The Contours of Police Integrity


Edited by: Carl B. Klockars, Sanja Kutnjak Ivković & M. R. Haberfeld

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  • Dedication

    To the memory of Carl B. Klockars


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  • About the Editors

    Maria (Maki) R. Haberfeld is Professor of Police Science in the Department of Law, Police Science, and Criminal Justice Administration at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York City. She was born in Poland and immigrated to Israel as a teenager. She holds two bachelor's degrees, two master's degrees, and a Ph.D. in criminal justice. During her army service in the Israel Defense Force, in which she earned the rank of sergeant, she was assigned to a special counter-terrorist unit that was created to prevent terrorist attacks in Israel. Prior to coming to John Jay, she served in the Israel National Police, in which she earned the rank of lieutenant. She has also worked for the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, in the New York Field Office, as a special consultant.

    Haberfeld has taught at Yeshiva University and New Jersey City University. Her research interests and publications are in the areas of private and public law enforcement, specifically training, police integrity, and comparative policing (her research involves police departments in the United States, Eastern and Western Europe, and Israel). She has also done some research in the area of white-collar crime, specifically organizational and individual corruption during the Communist era in Eastern Europe. For 3 years (from 1997 to 2000), she was a member of a research team, sponsored by the National Institute of Justice, studying police integrity in three major police departments in the United States. Between 1999 and 2002, she was also a Principal Investigator on a research project in Poland, sponsored by the National Institute of Justice, where she studied the Polish National Police and its transformation to community-oriented policing. She has received additional grants from the PSC-CUNY Research Foundation to continue her research in Poland, with particular focus on the balancing act between the public perceptions of the new police reform and rampant accusations of police corruption and lack of integrity.

    Haberfeld has recently published a book on police training, Critical Issues in Police Training (2002), presented numerous papers on training-related issues during professional gatherings and conferences, and written a number of articles on police training, specifically on police leadership, integrity, and stress. In addition, she has been involved in active training of police officers on issues related to multiculturalism, sensitivity, and leadership, as well as provided technical assistance to a number of police departments in rewriting procedural manuals. She is a member of a number of professional police associations, such as the International Association of Chiefs of Police, International Police Association, and American Society of Law Enforcement Trainers. For the last 2 years (from 2001 to 2003), she has been involved in developing, coordinating, and teaching in special training program for the NYPD. She has developed a graduate course titled “Counter-Terrorism Policies for Law Enforcement,” which she teaches at John Jay to the ranking officers of the NYPD. Her most recent involvement in Eastern Europe includes redesigning the basic academy curriculum of the Czech National Police, with the emphasis on integrity-related training. She is currently writing the book Police Leadership. (forthcoming).

    Sanja Kutnjak Ivkovic is Assistant Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Florida State University. She received her LL.B. degree from the University of Zagreb, Croatia, a Ph.D. in criminology from the University of Delaware, and a S.J.O. degree from Harvard Law School. She is a member of the Croatian bar. Kutnjak Ivkovic has been pursuing a variety of topics in criminology, criminal justice, and the sociology of law. Her particular area of interest and expertise is policing. Jointly with Carl Klockars, she initiated a cross-cultural study of police corruption that, over time and with support from colleagues from a number of countries, has grown into a project including more than 13,000 police officers from 14 countries. The results of this unique cross-cultural research, the largest and most comprehensive empirical study of police corruption to date, are outlined in the present volume. Kutnjak Ivkovic; has also been a Senior Research Associate on the related project Enhancing Police Integrity (funded by the National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice). In her current work in progress, The Fallen Blue Knights: Controlling Police Corruption, she explores police corruption and the mechanisms of its control.

    Her interests also include the court system and legal decision making. Kutnjak Ivkovic; has studied participation of lay persons (jurors, lay judges) as decision makers in criminal and civil cases, both in the United States and abroad. In the arena of international jurisprudence, she undertook a project focusing on the delivery of justice by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia to the victims of war crimes.

    Kutnjak Ivkovic; has published a book, book chapters, and numerous journal articles in the areas of policing, comparative criminology/criminal justice, and sociology of law. Her work has appeared in journals such as the Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Law and Social Inquiry, Stanford Journal of International Law, Law & Policy, International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, International Criminal Justice Review, Journal of Crime & Justice, Police Practice and Research: An International Journal, and the International Journal of the Sociology of Law. She is currently writing the book The Fallen Blue Knights: Controlling Police Corruption (forthcoming).

