The Dictionary of Family Psychology and Family Therapy

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S. Richard Sauber, Luciano L'Abate, Gerald R. Weeks & William L. Buchanan

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    Foreword to the First Edition

    Family Therapy: Basic Concepts and Terms is the first family therapy dictionary that goes beyond the scope of a glossary. The authors have struggled for years with the problem. The literature burgeons, the number of family therapists proliferates, and new practitioners want to know more and more about ideas that govern the field. The authors have responded to the demand with a dictionary that represents the way people understand the terminology. Rather than survey all of the involved originators, the authors have used the device of going back to the literature to define terms the way they were used by the originating writers.

    I have written this Foreword to compliment the effort of those who have done this book, without becoming involved in all of the detail about me or anyone else. The authors are serious people who have done their best, whether old-timers agree or disagree. They have made an attempt to get beyond the maze of polarized personal opinions and to report the field as it exists today. They have made a contribution to the literature. The book is the best of its kind, to date. A copy of the book should be available to the entire profession, to the increasing number of family therapists, and to the hordes of students who hope to become family therapists.

    It is difficult for me to write without some idea about the chaos and explosion in the family therapy field. Psychoanalysis, which began in the late 19th century, was the first of the psychological theories about human behavior. Its difference from medicine brought up the issue of nonmedical analysts. Psychoanalysis focused on the principle of psychopathology within the patient, which was treated in the analytic relationship. Poorly defined family ideas surfaced from time to time. Group therapy evolved in the 1930s. One can only guess why formal family research was delayed until the late 1940s and early 1950s. The research revealed a number of phenomena never previously reported in the literature. It gave voice to some smoldering ideas about family therapy that had existed in isolation. The research led to discussion about family therapy at a national meeting in March 1957.

    I have been active in psychiatry since the mid 1940s and active in the family field since its beginning in the mid 1950s. The explosion of family therapy starting in 1957 began immediately after it became a recognized open subject. Ideas about therapy displaced previous ideas about history and more complex notions about theory. Dozens of new professional people from divergent theoretical backgrounds began performing “therapy.” New therapists quickly became teachers. Each teacher taught succeeding groups of trainees, who, in turn, became practitioners and teachers. As concepts passed from one generation of students to the next, the ideas were amplified, simplified, and distorted to fit the prevailing orientation of the teacher.

    The first professional journal, Family Process, appeared early in 1962. Societal facts played a part. Mental health legislation in the early 1960s was designed to make services available to the masses. Family therapists were employed in the increasing network of mental health centers. The idea of systems became a catchword that helped define family therapy as different. An increase occurred in the number of family institutes, where groups of teachers worked together for teaching and professional exchange. During the 1960s, the institutes began admitting those who had master's degrees in a discipline that dealt with human behavior. Psychiatry gradually moved away from its psychoanalytic orientation and toward a more biological drug orientation. A big change and new growth came in the late 1970s when the government agreed that family therapy was new and different and was qualified to be a discipline on its own, without responsibility to the other professions. All of this activity stimulated a rapid growth in the number of family therapists, family journals, and family meetings of all kinds. At the present time, the field is in a state of explosion that is without parallel in my professional experience. The rapid growth and the profusion of terminology have been a powerful force in the writing of this dictionary.

    The authors have done a credible job in defining the multiple terms in use today. I believe that the rapid growth of past decades will continue into the foreseeable future. At some time in future years, we may even look back on the good old days of 1984 as they were defined by this unique book. I hope the authors will have the energy to publish successive volumes as new terms come into use.

    My own interest is more theoretical than therapeutic. One can only wonder about what will be taking place a century from now. I believe there is a powerful theoretical potential in the basic family idea and that verifiable facts from the human family eventually may merge with other verifiable facts from other accepted sciences. The big hurdle comes from feelings that are not verifiable but that are still important to human experience. When feelings and imagination can be viewed as functional facts, they can contribute, rather than detract, from a final view of that part of man that is scientific. Brain research may help close the gap.

    MurrayBowen, M.D.The Family Center, Washington, DC

    Foreword to the Second Edition

    In their first edition dictionary of important terms and concepts and in the current revised and updated edition, the authors have provided an enormous service to all of those involved in the field of the family—theoreticians, researchers, clinicians, teachers, trainers, supervisors, and students. As the field has continued to expand exponentially with great rapidity since the first publication of this interesting dictionary in 1985, the need for a volume that pulls together and defines the major salient words, phrases, and concepts in the field has become even more acute.

