research Council, Washington DC.
    Nelson, F.E. (2003) (Un)frozen in Time. Science299: 1673–1675.
    Newson, M.D. (1995) Fluvial geomorphology and environmental design. In A.M.Gurnell and G.E.Petts (eds), Changing River Channels. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 413–432.
    Ng, K.Y. (2006) Landslide locations and drainage network development: a case study of Hong Kong. Geomorphology76: 229–239.
    Nicholas, A.P., Ashworth, P.J., Kirkby, M.J., Macklin, M.G. and Murray, T. (1995) Sediment slugs: large scale fluctuations in fluvial sediment transport rates and storage volumes. Progress in Physical Geography19: 500–519.
    Nishiizumi, K., Caffee, M.W., Finkel, R.C., Brimhall, G. and Mote, T. (2005) Remnants of a fossil alluvial fan landscape of Miocene age in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile using cosmogenic nuclide exposure age dating. Earth and Planetary Science Letters237: 499–507.
    Northcote, K.H. (1978) Soils and land use. In Atlas of Australian Resources, Division of National Mapping, Canberra.
    Oberlander, T.M. (1997) Slope and pediment systems. In D.S.G.Thomas (ed.), Arid Zone Geomorphology: Process, Form and Change in Drylands. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 135–163.
    Odum, H.T. and Odum, E.C. (1976) Energy Basis for Man and Nature. Wiley, New York.
    Oerlemans, J. (2001) Glaciers and Climate Change. Balkema, Rotterdam.
    Ogg, J.G., Ogg, G.M. and Gradstein, F.M. (2008) The Concise Geologic Time Scale. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    Oguchi, T. and Wasklewicz, T. (2010) Geographic information systems in geomorphology. In K.J.Gregory (ed.), Handbook of Geomorphology. Sage, London.
    Oldfield, F. (1987) The future of the past - a perspective on palaeoenvironmental study. In M.J.Clark, K.J.Gregory and A.M.Gurnell (eds), Horizons in Physical Geography. Macmillan, Basingstoke, pp. 10–26.
    Oldfield, F. (2005) Environmental Change. Key Issues and Alternative Perspectives. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    Ollier, CD. (1979) Evolutionary geomorphology of Australia and Papua-New Guinea. Transactions Institute of British GcographersNS4: 516–539.
    Ollier, CD. (1981) Tectonics and Landforms. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh.
    Ollier, CD. (1995) Classics in physical geography revisited: L.C. King 1953. Canons of landscape evolution. Progress in Physical Geography19: 371–377.
    Ollier, C. and Pain, C. (1996) Regolith, Soils and Landforms. Wiley, Chichester.
    Olson, J., Watts, J.A. and Allison, L.J. (1985) Major World Ecosystem Complexes Ranked by Carbon in Live Vegetation: A Database. Report NDP-017. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. (Identified 46 ecosystems of the world)
    Orban, C.E. (2006) Terra Firma. Florida Academic Press, Gainesville, FL.
    Osterkamp, WR. and Friedman, J.M. (1997) Research considerations for biogeomorphology. Proceedings of the US Geological Survey (USGS) Sediment Workshop ‘Expanding Sediment Research Capabilities in Today's USGS’.
    Osterkamp, WR. and Hedman, E.R. (1982) Perennial streamflow characteristics related to channel geometry characteristics in Missouri River Basin. US Geological Survey Professional Paper 1242, Washington, DC.
    Osterkamp, WR. and Hupp, C.R. (1996) The evolution of geomorphology, ecology and other composite sciences. In B.L.Rhoads and C.E.Thorn (eds), The Scientific Nature of Geomorphology. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 415–441.
    Owen, L.A. and Derbyshire, E. (2005) Glacial environments. In PG.Fookes, E.M.Lee and G.Milligan (eds), Geomorphology for Engineers. Whittles Publishing, Dunbeath, Caithness, pp. 345–377.
    Owens, S., Richards, K. and Spencer, T. (1997) Managing the earth's surface: science and policy. Transactions Institute of British GeographersNS22: 3–5.
    Paillard, D. (2001) Glacial cycles: toward a new paradigm. Reviews of Geophysics39: 325–346.
    Peltier, L.C. (1950) The geographic cycle in periglacial regions as it is related to climatic geomorphology. Annals Association of American Geographers40: 214–236.
    Peltier, L.C. (1975) The concept of climatic geomorphology. In W.N.Melhorn and R.C.Flemal, Theories of Landform Development. State University of New York, Binghamton, pp. 87–102.