    Carl B. Klockars was Professor of Criminal Justice and Sociology at the University of Delaware. He was a graduate of the University of Rhode Island, where he earned his bachelor's degree in sociology, and the University of Pennsylvania, where he earned his master's and doctoral degrees. A criminologist with more than 30 years of experience, Klockars authored five books, more than 50 scholarly articles, and numerous professional papers. He served as nationally elected Vice President of the Police Section of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences and was three times elected by the members of the American Society of Criminology to serve on its Executive Board. He also served as a lobbyist for the Maryland Sheriff's Association and as an expert witness in cases of alleged police misconduct. Klockars was a pioneer in building collaborative research relationships between police and academics. He wrote extensively on professional crime, criminological theory, the moral dilemmas of policing, and police use of force. With colleagues, he had recently completed a study, titled Enhancing Police Integrity, with three police agencies—in Charleston, South Carolina; Charlotte-Mecklenburg, North Carolina; and St. Petersburg, Florida—that seeks to understand the mechanisms through which police agencies may create organizational environments that enhance and encourage integrity.

    About the Contributors

    Marc Alain was born in Quebec City, Canada, in 1961. Alain completed undergraduate studies in ethnology, psychology, and criminology. After completing a bachelor's degree in humanities, he opted for graduate studies in criminology. His master's thesis is still considered one of the first academic efforts in criminology devoted to the understanding of police responses and police strategies aimed at the biker gang phenomenon. His doctoral research embraced a much larger sociological perspective as he studied the cross-border smuggling of tobacco products into Canada between 1985 and 1994; he proposed that such a phenomenon be considered a vast social response designed to reestablish an equilibrium once broken by the state. This work lead to the publication of a book and numerous articles in specialised journals. He earned his Ph.D. in criminology in 1997 from the Université de Montréal. Afterwards, Alain was awarded a postdoctoral fellowship at the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium, to study the complex field of transnational police cooperation in Europe and in North America; in this domain, he was one the earliest researchers to study these mechanisms not from the more traditional perspective of treaties and legal agreements but, rather, from the perspective of police officers in the field, who have to work on a daily basis with sometimes awkward policies. This research lead to specialized publications and scientific conferences in Europe, North America, and Australia. Alain was then offered a tenure-track position at the University of Sherbrooke, where he studied the management and the division of security mandates between public, private, and semipublic agencies. He also conducted research on the difficulties encountered by police organizations when they depart from more traditional policing methods in favor of community and problem-oriented policing. At the University of Sherbrooke, Alain taught the sociology of organizations, macroeconomy, and case studies in the management of security organizations. After 2 years at the University of Sherbrooke, he was hired at the École nationale de police du Québec in 2000, with a mandate of creating its first research unit. Alain is now the head of the Centre for Research in Police Activities of the École nationale de police du Québec. His recent work pertains to the sociology of security organizations and policing. More recently, he has been interested in ethical issues in police work as well as police attitudes and culture.

    Zubair Nawaz Chattha joined the Pakistan Air Force as a cadet in its Aeronautical Engineering branch and obtained an F. Sc. degree (with a major in aero sciences). On resigning from the Air Force in 1986, he continued his education at the Government College, Lahore, and majored in economics and political science. He then attended the Punjab University Law College, where he obtained a law degree in 1989.

    On passing the provincial services examination in 1991, Chattha joined the Excise and Taxation Department, where he worked as District Excise and Taxation Officer of Attock. He subsequently joined the Pakistan Police Service in 1995. As part of his duties, he was a member of the team responsible for developing Pakistan's first Motorway and National Highway Police in 1997, which developed high standards of efficiency and service with a low number of corruption and misconduct complaints. He was transferred to the Punjab police in 1998 and served in Lahore as Assistant Superintendent of Police in Naulakha and Iqbal Town. During his service in the Lahore Police, apart from policing activities, he also conducted research on the patterns of modern crime and the efficiency of the police organization.

