The Cultural Economy


Edited by: Helmut K. Anheier & Yudhishthir Raj Isar

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  • Part I: The Cultural Economy Today

    Part II: Indicator Suites

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    Foreword: Politicizing the New Economy


    This book is an opportunity to get to know and analyse the blossoming of a new and stimulating terrain in global politics. The notion of a ‘cultural economy’ has developed over the last few decades, but I believe that today we can formulate and understand the significance of this novelty. Cultural policy is on the contemporary agenda for many reasons: judging from my own experience and from what I have seen around the world, I believe cultural policy as it has recently returned to the forefront offers a promising new axis for the rehabilitation of political life in general, as an agenda for the necessary transformation of institutional practices. The premise of the ‘right to culture’ is at the heart of this transformation, both as a symbolic system and as an economic activity. The latter is the specific focus of this volume.

    The perspectives of the different authors allow us to see how the economic, conceptual, institutional, technological and legal issues mesh. To enter into the pages of this book is to dive headfirst into one of the most captivating debates of our time: on the role of culture at the center of our development strategies. The volume arrives at an opportune moment to update the debate on public policies for culture and to reveal how far we have reached at the start of this millennium in consolidating thought and coordinated action for this purpose at the international level.

    From the heated debates in post-war Europe about the presence of Hollywood movies to similar discussions in our own time, we have evolved both institutionally and politically in constructing a world culture policy that favors cultural diversity. In our countries and in the United Nations System, a complex institutional design has been created that is the result of more progress than steps backward – and the volume provides in-depth analysis of the political reasons for both. It shows how we have constructed not only defences and protections, but proactive strategies and agendas to promote diversity as the heritage of humanity. As the co-editors invite us to do, we can already look back to a history of struggle, of both defeats and victories in the defense of a public responsibility. This book recounts the most recent pages of that recent history, yet the gaze of the authors looks also to the future.

    While we have indeed taken great steps forward, the journey ahead of us will be very long. Here the challenges we stil face are clearly highlighted by revealing numbers and comparisons. On one hand, the figures show that culture produces wealth like never before. We have celebrated and pragmatically used such information to broaden the space for culture in our development models, probably much more than most economists expected. The book also reveals the many forms of economic expression of culture, its extraordinary diversity from one region to another. All this data will help governments and societies to believe that their economies depend on a policy for cultural diversity even more closely today than in the past. On the other hand, the same figures show that we are producing not just considerable wealth but considerable inequities as well. They show how poorly this cultural wealth is distributed. They show that instead of culturally developed countries, there are nations that know how to make property rights the fountainhead of a dominant economy and technology. They show that some countries were quicker than others to consolidate a global position. How can we transform this picture in the future, in search of fair trade and the balanced development of all regions in the world? How can we take advantage of multiple mutations: in digital culture and in geopolitics? How can we bring about a benign repositioning? How can we further the agenda that led to the adoption and ratification of UNESCO's Convention on the Promotion and Protection of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions or WIPO's Development Agenda?

    Such has been the shift of the contemporary political agenda to which I have committed myself, together with colleagues at Ministries of Culture around the world. This volume provides us with yet another instrument with which to defend and nurture this shared new agenda. As it demonstrates, the need for cultural policies is now recognized in industrialized and developing countries alike, although with different foci. Developing countries have a cultural economy based on informality; a great part of this diverse field has not been absorbed in more complex production systems, and sometimes not even in educational systems. In these countries, public institutions and the State undoubtedly play an essential role. The challenges of countries like Brazil are more geared towards social inequities, while rich nations have more solid cultural institutions and a favorable balance of payments in intellectual property yet face greater challenges of cultural cohesion and dialogue in view of the diversity of populations that form their social dynamics. For all countries, the imperatives of cultural diversity must trump the commodification of the marketplace, leading to the integration of a global society, not a global casino.

    Our concepts and categories challenge old presuppositions. Perhaps because twentieth century attitudes die hard, we still identify development with industrialization. In many circles, the wisdom of the indigenous peoples, their linguistic heritage and their environmental consciousness are only rhetorically respected. But the very title of this book, which evokes ‘economy’ rather than ‘industry’ may help us decode the real meaning of ‘development’: as a form of collective social well-being the search does not seem to be given to all the peoples on the planet.

    At the end of the Cold War, a feeling of historical and political emptiness took hold across the world. The very idea of government lost its credibility, either because of an authoritarian stance inward towards society, or outwards in the guise of ‘civilization’ as expressed by expansionist and imperial policies. Ideas of the supposed end of the State and public policies may no longer be in vogue today, but I recall that twenty years ago such notions were taken up by governments that then proceeded to eliminate cultural institutions and deregulate markets. The result was the erosion of cultural diversity and the emergence of monopolies that have made our economic and social life poorer. States and institutions were disassembled rather than updated and improved. This ‘cultural non-policy’ produced its own perverse policy outcomes. It gave us cultural groups excluded from productive processes, it jeopardized work, it reduced incomes and threw the intellectual property regime out of balance. The challenge facing us today is to reinvent policies on new foundations, to recover from the apathy that accompanied the end of the twentieth century, to reinstate the democratic state in its role as a guarantor of rights.