    Penck, A. and Bruckner, E. (1901–9) DieAlpen im Eiszeitalter. Tauchnitz, Leipzig.
    Peschel, O. (1870) Neue Probleme der Vergleichende Erdkunde als Versuch einer Morphologie der Erdoberflache. Duncker and Humblot, Leipzig.
    Pethick, J. (1984) An Introduction to Coastal Geomorphology. Arnold, London.
    Petts, G.E., Sparks, R. and Campbell, I. (2000) River restoration in developed economies. In P.J.Boon, B.R.Davies and G.E.Petts (eds), Global Perspectives on River Conservation: Science, Policy and Practice. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 493–508.
    Petts, J. (ed.) (1999) Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment, Vols 1 & 2. Blackwell, Oxford.
    Phillips, J.D. (1995) Biogeomorphology and landscape evolution: the problem of scale. Geomorphology13: 387–405.
    Phillips, J.D. (1997) A short history of a flat place: three centuries of geomorphic change in the Creatan, National Forest. Annals Association of American Geographers87: 197–216.
    Phillips, J.D. (1999) Earth Surface Systems. Complexity, Order, and Scale. Blackwell, Oxford.
    Phillips, J.D. (2001) Human impacts on the environment: unpredictability and primacy of place. Physical Geography27: 1–23.
    Phillips, J.D. (2006a) Evolutionary geomorphology: thresholds and nonlinearity in landform response to environmental change. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions3: 365–394.
    Phillips, J.D. (2006b) Deterministic chaos and historical geomorphology: a review and look forward. Geomorphology76: 109–21.
    Phillips, J.D. (2006c) The perfect landscape. Geomorphology84: 159–169.
    Phillips, J.D. (2009) Changes, perturbations, and responses in geomorphic systems. Progress in Physical Geography33: 1–14.
    Pimentel, D. (2006) Soil erosion: a food and environmental threat. Journal of the Environment, Development and Sustainability8: 119–137.
    Plit, F. (2006) Desertification: on significance of the term and research of the phenomenon. Miscellanea Geographica12: 147–153.
    Poesen, J.W.A. and Hooke, J.M. (1997) Erosion, flooding and channel management in Mediterranean environments of southern Europe. Progress in Physical Geography21: 157–179.
    Powell, J.W. (1875) Exploration of the Colorado River of the West (1869–72). Government Printing Office, Washington.
    Powell, R.L. and Roberts, D. (2008) Characterizing variability of the urban physical environment for a suite of cities in Rondônia, Brazil. Earth Interactions12: 1–32.
    Prentice, I.C., Cramer, W., Harrison, S.P., Leemans, R., Monserud, R.A. and Solomon, A.M. (1992) A global biome model based on plant physiology and dominance, soil properties and climate. Journal of Biogeography19: 117–134.
    QRA at Ramage, C.S. (1971) Monsoon Meteorology. Academic Press, New York
    Reading, A.J., Thompson, R.D. and Millington, A.C. (1995) Humid Tropical Environments. Blackwell, Oxford.
    Reinfelds, I. and Nanson, G.C. (2001) ‘Torrents of Terror’: the August 1998 storm and the magnitude, frequency and impact of major floods in the Illawarra region of New South Wales. Australian Geographical Studies39: 335–352.
    Reynolds, J.F., Stafford Smith, D.M., Lambin, E.F., TurnerII, B.L., Mortimore, M., Batterbury, S.P.J., Downing, T.E., Walker, B. (2007) Ecology: global desertification: building a science for dryland development. Science316: 847–851.
    Rhoads, B.L. and Thorn, C.E. (1996) Towards a philosophy of geomorphology. In B.L.Rhoads and C.E.Thorn (eds), The Scientific Nature of Geomorphology. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 115–143.
    Rhodes, F.H.T. and Stone, R.O. (eds) (1981) Language of the Earth. Pergamon Press, New York.
    Rhodes, F.H.T., Stone, R.O. and Malamud, B.D. (eds) (2008) Language of the Earth. Blackwell, Oxford.
    Richards, K.S. and Clifford, N. (2008) Science, systems and geomorphologies: why LESS may be more. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms33: 1323–1340.
    Riley, A.L. (1998) Restoring Streams in Cities. Island Press, Washington, DC.
    Riley, S., Luscombe, G. and Williams, A. (1986) Urban stormwater design: some lessons from the 8 November 1984 Sydney storm. Australian Geographer17: 40–50.
    Rinaldo, A., Dietrich, W.E., Rigon, R., Vogel, G.K. and Rodriguez-Iturbe, I. (2002) Geomorphological signatures of varying climate. Nature374: 632–635.