    In 2001, he obtained an LL.M. degree from Harvard Law School. While a student at Harvard, he authored research papers on a variety of topics, including police misconduct, cybercrime, and the Kashmir issue. He also arranged a 1-day conference on prospects of peace in Kashmir. When he returned to Pakistan from the United States in June of 2001, he was promoted to Superintendent of Police Headquarters, Lahore. As part of his duties, he arranged many courses on human rights. During this period, he was closely associated with the members of National Reconstruction Bureau responsible for police reforms. After the promulgation of the Police Order of 2002, he finalized the plan to reorganize the Lahore Police (the second largest police department in Pakistan). He is currently serving in the newly formed Provincial Investigation Branch as a crime analyst.

    Maximilian Edelbacher was born in 1944 in Vienna, Austria. Between 1963 and 1968, he studied law at the University of Vienna. After performing a 1-year traineeship at court as an attorney candidate and having worked in the documentary L/C department of a bank, in 1972 he became a legal expert in the Bundespolizeidirektion Vienna, the headquarters of the Federal Police. Between 1976 and 1986, he was an expert on burglary, fraud, forgery, and prostitution with the Viennese Major Crime Bureau. From 1986 to 1988, he was the head of the homicide squad. From 1988 to 2002, Edelbacher was the chief of the Major Crime Bureau. Since November of 2002, he acts as chief of the Criminal Investigation Department South of Vienna. He has been working for the Federal Police Department for more than 30 years. In addition, Edelbacher is involved in the training of criminal investigators and executives. He is trainer in the leadership education of the Federal Police for the whole Austria, teacher in the Middle European Police Academy, and lecturer at the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration. Since 1995, he has been a member of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences (ACJS) and the International Association of Financial Crime Investigators (IAFCI). Since 1998, he has been Vice President of the IPES (International Police Executive Symposium). He has also been editor for Europe of the International Journal of Police Practice and Research. Between 2001 and 2003, he acted as President of the International Chapter of the ACJS.

    He was selected seven times as an expert for the Council of Europe in Prague in the Czech Republic, in Tilburg in The Netherlands, in Banská Bystrica in Slovakia, in Strasbourg in France, in Tallinn in Estonia, in Pristina in Kosovo, and in London, in Brussels, and in Moscow. He was also engaged three times as a consultant of the United Nations—in Skopje in Macedonia, in Bishkek in the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, and in Vienna at the 10th congress of the Crime Prevention Center.

    Edelbacher's publications include Viennese Criminal Chronicle (1993), Applied Criminalistics (3 vols., 1995), History of Insurance Fraud in Austria (1997), Organized Crime in Europe (1998), Security Management (1999), Fraud in the European Union (2001), and Crime Scene Vienna (2003). He has also written several book chapters in books published in the United States, Israel, Japan, and Hungary and various technical articles regarding police and criminalistic subjects.

    Börje Ekenvall has recently retired from his post as lecturer in law at the Swedish National Police Academy in Stockholm, where he taught for the past 25 years. During this time, he also lectured at Stockholm University's Faculty of Law. He began studying criminology some years ago, and has developed an interest in, among other things, the redistribution of drug offending in Stockholm (hot spots) as a result of various police measures. His research into police attitudes toward misconduct has to date resulted in the publication of two books and an article. He has also been inspired to continue research into the attitudes of both police cadets and other groups toward different forms of police misconduct. Börje Ekenvall has a master's degree in humanities from the University of Uppsala, a law degree from the University of Lund, and a postgraduate (licentiate) degree in criminology from the University of Stockholm.

    L.W.J.C. (Leo) Huberts is Professor in Police Studies and Criminal Justice and senior lecturer in Public Administration at the Department of Public Administration and Organization Science at the Faculty of Social Sciences of the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam in The Netherlands. He teaches courses in decision-making theory, public integrity, police studies and criminal justice, police management, and police integrity.

    Huberts has done research on political and administrative decision making and power, on public power and power abuse (including an international expert survey on corruption and fraud), on police integrity, and on police administration. He is director of the research program on “Integrity of Governance” of his department. The program includes projects on the amount of political and administrative corruption in The Netherlands, the history of public integrity, law- and rule-breaking by governmental actors, police corruption and integrity, the strategies to protect organizational integrity (including the importance of leadership), and the relationship between public and business ethics and values.