    Time magazine recently published an ironical report on French cultural policy. Clearly, its target was not exclusively France and its cultural life, as dynamic today as they always have been. Instead, the real target was clearly the global movement for institutional action – of which this book is a part. As more and more countries become aware of the wealth of their cultural diversity, and the need to prepare policies for the cultural economy of the twenty-first century, the idea of a global cultural policy takes on a new reality.

    Some forty years separate the beginning of my career as a musician and my years as Brazil's Minister of Culture. Those years seem to separate not only two phases of my life as an artist and activist, but two worlds and two radically different ways of experiencing culture in our time. From Bahia in those early years, I can well recall one of the first cultural policies I ever encountered, that of Dean Edgar Santos at the Federal University of Bahia. The institution assumed its responsibility as a mentor, betting on the direct engagement of a generation of students and citizens with different forms of knowledge, esthetic experience and instruction from Africa, Europe, and the rest of the world. Those were years of intense cultural life in the city, creating conditions for what would later be a rebirth of Bahian culture, in which I participated as an artist. This policy did not create or replace the rich culture of my state: it merely expanded and strengthened contacts and exchanges that otherwise would have been much more limited. In this sense, cultural policies are an instrument of social emancipation, global articulation and human freedom in the twenty-first century. Seen in this light, the notion of the ‘cultural economy’ is a welcome politicization of economic debate for the contemporary world.


    The Cultures and Globalization Series has benefited from the advice, support, and contributions of many individuals and organizations. We endeavour to acknowledge and thank all of them here. In the ultimate analysis, however, the co-editors alone are responsible for this final version of the publication.

    International Advisory Board
    • Hugo Achugar (Uruguay)
    • Arjun Appadurai (India/USA)
    • Benjamin Barber (USA)
    • Hilary Beckles (Barbados)
    • Tony Bennett (United Kingdom)
    • Craig Calhoun (USA)
    • George Corm (Lebanon)
    • Mamadou Diouf (Senegal)
    • Yehuda Elkana (Israel/Hungary)
    • Yilmaz Esmer (Turkey)
    • Sakiko Fukuda-Parr (Japan/USA)
    • Mike Featherstone (United Kingdom)
    • Anthony Giddens (United Kingdom)
    • Salvador Giner (Spain)
    • Xavier Greffe (France)
    • Stuart Hall (Jamaica/United Kingdom)
    • David Held (United Kingdom)
    • Vjeran Katunaric (Croatia)
    • Nobuku Kawashima (Japan)
    • Arun Mahizhnan (Singapore)
    • Achille Mbembe (Cameroon/South Africa)
    • Candido Mendes (Brazil)
    • Catherine Murray (Canada)
    • Sven Nilsson (Sweden)
    • Walter Santagata (Italy)
    • James Allen Smith (USA)
    • Prince Hassan bin Talal (Jordan)
    • David Throsby (Australia)
    • Jean-Pierre Warnier (France)
    • Margaret Wyszomirski (USA)
    • Yunxiang Yan (China/USA)
    • George Yúdice (USA)
    Additional Support

    Research Coordination for Indicator Suites

    Tia Morita

    Design and Production

    Willem Henri Lucas with assistance from David Whitcraft


    Meghan Corroon, Amber Hawkes, lelnaz Kashefipour, Aiha Nguyen, Dustianne North, Hoda Gamal Osman, Sarah A. Simons, Mai Truong, Fei Wu, David Zimmer


    Emilia Birlo


    Jocelyn Guihama

    Financial Support

    We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the following institutions:

    • ARC Center of Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation
    • Aventis Foundation
    • The Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation
    • Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation
    • Compagnia di San Paolo
    • The J. Paul Getty Trust
    • The London School of Economics
    • The Prince Claus Fund for Culture and Development
    • The Sasakawa Peace Foundation
    • Swedish International Development Agency
    • UCLA School of Public Affairs

    We would also like to acknowledge the support of:

    Josephine Ramirez of the Music Center of Los Angeles County; the Walt Disney Concert Hall; Henrietta Moore and the faculty and staff of LSE's Center for the Study of Global Governance; the UCLA International Institute; Dean Christopher Waterman and the UCLA School of the Arts and Architecture.


    Thomas H. Aageson is the Executive Director of the Museum of New Mexico Foundation (MNMF) in Santa Fe, New Mexico and former Director of Aid to Artisans. Aageson is a cultural entrepreneur who created the successful Maritime Art Gallery at Mystic Seaport Museum along with a print and book publishing venture. He led the development of New Mexico Creates, an award winning economic development initiative that markets the work of New Mexico artists and artisans in the MNMF's museum shops and on their Internet shops. Aageson advises the UNESCO Division of Cultural Expressions and Creative Industries, created the Santa Fe Cultural Leaders group and led the economic development planning for Santa Fe's arts and cultural industries in 2003–2004.