    This new volume provides a compact, handy reference for all family professionals because it simultaneously encompasses all schools of family theory and therapy, deftly citing and quoting the originators of the ideas, as well as other primary sources who have elaborated and refined the concepts. Many of the most prominent members of the first generation of family therapists who pioneered the field, such as Ackerman, Bowen, Bateson, Jackson, and Satir, are no longer with it; yet their seminal ideas live on, and a silent tribute is paid to their contributions in the terms included in this work. The authors also have incorporated cornerstone concepts from others of the grandparent generation, such as Bell, Boszormenyi-Nagy, Haley, Minuchin, Satir, Watzlawick, Weakland, Whitaker, and Wynne. Fortunately they also have done a thorough search of the literature that contains writings of second, third, and fourth generation family therapists, researchers, and clinicians (see Kaslow, 1991, for delineation of the generations), culling and then including what they deem to be the most significant and most used concepts. This concise compendium also acknowledges the contributions of colleagues in other countries, such as Howells and Stierlin. Thus the authors also herald the advent of the spread of family therapy into an international phenomenon in the 1970s and 1980s. This spread is reflected further in the expanded list of organizations involved in the family field that appears in the back of the book: both the International Family Therapy Association (IFTA), started in 1987, and the International Academy of Family Psychology, started in 1990.

    I believe that this enlarged yet succinct dictionary rapidly will become an essential reference book for all engaged in the family field and that it provides the basis for a consensually agreed-upon conceptual terminology for the field. I plan to consult it whenever I encounter a term that is used in an ambiguous way and to study its contents directly to augment my own fund of knowledge.

    It is a privilege to have been invited to write the foreword to this important book, and I congratulate the authors and Sage Publications on collaborating to produce this volume.

    FlorenceKaslow, Ph.D.West Palm Beach, Florida

    Preface

    The current proliferation of books and viewpoints in the field of family psychology and family therapy demands that the professional have available a ready reference that contains many of the new terms that have been coined in the past three decades. This dictionary attempts to satisfy this need; the book has been long in the making. In the early 1970s, Roberta Golden (then a graduate student), at Luciano L'Abate's prompting, started a glossary of family sociology terms. This early glossary, which was stenciled, lay dormant but was made available to interested professionals. Among those who received it was Richard Sauber, who used it in his seminars at Brown University and found it helpful to students and professionals alike. Sauber eventually asked L'Abate to collaborate on a full-fledged dictionary. The project proved to be so massive that, several years later, Gerald Weeks was asked to join in the effort. After calls to our colleagues, we started to receive definitions and examples from friends, colleagues, and students. Eventually the number of terms grew beyond our expectations and our plans. Finally, however, a book was completed.

    The first edition was published in 1985. Five years later, the field had grown. Family Psychology had established itself with its own Division (43) in the American Psychological Association and had its own journal, the Journal of Family Psychology. Thus it was time for a revision. William L. Buchanan was recruited, and the work began again, with many new terms added.

    We see three major needs for a dictionary in the family psychology field: (a) as already noted, the need for a ready reference; (b) the need for a bibliographical source where the professional can find references for more information about a concept; and (c) the need for a summary of the many viewpoints and sources that have by now proliferated beyond the command of any one person. One cannot find under one cover the contributions that have mushroomed in family psychology in the past two decades. This dictionary thus attempts to condense into one volume many of the terms in the field and also to indicate the pragmatic use of each.

    Acknowledgments

    Writing a dictionary is probably the most difficult and tedious academic project that we have undertaken. Our work began in 1978. During our initial years of referencing, three major glossaries in the family therapy literature were available to us. These were the works of Roberta Golden at the Family Study Center of Georgia State University, the articles by Jules Riskin and Elaine E. Faunce, and a glossary by Michael J. Gerson and Marilyn Barsky published respectively in Family Process (1972) and the American Journal of Family Therapy (1979).

    We also wish to acknowledge the following colleagues who personally contributed concepts to our dictionary: Daniel L. Araoz, Ben N. Ard, Jr., Joanna R. Baisden, Jeffrey J. Block, Arthur M. Bodin, Murray Bowen, Harman D. Burck, James W. Croake, Albert Ellis, Edmond F. Erwin, S. I. Greensdan, Florence Kaslow, Fortune V. Mannino, M. Livia Osborn, Daniel R. Panitz, Gerald R. Patterson, and the late Robert A. Ravich. Many others contributed definitions and are acknowledged with their contributed entries throughout the text.