    He is author or editor of books on influence on governmental policy, on social movements, on public corruption and fraud, and on the Dutch police and police integrity. With Hans van den Heuvel he edited Integrity at the Public-Private Interface (1999), and with Cyrille Fijnaut he edited Corruption, Integrity and Law Enforcement (2002). For a Transparency International research project, Huberts did evaluation research on the National Integrity System of The Netherlands. His articles in English about public integrity have been published in Crime, Law and Social Change, the European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, and Public Integrity. Huberts is a fellow of the International Institute for Public Ethics, and he cochairs the Study Group on Ethics and Integrity of Governance of the European Group of Public Administration.

    David T. Johnson is Associate Professor of Sociology and Adjunct Professor of Law at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. He is the author of The Japanese Way of Justice: Prosecuting Crime in Japan (2002), which won the best book award from the American Society of Criminology's Division on International Criminology. Johnson has studied at Bethel College in Minnesota, the University of Chicago, the University of California at Berkeley, and Harvard University. He has lived in Japan for 5 years, has received two Fulbright grants to do research in Japan, and has lectured and studied at universities in Kobe and Tokyo. Johnson's current research is about corruption control in Japan, the United States, Italy, and South Korea, capital punishment in Japan, and law and social change in Japan. In 2000, he won the Regents Award for Excellence in Teaching, the University of Hawaii's highest honor for teachers.

    Ferenc Kremer is Associate Professor of Sociology and Political Science at Police College, Budapest, Hungary. He has been a consultant to the police since 2000. He received a Ph.D. in ancient Greek and Roman history and a Ph.D. in sociology from ELTE (Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem) in Budapest, Hungary. Kremer is the author of 20 scholarly articles, a sociology textbook for law enforcement students, and a book on police subculture and police corruption.

    His first steps in studying police and policing were supported by ECESP (East-Central European Scholarship Program of USAID). Then in 1996 he was a visiting scholar at George Washington University, Washington, D.C. for a semester. These studies formed starting points for Kremer's research of the Hungarian police.

    In the last few years, Kremer's domain has been police subculture and police corruption, especially with regard to identifying the police reform that is necessary in Hungary. His recent research is oriented to the problem of prejudice in policing and to a theoretical view of changing conditions and the role of social control.

    M.E.D. (Terry) Lamboo is a doctoral student researcher at the Department of Public Administration and Organization Science at the Faculty of Social Sciences of the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam in The Netherlands. She holds a master's degree in sociology and American studies, with a minor in criminology and policy analysis, from the University of Amsterdam. As an exchange student, she studied American studies and criminology at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis for a year.

    Currently, Lamboo is concluding her dissertation on the content and effectiveness of the integrity policies of the Dutch police and the Dutch Ministry of the Interior. For this research, she has conducted extensive case studies on three police forces, holding interviews with both management and street cops. Her research will result in a book to be published in 2004.

    A separate project has been Lamboo's analysis of the internal investigations of the Dutch police over the years 1997 and 1999, with Andrea Nieuwendijk and Magrete van der Steeg. Subsequently, this has lead to the development of a Monitor Internal Investigations Police. This Monitor has been applied to the internal investigations of the Dutch police over the years 1999 and 2000. The results have been published and received wide attention in the media. Further publications (in English) will be forthcoming from Lamboo.

    She also joined professors Maurice Punch and Leo Huberts in surveying Dutch police to measure their integrity by analyzing their perceptions of the misconduct in specific scenarios. The survey was undertaken in cooperation with Carl Klockars and his colleagues, and its results are the topic of their chapter in this volume. Her research interests include integrity and integrity policies for the public sector and most specifically for the police, police reform, and the cooperation between police and other institutions in the performance of police duties.

    Marie Torstensson Levander is Associate Professor in Sociology at Vaxjo University and Lund University, Sweden. She received her Ph.D. in sociology from Stockholm University.

    Torstensson Levander is interested in several topics in criminology and criminal justice. She has studied the etiology of drug abuse, female criminality, fear of crime, and community crime prevention. Her particular area of interest is policing strategies, and during the 1990s she made several studies of the implementation of problem-oriented policing in Sweden. At that time, she was also the head of the Research unit of the Swedish Police College.

