The Discipline of Teamwork: Participation and Concertive Control

Books

James R. Barker

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Dedication

    For Linda, Sara, and Felicity

    Preface

    This book is about the social consequences of working in the participative, team-based organization that has marked the 1990s. During this time, organizations worldwide have been converting and restructuring into new forms in which their employees take on more of the responsibilities traditionally given to a supervisor. Workers in these “participative” organizations are highly involved in such matters as making day-to-day decisions, scheduling their work, solving their own problems, and supervising their own activity. The self-managing team-based organization is the most popular form that participative restructuring takes these days. The large-scale change to team-based organizations has brought with it significant repercussions for the way that we think about work in organizations and for the actual way that we do work in organizations, which is what I explore in this book.

    The present book is not about teamwork, per se. We have been bombarded for some time now with books that extol the virtues of teamwork in general and of self-managing teams in particular. These books, mostly written by management consultants, commonly focus on helping business leaders engineer a successful change to a team environment and develop, cultivate, and manage teams. This book is not about how teams “work” in this sense. Rather, it is about how teams, as a part of the larger trend toward more participative but disciplinary organizational structures, “work” as a social phenomenon.

    What the above statement means is that I have set out here to answer a lot of “how” questions:

    • How do we create the social environment of “teams”?
    • How do social consequences (e.g., the repercussions mentioned above) arise from our participation in team-based environments?
    • How do these consequences shape and affect us as human beings?
    • How should we live and work together in team-based environments in light of these consequences?

    The rationale for such a focus is simple. Like it or not, we are living in an age of worker participation. Each day we find ourselves working in more team-based, or similar, environments. Certainly, we need to know how to make teams productive and efficient. But we also need to know the implications that such work holds for us as human beings, as people who spend much of our lives working together in organizations. We need to know how participation in teams affects us on a social level, both positively and negatively. We must be aware of these consequences before we can make informed decisions about the ultimate worth and usefulness of teams and other participation programs. Thus, my purpose in the pages that follow is to illuminate some of the “social” consequences of working in teams and to provoke you, the reader, to consider the potential effects of these consequences.

    My analytical story about the social character of teamwork is set at “ISE Communications,” a manufacturing company successfully using self-managing teams. It is a story created from the lived experiences of ISE's team workers, through their actions and actual words during work and from their reflections on their work as team members. The consequences of teamwork emerge from a real story of real people working on real teams. The people at ISE invited me to observe their work and to hear their voices in confidence, which is a confidence that I will protect in the following story. The company name and the name of all the workers at ISE are pseudonyms.

    In addition to protecting their confidence, I have another important reason for wanting to preserve these people's anonymity. That lack of personal identity helps us to translate their experience into our own. In a sense, the team workers at ISE are members of an “everyteam.” The social consequences of teamwork that they experienced are our consequences, too. Their experience can help us decide whether we like this era of greater worker participation, and their experience will help us decide what about teamwork we want to maintain and what we want to change.

    Acknowledgments

    I would never have finished this book without Kurt Heppard's selfless help and encouragement. After four years, three job changes, four moves, two kids, and all the rest life has to offer, the book was languishing on my back burner. During the past year, however, Kurt helped me get restarted, inspired me to develop the unfinished sections, and motivated me to finish. I will always appreciate his confidence and treasure his friendship.

    Linda Macdonald and Graham Sewell both contributed immeasurably to the last few months of work on the book. Graham graciously took time to read the manuscript and gave me both excellent suggestions and strong encouragement to finish. Linda has been an invaluable editor, reading the manuscript with a keen sense for how the audience would respond while catching untold numbers of vagaries, densities, and grammatical errors. Kurt, Linda, and Graham's hard work have dramatically improved this book's quality. Thank you all.

    Over the years, a number of others have generously assisted me with the various aspects of book writing. Here at the Air Force Academy, especially, I have had the luxury of extremely supportive colleagues who have graciously sustained me over the last 2 years. Steve Green provided strong encouragement and the logistical support I have needed. Julie Chesley and Christy Strbiak read manuscript drafts and offered very helpful comments. Sandi Long did close detail editing for me. Kevin Davis helped me arrange my teaching schedule, and Earl McKinney taught one of my classes to give me more time for the book. Rita Campbell and Chuck Yoos read earlier manuscripts for me, as did Liz Gilbert. To all of my present colleagues, I am deeply grateful for your support and encouragement.