    Rivas, V., Cendrero, A., Hurtado, M., Cabral, M., Gimenez, J., Forte, L., del Rio, L. and Becker, A. (2006) Geomorphic consequences of urban development and mining activities; an analysis of study areas in Spain and Argentina. Geomorphology73 (3–4): 185–206.
    Roach, W.J., Heffernan, J.B., Grimm, N.B., Arrowsmith, J.R., Eisinger, C. and Rychener, T. (2008) Unintended consequences of urbanization for aquatic ecosystems: a case study from the Arizona desert. BioScience58: 715–727.
    Roberts, N. (1998) The Holocene: An Environmental History. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.
    Rodionov, S.N. (1990) A climatological analysis of the unusual recent rise in the level of the Caspian Sea. Soviet Geography31: 265–275.
    Rogers, A. and Viles, H.A. (eds) (2003) The Student's Companion to Geography. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford.
    Rotnicki, K. (1991) Retrodiction of palaeodischarges of meandering and sinuous alluvial rivers and its palaeoclimatic implications. In L.Starkel, K.J.Gregory and J.B.Thornes (eds), Temperate Palaeohydrology. WileyChichester, pp. 431–471.
    Rudoy, A. (1998) Mountain ice-dammed lakes of southern Siberia and their influence on the development and regime of the intracontinental runoff systems of North Asia in the late Pleistocene. In G.Benito, V.R.Baker and K.J.Gregory (eds), Palaeohydrology and Environmental Change. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 215–234.
    Russell, A.J., Roberts, M.J., Fay, H., Marren, P.M., Cassidy, N.J., Tweed, F.S. and Harris, T. (2006) Icelandic jokulhlaup impacts: implications for ice-sheet hydrology, sediment transfer and geomorphology. Geomorphology75: 33–64.
    Rutimeyer, L. (1869) Ueber Thal- und See-bildung. Schweighauser, Basle.
    Rutter, N.W. (1987) Glacial processes in the central Canadian Rocky Mountains. In WL.Graf (ed.), Geomorphic Systems of North America. Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, pp. 228–238.
    Ryder, J.M. (1971) The stratigraphy and morphology of paraglacial alluvial fans in south central British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences8: 279–298.
    Sarnthein, M. (1978) Sand deserts during glacial maximum and climatic optimum. Nature272: 43–46.
    Scheffer, M., Carpenter, S., Foley, J.A., Folke, C. and Walker, B. (2001) Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature413: 591–596.
    Schellekensa, J., Scatenab, F.N., Bruijnzeela, L.A. and Wickela, A.J. (1999) Modelling rainfall interception by a lowland tropical rain forest in northeastern Puerto Rico. Journal of Hydrology225: 168–184.
    Schick, A.P. (1977) A tentative sediment budget for an extremely arid watershed in the southern Negev. In D.O.Doehring (ed.), Geomorphology in Arid Regions. Allen and Unwin, London, pp. 139–163.
    Schulte, L., Julia, R., Burjachs, F. and Hilgers, A. (2008) Middle Pleistocene to Holocene geochronology of the River Aguas terrace sequence (Iberian pensinsula): fluvial response to Mediterranean environmental change. Geomorphology98: 13–33.
    Schumm, S.A. (1979) Geomorphic thresholds: the concept and its applications. Transactions Institute of British GeographersNS4: 485–515.
    Schumm, S.A. (1994) Erroneous perception of fluvial hazards. Geomorphology10:129–138.
    Schumm, S.A. and Lichty, R.W. (1965) Time, space and causality in geomorphology. American Journal of Science263: 110–119.
    Sear, D.A., Wheaton, J.M. and Darby, S.R. (2007) Uncertain restoration of gravel-bed rivers and the role of geomorphology. Developments in Earth Surface Processes11: 739–760.
    Selby, M.J. (1980) Rock mass strength classification for geomorphic purposes: with tests from Antarctica and New Zealand. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie24: 31–51.
    Selby, M.J. (1985) Earth's Changing Surface. An Introduction to Geomorphology. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
    Seppala, M. (2004) Wind as a Geomorphic Agent in Cold Climates. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    Shackleton, N.J. and Opdyke, N.D. (1973) Oxygen isotope and paleomagnetic stratigraphy of equatorial Pacific Core V28–238: oxygen isotope temperatures and ice volume on a 105 year and 106 year scale. Quaternary Research3: 39–55.
    Shakesby, R.A. and Whitlow, J.B. (1991) Perspectives on prehistoric and recent gullying in Central Zimbabwe. GeoJournal23: 49–58.
