The Criminal Lifestyle: Patterns of Serious Criminal Conduct
Publication Year: 1990
Recipient of Choice Magazine's 1991 Outstanding Academic Book Award Why do some individuals pursue crime as a lifestyle? After years of incarceration, why do these offenders habitually repeat criminal behavior? In The Criminal Lifestyle, Walters approaches the question of crime by examining how various biologic, sociologic, and psychologic factors interact to bring about criminal behavior. He extends the criminal career concept to include those persons who approach crime–not as an isolated incident–but as a lifelong commitment. Organized in the same manner as the study was conducted, this riveting book reviews and evaluates research, theoretical issues and practical considerations concerning crime, and develops a model of lifestyle criminality. In The Criminal Lifestyle Walters examines a variety of different perspectives, and organizes them into a framework which ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
To Patti, Christopher, and Tara
Copyright © 1990 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
For information address:
SAGE Publications, Inc.
2111 West Hillcrest Drive
Newbury Park, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
28 Banner Street
London EC1Y 8QE
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
Greater Kailash I
New Delhi 110 048 India
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Walters, Glenn D.
The criminal lifestyle: patterns of serious criminal conduct / by Glenn D. Walters
Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
1. Criminal behavior. I. Title.
FIRST PRINTING, 1990
Sage Production Editor: Kimberley A. Clark
I have been sitting at my typewriter for some time now, wondering how I should proceed with this Preface. To say my feelings are mixed would be a major understatement. On the one hand, I want to develop a theme capable of carrying this book to a meaningful conclusion. On the other hand, I don't want to invest a significant amount of time in a section most readers (the present author included) rarely peruse. In what I hope is not too roundabout a way of dealing with my ambivalence, I would like to point out that a book on crime is not unlike a mystery novel. I offer this analogy cognizant of the fact that both entail a multitude of unknowns and, as any aficionado of the genre knows, the core of any good mystery is the what, why (or who), when, and how of the crime. With this in mind, I invite the reader to join me on a short excursion into an area normally reserved for the likes of Dashiell Hammett, Agatha Christie, and Mickey Spillane.
In considering the “what” of this book, it is important to understand that just about every one of us has committed a crime at one time or another. Most of these crimes are relatively minor in nature—such as traveling five miles over the speed limit or taking a pen home from work—but crimes nonetheless. In this book, however, we will be focusing our attention on persons who engage in serious criminality as part of a wider lifestyle. As such, we not only avoid the problem of triviality but also enhance the future universality of our results. This is because research clearly suggests that while lifestyle criminals are small in number, they account for a decisive majority of the serious crimes committed in this country (see Hamparian, Schuster, Dinitz, & Conrad, 1978; Shannon, 1982; Wolfgang, Figlio, & Sellin, 1972).
My principal motivation in writing this book was to contribute something of value to what I have come to call the field of criminal science. The “why” or “who” of this book is therefore grounded in my years of clinical experience working with groups of criminal offenders. This is a perspective I find to be invaluable for someone attempting to produce a book on criminals. Too often, authors of criminology and criminal science texts have had limited personal contact with real-life criminals. I mention this, not out of arrogance, but in an effort to point out that it is difficult to draw a consummate picture of [Page 8]something one has rarely seen in operation. Consequently, research results and theoretical speculation might be more meaningful if tempered with clinical observation and direct contact with the subjects of one's investigation.
The question of “when” may be more appropriately phrased, “why now?” After all, there have been numerous books written on the subject of crime, some of which have been published relatively recently (e.g., Wilson & Herrnstein, 1985). I respond to this query by referencing an old adage: “There's no time like the present.” In addition to my seven years of clinical experience working daily with various groups of criminal offenders, I have been concatenating this information with selected research findings in an effort to devise a model of criminal behavior that is both meaningful and useful. Although I do not offer this model as definitive, I do believe that it has been sufficiently developed to serve as a hypothesis for others to review, examine, contemplate, and criticize.
In addressing the question of “how,” I believe it is important for the reader to understand that I approach my work with lifestyle criminals as a sort of working hypothesis that is continually in the process of revision (although the foundation of this approach—conditions, choice, and cognition—has remained stable throughout my investigation). In fact, this is exactly how I approached the writing of this book. With only minor exceptions, the chapters appear in the order in which they were written. In this way, the reader can see for him- or herself how research and clinical observation can serve as a basis for a theory of lifestyle criminality and personal change.
Though this book may not be received with open arms by everyone in the criminology/criminal justice community, it does offer a fresh perspective on issues which, while central to criminal science investigation, have too often been overlooked by a majority of theorists in the field. Predominant among these is the fact that despite the influence of internal and external conditions, the individual makes certain choices. In understanding serious and reoccurring patterns of criminal conduct, it is therefore essential that we appreciate the kinds of choices the criminal makes and the belief system upon which these choices are based. With this in mind, we proceed through a maze of research, theoretical, and clinical findings—a trek, which, it is hoped, by journey's end should shed light on the what, why, when, and how of serious criminality.
I would like to thank Miriam Boyle and Joan Walters for their assistance in locating several of the newspaper articles referenced in this book.