    Hugh Willmott debated my more provocative assertions with me, and the arguments are much improved as a result. Dave Whetten and Mary Jo Hatch helped me formulate some of my key arguments. Blake Ashforth, Michael Beyerlein, Anson Seers, Keith Murnighan, Chris Neck, and Charles Booth have all given much encouragement along the way. And I have a special thank you reserved for the ever-patient Marquita Flemming and Harry Briggs of Sage who stuck with me during all the trials and tribulations of book authorship.

    At the University of New Mexico, Todd Wydra, Caleb Rabinowitz, and David Diamant all helped me analyze the ethnographic data, as did Rob Grice and Bill Pawlshyn at Marquette University. Karen Foss and Brad Hall read some of the earliest versions of my ideas and helped me formulate the core themes I have developed. I also received a grant from the College of Communication at Marquette University that funded a substantial part of the data analysis.

    I am indebted to the Reverend Christine Robinson, who is one of our society's most insightful but lesser-known social critics. Her words guided my thinking as I formulated the last half of Chapter 7.

    Back to the beginning, I am forever grateful to Bob Sutton, Linda Johanson, and the ASQ family for all their assistance over the years. Also, my original doctoral committee members, George Cheney, Phil Tompkins, Patti Adler, Brenda Allen, and Michael Pacanowsky, have continuously given warmly of their counsel and friendship over the years.

    And there is Linda Macdonald, loving wife and partner as well as invaluable editor, and our children, Sara and Felicity, who all make life wonderful each day. Their love gives me the sense of purpose to write about the consequences of our organizational world and how we ought to make that world a better place.

    Two final notes: First, I can never express enough thanks and appreciation to the team members at “ISE” who shared so much of their work intimacies with me. Obviously, without their and “Jack Tackett's” cooperation, willingness to let me into their lives, and support, I would have no book.

    Last, at some point I have to write the following, and this is a good place: The opinions I have expressed in the following pages are my own and do not necessarily reflect the opinions or policy of the U.S. Air Force Academy, the Air Force, or the Department of Defense.