    Helmut K. Anheier is Professor of Public Policy and Social Welfare at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), and Director of the Center for Civil Society, and the Center for Globalization and Policy Research at UCLA. He also serves as Academic Director of the Center for Social Investment at the University of Heidelberg and is Centennial Professor at the Center for the Study of Global Governance, London School of Economics (LSE). His work has focused on civil society, the non-profit sector, organizational studies, policy analysis, sociology of culture, and comparative methodology.

    John Banks is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow in the Federation Fellowship program, ARC Center of Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation, Queensland University of Technology. His research interests focus on the interface between media corporations and consumer co-creators in participatory culture networks. From 2000–2005 John worked in the video games industry (Auran Games) as an online community manager, facilitating the development of user-led content creation networks; he has published widely on research grounded in this industry background. John's current research continues to work at the interface of game developers and gamers as they negotiate these emerging co-creation relations.

    Pierre-Jean Benghozi is Professor of Management and Research Director at the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), directs the Pole for Research in Economics and Management at the Ecole polytechnique in Paris and has established a research group on Information Technology, Telecommunications, Media and Culture. His current research interests include the adoption and use of ITC in large organizations and the structuring of e-commerce and ITC-supported markets and supply chains, notably in the creative industries; he has published widely on these topics. He also teaches at the University of Paris and is a consultant to various public sector bodies and private firms.

    Emilia Birlo (artwork) is a visual artist and fashion designer who divides her time between Germany and the United States. Her art designs can be viewed at

    Jaz Hee-jeong Choi is a doctoral candidate in the Creative Industries Faculty at Queensland University of Technology. Her research interests are in digital communication, particularly the ways in which various forms of digital communication are developed, established and integrated in an Asian context. Her current research is on the trans-youth mobile play culture of South Korea at the intersection of play, culture, creativity, technology, HCI (human-computer-interaction), mobility and urban design. Her website is located at

    Clymene Christoforou is a director of ISIS Arts, a visual arts organization in the North of England. She is Vice-Chair of Waygood Gallery and Studios, Newcastle and a board member of Culture North East. In 2007 she was a NESTA Cultural Leadership Awardee with EFAH (the European Forum for Arts and Heritage) in Brussels.

    Stuart Cunningham is Professor of Media and Communications, Queensland University of Technology, and Director of the Australian Research Council Center of Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation. He is president of the national advocacy body CHASS (Council for the Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences). His books include Framing Culture (1992), an influential critique of the limits of cultural studies as applied to cultural policy, and a number of studies of the global dimensions of audiovisual culture (written or edited with John Sinclair and Elizabeth Jacka): New Patterns in Global Television (1996), Australian Television and International Mediascapes (1996), and Floating Lives: The Media and Asian Diasporas (2001). He edits (with Graeme Turner) the standard tertiary media studies text, The Media and Communications in Australia (4th edition, 2006). His most recent work is What Price a Creative Economy? (2006). A collection of his key essays is forthcoming in 2008.

    Michael Curtin is Professor of Communication Arts and Director of Global Studies at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Previously, he was a faculty member at Indiana University, a visiting professor at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, and a visiting research fellow at Academia Sinica, Taipei and the Center for the Humanities, Wesleyan University. His books include Playing to the World's Biggest Audience: The Globalization of Chinese Film and TV (California 2007) and Redeeming the Wasteland: Television Documentary and Cold War Politics (Rutgers 1995). He is currently working on Media Capital: The Cultural Geography of Globalization (Blackwell) and The American Television Industry (co-author, BFI). With Paul McDonald, he co-edits the ‘International Screen Industries’ book series for the British Film Institute.

    Andrea Davis has worked as a consultant with a variety of Jamaican and international public and private entities related to creative industries including Jampro, the Ministry of Tourism and Industry, Jamaica Intellectual Property Office, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, United Nations Special Unit for South-South Cooperation, World Intellectual Property Organization, as well as with artistes such as Morgan Heritage, Luciano, Junior Kelly and Marcia Griffiths. Ms. Davis has also worked with creative clients Bridget Sandals, East Fest Productions, L'Acadco Dance Company, Studio One 50th Anniversary, Anchor Group, Creative Production & Technical Center and Grizzly's Entertainment. Ms. Davis' company, Jamaica Arts Holdings, currently represents international recording artistes Diana King and Toots & The Maytals as well as produces the annual International Reggae Day Festival.

    Jasleen Dhamija is internationally renowned in the fields of Living Cultural Traditions, Rural Non-Farm Development and History of Textiles and Costumes. She pioneered the development of Handicrafts and Handlooms in India in the 1950s. She also works for the United Nations in Iran, Central Asia, in 21 African countries, the Balkans, South Asia and South East Asia and has served as a consultant to the World Bank and International NGOs. She was Hill Professor at the University of Minnesota and was a faculty member at the National Fashion Technology as well as visiting faculty at the National Institute of Design in India and at three Universities in Australia. She has authored several books on Textiles and Folk Arts, on Women's Employment, Income Generation, and has organized seminars. She has curated exhibitions in India, and abroad. In 2006, she did a major exhibition on ‘Textiles of the Commonwealth’ for the Commonwealth Games at Melbourne. She has been appointed President of the Jury for UNESCO's Award for Creativity in Textiles and is Editor of a Volume of the World Encyclopedia of Dress and Adornment.