The assertions contained in this book are the private views of the author and should not be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Department of Justice or the Federal Bureau of Prisons.[Page 10]
References[Page 196]1981). In the belly of the beast: Letters from prison. New York: Random House.(1961). Effectiveness of interview therapy with older youth authority wards: An interim evaluation of the PICO project (Research Report No. 20). California Youth Authority.(1927). The practice and theory of individual psychology. New York: Harcourt, Brace, & World.(1974). The effect of legal processing on delinquent orientations. Social Problems, 22, 87–100. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/799569, & (1935). Wayward youth. New York: Viking Press.(1979). Inmate-mother attachment. American Psychologist, 34, 932–937. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.34.10.932(1977). Deviant behavior: A social learning approach. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.(1931). The criminal, the judge, and the public. New York: Macmillan., & (1989). Testing causal models of delinquency: A methodological critique. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 16, 35–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0093854889016001003(1978). A place on the corner. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1980). Some experimental investigations of the principles of differential association through deliberate manipulations of the structure of service systems. American Sociological Review, 45, 448–462. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095177(1988). Narcotics use and crime: A multisample, multimethod analysis. Criminology, 26, 197–233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1988.tb00839.x, & (1978). MMPIs of rapists of adults, rapists of children, and non-rapist sex offenders. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34, 330–332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679%28197804%2934:2%3C330::AID-JCLP2270340213%3E3.0.CO;2-R, & (1977). Commitment, neutralization, and delinquency. In T.N.Ferdinand (ed.), Juvenile delinquency: Little brother grows up (pp. 121–137). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1978). Youth in transition. Volume VI: Adolescence to adulthood: Change and stability in the lives of young men. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press., & (1979). Family determinants and effects of deviance. In W.R.Burr, R.Hill, F.I.Nye, & I.L.Reiss (eds.), Contemporary theories about the family: Research-based theories, Vol. I. New York: Free Press.(1969). Symptom treatment and symptom substitution in enuresis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 74, 42–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0027060(1972). Negative reactions to delinquent labels in a junior high school. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon, Eugene.(1976). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press.(1987). Recidivism of young parolees. Bureau of Justice Statistics: Special Report. NCJ-104916. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics., & ([Page 197]1989), Recidivism of prisoners released in 1983. Bureau of Justice Statistics: Special Report. NCJ-116261. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics., & (1968). Crime and punishment: An economic approach. Journal of Political Economy, 76, 169–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/259394(1953). Becoming a marijuana user. American Journal of Sociology, 59, 235–243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/221326(1979). Parent, child, and reciprocal influences. American Psychologist, 34, 821–826. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.34.10.821(1978). Predicting more of the people more of the time: Assessing the personality of situations. Psychological Review, 85, 485–501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.85.6.485, & (1971). Tattoos of heroin addicts in New Mexico. Rocky Mountain Medical Journal, 68, 63–66.(1985). Denying the guilty mind: Accounting for involvement in a white-collar crime. Criminology, 23, 583–607. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1985.tb00365.x(1987a). Structure and control: Reconsidering Hirschi's concept of commitment. Justice Quarterly, 4, 409–424. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07418828700089421(1987b). Testing structural strain theories. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 24, 262–280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022427887024004002(1961). Transactional analysis in psychotherapy. New York: Grove Press.(1975). Evaluation research in corrections: Status and prospects revisited. Federal Probation, 39, 56–57.(1977). Labeling and sanctioning: The differential processing of criminal defendants. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Sociological Association, Chicago, IL., , & (1963). Being-in-the-world (J.Needleman, Trans.). New York: Basic Books.(1978). Psychopathy, arousal, and the need for stimulation: In R.D.Hare & D.Schalling (eds.), Psychopathic behavior: Approaches to research. Chichester, England: Wiley.(1979). Estimation of individual crime rates from arrest records. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 70, 561–585. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1142642, & (1987). Characterizing criminal careers. Science, 237, 985–991. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.237.4818.985, & (1982). The direction of adult criminal careers. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice., , & (Blumstein, A., Cohen, J., & Nagin, D. (eds.). (1978). Deterrence and incapacitation: Estimating the effect of criminal sanctions on crime rates. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.Blumstein, A., Cohen, J., Roth, J.A., & Visher, C.A. (eds.). (1986). Criminal careers and “career criminals” (Vol. I). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.1983). When bonding fails: Clinical assessment of high-risk families. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1946). Forty-four juvenile thieves: Their character and home-life. London: Bailliere Tindall & Cox.(1969). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. New York: Basic Books.(1981). The myth of social class and criminality reconsidered. American Sociological Review, 46, 36–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095025(1976). False starts. Boston: Little, Brown.(1975). Theory validation and aggregate national data (Integration Report of the Office of Youth Opportunity Research, FY 1975). Boulder, CO: Behavioral Research Institute., & ([Page 198]1980). Recent econometric modelling of crime and punishment: Support for the deterrence hypothesis. Evaluation Review, 4, 147–191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0193841X8000400201, & (1978). The 4–3 MMPI profile type: A failure to replicate. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.46.2.344, & (1984). Characteristics of criminals: The privileged offender. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 7, 301–313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0160-2527%2884%2990014-1, , , & (1971). Delinquency and stigmatization. British Journal of Criminology, 11, 185–187., & (Bureau of Justice Statistics. (1988). Criminal victimization in the United States, 1986. NCJ-111456. Washington, DC: Author.Bureau of the Census. (1981). Statistical abstract of the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.1980). The dynamics of specialization in juvenile offenses. Social Forces, 58, 851–864.(1983). Justifying personal violence: A comparison of rapists and the general public. Victimology, 8, 131–150.(1986). The developmental-interactional view of social behavior Four issues of adolescent aggression. In D.Olweus, J.Block, & M.Radke-Yarrow (eds.), Development of antisocial and prosocial behavior: Research, theories, and issues (pp. 315–342). New York: Academic Press., & (1978). A psychological approach to deterrence: The evaluation of crime opportunities. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 1512–1520. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.522(1969). Interpretative manual to the MMPI. In J.Butcher (ed.), MMPI: Research developments and clinical applications (pp. 279–296). New York: McGraw-Hill.(1978). Evaluating two models of delinquency causation. Criminology, 16, 335–352. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1978.tb00096.x(1979). Delinquency, opportunity, and gender. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 70, 145–151. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1142917, & (1982). Varieties of criminal behavior. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation., & (1969). On the validity of official statistics: A comparative study of white, black and Japanese high school boys. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 6, 71–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002242786900600108, & (1981). Factors involved in juveniles’ decisions about crime. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 8, 275–286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009385488100800302, & (1976). The mask of sanity ((5th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby.1973). Crime in developing countries: A comparative perspective. New York: Wiley., & (1960). Delinquency and opportunity. New York: Free Press., & (1955). Delinquent boys. New York: Free Press.(1983). Sociological theories. In S.H.Kadish (ed.), Encyclopedia of Crime and Justice (Vol I, pp. 342–353). New York: Free Press.(1956). The Sutherland papers. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press., , & (1984). Using reality therapy with adult offenders. Journal of Offender Counseling, Services, and Rehabilitation, 8, 25–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J264v08n03_03, & ([Page 199]1976, November). Chronic offender careers. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Tucson, AZ.(1983). A critique of criminology: Toward an integrated structural Marxist theory of delinquent production. American Journal of Sociology, 89, 513–551. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/227904, & (1966). Personality, social class, and delinquency. New York: Wiley., & (1985). The dangerous and the endangered. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.(1980). Research on criminal deterrence: Laying the groundwork for the second decade. In N.Morris & M.Tonry (eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research (Vol. 2, pp. 211–268). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1971). Crime, criminals, and prisons in Peru. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 15, 135–148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X7101500205(1980). Decisions that might not get made. In T.S.Wallsten (ed.), Cognitive processes in choice and decision behavior (pp. 47–67). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.(Cornish, D.B., & Clarke, R.V. (eds.). (1986). The reasoning criminal: Rational choice perspectives on offending. New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-8625-41960). Epidemiology and individual conduct: A case from criminology. Pacific Sociological Review, 3, 47–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1388200(1970). Essentials of psychological testing ((3rd ed.). New York: Harper & Row.1986). The decision to give up crime. In D.Cornish & R.Clarke (eds.), The reasoning criminal: Rational choice perspectives on offending (pp. 72–82). New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-8625-4_5, & (1985). Changing the criminal. Federal Probation, 49, 64–66.(1987). The role of guilt and its implication in the treatment of criminals. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 31, 71–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X8703100109, & (1972). An MMPI handbook: Vol. I. Clinical interpretation (, , & (rev. ed.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.1984). Interventions with juvenile delinquents: A meta-analysis of treatment efficacy. Washington, DC: National Institute of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention., , , & (1975). Community psychology and behavior modification: A community based program for the prevention of delinquency. Corrective and Social Psychiatry, 21, 1–12., & (1971). An antisocial behavior pattern associated with a specific MMPI profile. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 36, 229–234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0030739, & (1972). Labeling theory in deviance research: A critique and reconsideration. Sociological Quarterly, 13, 447–474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1972.tb00828.x(1979). Some correlates of social insight in adult incarcerated males. Offender Rehabilitation, 3, 257–270. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J418v03n03_07(1981). The last Mafioso: The treacherous world of Jimmy Fratianno. New York: Times Books.(1977). Effect of stimulus novelty on stimulation seeking in antisocial and neurotic children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 86, 96–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.86.1.96, & (1973). The tattoo and the personality of the tattooed. Medical Legal Dommage Corporation, 6, 309., , & (1988). Microeconomic and social-control policy influences on crime rate changes, 1948–1985. American Sociological Review, 53, 407–420. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095648, , & ([Page 200]1962). Delinquency vulnerability: Across group and longitudinal analysis. American Sociological Review, 27, 515–517. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2090032, , & (1986). On the criminal mind: An imaginary lecture by Sigmund Freud. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 30, 101–109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X8603000204(1989). Fatal addiction: Ted Bundy's final interview [Film]. Pomona, CA: Focus on the Family.(1987). Understanding and treating the psychopath. New York: Wiley.(1977). Behavior contracting with youthful offenders and their parents. Child Welfare, 56, 409–417., , & (Douglas, J.D. (ed.). (1970). Observations of deviance. New York: Random House.1938). The rules of sociological method (S.A.Solovay & J.H.Mueller, Trans.). New York: The Free Press.(1955). The prediction of decision among bets. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 50, 201–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0041692(1978). Confidence in judgment: Persistence in the illusion of validity. Psychological Review, 85, 395–416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.85.5.395, & (1974). The validity of the MMPI as a discriminator of social deviance among black males. FCI Research Reports (Tallahasee, FL), 6, 1–18.(1980). Reconciling race and class differences in self-reported and official estimates of delinquency. American Sociological Review, 45, 95–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095245, & (1979). An integrated theoretical perspective on delinquent behavior. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 16, 3–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002242787901600102, , & (1974). Delinquency and dropout. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath., & (1962). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. Secaucus, NJ: Lyle Stuart.(1975). A new guide to rational living. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall., & (1961). Companionships at delinquency onset. British Journal of Criminology, 2, 167–168., & (1980). Planning of crime and the criminal career: Official and hidden offenses. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 71, 73–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1142801(1987). Frequency of MMPI two-point code types among sex offenders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 566–570. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.55.4.566, , , & (1966). An MMPI comparison of two groups of institutionalized delinquents. Journal of Projective Techniques and Personality Assessment, 30, 163–166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0091651X.1966.10120283, & (1980). The allocation of status within occupations: The case of the legal profession. Social Forces, 58. 882–903.(1941). A new measure of introversion-extroversion. Journal of Psychology, 72, 111–124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1941.9917060, & (1953). Serial rate learning by psychopathic, neurotic, and normal criminals under three incentive conditions. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana.(1971). Stimulus-seeking motivation in adolescents as a function of age and sex. Adolescence, 6, 207–218., & (1972). Stimulus-seeking motivation and delinquent behavior among institutionalized delinquent girls. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 39, 94–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0033204, & ([Page 201]1976). Test of an arousal theory of delinquency: Stimulation-seeking in delinquent and nondelinquent black adolescents. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 3, 315–320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009385487600300402, & (1989). Strain theory revisited: Economic goals, educational means, and delinquency. American Sociological Review, 54, 263–274. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095794, & (1982). Longitudinal analyses of criminal violence. In M.E.Wolfgang & N.A.Weiner (eds.), Criminal violence. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(Federal Bureau of Investigation. (1984). Crime in the United States, 1983. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.1986). Robbers as decision-makers. In D.Cornish & R.Clarke (eds.), The reasoning criminal: Rational choice perspectives on offending (pp. 53–71). New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-8625-4_4(1982). Impression management and the escalation of aggression and violence. Social Psychology Quarterly, 45, 245–253. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3033920(1981). An attributional approach to accounts and sanctions for criminal violence. Social Psychology Quarterly, 44, 137–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3033710, & (1971). Heart rate responses to a stressor A comparison between primary and secondary psychopaths and normal controls. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 5, 7–13.(1986). The psychological deficits and treatment needs of chronic criminality. Federal Probation, 50, 60–66.(Figgie Corporation. (1988). The Figgie report, Part VI. The business of crime: The criminal perspective. Richmond, VA: Figgie International Incorporated.1981). Delinquency careers as a simple Markov process. In J.Fox (ed.), Models of quantitative criminology (pp. 25–37). New York: Academic Press.(1983). The meta-analytic revolution in outcome research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 65–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.51.1.65(1969). The self-concept and delinquency (Research Monograph No. 1). Nashville, TN: Nashville Mental Health Centre., & (1983). Correlates of institutional misconduct among state prisoners. Criminology, 21, 29–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1983.tb00249.x(1982). Personality characteristics of two types of male exhibitionists. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91, 287–293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.91.4.287, & (1972). Perceptions of stigma following public intervention for delinquent behavior. Social Problems, 20, 202–209. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/799614, , & (1963). Spontaneous GSR and anxiety level in sociopathic delinquents. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 27, 368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0046213, & (1963). Existential dynamics and neurotic escapism. Journal of Existential Psychiatry. 4, 27–42.(1983). Crime and unemployment. In J.Q.Wilson (ed.), Crime and public policy (pp. 89–106). San Francisco: Institute for Contemporary Studies.(1957). Some character types met with in psychoanalytic work. In J.Strachey (ed.), Standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 14, pp. 311–333). London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis.(1963). Introductory lectures on psycho-analysis. In J.Strachey (ed.), Standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 15–16, pp. 9–496). London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis.(1988). The relationship between cognitive style and defensive process in the psychopath. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 15, 472–483. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0093854888015004004, & ([Page 202]1989, March 30). Salt-pepper suspect has 68-year record. Denver Post, pp. 1, 14., & (1985). Effects of residual treatment on adjudicated delinquents: A meta-analysis. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. 22, 287–308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022427885022004002(1967). An analysis of the vocational training program in the Washington state adult correctional institutions (Research Review No. 23). State of Washington, Department of Institutions., , & (1979). Effective correctional treatment: Bibliotherapy for cynics. Crime and Delinquency, 25, 463–489. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001112877902500405, & (1987). Revivification of rehabilitation: Evidence from the 1980s. Justice Quarterly, 4, 349–407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07418828700089411, & (1971). Observations on the study of crime causation. American Journal of Sociology, 77, 262–278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/225100(1982). Life in the fast lane: A retrospective view by commercial thieves. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 19, 299–330. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002242788201900210, & (1975). Major developments in the sociological study of deviance. Annual Review of Sociology, 1, 21–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.01.080175.000321, & (1965). A handbook for clinical and actuarial MMPI interpretation. Philadelphia: Saunders., & (1960). Differential association and criminological prediction. Social Problems, 8, 6–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/798625(1981). Meta-analysis in social research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., , & (1965). Reality therapy. New York: Harper & Row.(1960). The roots of crime: Selected papers on psychoanalysis (Vol. II). London: Imago.(1989, June 2). Accused mass killer netted after years on the run. Star Ledger, pp. 1, 17.(1989, June 4). Denver neighbor had nagging doubts. Star Ledger, p. 28.(1968). Delinquents and nondelinquents in perspective. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press., & (1969). National study of the aftermath of apprehension. Prospectus, 5, 3–12., & (1975). Prescriptive psychotherapies. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall., & (1985). The effect of age and gender on deviant behavior: A biopsychological approach. In A.Rossi (ed.), Gender and the life course (pp. 115–144). Washington, DCAmerican Sociological Association.(1987). The MMPI: A practical guide ((2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.1980). The MMPI: An interpretive manual. New York: Grune & Stratton.(1983). Controlling the crime rate through imprisonment. In J.Q.Wilson (ed.), Crime and public policy (pp. 251–269). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.(1985). One more chance: The role of rehabilitation in reducing the criminality of chronic serious juvenile offenders (Rand Report R-3214-OJJDP). Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation., & ([Page 203]1983). The dynamics of sexual assault. In L.B.Schlesinger & E.Revitch (eds.), Sexual dynamics of anti-social behavior (pp. 159–172). Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas., & (Gurr, T.R. (ed.). (1989). Violence in America: Vol. 1. The history of crime. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.1982). Early identification of the chronic offender. Sacramento, CA: California Youth Authority., & (1986). Introduction to criminology: Theories, methods, and criminal behavior. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.(1986). The utility of the MMPI with men who have sexually assaulted children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 493–496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.54.4.493, , , & (1977). Psychological needs of imprisoned adult females with high and low conscience development. Corrective and Social Psychiatry and Journal of Behavioural Technology Methods and Theory, 23, 73–78., & (1978). The violent few. Lexington, MA: Lexington/D.C. Heath., , , & (1984). Demographic, individual, and family relationship correlates of serious and repeated crime among adolescents and their siblings. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 528–538. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.52.4.528, , , & (1984). The armed urban bank robber: A profile. Federal Probation, 48, 47–53., & (1970). Psychopathology: Theory and research. New York: Wiley.(1978). Electrodermal and cardiovascular correlates of psychopathy. In R.D.Hare & D.Schalling (eds.), Psychopathic behavior: Approaches to research (pp. 107–144). Chichester, England: Wiley.(1982). Psychopathy and physiological activity during anticipation of an aversive stimulus in a distraction paradigm. Psychophysiology, 19, 266–271. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.1982.tb02559.x(1985). Comparison of procedures for the assessment of psychopathy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 7–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.53.1.7(1974). Psychopathy and physiological activity in a mixed-motive game situation. Psychophysiology, 11, 197–206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.1974.tb00839.x, & (1988). Male psychopaths and their criminal careers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 710–714. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.56.5.710, , & (1971). Psychopathy and autonomic conditioning. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 77, 223–235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0031012, & (1974). Race and criminal deviance: A study of youthful offenders. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association., & (1940). A multiphasic personality schedule (Minnesota): I. Construction of the schedule. Journal of Psychology, 10, 249–254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1940.9917000, & (1963). Adolescent personality and behavior: MMPI patterns of normal, delinquent, dropout, and other outcomes. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press., & (1972). Textbook of psychology ((3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.1984). Prison inmates’ explanations for interpersonal violence: Accounts and attributions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 789–794. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.52.5.789, & ([Page 204]1975). Deviance, deterrence and knowledge of sanctions. In R.L.Henshel & R.A.Silverman (eds.), Perceptions in criminology (pp. 54–73). New York: Columbia University Press., & (1976). Criminology: Testing alternative models of delinquent causation. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 67, 450–460. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1142760(1957). The pathology of boredom. Scientific American, 196, 52–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0157-52(1980). Risk taking and problem context in the domain of losses: An expected utility analysis. Journal of Risk and Insurance, 47, 111–132. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/252685, & (1970). Social stratification and deviant behavior. New York: Random House.(1971). The social versus solitary nature of delinquent involvements. British Journal of Criminology, 11, 167–175.(1973). Causes of delinquency: A partial replication and extension. Social Problems, 20, 471–487. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/799709(1978). Victims of personal crime: An empirical foundation for a theory of personal victimization. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger., , & (1979). Correlates of delinquency: The illusion of discrepancy between self-report and official measures. American Sociological Review, 44, 995–1014. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094722, , & (1981). Measuring delinquency. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., , & (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.(1983). Age and the explanation of crime. American Journal of Sociology, 89, 552–584. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/227905, & (1977). Intelligence and delinquency: A revisionist view. American Sociological Review, 42, 571–587. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094556, & (1988). Prisonization and recidivism: A psychological perspective. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 32, 95–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X8803200203(1986). Growing focus on criminal careers. Science, 233, 1377–1378. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.3749882(1981). Intelligence, personality, and criminal violence: A multivariate analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 106–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.49.1.106, , & (1984). Crime specialization, seriousness progression, and Markov chains. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 837–840. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.52.5.837, & (1979). Equity theory and the cognitive ability of children. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 429–445. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.86.3.429, & (1988). Why smart people fail. Readers Digest, 132, pp. 69–73., & (1970). The felon. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.(1986). Offense-specific models of the differential association process. Social Problems, 33, 335–356. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/800723, , & (1970). Soledad brother. New York: Coward-McCann.(1987). Sourcebook of criminal justice statistics—1986. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Statistics., & (1972). Parents, peers, and delinquent action: A test of the differential association perspective. American Journal of Sociology, 78, 562–575. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/225364(1976). Sex differences in delinquency. Criminology, 13, 427–448. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1976.tb00679.x, & (1979). Juvenile delinquency and its origin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.([Page 205]1987). Age patterns in criminal involvement. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 31, 237–260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X8703100306, & (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica, 47, 263–291. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1914185, & (1976). Self-attitudes and deviance response. Social Forces, 54, 788–801.(1979). Concerted ignorance: The social construction of a cover-up. Urban Life, 8, 295–316.(1987). Personal communication cited in Magid & McKelvey (1987, p. 33).(October,1982). The long-term evolution of the family structure of teenage and older mothers. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 44, 539–554. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/351578, , , & (1977). Labeling and the consequences of wearing a delinquent label in a school setting. Education, 97, 371–380.(1987). Specialization and the criminal career. Criminology, 25, 399–420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1987.tb00803.x(1973). Foundations of behavioral research ((2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.1977). Behavioral correlates for spike-4, spike-9, and 4-919-4 MMPI profiles in students at a university mental health center. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33, 718–724. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679%28197707%2933:3%3C718::AID-JCLP2270330323%3E3.0.CO;2-R, & (B.Chambliss) (1972). Box man. New York: Harper & Row.(with1967). Character structure and response to leadership power. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 2, 16–24., & (1959). Delinquent boys: A critique. American Sociological Review, 24, 208–215. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2089431, & (1982). Professionalization of violent criminals and characteristics of their criminal situation. Tohoku Psychologica Folia, 41, 107–115., , , & (1972). The self-control of emotional reactions to a stressful film. Journal of Personality, 40, 601–618. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1972.tb00083.x, , , & (1978). Social sources of delinquency. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1976). Deterrent and definitional influences on shoplifting. Social Problems, 23, 358–368. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/799781(1983). Two-track or one-track justice? Some evidence from an English longitudinal survey. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 74, 519–546. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1143086, & (1983). Career patterns in crime. Bureau of Justice Statistics: Special Report. NCJ-88672. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics., & (1985). Models of decision making under uncertainty: The criminal choice. In D.Cornish & R.Clarke (eds.), The reasoning criminal: Rational choice perspectives on offending (pp. 129–155). New York: Springer-Verlag., & (1977). Growing up to be violent: A longitudinal study of the development of aggression. New York: Pergamon., , , & (1951). Social pathology. New York: McGraw-Hill.(1972). Human deviance, social problems and social control ((2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.1958). Life plus 99 years. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.(1970). The desire for justice and reactions to victims. In J.Macaulay & L.Berkowitz (eds.), Altruism and helping behavior: Social psychological studies of some antecedents and consequences (pp. 205–229). New York: Academic Press.([Page 206]1978). The seasons of a man's life. New York: Knopf., , , , & (1985). Causes of conformity: An application of control theory to adult misdemeanant probationers. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 29, 1–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X8502900102, , & (1986). Research plan: Meta-analysis of juvenile delinquency treatment research. Unpublished manuscript, Claremont Graduate School, Claremont, CA.(1971). Aspirations, expectations, and delinquency: Stress and additive models. Sociological Quarterly, 12, 99–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1971.tb02095.x(1983). Early predictors of male delinquency: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 94, 68–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.94.1.68, & (1973). MMPI characteristics of college freshman males who later became alcoholics. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 82, 159–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0034959, , & (1985). Psychological test usage patterns in five professional settings. American Psychologist, 40, 857–861. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.40.7.857, , , & (1977). Criminal homicide as a situated transaction. Social Problems, 25, 176–186. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/800293(1957). A study of anxiety in the sociopathic personality. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 55, 6–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0047232(1978). The use of subjective expected utility theory as an aid to understanding variables that influence helping behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 1138–1151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2068, & (1976). Personality theories: A comparative analysis ((3rd ed.). Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.1987). High risk. New York: Bantam Books., & (1983). Human development: An interactional perspective. New York: Academic Press., & (1974). The effect of labeling upon youths in the juvenile justice system: A review of the evidence. Law and Society Review, 8, 583–614. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3052885(1977). Reflections on the cognitive-learning trend in psychotherapy. American Psychologist, 32, 5–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.32.1.5(1985). Security in infancy, childhood, and adulthood: A move to the level of representation. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50 (1–2, Serial No. 209). http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3333827, , & (N.Emmons) (1986). Manson: In his own words. New York: Grove Press.(with1980). The antecedents of chosen joblessness. American Journal of Community Psychology, 8, 173–201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00912659, & (1974). The actuarial use of the MMPI with adolescents and adults. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins., , & (1974). What works?—Questions and answers about prison reform. Public Interest, 10, 22–54.(1979). New findings, new views: A note of caution regarding sentencing reform. Hofstra Law Review, 7, 242–258.(1982). Testing control theory and differential association: A causal modeling approach. American Sociological Review, 47, 489–504. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095194(1964). Delinquency and drift. New York: Wiley.(1975). Help yourself to happiness through rational self-counselingNew York: Institute of Rational Living.([Page 207]1958). Contributions of existential psychotherapy. In R.May, E.Angel, & H.F.Ellenberger (eds.), Existence: A new dimension in psychiatry and psychology (pp. 61–63). New York: Basic Books. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11321-000(1971). Assessing human motivation. New York: General Learning Press.(1959). Origins of crime. New York: Columbia University Press., & (1975). Personality profiles of persons convicted of indecent exposure. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 31, 260–262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679%28197504%2931:2%3C260::AID-JCLP2270310218%3E3.0.CO;2-X(1975). The “loser” and the criminal justice system. International Journal of Criminology and Penology, 3, 155–161., & (1987). Introduction. Biological factors in crime causation: The reactions of social scientists. In S.A.Mednick (ed.), The causes of crime: New biological approaches (pp. 1–6). New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511753282.002(1979). Classifying criminal offenders: A new system based on the MMPI. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., & (1967). Development and validation of an MMPI scale of assaultiveness in overcontrolled individuals. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 72, 519–528. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0025242, , & (1977). Cognitive behavior modification. New York: Plenum.(1983). United States of America. In E.H.Johnson (ed.), International handbook of contemporary developments in criminology: General issues and the Americas (pp. 267–296). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.(1977). An exploratory study of exiting from criminal careers. Criminology, 15, 319–334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1977.tb00069.x(1968). The crime of punishment. New York: Viking.(1957). Social theory and social structure. New York: Free Press of Glencoe.(1982). Poverty, inequality, and the urban homicide rate: Some unexpected findings. Criminology, 20, 103–114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1982.tb00450.x(1984). The “dark figure” and composite indexes of crime: Some empirical exploration of alternative data sources. Journal of Criminal Justice, 12, 435–444. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0047-2352%2884%2990091-6(1968). Personality and assessment. New York: Wiley.(1973). Toward a cognitive social learning conceptualization of personality. Psychological Review, 80, 252–283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0035002(1981). Socioeconomic status, IQ, and delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90, 152–156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.90.2.152, , , & (1979). Comparison of MMPI profiles of assaultive and nonassaultive exhibitionists and voyeurs. Corrective and Social Psychiatry and Journal of Behavioural Technology Methods and Theory, 25, 91–93., & (1975). Evaluating correctional and community settings. New York: Wiley.(1960). Learning theory and behavior. New York: Wiley. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10802-000(1964). The new group therapy. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand.(1966). Explorations in personality. New York: Oxford University Press.(1982). The implications of tattooing in prisoners. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 43, 231–234.(1983). The profession of a robber. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 25, 33–46., & (1975). Anger control: The development and evaluation of an experimental treatment. Lexington, MA: Heath & Co.([Page 208]1980). The characteristic MMPI profile pattern of youthful Japanese delinquents. Tohoku Psychologica Folia, 39, 105–112.(1987). Differential association and marijuana use: A closer look at Sutherland (with a little help from Becker). Criminology, 25, 341–358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1987.tb00801.x(1981). Economic status and crime: Implications for offender rehabilitation. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 72, 1055–1071. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1143275, & (1981). Psychiatric Diagnostic Interview (PDI) manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services., , & (1958). MMPI profile configurations among crime classification groups. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 16, 305–312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679%28195807%2914:3%3C305::AID-JCLP2270140325%3E3.0.CO;2-9(1989, March 24). Madman kills 2 in siege. Denver Post, pp. 1–1, 13-A., , & (1987). The deterrent effect of the perceived certainty and severity of punishment: A review of the evidence and issues. Justice Quarterly, 4, 173–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07418828700089271(1982). Coercive family processes. Eugene, OR: Castalia.(1986). Performance models for antisocial boys. American Psychologist, 41, 432–444. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.41.4.432(1969). Outcome of systematic desensitization II: Controlled investigations of individual treatment, technique variations and current status. In C.M.Franks (ed.), Behavior therapy: Appraisal and status (pp. 105–159). New York: McGraw-Hill.(1974). The MMPI: A descriptive measure of psychopathology in abusive parents. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 30, 387–390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679%28197407%2930:3%3C387::AID-JCLP2270300352%3E3.0.CO;2-J, , , & (1985). Toward an integration of criminological theories. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 76, 116–150. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1143355, & (1967). Relationship between psychotherapy with institutionalized boys and subsequent community adjustment. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 31, 137–141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0024443(1971). The violent 4–3 MMPI personality type. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 36, 189–196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0030742, & (1978). Criminal careers of habitual felons. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office., , & (1984). “Hedonism” is no fun: Notes on Burgess's “hedonism” construct. British Journal of Criminology, 24, 296–300.(1980). Doing crime: A survey of California prison inmates. Santa Monica, CA: RAND., & (1981). The economics of crime control. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., & (1954). The construction of reality in the child. New York: Basic Books. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11168-000(1986). Crime, deterrence, and rational choice. American Sociological Review, 51, 101–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095480, , , & (1979). Misunderstanding labeling perspectives. In D.Downes & P.Rock (eds.), Deviant interpretations. London: Martin Robertson.(1981). Becoming adult: An analysis of maturational development from age 16 to 30 of a cohort of young men (Final report of the Marion County Youth Study). Eugene, OR: University of Oregon., , , , , , , & (1972). School and delinquency. Englewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice-Hall., & (1979). Parental support, delinquent friends, and delinquency: A test of interactional effects. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 70, 188–193. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1142922, & ([Page 209]1987). Characteristics of homicide victims and victimization in prison: A Canadian historical perspective. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 31, 125–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X8703100205, , & (1965). Psychopathic personality as pathological stimulation-seeking. American Journal of Psychiatry, 122, 180–183.(1977). Psychopathic behavior: Reflections on its nature, origins, and treatment. In I.Uzgiris & F.Weizman (eds.), The structuring of experience. New York: Plenum.(1980). MMPI profiles of men referred for a pretrial psychiatric assessment as a function of offense types. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 410–417. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.6120360204, , (1978). Clinical aspects of the rapist. New York: Grune & Stratton.(1977). MMPI profile types of exposures, rapists, and assaulters in a court services population. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 61–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.45.1.61(1977). Investigating the interrelations among social control variables and conformity. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 67, 470–480. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1142762(1957). The self component in potential delinquency and potential non-delinquency. American Sociological Review, 22, 566–570. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2089482, , & (1956). Self-concept as an insulator against delinquency. American Sociological Review, 21, 744–746. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2088428, , & (1961). The distribution of juvenile delinquency in the social class structure. American Sociological Review, 26, 720–732. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2090201, & (1964). An empirical test of differential association theory. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 1, 5–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002242786400100102, & (1989, April 12). Kansas fugitive captured despite cosmetic surgery. Kansas City Times, pp. 1, 5.(1975). Arrests and delinquency in two generations: A study of black urban families and their children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 16, 125–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1975.tb01262.x, , & (1951). Client-centered therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.(1987). Social control, gender, and delinquency: An analysis of drug, property and violent offenders. Justice Quarterly, 4, 117–132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07418828700089221(1985). Time to think: A cognitive model of delinquency prevention and offender rehabilitation. Johnson City, TN: Institute of Social Sciences & Arts., & (1988). Reasoning and rehabilitation. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 32, 29–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X8803200104, , & (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80 (Whole No. 609).(1987). Resolving the person-situation debate: Invitation to interdisciplinary dialogue. American Psychologist, 42, 218–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.42.3.218(1984). Defusing the hostile ex-offender: Rational behavior training. Emotional First Aid, 1, 17–22.(1964). The Irish delinquent in England. Studies, 53 (Summer 1964).(1984). Juvenile delinquency: Trends and perspectives. New York: Guilford Press., & (1982). Economic inequality and personal victimisation. British Journal of Criminology, 22, 363–385., & (1956). Being and nothingness. New York: Philosophical Library.([Page 210]1960). The “good” boy in a high delinquency area: Four years later. American Sociological Review, 25, 555–558. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2092940, , , & (1962). Cognitive, social, and physiological determinants of emotional state. Psychological Review, 69, 379–399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0046234, & (1971). Labeling deviant behavior: Its sociological implications. New York: Harper & Row.(1964). The development of social attachments in infancy. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 3, (Serial No. 94)., & (1982). Assessing the relationship of adult criminal careers to juvenile careers: A summary. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.(1988). Age, crime, and the early life course. American Journal of Sociology, 93, 1457–1470. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/228907, & (1957). Differential association and delinquency. Social Problems, 4, 233–239. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/798775(1965). Group process and gang delinquency. Chicago: University of Chicago Press., & (1978). Stimulation-seeking behavior in three delinquent personality types. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 582. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.46.3.582, & (1983). The later stages of ordinary property offender careers. Social Problems, 31, 208–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/800212(1978). Probability of punishment and suppression of behavior in psychopathic and nonpsychopathic offenders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 514–522. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.87.5.514(1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Macmillan.(1987). The gender gap in theories of deviance: Issues and evidence. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 24, 140–172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022427887024002004, & (1984). Delinquent career-lines: A conceptual link between theory and juvenile offenses. Sociological Quarterly, 25, 155–172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1984.tb00180.x, , & (1971). The impact of the juvenile court hearing on the child. Crime and Delinquency, 17, 180–190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001112877101700207(1975). Toward a Marxian theory of deviance. Social Problems, 22, 638–651. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/799696(1982). Social structure and Swedish crime rates. Criminology, 20, 499–513. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1982.tb00474.x(1983). Homicide and property crime: The relationships to anomie. Aggressive Behavior, 9, 339–344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1098-2337%281983%299:4%3C339::AID-AB2480090409%3E3.0.CO;2-6(1981). Sex differences in urban arrest patterns, 1934–1979. Social Problems, 29, 37–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/800076, & (1974). Scripts people live: Transactional analysis of life scripts. New York: Bantam Books.(1984). Personality factors in the taking of criminal risks. Personality and Individual Differences, 5, 119–122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869%2884%2990147-8, & (1982). The consequences of breaking the law: Perceptions of adolescents involved in serious crime. New York: Interdisciplinary Research Center., , , , & (1937). The professional thief. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1939). Principles of criminology ((3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott.1978). Principles of criminology (, & (10th ed.). New York: Harper & Row.Q.Reynolds). (1953). I, Willie Sutton. New York: Farrar, Straus, & Young.(with [Page 211]1970). Techniques of delinquency. In W.E.Wolfgang, L.Savitz, & N.Johnston (eds.), The sociology of crime and delinquency (, & (2nd ed., pp. 292–299). New York: Wiley.1938). Crime and the community. Boston: Ginn & Company.