  • References

    Adler, P. A., & Adler, P. (1987). Membership roles in field research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Adler, P. A., & Adler, P. (1991). Backboards & blackboards: College athletics and role engulfment. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Albert, S., & Whetten, D. A. (1985). Organizational identity. In B. M.Staw & L. L.Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior7 (pp. 263–295). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Allaire, Y., & Firsirotu, M. E. (1984). Theories of organizational culture. Organization Studies, 5, 193–226.
    Anderson, C. (1997). Values-based management. Academy of Management Executive, 11, 25–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AME.1997.9712024837
    Aristotle. (1998). The Nicomachean ethics (Oxford World's classics ed., D.Ross, Trans.). London: Oxford University Press.
    Ashforth, B., & Mael, F. (1989). Social identity and the organization. Academy of Management Review, 14, 20–39.
    Athos, A. G., & Pascale, R. (1981). The art of Japanese management. New York: Warner Books.
    Barker, J. R. (1993a). Concertive control in the self-managing organization: Changes in communication and control practices during a period of organizational transformation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Colorado, Boulder.
    Barker, J. R. (1993b). Tightening the iron cage: Concertive control in self-managing teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 38, 408–437. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393374
    Barker, J. R. (1996). Communal-rational authority as the basis for leadership on self-managing teams. In M.Beyerlein, D. A.Johnson, & S. T.Beyerlein (Eds.), Advances in the interdisciplinary study of work teams III: Team leadership (pp. 105–126). New York: JAI Press.
    Barker, J. R., & Cheney, G. (1994). The concept and the practices of discipline in contemporary organizational life. Communication Monographs, 61, 19–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637759409376321
    Barker, J. R., & Domenici, K. (in press). Mediation practices for knowledge-based teams. In M.Beyerlein, D. A.Johnson, & S. T.Beyerlein (Eds.), Advances in interdisciplinary studies of work teams V. New York: JAI Press.
    Barker, J. R., Melville, C. W., & Pacanowsky, M. E. (1993). Self-directed work teams at XEL: Changes in communication during a program of cultural transformation. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 21, 297–312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00909889309365375
    Barker, J. R., & Tompkins, P. K. (1994). Identification in the self-managing organization: Characteristics of target and tenure. Human Communication Research, 21, 223–240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1994.tb00346.x
    Barley, S. R. (1996). Technicians in the workplace: Ethnographic evidence for bringing work into organizations studies. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41, 404–441. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393937
    Barley, S. R., & Kunda, G. (1992). Design and devotion: Surges of rational and normative ideologies of control in managerial discourse. Administrative Science Quarterly, 37, 363–399. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393449
    Barnard, C. (1968). The functions of the executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (Original work published 1938)
    Barnett, G. A. (1988). Communication and organizational culture. In G. M.Goldhaber & G. A.Barnett (Eds.), Handbook of organizational communication (pp. 101–130). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Billig, M., Condor, S., Edwards, D., Gane, M., Middleton, D., & Radley, A. (1988). Ideological dilemmas: A social psychology of everyday thinking. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Bolweg, J. F. (1976). Job design and industrial democracy. Leiden, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-4364-6
    Brown, M. H., & McMillan, J. J. (1991). Culture as text: The development of an organizational narrative. Southern Communication Journal, 57, 49–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10417949109372850
    Brown, R. H. (1978). Bureaucracy as praxis: Toward a political phenomenology of formal organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 23, 365–382. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392415
    Bullis, C. (1991). Communication practices as unobtrusive control: An observational study. Communication Studies, 42, 254–271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10510979109368341
    Bullis, C., & Tompkins, P. K. (1989). The forest ranger revisited: A study of control practices and identification. Communication Monographs, 56, 287–306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637758909390266
    Burke, K. (1937). Attitudes toward history. New York: New Republic.
    Burke, K. (1950). A rhetoric of motives. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Burke, K. (1964). Art … and the first rough draft of living. Modern Age, 12, 155–165.
    Burke, K. (1966). Language as symbolic action: Essays on life, literature, and method. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Burke, K. (1984). Permanence and change: An anatomy of purpose (
    3rd ed.
    ). Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Carrier, J. G. (1982). Knowledge, meaning, and social inequality in Kenneth Burke. American Journal of Sociology, 88, 43–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/227633
    Carter, S. L. (1997). Integrity. New York: HarperCollins.
    Certo, S. C. (1997). Modern management (
    7th ed.
    ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Cheney, G. (1991). Rhetoric in an organizational society: Managing multiple identities. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.