    Shaw, PA. and Thomas, D.S.G. (1997) Pans, playas and salt lakes. In D.S.G.Thomas (ed.), Arid Zone Geomorphology, Wiley, Chichester,
    2nd edn
    , pp. 293–317.
    Sherlock, R.L. (1922) Man as a Geological Agent. Witherby, London.
    Sherman, D.J. (1996) Fashion in geomorphology. In B.L.Rhoads and C.E.Thorn (eds), The Scientific Nature of Geomorphology. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 87–114.
    Siegert, M.S. (2001) Ice Sheets and Late Quaternary Environmental Change. Wiley, Chichester.
    Slaymaker, H.O. (1997) A pluralist problem-focused geomorphology. In D.R.Stoddart (ed.), Process and Form in Geomorphology. Routledge, London, pp. 328–339.
    Slaymaker, O. (2007) Criteria to discriminate between proglacial and paraglacial environments. Landform Analysis5: 72–74.
    Slaymaker, O. and Kelly, R.E.J. (2007) The Cryosphere and Global Environmental Change. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA.
    Slaymaker, H.O. and Spencer, T. (1998) Physical Geography and Global Environmental Change. Longman, Harlow.
    Slaymaker, O., Spencer, T. and Embleton Hamann, C. (eds) (2009) Geomorphology and Global Environmental Change. CUP, Cambridge.
    Smil, V. (1991) General Energetics. Energy in the Biosphere and Civilization. Wiley, New York.
    Smith, D.E., Cullingford, R.A. and Firth, C.A. (2000) Patterns of isostatic land uplift during the Holocene: evidence from mainland Scotland. The Holocene10: 489–501.
    Smith, G.I. and Street Perrott, FA. (1983) Pluvial lakes of the western United States. In S.C.Porter (ed.), Late Quaternary Environments of the United States. Longman, Harlow, pp. 190–212.
    So, C.L. (1971) Mass movements associated with the rainstorms of June 1966 in Hong Kong. Transactions Institute of British Geographers53: 55–65.
    Soja, R. and Starkel, L. (2007) Extreme rainfalls in Eastern Himalaya and southern slope of Meghalaya Plateau and their geomorphologic impacts. Geomorphology84: 170–180.
    Soper, K. (1995) What is Nature?: Culture, Politics and the Non-Human. Blackwell, Oxford.
    Sowers, S., Noller, J.S. and Lettis, WR. (2000) Methods for dating Quaternary sediments. In J.S.Noller, S.Sowers and W.R.Lettis (eds), Quaternary Geochronology: Methods and Applications. American Geophysical Union, Washington DC.
    Spencer, T. and Douglas, I. (1985) The significance of environmental change: diversity, disturbance and tropical ecosystems. In I.Douglas and T.Spencer (eds), Environmental Change and Tropical Geomorphology. George Allen and Unwin, London, pp. 13–38.
    Sperber, I. (1990) Fashions in Science: Opinion Leaders and Collective Behaviour in the Social Sciences. University Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
    Stallins, J.A. (2006) Linking geomorphology and ecology. Geomorphology77: 207–216.
    Stanley, E.H. and Boulton, A.J. (2000) River size as a factor in conservation. In P.J.Boon, B.R.Davies and G.E.Petts (eds), Global Perspectives on River Conservation: Science, Policy and Practice. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 403–414.
    Starkel, L. (1983) The reflection of hydrological change in the fluvial environment of the temperate zone during the last 15,000 years. In K.J.Gregory (ed.), Background to Palaeohydrology. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 213–235.
    Starkel, L. (1991) The Vistula river valley: a case study for central Europe. In L.Starkel, K.J.Gregory and J.B.Thornes (eds), Temperate Palaeohydrology. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 171–188.
    Starkel, L., Gregory, K.J. and Thornes, J.B. (eds) (1991) Temperate Palaeohydrology. Wiley, Chichester.
    Stoddart, D.R. (1968) Climatic geomorphology: review and assessment. Progress in Geography1: 160–222.
    Stoddart, D.R. (1997) Richard J. Chorley and modern geomorphology. In D.R.Stoddart (ed.), Process and Form in Geomorphology. Routledge, London, pp. 383–399.
    Stokes, S. and Walling, D.E. (2003) Radiogenic and isotopic methods for the direct dating of fluvial sediments. In G.M.Kondolf and H.Piegay (eds), Tools in Fluvial Geomorphology. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 233–267.
    Stokes, S., Thomas, D.S.G. and Washington, R. (1997) Multiple episodes of aridity in southern Africa since the last interglacial period. Nature388: 154–158.