    A special thanks to Cathy and Frank Rowan, who spent several months scanning text into a file, editing, typing dictation, and being true perfectionists in getting this document ready for the publisher. Their hard work is greatly appreciated, and they deserve a special recognition for the endless hours of retyping.

    Finally, we appreciate the contribution of the countless individuals, colleagues, friends, and students who helped us in this enormous task.

    S.RichardSauber, Ph.D.
    LucianoL'Abate, Ph.D.
    GeraldR.Weeks, Ph.D.
    WilliamL.Buchanan, Ph.D.

    Introduction: About This Dictionary

    The purpose of this dictionary is to introduce the reader to two relative newcomers in the field of psychology: family psychology and family therapy. We assume the reader to be a doctorate level teacher, researcher, or practitioner, or a graduate student in psychology, counseling, or marriage and family therapy. The previous edition of this dictionary (Sauber, L'Abate, & Weeks, 1985) focused mainly on family therapy. However, with the advent of the new APA Division 43 of Family Psychology during the same year of publication as the previous edition, it became necessary to expand the original number of terms to include those that are consistent and congenial with this emerging field. Despite the few courses, and even fewer curricula, currently available in family psychology, it is inevitable this field will acquire a substantive content matter of its own that will become the basis for specialized academic interest and course work. We hope this dictionary will facilitate the formation and development of such a new discipline, both academic and applied.

    A question the reader may ask relates to the process of how the terms contained in this dictionary were selected and eventually included here. In the first edition, these terms were compiled by the first three authors (S. R. S., L. L., and G. W.) in their personal reading of the family therapy literature by selecting terms that were frequently cited and/or accepted in the literature. For the second edition, a fourth author was added (W. B.), and the dictionary was broadened to include family psychology. The four authors consider themselves to be family psychologists with strong academic interests who are also practitioners.

    Collecting the terms for the dictionary was both a subjective and an objective process. The authors reviewed all of the major family psychology and family therapy journals (e.g., Family Process, Journal of Family Psychology, American Journal of Family Therapy, Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy) in search of terms. Textbooks also were reviewed, especially those that are considered to be handbooks, reviews, or introductions to the field. These texts rendered the basic terms in the field because the same content area was being covered and the same terms were chosen across texts as key concepts. In addition, the major theories in the field were given close attention to ensure inclusion of their terminology. In short, frequently cited terms and those from major theories were included on an objective basis. However, this field is rapidly growing, with new terms being generated at an astounding rate. Many terms were included on a subjective basis. Some were terms that the contributors agreed had sufficient merit for inclusion. These terms captured a concept particularly well or were believed to hold promise as interesting new concepts for the future development of the field. The editors agreed to err on the side of being overly inclusive.

    In selecting and defining terms, no one theoretical perspective dominated our work. We included terms and concepts from all of the various schools of family psychology and family therapy. In any emerging field, terms often are transposed from other fields of study. Thus we included terms that did not necessarily fit any school of family psychology or family therapy, but were terms “borrowed” from other fields and frequently used by family psychologists and family therapists. The reader will notice terms from the literatures of clinical child psychology, family law, sex therapy, and others. Perhaps the best example of the need to be inclusive is the work of Milton Erickson. Erickson died before the founding of family psychology, wrote nothing about family psychology, and wrote very little about family therapy per se, yet his work has had a profound impact on the originators of several schools of family therapy. Thus terms used by Erickson are included when appropriate. Other terms, such as attention deficit disorder and learning disability, are included because these are the two most frequent problems in which families with preschool children seek the services of a psychologist. Everyone in the family is affected when a child has ADHD.

    The “meaning” of a term, as we see it, is given by (a) its definition, (b) an example relevant to its usage, (c) an early source using the term, and, if relevant, (d) a recent source. Definitions were paraphrased from an early source or were arrived at by our personal understanding of how each term was used originally by its source, as we saw it and as we all agreed. Examples were taken generally from our personal clinical experience, a composite abstracted from many similar cases, or from an example cited by the source reference. Examples were used to illustrate the meaning or application of the term. Many terms did not need examples because they were clear in and of themselves or did not lend themselves to an example. Terms that referred to techniques usually were illustrated to demonstrate their application. As for the references, we could not always trace a term to its true, “original” source. Often too many people claim to be the actual wordsmiths, or no name is attached to a term that already has been accepted in the professional literature or jargon. Thus we cited “early” references, many of which were original sources using the terms; many others were not. We attempted also to locate where the term was used in a more current reference. Often terms change meanings or significance over time. By including a more recent reference, we hope that the reader, at whatever level of expertise, will be able to make a connection with a specific term encompassing a whole new literature that has entered in the field of psychology in the last generation. The selection of early and recent references, however, had to be a judgment call because we realized fully that many other references could have been cited as well.