    Cheney, G. (1995). Democracy in the workplace: Theory and practice from the perspective of communication. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 23, 167–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00909889509365424
    Cheney, G. (1997). The many meanings of “solidarity”: The negotiation of values in the Mondragon Worker-Cooperative Complex under pressure. In B. D.Sypher (Ed.), Case studies in organizational communication 2: Perspectives on contemporary work life (pp. 68–83). New York: Guilford.
    Cheney, G., & Christensen, L. T. (in press). Identity at issue: Linkages between “internal” and “external” organizational communication. In F.Jablin & L.Putnam (Eds.), The new handbook of organizational communication. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Cheney, G., & MacMillan, J. J. (1990). Organizational rhetoric and the practice of criticism. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 18, 93–114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00909889009360318
    Cheney, G., & Tompkins, P. K. (1988). On the facts of the text as the basis of human communication research. In J.Anderson (Ed.), Communication yearbook 11 (pp. 455–481). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Christensen, L. T. (1991, June). The marketing culture: The communication of organizational identity in a culture without foundation. Paper presented at the International Conference on “Organizational Culture,” Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Christensen, L. T., & Cheney, G. (1994). Articulating identity in an organizational age. In S.Deetz (Ed.), Communication yearbook17 (pp. 222–235). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Clegg, S. R. (1989). Radical revisions: Power, discipline, and organizations. Organization Studies, 10, 97–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084068901000106
    Collins, R. (1985). Three sociological traditions. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Coombs, R., Knights, D., & Willmott, H. C. (1992). Culture, control, and competition: Towards a conceptual framework for the study of information technology in organizations. Organization Studies, 13, 51–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084069201300106
    Cooper, R., & Burrell, G. (1988). Modernism, postmodernism, and organizational analysis: An introduction. Organization Studies, 9, 91–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084068800900112
    Crosby, P. B. (1979). Quality is free: The art of making quality certain. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Dahler-Larsen, P. (1991). Corporate culture and morality: Durkheim-inspired reflections on the limits of corporate culture. Unpublished manuscript, University of Odense, Denmark, Department of Economics.
    Daudi, P. (1986). Power in the organisation. Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell.
    Deetz, S. (1992). Democracy in the age of corporate colonization. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Deetz, S. (1995). Transforming communication, transforming business. New York: Hampton Press.
    Drucker, P. F. (1988, January/February). The coming of the new organization. Harvard Business Review, 45–53.
    Drucker, P. F. (1992). Managing for the future. New York: Truman Talley/Plume.
    Drucker, P. F. (1994). The age of social transformation. Atlantic Monthly, 247(5), 53–80.
    Durkheim, E. (1973). On morality and society: Selected writings (R.Bellah, Ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Durkheim, E. (1984). The division of labor in society (W. D.Halls, Trans.). New York: Free Press.
    Eccles, R. G., & Nohria, N. (1992). Beyond the hype: Rediscovering the essence of management. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
    Edwards, R. (1979). Contested terrain: The transformation of the workplace in the twentieth century. New York: Basic Books.
    Edwards, R. (1981). The social relations of production at the point of production. In M.Zey-Ferrell & M.Aiken (Eds.), Complex organizations: Critical perspectives (pp. 156–182). Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman.
    Ezzamel, M., & Willmott, H. (1998). Accounting for teamwork: A critical study of group-based systems of organizational control. Administrative Science Quarterly, 43, 358–396. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393856
    Fay, B. (1987). Critical social science. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Fishbein, M., & Ajyen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Follett, M. P. (1941). Dynamic administration: The collected papers of Mary Parker Follett (H. C.Metcalf & L.Urwick, Eds.). London: Pitman.
    Ford, J. D., & Ford, L. W. (1995). The role of conversations in producing intentional change in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 20, 541–570.
    Foss, S. K., Foss, K. A., & Trapp, R. (1991). Contemporary perspectives on rhetoric. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland.
    Foucault, M. (1972). The archaeology of knowledge (A. M.Sheridan, Trans.). New York: Pantheon.
    Foucault, M. (1976). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison (A.Sheridan, Trans.). New York: Vintage.
    Foucault, M. (1980). Power/knowledge (C.Gordon, Ed.; C.Gordon, L.Marshall, J.Mepham, & K.Soper, Trans.). New York: Pantheon.
    Frankl, V. E. (1988). Man's search for meaning. New York: Pocket Books.