(1987, September 28). The gang that couldn't rob straight. Newsweek, p. 30.(1912). Penal philosophy. Boston: Little, Brown.(1975). Perceptions of punishment: Current research. In R.L.Henshel & R.A.Silverman (eds.), Perceptions in criminology. New York: Columbia University Press.(1972). Childhood development of fear of failure motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 21, 345–348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0032309, & (1977). The effects of legal sanctions on juvenile delinquency: A comparison of the labeling and deterrent perspectives. (Final Report, LEAA Grant 75-NI-99-0031 and 76-NI-99-0050). Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University.(1984). An empirical test of Hirschi's control theory of delinquency. Deviant Behavior, 5, 11–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01639625.1984.9967628, , & (1971). Punishment and crime: The effect of legal dispositions on subsequent criminal behavior. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.(1987). Toward an interactional theory of delinquency. Criminology, 25, 863–892. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1987.tb00823.x(1985). The effect of dropping out of high school on subsequent criminal behavior. Criminology, 23, 3–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1985.tb00323.x, , & (1972). The labeling process: Reinforcement or deterrent?Law and Society Review, 6, 393–403. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3052990, & (1987). The size of the “criminal population”: The prevalence and incidence of adult arrest. Criminology, 25, 561–579. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1987.tb00811.x(1986). Modeling Sutherland's theory of differential association: Toward an empirical clarification. Social Forces, 65, 405–432., , & (1978). The myth of social class and criminality: An empirical assessment of the empirical evidence. American Sociological Review, 43, 643–656. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094541, , & (1966). Cognitive effects of false heart-rate feedback. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4, 400–408. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0023791(1983). Market incentives for criminal behavior. Unpublished paper, National Bureau of Economic Research.(1979). Theoretical criminology ((2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.1964). Differential association and delinquent behavior. Social Problems, 12, 78–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/798700(1977). The optimal stimulation hypothesis and early development: Anybody got a match? In I.Uzgiris & F.Weizman (eds.), The structuring of experience. New York: Plenum.(1985). Scale 4 (Pd) of the MMPI and the diagnosis antisocial personality. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 474–476. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4905_3(1989). Predicting the disciplinary adjustment of maximum and minimum security prison inmates using the Lifestyle Criminality Screening Form. Unpublished manuscript.(1982). Empirical correlates of the overcontrolled-hostility scale and the MMPI 4–3 high-point pair. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 213–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.50.2.213, , & (1990). Predicting parole/probation outcome with the aid of the Lifestyle Criminality Screening Form. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-35220.127.116.113, , & ([Page 212]1982). The relationship between the overcontrolled-hostility scale and the MMPI 4–3 high-point pair. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 613–615. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679%28198207%2938:3%3C613::AID-JCLP2270380326%3E3.0.CO;2-8, , & (1987). Examining lifestyle criminality: The Leavenworth 500. Unpublished manuscript, United States Penitentiary, Leavenworth, KS., & (1988). Crime, popular mythology, and personal responsibility. Federal Probation, 52, 18–26., & (1989a). Heredity and crime: Bad genes or bad research?Criminology, 27, 455–485. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1989.tb01042.x, & (1989b). Lifestyle criminality from a developmental standpoint. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 13, 257–278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02887513, & (1989c). The thinking criminal: A cognitive model of lifestyle criminality. Criminal Justice Research Bulletin, 4, No. 4., & (Therapeutic interventions with the lifestyle criminal. Journal of Offender Counseling, Services and Rehabilitation., & (in press).The Lifestyle Criminality Screening Form: Preliminary data. Criminal Justice and Behavior., & , & (in press).1969). Crimes of violence by women. In D.J.Mulvihill & M.M.Tumin (eds.), Crimes of violence (pp. 843–909). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office., , & (1974). The use of stigmatizing social labels in conventionaling deviant behavior. Sociology and Social Research, 58, 303–311.(1983). Applications of interpersonal-maturity theory to offender populations. In W.S.Laufer & J.M.Day (eds.), Personality theory, moral development, and criminal behavior (pp. 23–50). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.(1986). Criminal careers of female offenders. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 13, 393–418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0093854886013004003, & (1968). Stimulus-seeking motivation and risk-taking behavior in a gambling situation. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 28, 549–550. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001316446802800242, & (1985). Crime perceptions in a natural setting by expert and novice shoplifters. Social Psychology Quarterly, 48, 349–359. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2786696, & (1978). Theories of deviance and the self-concept. Social Psychology, 41, 189–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3033556(1957). The concept of development from a comparative and organismic point of view. In D.Harris (ed.), The concept of development. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.(1977). The delinquent way of life: Third report of the Cambridge study in delinquent development. London: Heinemann Educational Books., & (1981). Social control theory and delinquency. American Sociological Review, 46, 525–541. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094936, , & (1965). Social deviance: Social policy, action, and research. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.(1984). The demise of the criminological imagination: A critique of recent criminology. Justice Quarterly, 1, 91–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07418828400088051(1985). Crime and human nature. New York: Simon & Schuster., & (1980). Estimating the economic model of crime with individual data. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 94, 57–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1884604(1972). Delinquency in a birth cohort. Chicago: University of Chicago Press., . & ([Page 213]1976). Perceptual and cognitive factors in therapy with antisocial individuals. Ontario Psychologist, 8, 26–35.(1970). Effectiveness of group therapy based on learning principles in the treatment of overweight women. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 76, 462–474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0030272(1974). Measures of philosophies of human nature. Psychological Reports, 14, 743–751. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1918.104.22.1683(1963). The tattooed man. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 136, 365–367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-196304000-00006, , & (1976). The criminal personality: Vol. I. A profile for change. New York: Jason Aronson., & (1985). The criminal personality: Vol. II. The change process (, & (rev. ed.). New York: Jason Aronson.1986). The criminal personality: Vol. III. The drug user. New York: Jason Aronson., & (1966). Youth in trouble: A vocational approach (Final Report of a Research and Demonstration Project, May 31, 1961 to August 31, 1966). Dobbs Ferry, NY: Children's Village.(1975). Manual and research report for the Sensation Seeking Scale. Newark, DE: University of Delaware.(1970, August). Sensation-Seeking Scale correlates in experience (smoking, drugs, alcohol, “hallucinations,” and sex) and preference for complexity (designs). Proceedings of the 78th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association., , & (1976). Sexual attitudes and experience: Attitude and personality correlates and changes produced by a course in sexuality. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44, 7–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.44.1.7, , & (
About the Author