    S.Richardg Sauber, Ph.D.
    LucianoL'Abate, Ph.D.
    GeraldR.Weeks, Ph.D.
    WilliamL.Buchanan, Ph.D.
  • Appendix: Professional Organizations and Publications

    Mental health professionals have access to professional associations, such as the American Psychological Association, the American Psychiatric Association, the National Association of Social Workers, the American Association for Counseling and Development, and the Division of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing Practice of the American Nurses Association. These associations require certain educational and training backgrounds and a level of current professional functioning. The associations are involved in the credentialing process, including accreditation and designation of educational programs and, in some cases, nonstatutory certification of individuals. In addition, the associations are usually active in promoting statutory certification and licensure. The associations are involved in setting standards for professional behavior, particularly ethical behavior, and all of these associations have codes of ethics. Continued membership in each association requires a commitment to its code. Ethical violations are dealt with by select committees, which generally try to educate the professional and remedy the situation, rather than punish the individual.

    Family Psychology Organizations

    For psychologists who are also marriage and family therapists, the Academy of Psychologists in Marital, Sex, and Family Therapy (APMSFT) was founded in 1958. The organization recognized that training in professional psychology does not always provide adequate preparation in marital and family therapy. The organization set professional standards and conducted continuing education programs. APMSFT was associated with the American Journal of Family Therapy, which originally was called the Journal of Family Counseling by its founding editor, Dr. Daniel Araoz, in 1972. He established an association with the then -called National Alliance for Family Life, Inc. In 1976, Dr. Richard Sauber renamed the journal, becoming the founding editor of the American Journal of Family Therapy, changed publishers from Rutgers Press to Brunner/Mazel, and changed the organizational association to the Academy of Psychologists in Marital, Sex, and Family Therapy. Sauber continues to serve as editor-in-chief.

    In 1981, the American Board of Family Psychology, Inc. (ABFamP) officially was established for the purpose of setting standards of practice and to recognize master practitioners at the Diplomate level. More than 200 individuals received their Diplomate status from ABFamP. Under the leadership of Drs. George F. Nixon, Jr., Executive Director, and Gerald R. Weeks, President, ABFamP applied to and was accepted into the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP). Thus now all Diplomates in Family Psychology are granted by ABPP. The address of the American Board of Professional Psychology is 2100 East Broadway, Suite 313, Columbia, Missouri 65201–6082.

    In 1992, the American Board of Professional Psychology reorganized the structure of the specialty boards and the academies. The American Board of Professional Psychology had grown to nine specialties, including family psychology. The Specialty Board of Family Psychology is now responsible for establishing specialty standards; evaluating credentials; designing, administering, and evaluating examinations; and managing credentialing appeals. The document on specialization that first outlined the knowledge base and set the standards for training was written by Drs. Weeks, Nixon, Sauber, Kaslow, and others as a panel of consultants and has been published in the Family Psychologist (1991, 7(4)). This document was intended to be an evolving statement that would change as the field continued to grow. Under the new structure, the Academy of Family Psychology became the membership organization for all Diplomates.

    The creation of Division 43 (Family Psychology) in 1984 was a major development for the field. (Information about Division 43 can be obtained from the American Psychological Association, Office of Division Affairs, 750 First Street, NW, Washington, DC 20002.) The inclusion of Family Psychology in the official structure of the American Psychological Association serviced to legitimize the field, give it greater visibility, create opportunities to present papers through the annual meeting, led to the development of new journal publications, and gave family psychology a political presence in APA. (For a complete history, the reader may wish to review an unpublished history of family psychology, written by George F. Nixon, Jr., P.O. Box 7977, Waco, Texas, 76714.) In 1987, the first issue of the Journal of Family Psychology was published under the editorship of Howard Liddle. By 1992, the Journal of Family Psychology officially became the Division 43 journal, thus making it an APA journal. The division also began publishing its own bulletin, called the Family Psychologist. This publication presents news items from the division, short articles, book reviews, and so on. Another recent development has been the creation of the journal Topics in Family Psychology and Counseling (Aspen Press). As the field continues to expand, there is reason to believe that new journals on family psychology will appear that are further specialized.