    Strahler, A.N. (1956) The nature of induced erosion and aggradation. In WL.Thomas (ed.), Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 621–638.
    Strakhov, N.M. (1967) Principles of Lithogenesis, Vol.1. Consultants Bureau, New York.
    Strudley, M.W. and Murray, A.B. (2007) Sensitivity analysis of pediment development through numerical simulation and selected geospatial query. Geomorphology88: 329–351.
    Sugden, D.E. and John, B.S. (1976) Glaciers and Landscape: A Geomorphological Approach. Arnold, London.
    Summerfield, M.A. (1981) Macroscale geomorphology. Area13: 3–8.
    Summerfield, M.A. (1991) Global Geomorphology. Longman, Harlow.
    Summerfield, M.A. (ed.) (2000) Geomorphology and Global Tectonics. Wiley, Chichester.
    Summerfield, M.A. (2005a) The changing landscape of geomorphology. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms30: 779–781.
    Summerfield, M.A. (2005b) A tale of two scales, or the two geomorphologies. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers30: 402–415.
    Summerfield, M.A. and Hulton, N.J. (1994) Natural controls of fluvial denudation rates in major world drainage basins. Journal of Geophysics Research99 (B7): 13,871–13,883.
    Surrell, A. (1841) Etude sur les torrents des Hautes-Alpes. Carilin-Goewy, Paris.
    Tang, Z., Engel, B.A., Lim, K.J., Pijanowski, B.C. and Harbor, J. (2005) Minimizing the impact of urbanization on long term runoff. Journal of the American Water Resources Association41: 1347–1359.
    Tansley, A.G. (1935) The use and abuse of vegetational concepts and terms. Ecology16: 284–307.
    Tansley, A.G. (1946) Introduction to Plant Ecology. Allen and Unwin, London.
    Taylor, K.C., Lamorey, G.W., Doyle, G.A., Alley, R.B., Grootes, P.M., Mayewski, P.A., White, J.W.C. and Barlow, L.K. (1993) The ‘flickering switch’ of late Pleistocene climate change. Nature361: 432–436.
    Teller, J.T. (1995) The impact of large ice sheets on continental palaeohydrology. In K.J.Gregory, L.Starkel and V.R.Baker (eds), Global Continental Palaeohydrology. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 109–129.
    Teller, J.T. (2003) Subaquatic landsystems: large proglacial lakes. In D.J.A.Evans (ed.), Glacial Landsystems. Hodder Arnold, London, pp. 348–371.
    Thomas, D.S.G. (ed.) (1997) Arid Zone Geomorphology: Process, Form and Change in Drylands. Wiley, Chichester.
    Thomas, D.S.G. and Wiggs, G.F.S. (2008) Aeolian system responses to global change: challenges of scale, process and temporal integration. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms33: 1396–1418.
    Thomas, D.S.G., Knight, M. and Wiggs, G.F.S. (2005) Remobilization of southern African desert dune systems by twenty first century global warming. Nature435: 1218–1221.
    Thomas, M.F. (1965) Some aspects of the geomorphology of domes and tors in Nigeria. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie9: 63–81.
    Thomas, M.F. (1974) Tropical Geomorphology. Macmillan, Basingstoke.
    Thomas, M.F. (1980) Preface. In H. Hagedorn and M. Thomas (eds), Perspectives in Geomorphology. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie Supplementband36: V-VI.
    Thomas, M.F. (1994) Geomorphology of the Tropics. Wiley, Chichester.
    Thomas, M.F. (2004) Landscape sensitivity to rapid environmental change - a Quaternary perspective with examples from Tropical Areas. Catena55: 107–124.
    Thomas, M.F. (2005) Savanna. In P.G.Fookes, E.M.Lee and G.Milligan (eds), Geomorphology for Engineers. Whittles Publishing, Dunbeath, Caithness, pp. 454–472.
    Thomas, M.F. (2006) Lessons from the tropics for a global geomorphology. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography27: 111–127.
    Thomas, M.F. (2008a) Geomorphology in the tropics1895–1965. In T.P.Burt (ed.), The History of the Study of Landforms or Development of Geomorphology Volume 4: Quaternary and recent processes and forms (1890–1965) and the mid-century revolutions. The Geological Society, London, pp. 677–725.
    Thomas, M.F. (2008b) Understanding the impacts of late Quaternary climate change in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Geomorphology101: 146–158.