    Frost, P. J., Moore, L. F., Louis, M. R., Lundberg, C. C., & Martin, J. (Eds.). (1985). Organizational culture. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Frost, P. J., Moore, L. F., Louis, M. R., Lundberg, C. C., & Martin, J. (Eds.). (1991). Reframing organizational culture. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Giddens, A. (1984). The constitution of society: Outline of the theory of structuration. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Gray, B., Bougon, M. G., & Donnellon, A. (1985). Organizations as constructions and destructions of meaning. Journal of Management, 11, 83–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014920638501100212
    Grenier, G. J. (1988). Inhuman relations. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Guest, R. H. (1989). Team management under stress. Across the Board, 26, 30–35.
    Hackman, J. R. (1986). The psychology of self-management in organizations. In M. S.Pallak & R. O.Perloff (Eds.), Psychology and work: Productivity, change, and employment (pp. 89–136). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Hackman, J. R. (1992). Group influences on individuals in organizations. In M. D.Dunnette & L. M.Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 3,
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 199–267). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
    Hackman, J. R., & Walton, R. E. (1986). Leading groups in organizations. In P. S.Goodman & Associates (Eds.), Designing effective work groups (pp. 72–119). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Hammer, M., & Champy, J. (1993). Reengineering the corporation: A manifesto for business revolution. New York: Harper Business.
    Helms, M. M. (1990). Communication: The key to JIT success. Production and Inventory Management Journal, 31, 18–21.
    Homans, G. C. (1950). The human group. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
    Jermier, J. M., Slocum, J. W., Jr., Fry, L. W., & Gaines, J. (1991). Organizational subcultures in a soft bureaucracy: Resistance behind the myth and facade of an official culture. Organization Science, 2, 170–194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.2.2.170
    Jorgensen, D. L. (1989). Participant observation: A methodology for human studies. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Kalberg, S. (1980). Max Weber's types of rationality: Cornerstones for the analysis of rationalization processes in history. American Journal of Sociology, 85, 1145–1179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/227128
    Kanter, R. M. (1989). When giants learn to dance. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Katz, D., & Kahn, R. (1978). The social psychology of organizations. New York: John Wiley.
    Ketchum, L. D. (1984). How redesigned plants really work. National Productivity Review, 3, 246–254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/npr.4040030303
    King, R. T., Jr. (1998, May 20). Jeans therapy: Levi's factory workers are assigned to teams, and morale takes a hit. Wall Street Journal, pp. A1, A6.
    Knight, J. A. (1997). Value based management: Developing a systematic approach to creating shareholder value. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Knights, D., & Morgan, G. (1991). Corporate strategy, organizations, and subjectivity: A critique. Organization Studies, 12, 251–273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084069101200205
    Kunda, G. (1992). Engineering culture: Control and commitment in a high-tech corporation. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    LarsonC. E., & LaFasto, F. M. J. (1989). Teamwork: What must go right/what can go wrong. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Lentricchia, F. (1985). Criticism and social change. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Lewin, K. (1948). Resolving social conflicts: Selected papers on group dynamics. New York: Harper & Row.
    March, J. G., & Olson, J. (1989). Rediscovering institutions: The organizational basis of politics. New York: Free Press.
    McGregor, D. (1960). The human side of enterprise. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    McKinlay, A., & Taylor, P. (1996). Power, surveillance, and resistance: Inside the “factory of the future.” In P.Ackeres, C.Smith, & P.Smith (Eds.), The new workplace and trade unionism (pp. 279–300). London: Routledge.
    McLagan, P., & Nel, C. (1995). The age of participation. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
    Miller, P., & O'Leary, T. (1987). Accounting and the construction of the governable person. Accounting Organizations and Society, 12, 235–265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0361-3682%2887%2990039-0
    Morin, E. (1984). La societe: Un systeme auto-organizateur. Sociologie. Paris: Fayard.
    Mumby, D. K., & Stohl, C. (1991). Power and discourse in organizational studies: Absence and the dialectic of control. Discourse & Society, 2, 313–332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0957926591002003004
    Nahavandi, A., & Aranda, E. (1994). Restructuring teams for the re-engineered organization. Academy of Management Executive, 8, 58–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AME.1994.9412071704
    O'Donnell-Trujillo, N., & Pacanowsky, M. E. (1983). The interpretation of organizational cultures. In M. S.Mander (Ed.), Communications in transition: Issues and debates in current research (pp. 225–241). New York: Praeger.
    Ogilvy, J. (1990, February). This postmodern business. Marketing and Research Today, 4–20.
    Orsburn, J. D., Moran, L., Musselwhite, E., & Zenger, J. H. (1990). Self-directed work teams: The new American challenge. Homewood, IL: Business One Irwin.
    Ouchi, W. G., & Wilkins, A. L. (1985). Organizational culture. Annual Review of Sociology, 11, 457–483. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.11.080185.002325
    Oxford English dictionary. (1989). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Pacanowsky, M. E., & O'Donnell-Trujillo, N. (1982). Communication and organizational cultures. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 46, 115–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570318209374072