    Daniel Drache is Professor of Political Science and Associate Director of the Robarts Center for Canadian Studies, York University. He has written extensively and published more than 15 books on global cultural flows, the WTO, new citizenship practices, border security and North American integration. He has been a visiting professor in Australia, France and Italy. In 2008 he will be a research professor at the North American Center for Transborder Studies, Arizona State University. His latest book is The Great Reversal: The Defiant Return of Disgruntled Global Publics (Polity Press, forthcoming 2008). His reports and articles can be accessed at

    Martha Friel is a PhD student in the Department of Economics and Marketing of the IULM University in Milan. She is working on a research project on the role of material culture in local economic development processes. She collaborates with the Research Center of the Touring Club of Italy and is a contributing editor to the Tourism and Culture Yearbook.

    Marc Froese has just defended his political science dissertation Power, Governance and Dispute Settlement: An Institutional and Legal Analysis of Canadian Membership at the World Trade Organization in June 2007. His interests include Canadian foreign policy, Canada/US relations, multilateralism, the organization and functioning of international trade institutions and neo-institutional political economy. He has written on the global cultural economy and the culture of dissent. He has held doctoral fellowship from the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada and has been an active research fellow at the Robarts Center for Canadian Studies. He teaches international relations at the Canadian University College in Alberta.

    Vasiliki Galani-Moutafi is Associate Professor in the Department of Social Anthropology and History at the University of the Aegean, Mytilene, Greece. She has published articles in Annals of Tourism Research, Journeys: The International Journal of Travel and Travel Writing, Journal of Modern Greek Studies and chapters in collective volumes. She is also the author of Tourism Research on Greece and Cyprus: An Anthropological Perspective (Propombos, 2002, in Greek). Her areas of research and teaching include economic anthropology, anthropology of tourism, cultural change and the negotiation of local identities, tourist representations, place identity, locally distinctive products, commodity cultures, the politics of culture and consumption.

    Gerard Goggin is Professor of Digital Communication, and Deputy Director of the Center for Social Research in Journalism and Communication, the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. He is author or editor of a number of books on digital media including Internationalizing Internet Studies (2008), Mobile Phone Cultures (2007), Cell Phone Culture (2006), Virtual Nation: The Internet in Australia (2004), and Digital Disability (2003). Gerard holds an ARC Australian Research Fellowship, and is editor of the journal Media International Australia. His chapter was written while in the Department of Media and Communications at the University of Sydney.

    Xavier Greffe is Professor of Economics at the University Paris I, where he chairs the cultural economics postgraduate program. He is also Associate Professor at the National Graduate Institute for Public Policies, Tokyo. He has published articles and books in economics of arts and media, the most recent being: French Cultural Policy (Bookdom, Tokyo, 2007), Arts and artists from an economic perspective (UNESCO, Paris, 2004) and Managing our Cultural Heritage (Aryan Books, New Dehli, 2002). Previously he has been Professor in various French and Foreign universities, and General Director for training and apprenticeship at the Ministry of Labour in Paris (1990–1994). He is developing research in the economics of cultural property and the link between culture and development.

    Nicolas Gyss is European Affairs Consultant with KEA European Affairs. He deals with research and public affairs issues and specializes in culture, creativity and sport. He took part in the study on the economy of culture in Europe undertaken by KEA for the European Commission.

    David Halle is Professor of Sociology at the University of California, Los Angeles. He is the author or editor of several books including New York & Los Angeles: Politics, Society and Culture (University of Chicago Press, 2003), Inside Culture: Art and Class in the American Home (University of Chicago Press, 1994) and America's Working Man: Work, Home and Politics Among Blue-Collar Property Owners (University of Chicago Press, 1984). He is currently working on a book on the economic, political and cultural development of the Far West Side of Manhattan and a book, with Elisabeth Tiso, on Chelsea's Contemporary Art galleries.

    Sabine Ichikawa is an independent consultant and has worked for more than 20 years in Italy, New York, Tokyo and Paris for fashion brands such as Elle, Kenzo (LVMH) and Cacharel. She is interested in the multicultural aspects of branding and in training designers and marketers in this international industry, sharing her experience of fashion marketing and of the Japanese market. She holds a degree in fashion Design and an MBA in International Luxury Brand Management. At the University of Paris she is currently working on a doctoral thesis about the evolution of the Asian fashion business and its future perspectives.