    Thomas, M.F. and Thorp, M.B. (1995) Geomorphic response to rapid climatic and hydrologic change during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene in the humid and sub-humid tropics. Quaternary Science Reviews14: 193–207.
    Thorndycraft, V.R., Benito, G. and Gregory, K.J. (2008) Fluvial geomorphology: a perspective on current status and methods. Geomorphology98: 2–12.
    Thornes, J.B. (1979) Processes and interrelationships, rates and changes. In C.Embleton and J.Thornes (eds), Process in Geomorphology. Arnold, London, pp. 378–387.
    Thornes, J.B. (2003) Time: change and stability in environmental systems. In S.L.Holloway, S.P.Rice and G.Valentine (eds), Key Concepts in Geography. Sage, London, pp. 131–150.
    Thornes, J.B. (2008) Time: change and stability in environmental systems. In N.J.Clifford, S.L.Holloway, S.P.Rice and G.Valentine (eds), Key Concepts in Geography. Sage, London, pp. 119–139.
    Thornes, J.E. (1999) John Constable's Skies. University of Birmingham Press, Birmingham.
    Thornthwaite, C.W. (1948) An approach towards a rational classification of climate. Geographical Review38: 55–94.
    Thwaites, R.N. (2006) Development of Soil Geomorphology as a Sub-discipline of Soil Science. 18th World Congress of Soil Science, July 9–15, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Tikkanen, M. and Juha, O. (2002) Late Weichselian and Holocene shore displacement history of the Baltic Sea in Finland. Fennia180 (1–2): S141–149.
    Tinkler, K.J. (1985) A Short History of Geomorphology. Croom Helm, London and Sydney.
    Tinkler, K.J. (1993) Field Guide Niagara Peninsula and Niagara Gorge. McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario.
    Tomasella, J., Hodnett, M.G., Cuartas, LA, Nobre, A.D., Waterloo, M.J. and Oliveira, S.M. (2007) The water balance of an Amazonian micro-catchment: the effect of interannual variability of rainfall on hydrological behaviour. Hydrological Processes22: 2133–2147.
    Tooley, M.J. and Smith, D.E. (2005) Relative sea-level change and evidence for the Holocene Storegga Slide tsunami from a high-energy coastal environment: Cocklemill Burn, Fife, Scotland, UK. Quaternary International133–134: 107–119.
    Tooth, S. (2007) Arid geomorphology: investigating past, present and future changes. Progress in Physical Geography33: 319–335.
    Tooth, S. (2008) Arid geomorphology: recent progress from an Earth System Science perspective. Progress in Physical Geography32: 81–101.
    Tooth, S. (2009) Invisible geomorphology. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms34: 752–754.
    Tricart, J. (1957) Application du concept de zonalite a la geomorphologie. Tijdschrift van het Koninklijk Nederlandsch Aarddrijiskundig Geomootschap:422–434.
    Tricart, J. (1965) The Landforms of the Humid Tropics, Forests and Savannas (trans C.J.KieweitdeJonge, 1972). Longman, London.
    Tricart, J. and Cailleux, A. (1965) Introduction à la géomorphologie climatique. Sedes, Paris.
    Tricart, J. and Cailleux, A. (1972) Introduction to Climatic Geomorphology (trans C.J.K.De Jonge). Longman, London.
    Trimble, S. (1983) A sediment budget for Coon Creek basin in the driftless area, Wisconsin 1853–1977. American Journal of Science, 283: 454–474.
    Trimble, S.W. (1999) Decreased rates of alluvial sediment storage in the Coon Creek basin, Wisconsin, 1975–1993. Science285: 123–124.
    Trimble, S.W. (2008) The use of historical data and artifacts in geomorphology. Progress in Physical Geography32: 3–29.
    Trudgill, S.T. and Richards, K.S. (1997) Environmental science and policy: generalizations and context sensitivity. Transactions Institute of British GeographersNS 22: 5–12.
    Twidale, C.R. (2002) The two-stage concept of landform and landscape development involving etching: origin, development and implications of an idea. Earth-Science Reviews57: 37–74.
    Twidale, C.R. and Lageat, Y. (1994) Climatic geomorphology: a critique. Progress in Physical Geography18: 319–334.
    Udvardy, M.D.F. (1981) The riddle of dispersal: dispersal theories and how they affect vicariance biogeography. In G.Nelson and D.E.Rosen (eds), Vicariance Biogeography: A Critique. Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 6–29.
    UNEP (1992) World Atlas of Desertification. Arnold, Sevenoaks.
    UNESCO (1979) Map of the World Distribution of Arid Regions. MAP Technical note 4. UNESCO, New York.