    In 1990, the International Academy of Family Psychology (IAFP) was established. IAFP serves as the international academic-professional association for researchers and therapists interested in the field of family psychology. IAFP fosters the scientist-practitioner model and promotes cross-cultural research and interventions. Its first president was Dr. Luciano L'Abate. Its U.S. representative is Dr. Florence W. Kaslow. Membership information can be obtained from Kaslow at 2601 North Flagler Drive, Suite 103, West Palm Beach, FL 33407.

    Family Therapy Organizations

    The largest organization for marital and family therapists is the American Association of Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT). Founded in 1942 as the American Association of Marriage Counselors, and for many years representing the specific discipline of marriage counseling, this organization recently has become recognized as the primary affiliation for family therapists. An interdisciplinary group of leaders established the organization, including Dr. Robert Latou Dickinson, one of the United States' most distinguished gynecologists; Dr. Ernest R. Groves, a pioneer in family life education; psychiatrist Dr. Robert Laidlaw; Dr. Emily Mudd, a social worker and for many years director of the Marriage Council of Philadelphia; and Lester Dearborn, long-time counselor in Boston. Later the group was joined by Dr. Alfred Kinsey, whose research was strongly supported and greatly assisted by a number of AAMFT members.

    AAMFT has authority to accredit graduate programs and training centers in marriage and family therapy. In addition, it offers credentials of its own for those who meet certain qualifications of a clinical member, fellow, and approved supervisor. The AAMFT has published an ethical code that includes eight principles: responsibility to clients, competence, integrity, confidentiality, professional responsibility, professional development, research responsibility, and social responsibility. AAMFT has been active in pursuing state certification and licensure for marriage and family therapists.

    AAMFT publishes the Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, whose current editor is Dr. Douglas Sprenkle; former editors were Drs. Alan Gurman, Florence W. Kaslow, and William C. Nichols. Its association newsletter, Family Therapy News, is edited by Nichols. Association information is available at its headquarters: 1100 Seventeenth Street, NW, 10th Floor, Washington, DC 20036.

    Another important organization is the American Family Therapy Academy (AFTA). Founded in 1978 and representing the interests of systemic family therapists as distinct from psychodynamic marriage counselors, AFTA has been viewed by some as a rival organization to AAMFT. A joint liaison committee was established between the two organizations, which met for a year from spring 1981. Through the process, the respective roles of the two organizations was clarified, with AAMFT retaining credentialing responsibilities. AFTA was founded under the leadership of Dr. Murray Bowen, following a discussion of the editorial board of Family Process (edited by Dr. Donald Bloch) in 1977. Its first officers were Dr. Murray Bowen, president; Dr. Gerald Berenson, executive vice-president; Dr. John Spiegel, vice-president; Dr. James Framo, secretary; and Dr. Geraldine Spark, treasurer. Association objectives are as follows:

    • Advancing family therapy as a science, which regards the entire family as a unit of study
    • Promoting research and professional education in family therapy and allied fields
    • Making information about family therapy available to practitioners in other fields of knowledge and to the public
    • Fostering cooperation among those concerned with medical, psychological, social, legal, and other aspects of the family and those involved in the science and practice of family therapy.

    Members of AFTA often are identified as family therapy teachers and researchers, as well as practitioners. Requirements for membership include serving as a teacher of family therapy for at least 5 years and making important contributions to the field. The address of the American Family Therapy Academy is: AFTA, 2020 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Suite 273, Washington, DC 20006.

    The International Family Therapy Association (IFTA) was founded by Dr. Florence Kaslow in June, 1987, at the International Congress of Family Therapy in Prague, Czechoslovakia, under her leadership and her initial presidency. Since its inception, the membership has grown to more than 1,000 members. It now publishes a semiannual bulletin and co-sponsors international conferences. For more information, contact Dr. Florence

    Kaslow, 2601 North Flagler Drive, Suite 103, West Palm Beach, FL 33407.

    Other Organizations with a Family Emphasis

    The National Council on Family Relations (NCFR) is concerned with a wide variety of issues affecting the family, from basic research and theory to political action. The council has sections on family therapy and on education and enrichment. NCFR sponsors several of the primary journals in the field of family studies, including the Journal of Marriage and the Family, the Journal of Family Issues, Family Relations, and the Journal of Family History. Its headquarters are located at 3989 Central Avenue NE, Suite 550, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55421.