    Papa, M. J., Auwal, M. A., & Singhal, A. (1995). Dialectic of control and emancipation in organizing for social change: A multitheoretic study of the Grameen Bank in Bangladesh. Communication Theory, 5, 189–223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.1995.tb00106.x
    Papa, M. J., Auwal, M. A., & Singhal, A. (1997). Organizing for social change within concertive control systems: Member identification, empowerment, and the masking of discipline. Communication Monographs, 64, 219–249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637759709376418
    Parker, M. (1992). Post-modern organizations or postmodern organization theory?Organization Studies, 13, 1–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084069201300103
    Parker, M., & Slaughter, J. (1988). Choosing sides: Unions and the team concept. Boston: South End Press.
    Perinbanayagam, R. S. (1985). Signifying acts: Structure and meaning in everyday life. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
    Perrow, C. (1986). Complex organizations: A critical essay. New York: Random House.
    Peters, T. J. (1988). Thriving on chaos: Handbook for a management revolution. New York: Harper & Row.
    Peters, T. J., & Waterman, R. H., Jr. (1982). In search of excellence. New York: Warner Books.
    Pratt, M. G. (1998). To be or not to be: Central questions in organizational identification. In D. A.Whetten & P. C.Godfrey (Eds.), Identity in organizations: Building theory through conversations (pp. 171–207). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452231495
    Putnam, L. L. (1982). Paradigms for organizational communication research: An overview and synthesis. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 46, 192–206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570318209374077
    Quinn, J. B. (1992). Intelligent enterprise. New York: Free Press.
    Ray, C. A. (1986). Corporate culture: The last frontier of control. Journal of Management Studies, 23, 287–297. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1986.tb00955.x
    Riggs, F. (1979). Introduction: Shifting meanings of the term “bureaucracy.”International Science Journal, 31, 563–584.
    Rothschild, J., & Whitt, J. A. (1986). The cooperative workplace. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Sackmann, S. A. (1990). Managing organizational culture: Dreams and possibilities. In J. A.Anderson (Ed.), Communication yearbook13 (pp. 114–148). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Schein, E. H. (1990). Organizational culture. American Psychologist, 45, 109–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.45.2.109
    Scott, C. R., Corman, S. R., & Cheney, G. (1998). Development of a structurational model of identification in the organization. Communication Theory, 8, 298–336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.1998.tb00223.x
    Senge, P. N. (1994). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Doubleday.
    Sewell, G. (1998). The discipline of teams: The control of team-based industrial work through electronic and peer surveillance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 43, 397–428. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393857
    Sewell, G., & Wilkinson, B. (1992). “Someone to watch over me”: Surveillance, discipline and the just-in-time labour process. Sociology, 26, 271–289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038592026002009
    Simon, H. A. (1976). Administrative behavior: A study of decision-making processes in administrative organizations (
    3rd ed.
    ). New York: Free Press.
    Smircich, L., & Calas, M. B. (1987). Organizational culture: A critical assessment. In F. M.Jablin, L. L.Putnam, K. H.Roberts, & L. W.Porter (Eds.), Handbook of organizational communication: An interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 228–263). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Smith, R. C., & Eisenberg, E. M. (1987). Conflict at Disneyland: A root-metaphor analysis. Communication Monographs, 54, 367–380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637758709390239
    Soeters, J. L. (1986). Excellent companies as social movements. Journal of Management Studies, 23, 299–312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1986.tb00956.x
    Steward, A. (1990). The bigman metaphor for entrepreneurship: A “library tale” with morals on alternatives for further research. Organization Science, 1, 143–159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1.2.143
    Stohl, C. (1995). Organizational communication: Connectedness in action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Sundstrom, E., De Meuse, K. P., & Futrell, D. (1990). Work teams: Applications and effectiveness. American Psychologist, 45, 120–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.45.2.120
    Tannenbaum, A. S. (1968). Control in organizations. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Thomas, R. J. (1989). Participation and control: A shopfloor perspective on employee participation. Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 7, 117–144.
    Tompkins, P. K. (1985). On hegemony—“he gave it no name”—and the critical structuralism in the work of Kenneth Burke. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 71, 119–131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335638509383721
    Tompkins, P. K. (1987). Translating organizational theory: Symbolism over substance. In F. M.Jablin, L. L.Putnam, K. H.Roberts, & L. W.Porter (Eds.), Handbook of organizational communication (pp. 70–122). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Tompkins, P. K. (1990). On risk communication as interorganizational control: The case of the Aviation Safety Reporting System. In A.Kirby (Ed.), Nothing to fear: Risks and hazards in American society (pp. 203–239). Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