    Yudhishthir Raj Isar, an anthropologist by training, is Jean Monnet Professor of Cultural Policy Studies at The American University of Paris and also teaches at the Institut d'Etudes Politiques (Sciences Po). He is the President of the European Forum for Arts and Heritage (EFAH), a board member of the Institute of International Visual Arts (inlVA) and of the Fitzcarraldo Foundation (Turin), Special Advisor to the World Monuments Fund (New York) and the Sanskriti Foundation (New Delhi). Earlier, at UNESCO, he was Executive Secretary of the World Commission on Culture and Development, Director of Cultural Policies and of the International Fund for the Promotion of Culture.

    Krešimir Jurlin, PhD, works as a Senior Research Fellow at the Department for International Economic and Political Relations, Institute for International Relations (IMO), Zagreb, Croatia. His research interests include international competitiveness, foreign trade analysis, analysis of investment, and the analysis of research and development. He has been involved in numerous projects in the area of European integration and regional studies.

    Michael Keane is a senior research fellow at the Australian Research Council Center of Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation. His interests are East Asian media and creative industries, particularly focusing on the People's Republic of China. His most recent book is Created in China: the Great New Leap Forward (Routledge 2007).

    Dragan Klaic, a Permanent Fellow of Felix Mentis in Amsterdam, teaches arts and cultural policies at Leiden University. Educated in Belgrade and at Yale, he held professorships in Belgrade and Amsterdam and was a Visiting Professor at the Universites of New Mexico, Pennsylvania, and Bologna, and at the Central European University, Budapest. He led Theater Instituut Nederland, co-founded the European Theater Quarterly Euromaske, and presided over the European cultural networks ENICPA and EFAH. He is the initiator and Chair of the European Festival Research Project and active across Europe as writer, lecturer, researcher and advisor. Author of several books among which most recently an exile memoir, Exercises in Exile, in Dutch and Croatian (2004 and 2006), Europe as a Cultural Project (Amsterdam: ECF 2005), Mobility of Imagination, a companion guide to international cultural cooperation (Budapest: CAC CEU 2007) and of many articles and contributions to over 40 edited works. He is Contributing Editor of the Theater magazine (USA).

    Florent Le Due is a consultant in development through culture who has specialized in Central Asia. He was Culture Officer at the UNESCO Central Asian regional office (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) in Almaty from 2001 to 2004. In 2004/2005, he was Director of the Bactria Cultural Center created by the NGO ACTED, in Dushanbe, Tajikistan. President of the NGO Central Asian Initiatives, he has been implementing a series of projects in the field of Arts and Culture in Central Asia, with a focus on performing arts and regional cultural information and is currently coordinating an EU-funded project aimed at raising awareness of culture and development among local authorities and foundations in Europe.

    Willem Henri Lucas (designer) is a Professor of Design/Media Arts at UCLA. He studied at the Academy of Visual Arts in Arnhem in the Netherlands under the guidance of Karel Martens and worked as an intern and apprentice for Max Kisman. He works for clients mostly based in the field of Culture and Art. From 1990 to 2002 he served as a professor and chair of the Utrecht School of the Arts' Graphic Design department. In 1998 he designed holiday postage stamps for the PTT (Dutch post and telecom company). In 2003 and 2004 he won a ‘Best Book’ award and a nomination from the Art Directors Club in the Netherlands.

    Paulo Miguez is a Professor at Centro de Artes, Humanidades e Letras at Universidade Federal do Reconcavo da Bahia in Brazil. Previously, he has served as Secretary of Cultural Polices, Ministry of Culture, Brazil and has worked as a consultant for creative economy for the UNDP Special Unit for South-South Cooperation – SU/SSC, New York. Between 1982 and 1993 he was the Financial Director in the National Company of Telecommunications in Mozambique (Telecomunicacoes de Mozambique E. P.). He has lectured and presented papers internationally, teaches both graduate and postgraduate courses and has authored many articles and essays in the field of culture and related matters.

    Toby Miller is the author or editor of several books on television, film and cultural studies, including: Globalization and Sport: Playing the World (Sage Publications, 2001 – with Geoffrey Lawrence, Jim McKay, and David Rowe); Sportsex (Temple University Press, 2001); Global Hollywood (British Film Institute/Indiana University Press, 2001 – with Nitin Govil, John McMurria, and Richard Maxwell); Critical Cultural Policy Studies: A Reader (Basil Blackwell, 2003 – edited with Justin Lewis); Television Studies: Critical Concepts in Media and Cultural Studies (Routledge, 2003 − 5 volumes – edited); Spyscreen: Espionage on Film and TV from the 1930s to the 1960s (Oxford University Press, 2003); Cultural Policy (Tartu Chu Liu Book Company, 2006 – with George Yúdice); and Cultural Citizenship: Cosmopolitanism, Consumerism, and Television in a Neoliberal Age (Temple University Press, 2007). He works at the University of California, Riverside.

    Raman Minhas studies law at the University of British Columbia and concurrently works for the Intellectual Property Law firm Smart and Biggar. He holds a Bachelor's degree in Biochemistry from the University of British Columbia, as well as a Master's degree in Molecular Oncology from McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Raman is also heavily involved in various global citizenship projects.