    United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (UNWCED) (1987) Our Common Future. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    United Nations (1987) The Limits to Growth. Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development. General Assembly Resolution 42/187, 11 December.
    Urban, M. and Rhoads, B. (2003) Conceptions of nature: implications for an integrated geography. In S.Trudgill and A.Roy (eds), Contemporary Meanings in Physical Geography. Hodder, London, pp. 211–231.
    US Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service (2006) Keys to Soil Taxonomy. USDA, Washington, DC.
    US Environmental Protection Agency (1973) Methods for Identifying and Evaluating the Nature and Extent of Nonpoint Sources of Pollutants. US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.
    USGS (2009) accessed 13 August 2009.
    Van der Wateren, F.M. (2003) Ice-marginal terrestrial landsystems: southeren Scandinavian ice sheet margin. In D.J.A.Evans (ed.), Glacial Landsystems. Hodder Arnold, London, pp. 166–203.
    Van Dyne, G.M. (1980) Reflections and projections. In A.I.Breymeyer and G.M.Van Dyne (eds), Grasslands, Systems Analysis and Man IBP Vol. 19. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    Varnes, D.J. (1978) Landslide types and processes. In Landslides: Analysis and Control, Special Report 176. Transportation Research Board, Washington, pp. 11–33.
    Verstappen, H. T. (1983) Applied Geomorphology: Geomorphological Surveys for Environmental Development. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
    Viles, H. (ed.) (1988) Biogeomorphology. Wiley, Chichester.
    Viles, H. and Spencer, T. (1995) Coastal Problems: Geomorphology, Ecology and Society at the Coast. Arnold, London.
    Viles, H.A., Naylor, L.A., Carter, N.E.A. and Chaput, D. (2008) Biogeomorphological disturbance regimes: progress in linking ecological and geomorphological systems. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms33: 1419–1435.
    von der Heyden, C.J. (2004) The hydrology and hydrogeology of dambos: a review. Progress in Physical Geography28: 544–564.
    Von Richthofen, B.F. (1886) Fuhrer fur Forschungsreisende, Anleitung Beobachtungen uber Gegenstande der Physischen Geographie und Geologie. Robert Oppenheim, Berlin.
    Wakasa, S., Matsuzaki, H., Tanaka, Y. and Matsukura, Y. (2006) Estimation of episodic exfoliation rates of rock sheets on a granite dome in Korea from cosmogenic nuclide analysis. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms31: 1246–1256.
    Walker, B., Holling, C., Carpenter, S. and Kinzig, A. (2004) Resilience, adaptability, and transformability. Ecology and Society9 (2): 5
    Walling, D.E. (1977) Rainfall, runoff and erosion of the land: a global view. In K.J.Gregory (ed.), Energetics of Physical Environment. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 89–117.
    Walling, D.E. (1981) Yellow River that never runs clear. Geographical Magazine53: 568–575.
    Walling, D.E. (1987) Hydrological processes. In K.J.Gregory and D.E.Walling (eds), Human Activity and Environmental Processes. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 53–85.
    Walling, D.E. (2006) Human impact on land-ocean sediment transfer by the world's rivers. Geomorphology79 (3–4): 192–216.
    Walling, D.E. (2008) The changing sediment loads of the world's rivers. Sediment Dynamics in Changing Environments (Proceedings of a symposium held in Christchurch, New Zealand, December). IAHS Publ. 325: 323–338.
    Walling, D.E. and He, Q. (1999) Changing rates of overbank sedimentation on the floodplains of British rivers during the past 100 years. In A.G.Brown and T.Quine (eds), Fluvial Processes and Environmental Change. Chichester, Wiley, pp. 207–222.
    Waltham, T. (2005) Subsidence. In PG.Fookes, E.M.Lee and G.Milligan (eds), Geomorphology for Engineers. Whittles Publishing, Dunbeath, Scotland, pp. 318–342.
    Wang, X., Chen, F., Hasi, E. and Li, J. (2008) Desertification in China: an assessment. Earth-Science Reviews88: 188–206.
    Wang, X., Dong, Z., Liu, L. and Qu, J. (2004) Sand sea activity and interactions with climatic parameters in the Taklimakan Sand Sea, China. Journal of Arid Environments57: 225–238.
    Wanner, H., Beer, J., Butikofer, J., Crowley, T.J., Cubasch, U., Fluckiger, J., Goosse, H. and Widmann, M. (2008) Mid- to Late Holocene climate change: an overview. Quaternary Science Reviews27: 1791–1828.