    Tompkins, P. K. (1993). Organizational communication imperatives: Lessons from the space program. Los Angeles: Roxbury.
    Tompkins, P. K., & Cheney, G. (1983). Account analysis of organizations: Decision making and identification. In L. L.Putnam & M. E.Pacanowsky (Eds.), Communication and organizations: An interpretive approach (pp. 123–146). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Tompkins, P. K., & Cheney, G. (1985). Communication and unobtrusive control. In R. D.McPhee & P. K.Tompkins (Eds.), Organizational communication: Traditional themes and new directions (pp. 179–210). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Tompkins, P. K., & McPhee, R. D. (1985). Introduction and afterword. In R. D.McPhee & P. K.Tompkins (Eds.), Organizational communication: Traditional themes and new directions (pp. 7–14). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Trist, E. L. (1981). The evolution of socio-technical systems. Occasional paper no. 2. Toronto: Quality of Working Life Centre.
    Trist, E. L., & Higgin, G., Murray, H., & Pollock, A. B. (1963). Organizational choice. London: Tavistock.
    Tuckman, B. W. (1965). Development sequences in small groups. Psychological Bulletin, 63, 384–399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0022100
    Van Maanen, J. (1988). Tales of the field: On writing ethnography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Walton, R. E. (1982). The Topeka work system: Optimistic visions, pessimistic hypothesis, and reality. In R.Zager & M. P.Roscow (Eds.), The innovative organization (pp. 260–287). New York: Pergamon.
    Walton, R. E., & Hackman, J. R. (1986). Groups under contrasting management strategies. In P. S.Goodman & Associates (Eds.), Designing effective work groups (pp. 168–201). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Watson, T. (1994). In search of management: Chaos and control in managerial work. New York: Routledge.
    Weber, M. (1958). The Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
    Weber, M. (1978). Economy and society (G.Roth & K.Wittich, Eds.). Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary. (1985). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
    Wellins, R. S., Byham, W. C., & Wilson, J. M. (1991). Empowered teams: Creating self-directed work groups that improve quality, productivity, and participation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Wheatley, M. J. (1994). Leadership and the new science: Learning about organization from an orderly universe. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
    Whetten, D. A. (1996a). If beauty is only skin deep, what about virtue? Applying the concept of identity congruence to socially responsible businesses. Unpublished manuscript, Brigham Young University, Center for the Study of Values in Organizations, Provo, UT.
    Whetten, D. A. (1996b). The costs and benefits of business’ commitment to “doing good and doing well.” Unpublished manuscript, Brigham Young University, Center for the Study of Values in Organizations, Provo, UT.
    Whetten, D. A., & Godfrey, P. C. (Eds.). (1998). Identity in organizations: Building theory through conversations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452231495
    Whitley, R. (1977). Organizational control and the problem of order. Social Science Information, 16, 169–189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/053901847701600203
    Whyte, W. H. (1956). The organization man. New York: Doubleday.
    Willmott, H. (1991, July). Strength is ignorance; slavery is freedom: Managing culture in modern organizations. Paper presented at the International Conference on “Organizational Culture,” Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Womack, J. P., Jones, D. T., & Roos, D. (1990). The machine that changed the world: The story of lean production. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Zuboff, S. (1988). In the age of the smart machine: The future of work and power. New York: Basic Books.

    About the Author

    James R. Barker is Director of Research and Associate Professor of Organizational Theory and Strategy in the Department of Management at the U.S. Air Force Academy. He received his PhD from the University of Colorado and his MA from Purdue University. His recent projects include collaborative research with scientists at the Los Alamos and Sandia National Laboratories. He has previously held faculty positions at Marquette University in Milwaukee and at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, and has also consulted with a variety of public, private, and service organizations. His research interests focus on the development and analysis of participative control practices in technological and knowledge-based organizations. His teaching interests focus on the application of theoretical principles to solve day-to-day organizational problems, and he has taught a number of courses that emphasize the development of critical thinking and decision making skills.

    His work has appeared in a number of professional journals, including Administrative Science Quarterly, Communication Monographs, and Advances in the Interdisciplinary Study of Teamwork. He serves as an associate editor of the Western Journal of Communication, and on the editorial board of Administrative Science Quarterly. In 1993, he won the Outstanding Publication in Organizational Behavior Award from the Academy of Management for his research on self-managing teams, and he recently lectured on teamwork in organizations at the Sloan School of Management at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.


    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website