    Torstensson Levander has published books, book chapters, and journal articles in the areas of policing, drug abuse and crime, female criminality, fear of crime, and crime prevention. Her work has appeared in journals such as the British Journal of Criminology, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, and the International Review of Victimology.

    Branko Lobnikar received his degree in sociology in 1993 from the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. He completed a master's degree in human resource management (HRM) at the University of Maribor, Slovenia, in 1999. He started his doctoral study in HRM at the same university in 2000, which he will complete in 2003 with his thesis, Aggressive and Violent Behavior Management in the Workplace.

    Lobnikar is the Vice Dean and the Head of Police Administration and Management Department at the College of Police and Security Studies, where he is also a Senior Lecturer in theories of police work and sociology. He is also a Senior Lecturer of Human Resource Management at the College of Entrepreneurship in Piran, Slovenia. In addition to his academic positions, Lobnikar is an employee of the Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Slovenia, in the rank of an Adviser to the Government. During his career, Lobnikar has been an Assistant Chief of Police and Police Inspector. He has published over 15 scientific and professional journal articles, presented papers at over 20 international and domestic conferences, and coauthored or edited some books and book chapters. His work has appeared in Security Journal, Kriminalistik, and the International Journal of Police Science and Management, among others.

    His current research interests are in the areas of police deviance, studies of aggressive behavior and violence in the workplace, the nature of human resources in public and private sector, and applications of management and organizational psychology in police organizations.

    Gareth Newham joined the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR) in August of 1998 as a researcher. He currently holds the position of Project Manager for the policing projects of the Criminal Justice Programme (CJP). The CSVR is a nonprofit, public interest organization that was initially established in 1989 to study the affects of apartheid state-sponsored violence on South African society. Today it is an organization consisting of approximately 65 people who work in six program areas dedicated to building a democratic society dedicated to human rights.

    Presently, Newham is managing a team of four researchers working in the following three areas: tackling police corruption, promoting police accountability, and improving witness management. The aim of the research is both to develop policy-relevant knowledge for police reform and to understand the requirements for culture change amongst police officers at station level in the South African context.

    During 1999, Newham started working with a large inner-city police station in Johannesburg that recorded one of the highest levels of serious and violent crime in South Africa. As a result of this work, he has managed to build a healthy working relationship with senior police managers who are dedicated to building a professional police agency able to combat crime and deliver police services effectively and equitably in a democratic society.

    He is also interested in training and was contracted as a facilitator by a consortium of universities to train senior station-level commanders throughout the country. Toward this end, he has helped develop and facilitate modules dealing with leadership, performance management, and the management of police corruption.

    Newham's other main area of interest in the criminal justice field is witness management and security. Consequently, he designed and managed the first independent research project on the country's National Witness Protection Programme. Prior to this, he researched and developed a policy document for the establishment of a witness protection programme for the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Before joining the CSVR, he spent a few years working for the Institute for Democracy in South Africa (IDASA), where he conceptualized, developed, and coordinated the Provincial Parliamentary Monitoring Project that worked toward facilitating public understanding of and access to the country's newly established provincial legislatures.

    Newham holds a bachelor of social sciences degree and a postgraduate honors degree in political studies from the University of Cape Town, a postgraduate diploma in applied research methodology from the University of Stellenbosch, and a master's degree in public and development management from the University of the Witwatersrand.

    Milan Pagon got his doctorate (Sc.D.) in organizational sciences in 1990 at the University of Maribor, Slovenia. In the period between 1990 and 1994, he was a Fulbright Scholar to the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, where he both studied and taught at the College of Business Administration. In 1994 he was awarded a Ph.D. in management.

    During his police career, Pagon has been an Educator at the Police High School, a Detective, a Deputy Commander and a Commander of Police Station, a Police Inspector, and a State Undersecretary at the Ministry of the Interior. Outside the police, he has been an Assistant Director of the Personnel Agency of Slovenia, a Human Resource Manager at a chemical company, a Teaching Assistant, an Assistant Professor, and an Associate Professor. In 1995, he was elected Dean of the College of Police and Security Studies, a duty that he initially performed for 3 years. In 2001, he was again elected Dean, the position that he is currently holding. In 2003, Pagon was elected to the rank of Full Professor. In addition to his administrative and teaching duties at the College of Police and Security Studies, he is also Professor of Organizational Behavior at the Faculty of Organizational Sciences, University of Maribor.