    Ward, J.V. and Stanford, J.A. (1983) The serial discontinuity concept of lotic ecosystems. In T.D.Fontaine and S.M.Bartell (eds), Dynamics of Lotic Ecosystems. Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, MI, pp. 29–41.
    Warner, R.F. (2000) The role of stormwater management in Sydney's urban rivers. In S.Brizga and B.Finlayson (eds), River Management: The Australian Experience. Wiley, Chichester, pp. 173–196.
    Warren, A. (1979) Aeolian processes. In C.Embleton and J.Thornes (eds), Process in Geomorphology. Arnold, London, pp. 325–351.
    Watts, D.A. (1971) Principles of Biogeography: An Introduction to the Functional Mechanisms of Ecosystems. McGraw Hill, London.
    Wells, S.G., Bullard, T.F., Smith, L.N. and Gardner, T.W. (1983) Chronology, rates and magnitudes of Late Quaternary landscape changes in the southeast Colorado Plateau. In S.G.Wells, D.W.Love and T.W.Gardner (eds), Chaco Canyon Country. American Field Geomorphology Group, Albuquerque, pp. 177–186.
    Whalley, W.B., Marshall, J.R. and Smith, B.J. (1982) The origin of desert loess: some experimental observations. Nature300: 433–435.
    White, G.F. (1789) Natural History of Selborne. Walter Scott, London.
    Wiggs, G.F.S. (2001) Desert dune processes and dynamics. Progress in Physical Geography25: 53–79.
    Wild, A. (1993) Soils and the Environment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    Wilde, S.A., Valley, J.W., Peck, WH. and Graham, CM. (2001) Evidence from detrital zircons for the existence of continental crust and oceans on Earth 4.4 Gyr ago. Nature409: 175–178.
    Williams, M., Dunkerley, D., De Decker, P., Kershaw, P. and Chappell, J. (1998) Quaternary Environments. Arnold, London,
    2nd edn.
    Williams, R.S. and Ferrigno, J.G. (eds) (1999) Satellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World. Chapter A: Introduction. US Geological Survey Professional Paper 1386-A.
    Wilson, I.G. (1973) Ergs. Sedimentary Geology10: 77–106.
    Wiltshire, H.G. (1980) Human causes of accelerated wind erosion in California's deserts. In D.R.Coates and J.D.Vitek (eds), Thresholds in Geomorphology. George Allen and Unwin, London, Boston, Sydney, pp. 415–433.
    Wirthmann, A. (1987) Geomorphology of the Tropics, Trans. D.Barsch, 2000. Springer, Heidelberg.
    Wischmeier, WH. and Smith, D.D. (1965) Predicting Rainfall Erosion from Cropland East of the Rocky Mountains. Agriculture Handbook No. 282. US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.
    Wohl, E.E. (2004) Disconnected Rivers: Linking Rivers to Landscapes. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT
    Wohl, E. and Merritts, D.J. (2007) What is a natural river?Geography Compass1: 871–900.
    Wolfe, P. (2000) History of wastewater. Supplement to Penn Well Magazine:24–36.
    Wolman, M.G. (1967) A cycle of sedimentation and erosion in urban river channels. Geografiska Annaler49A: 385–395.
    Wolman, M.G. (2002) The human impact: some observations. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society146: 81–98.
    Wooldridge, S.W. and Morgan, R.S. (1937) The Physical Basis of Geography: An Outline of Geomorphology. Longmans, London.
    World Bank (1993) Using Water Efficiently - Technological Options. World Bank, Washington, DC.
    World Health Organisation (WHO) (1990) Protecting and Promoting Health in the Urban Environment: Concepts and Strategic Approaches. World Health Organization, Geneva.
    Yatsu, E. (1966) Rock Control in Geomorphology. Sozoscha, Tokyo.
    Yatsu, E. (1988) The Nature of Weathering: An Introduction. Sozosha, Tokyo.
    Ye Grishankov (1973) The landscape levels of continents and geographic zonality. Soviet Geography14: 61–77.
    Zalasiewicz, J., Williams, M., Smith, A., Barry, T.L., Coe, A.L., Bown, P.R., Brenchley, P., David Cantrill, D., Gale, A., Gibbard, P.F. John, Gregory, F.J., Hounslow, M.W., Kerr, AC, Pearson, P., Knox, R., Powell, J., Waters, C., Marshall, J., Oates, M.Rawson, P. and Stone, P. (2008) Are we now living in the Anthropocene?GSA Today18: 4–8.
    Zube, E.H. (1999) Environmental perception. In Alexander, D.E. and Fairbridge, R.W. (eds), Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 214–216.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website