    Francis B. Nyamnjoh is Head of Publications and Dissemination with the Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESRIA). He has taught sociology, anthropology and communication studies at universities in Cameroon, Botswana and South Africa, and has researched and published widely on globalization, citizenship, media and the politics of identity in Africa. His most recent books include Negotiating an Anglophone Identity (Brill, 2003), Rights and the Politics of Recognition in Africa (Zed Books, 2004), Africa's Media, Democracy and the Politics of Belonging (Zed Books, 2005), Insiders and Outsiders: Citizenship and Xenophobia in Contemporary Southern Africa (CODESRIA/Zed Books, 2006). Dr Nyamnjoh has also published three novels, Mind Searching (1991), The Disillusioned African (1995), and A Nose for Money (2006), and a play, The Convert (2003). Additionally, he has served as Vice-President of the African Council for Communication Education (ACCE) from 1996–2003.

    Annie Paul is a writer and critic based at the University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica, where she is head of the Publications Section at the Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies (SALISES). A founding editor of Small Axe (Indiana University Press) Paul is the recipient of a grant from the Prince Claus Fund (Netherlands) in support of her book project, Suitable Subjects: Visual Art and Popular Culture in Postcolonial Jamaica. She has been published in international journals and magazines such as Art Journal, Callaloo, South Atlantic Quarterly, Wasafiri and Bomb. She has also been an invited contributor to Documental 1 curated by Okwui Enwezor; the AICA 2000 International Congress & Symposium at the Tate Gallery of Modern Art, Bankside, London; Meridien Masterpieces, BBC World Service; Dialogos Iberoamericanos (Valencia, Spain) and in forums sponsored by Iniva (Institute of International Visual Arts, London).

    Frances Pinter has a PhD in International Relations from University College, London. She currently acts as an advisor to Creative Commons and runs a number of research projects on the use of Creative Commons licenses for improved access to knowledge in developing countries. She is the founder of Pinter Publishers, one of the leading Social Science publishers of the late twentieth century. She was also Publishing Director of the Soros Foundation Network where she established the Center for Publishing Development and the Central European University Press in Budapest. She was recently CEO of International House Trust in London. She is on the board of REDRESS, an NGO that provides legal assistance to victims of torture.

    Jason Potts is Principal Research Fellow at the ARC Center of Excellence in Creative Industries and Innovation at Queensland University of Technology. He is also a senior lecturer in the School of Economics at the University of Queensland. Previous work includes The New Evolutionary Microeconomics (Edward Elgar), which won the 2000 Schumpeter Prize. His latest book is The General Theory of Economic Evolution (with Kurt Dopfer, Routledge, 2008). His current research focuses on the contribution of creative industries to economic growth and evolution.

    Andy C. Pratt is Reader in Urban Cultural Economy at LSE and Director of the LSE Urban Research Center. He teaches courses on social and urban geography, and the cultural industries and policy. His current research focus is on the international cultural economy and its social, spatial and economic embeddedness. Andy has written extensively about the film, television, new media, computer games, and advertising industries based upon fieldwork in Japan, Australia, Senegal, Europe and the USA. He has also advised many governments and international agencies on the cultural economy. His latest book (with P. Jeffcutt) is Creativity and Innovation (Routledge, 2007).

    Jaka Primorac, M.A., works as a Research Fellow at the Department for Culture and Communication, Institute for International Relations (IMO), Zagreb, Croatia. Her research interests include research in the field of creative and knowledge industries, cultural workers, cultural transition and cultural production. She is the winner of the 2005 Cultural Policy Research Award (, awarded by the European Cultural Foundation (ECF) and Riksbankens Jubileumsfond.

    Kirill Razlogov is Director of the Russian Institute for Cultural Research and author of 15 books and more than 300 articles on cultural history, art history, film and the media, cultural policy and development. He served as Program Director of the Moscow International Film Festival from 1999–2005 and has organized several other festivals and TV programs on film and art. Previously he has held positions as Researcher with the Russian Film Archive (Gosfilmofond); Special Assistant to the President of the State Film Committee; Professor of cultural studies, film history, media studies at the State Film Institute (VGIK); and Academic Secretary of the National Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences of Russia. He has also taught courses for film directors and script writers at the Institute for European culture in Moscow.

    Ana Carla Fonseca Reis holds a Master's Degree in Management and is pursuing a PhD in Architecture and Urbanism. She is the author of three books on cultural sponsorship, management and the economics of culture and writes regularly for newspapers and magazines. She has a marketing background in multinational companies, based in Latin America, Milan and London. Reis is the founder and senior consultant of ‘Garimpo de Solugoes’, and works as a special advisor on the creative economy for the United Nations, the Secretary of Culture to the State of Sao Paulo and a series of public and private companies, focusing on business opportunities uniting culture, economics and development. She serves as Director of the Economics of Culture at Instituto Pensarte and as curator of the Creative Clusters Conference.