    The American Association of Sex Educators, Counselors, and Therapists (AASECT) was founded in 1967 and provides nonstatutory certification for sex educators, counselors, and therapists. AASECT was recognized as the only national interdisciplinary interest group whose charter and central purpose are training, education, and research in sex education and therapy. Standards of training and competency for certification were established in 1972 for sex educators, in 1973 for sex therapists, and in 1977 for sex counselors. AASECT offers publications, tapes, and educational materials for interested professionals. The Journal of Sex Education and Therapy is the official publication of AASECT. The association also maintains a national registry of certified health service providers in specialties such as sex education, sex counseling, and sex therapy. Certification also is given for supervisory status. Its central office is located at 11 Dupont Circle, NW, Suite 220, Washington, DC 20036.

    A more recent organization committed to standards of training and practice at the Diplomate level is the American Board of Sexology, founded in 1989. Certification is restricted to those holding doctoral degrees in fields related to sexology, with rigorous criteria for set forth in subspecialty areas to achieve Diplomate status and/or Supervisor status. The organization publishes the newsletter Diplomate. Its headquarters are located at 2113 S Street, NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20008.

    Still other family-oriented, interdisciplinary organizations offer a variety of opportunities for professionals to become involved with research, education, and therapy. These groups include:

    Academy of Family Mediators

    P. O. Box 246

    Claremont, CA 91711

    American Orthopsychiatric Association

    1775 Broadway

    New York, NY 10019

    Association of Sexologists

    1523 Franklin Street

    San Francisco, CA 94109

    Children's Rights Council

    (formerly the National Council for Children's Rights)

    220 Eye Street, NE, Suite 230

    Washington, DC 20002–4362

    Family Resource Coalition

    230 N. Michigan Avenue, Suite 1625

    Chicago, IL 60601

    Family Services Association of America

    44 E. 23rd Street

    New York, NY 10010

    National Academy of Counselors and Family Therapists

    (formerly the National Alliance for Family Life, Inc.)

    5885 Warner Avenue

    Huntington Beach, CA 92649

    National Family Life Education Network

    1700 Mission Street, Suite 203

    P.O. Box 8506

    Santa Cruz, CA 95061-8506

    Sex Information and Education Council of the United States

    84 Fifth Avenue

    New York, NY 10011

    The Society for the Scientific Study of Sex

    P. O. Box 29795

    Philadelphia, PA 19117

    Washington Coalition of Family Organizations

    Cardinal Station

    Washington, DC 20064

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    About the Authors

    S. Richard Sauber, Ph.D., has been in the practice of family psychology since 1971 and was formerly a Professor at Brown and Columbia Universities. He is a Diplomate in Clinical and Family Psychology, American Board of Professional Psychology; a Diplomate in Marital and Family Therapy, American Board of Family Psychology (and served as a member on this latter board); and a Diplomate and Supervisor in Sexology, American Board of Sexology. He has been editor-in-chief of American Journal of Family Therapy for the past 16 years and the author of six books in the field. His most recent book is The Handbook of Divorce Mediation. Dr. Sauber also is the Series Editor for 12 books on Mental Health Practice Under Managed Care: Survival Sourcebooks for Providers (Brunner/Mazel).

    Luciano L'Abate, Ph.D., serves on numerous family therapy editorial boards and has written 15 textbooks in the field of family therapy. He is the editor of Family Psychology: Theory, Therapy, and Training and The Handbook of Family Psychology and Therapy (Vols. 1 and 2). He is a Consultant to Cross Keys Counseling Center in Atlanta and is Professor Emeritus of Psychology at Georgia State University.

    Gerald R. Weeks, Ph.D., is Director of Training with the Marriage Council of Philadelphia and the Division of Family Study in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. He is the senior author of Paradoxical Psychotherapy: Theory and Practice With Individuals, Couples, and Families, editor of Promoting Change Through Paradox Therapy and Treating Couples: The Intersystem Model of the Marriage Council of Philadelphia, and co-editor of Integrating Sex and Marital Therapy. His most recent text is Couples in Treatment.

    William L. Buchanan, Ph.D., is currently in independent practice in Gainesville, GA. Previously he was Assistant Director of the Department of Clinical Psychology and Neuropsychology at Northeast Georgia Medical Center in Gainesville. He is a graduate of the Family Psychology program of Georgia State University and specializes in psychological assessment, ADHD, family therapy, eating disorders, and weight control. He is on the editorial board of the American Journal of Family Therapy and is a clinical member of AAMFT and the Supervisor of Family Therapy and consultant to Eagle Ranch for Boys. He is actively involved in the Georgia Psychological Association, where he serves as Chair of the Legal and Legislative Aspects Committee.

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