    Mark David Ryan is a research associate and PhD candidate at the Queensland University of Technology. His PhD explores the rise of the contemporary Australian horror film gence and the forces driving this production. He has contributed to several reports, articles and book chapters on creative industries and new media policy. Outside of research, Mark produces short films and writes creatively.

    Walter Santagata is Professor of Cultural Economics and Public Economics at the University of Torino, Italy, where he also served as Director of the Department of Economics (2001–2004). He has written many essays and books on the economics of democracy and the economics of culture, including La Mode. Une Economie de la Creativivite et du Patrimoine(with Christian Barrere) 2005, and La fabbrica della Cultura (Make Culture Work), 2007. In 2007 he was appointed to the Italian National Council for Arts and Culture.

    Allen J. Scott is Distinguished Professor in the Department of Public Policy and the Department of Geography at UCLA. He was awarded the Prix Vautrin Lud in 2003.

    Andrew Senior is the Senior Expert on the Creative Economy at the British Council in London. A lawyer by profession, he has worked in the arts for over 15 years, initially as a consultant working with theater companies, and more recently at the British Council's expert team on the creative industries and creative economy that he established in 1999. As a creative consumer his interests are eclectic, though he has a passion for literature.

    J. P. Singh is Associate Professor in the Communication, Culture and Technology Program at Georgetown University and Editor of the Blackwell-Wiley journal Review of Policy Research. He has authored three books and over 30 scholarly articles. His latest book is Negotiating the Global Information Economy (Cambridge, 2008). Current projects include a forthcoming book on UNESCO commissioned by Routledge for their Key Global Institutions Series.

    Mira T. Sundara Rajan currently holds the Canada Research Chair in Intellectual Property Law at the University of British Columbia Faculty of Law, Vancouver. She earned her doctorate specializing in Copyright at St Peter's College, Oxford University, and has published and consulted throughout Western and Eastern Europe, Russia and India, as well as Canada and the United States. Her book, Copyright and Creative Freedom, appeared with Routledge in 2006. She has recently been appointed Series Editor for a completely new and expanded version of the Oxford University Press series on Intellectual Property: Central and Eastern European States.

    Nada Švob-Dokić PhD, is Senior Researcher (Scientific Advisor) at the Department for Culture and Communication, Institute for International Relations (IMO), Zagreb, Croatia. Her research areas and teaching courses include global and national cultural and scientific development, transformations and transitions, as well as development and transitional policies and strategies. She has been particularly involved in problems of multiculturality, intercultural communication, management of cultural differences, cultural industrialization and technologically induced cultural change. She is the author of 300 articles, books and studies, and the editor of The Emerging Creative Industries in Southeastern Europe (Zagreb 2005) and The Creative City. Crossing Visions and New Realities in the Region (Zagreb 2007).

    David Throsby is Professor of Economics at Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia. He is internationally known as an economist specializing in the economics of art and culture. His current research areas include the economic role of artists, theories of value, the economics of cultural heritage, culture in economic development, and cultural policy. His book Economics and Culture, published by Cambridge University Press, has been translated into five languages. He is a past President of the Association for Cultural Economics International, and is a member of the Editorial Boards of the Journal of Cultural Economics, the International Journal of Cultural Policy, and Poetics. He is currently working on a book on the economics of cultural policy.

    Elisabeth Tiso is an Art History lecturer at Parsons, at The New School for Social History and The School of Visual Arts in New York City. She has written reviews for ARTnews Magazine and Art in America. She helped establish and run the Niki de Saint Phalle Foundation in Europe.

    Indrasen Vencatachellum was born in Mauritius in 1946, completed his Master of Arts at the Sorbonne in Paris and has been involved since 1976 in international cooperation for cultural development. He is currently in charge of UNESCO's Division of Cultural Expressions and Creative Industries. In 1990 he launched the ‘Plan of Action for Crafts Development in the World’; in 1995; the ‘Design 21’ program; he was also the Managing Editor of the practical guide entitled Designers Meet Artisans.

    Margaret Jane Wyszomirski is Director of the Graduate Progam in Arts Policy and Administration at the Ohio State University where she holds faculty appointments in both the College of the Arts and the John Glenn School of Public Affairs. From 1991–1993, she was Director of the Office of Policy Planning, Research and Budget at the National Endowment for the Arts. She was a member of the executive team for two American Assembly projects on the arts: The Arts and the Public Purpose (1997) and Art, Technology and Intellectual Property (2002). She is a contributing author and editor of five books on the arts and cultural policy. She was commissioned to prepare a background paper on the prospects for cultural policy change by the Columbus City Council and subsequently was a lead author of the city task force report, ‘The Creative Economy: Leveraging the Arts, Culture and Creative Community for a Stronger Columbus’.

    Sibel Yardimci, born in Ankara in 1976, is an assistant professor in the Sociology Department of Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Ankara, Turkey. She completed her BA at the Middle East Technical University and her MA at the Bosphorus University; her PhD thesis (Lancaster University, 2004) was entitled ‘Meeting in Istanbul: Cultural Globalisation and Art Festivals’. Among her publications in Turkish are Urban Transformation and Festivalism: the Biennale in Globalising Istanbul (Detisim Publications, 2005) and ‘The Invisible Face of Waste Collecting’ (Toplum ve Bilim, Spring 2007).

    List of Boxes, Figures, Photos/Illustrations and Tables

    • I.1 ‘The Arts as International Sport’ An extract from The Global Economy of Prestige by James English 5
    • I.2 The language of the ‘creative industries’ 7
    • 3.1 Cultural industries: from national to global governance 56
    • 4.1 Intellectual property rights in the digital age 68
    • 6.1 Missing the link – why creative entrepreneurs matter 93
    • 6.2 The film industry in Nigeria 95
    • 6.3 Opening markets for majority world photographers 97
    • 6.4 Innovative expansion of pan-African book markets 99
    • 6.5 Weaving together preserves traditions and enhances livelihoods 100
    • 6.6 Using the shopping center model to create artisan markets 102
    • 6.7 Creating an art gallery; creating markets for artists; and generating income for a museum 103
    • 6.8 Cultural entrepreneurship takes hold in Central Asia 105
    • 12.1 Central Asia: A space of interaction 155
    • 13.1 The economy of culture in Europe 168
    • 16.1 A new business model 189
    • 16.2 Fighting illiteracy and the information divide 190
    • 16.3 Jamaica's Reggae music 193
    • 16.4 IBERMEDIA – promoting audio-visual production of Ibero-American countries 194
    • 16.5 Alternative distribution channels 195
    • 16.6 Swimming against the tide – Manos del Uruguay 196
    • 18.1 Bollywood: globalization and the demand for cultural copying 220
    • 19.1 Video game expos: The fall of LA and the rise of Tokyo 322
    • 19.2 Virtual worlds 235
    • 20.1 The Google Books Library Project 248
    • 20.2 The Frankfurt Book Fair 249
    • 21.1 Some luxury industry figures 255
    • 22.1 The Salzburg festival 261
    • 22.2 Globalization and art festivals: the encounter in Istanbul 261
    • 24.1 Building alliances between artisans and designers 277
    • 26.1 The global art auction market boom 302
    • 26.2 The Dashanzi Art District in Beijing 304
    • 27.1 Excerpt from W. Somerset Maugham (1919) The Moon and Sixpence 312
    • 27.2Mastiha: from indigenous commodity to post-industrial luxury 319
    • 2.1 The cultural economy production system – illustrated by the music industry 45
    • 2.2 Contribution of the creative industries to the economy 45
    • 3.1 The demography of cultural identity 61
    • 7.1 The intergovernment policy-making process 115
    • 11.1 Import and export of Korean broadcasting 150
    • 15.1 Share of selected sectors in total value added 179
    • 15.2 Share of selected sectors in total employment 180
    • 16.1 Entertainment and media market growth 2005–09, compound annual growth rate (%) 188
    • 17.1 Creative industries: definitional approaches 204
    • 17.2 Artistic workers: NEA/BLS model 206
    • 17.3 Holistic model of the creative sector: workforce, industries and infrastructure 209
    • 19.1 Game show attendance for E3 and The Tokyo Game Show 233
    • 19.2 Game console market values for the USA and Japan 234
    • 19.3 Game console market growth for the USA and Japan 234
    • 19.4 Global online social world revenues 235
    • 19.5Second Life residents 236
    • 19.6Second Life active residents by country 236
    • 19.7 Lindex currency exchange 237
    • 20.1 Countries represented at the Frankfurt Book Fair 250
    • 26.1 Art gallery areas, Manhattan and Brooklyn, 1987–2007 293
    • 26.2 Total fine arts auctions held by house 303
    • 26.3 Global fine art market auction turnover by house 303
    • 6.1 Financing strategies 105
    • 14.1 Cultural institutions in Russia (01.01.04) 174
    • 14.2 Piracy markets in Central and Eastern Europe 175
    • 15.1 Internet users in SEE region 181
    • 16.1 IIPA estimated trade losses due to copyright piracy (in US$ millions) and estimated levels of copyright piracy 189
    • 16.2 World Internet usage and population statistics 192
    • 16.3 Recorded music sales (retail) – US$ millions 194
    • 16.4 2004 repertoire origin (per cent of music market value, excluding multi-artist product) 194
    • 16.5 Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats 195
    • 17.1 Core vs total copyright industry dimensions 205
    • 17.2 A comparison of creative industries typologies 208
    • 20.1 Selected countries telephone, mobile and Internet use in 2006 243
    • 23.1 Indicators of the Bahian Carnival: 2006 271
    • 26.1 Number of galleries, by country, at key international art fairs 294
    • 26.2 Art Basel 2007: number of galleries represented, per city 295
    • 26.3 Art Basel 2007: United States galleries, by city and by New York City district 295
    • 26.4 Worldwide annual sales of art, by category, location and year, at Christie's auction house 297
    • 26.5 Subject matter of the art shows in the 16 most important (‘star’) Chelsea galleries 300

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