    Pagon was invited in the summers of 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 to serve as a Visiting Professor at the University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, where he taught the courses “Concepts of Management and Organizational Behavior” and “Human Resource Management” at the Sam M. Walton College of Business.

    Pagon is a member of the following professional and scientific associations: the Academy of Management, Honorary Management Fraternity Sigma Iota Epsilon, International Society for Human Resource Management, Society of International Scholars Phi Beta Delta, American Psychological Society, American Society for Criminology, Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, American Association of University Professors, International Police Association, and the Association of Professors of the University of Maribor.

    He was a founding father and the Chairman of the Program Committee of the International Biennial Conference “Policing in Central and Eastern Europe,” of which there have been four, with the following subtitles: “Comparing Firsthand Knowledge with Experience From the West” in 1996, “Organizational, Managerial, and Human Resource Aspects” in 1998, “Ethics, Integrity, and Human Rights” in 2000, and “Deviance, Violence, and Victimization” in 2002.

    In his research, Pagon has collaborated with some of the top international researchers in the fields of management and police work: Daniel C. Ganster, Paul E. Spector, and Carl B. Klockars from the United States and Cary L. Cooper from the United Kingdom. These cooperative efforts have produced papers at scientific conferences and publications in the best international journals.

    Pagon was also appointed to the editorial board of two international and one domestic journal, namely Stress & Health and the International Journal of Police Science and Management and Varstvoslovje: Journal of Security Theory and Praxeology.

    He also serves as a reviewer for one international and two domestic journals, namely Stress & Health and Varstvoslovje, and Organization: Journal of Management, Informatics, and Human Resources.

    Maurice Punch studied at the universities of Exeter, London, Cambridge, and Essex, earning an M.A. in 1966 and a Ph.D. in 1972. He has worked at Essex University, University of Utrecht, S.U.N.Y. Albany, and Nyenrode University (The Netherlands Business School) and has given numerous lectures, seminars, and courses in several countries (including Spain, Italy, and Finland). In the United Kingdom, he specialized in the sociology of education, and in The Netherlands (where he has lived since 1975), he has researched corporate crime, regulation, and control in business and also deviance, corruption, integrity, and reform of the police organization. He has published in English, Dutch, French, and American journals and has written several books, including Dirty Business: Exploring Corporate Misconduct (1996). His latest book, with Jim Gobert (of the University of Essex), is Rethinking Corporate Crime (2003). After 16 years as Professor of Sociology at Nyenrode, where he performed many administrative functions and set up the International M.B.A. Programme, he became an independent researcher and consultant in 1994. Since then he has researched crises in policing in Britain, Belgium, and The Netherlands; taught in the National Police Training (Bramshill) and University of Cambridge program in applied criminology for senior police officers in the United Kingdom; and taught in various executive programs for managers, bankers, and consultants—including seminars on ethics, integrity, and control. In 1999, he became Visiting Professor at the Mannheim Centre for the Study of Criminology and Criminal Justice, London School of Economics, where he teaches primarily in the areas of policing and corporate crime. In The Netherlands he was on the board of R.B.C. Network for several years and, with colleagues from R.B.C. Network, he engaged in studies of organizations that led to strategic interventions. He has been involved in numerous conferences as presenter, organizer, and chair, including contributions for the Council of Europe, United Nations, and National Institute of Justice; he organized and chaired panels at the Global Forum on Fighting Corruption and Safeguarding Integrity II in The Hague and at the International Anti-Corruption Conference in Prague in 2001.

    Anne Puonti has a master's degree in education and she is finishing her doctoral dissertation on the collaboration among authorities (such as the police, the tax authority, the enforcement authority, and the prosecutor) in economic crime investigation. Her research focuses on how collaboration and a shared investigation process are constructed between the authorities in practice when their organizational tasks and goals are so divergent. She worked as a researcher and a doctoral student at the Center for Activity Theory and Developmental Work Research (National Center for Excellence 2000–2005) from 1999 to 2002. Currently, she works as a development manager at the National Bureau of Investigation, Finland.

    Sami Vuorinen is a licentiate of public administration. He worked as a criminologist researching economic crime at the National Research Institute of Legal Policy, Finland, between 1997 and 2002. His latest study describes police practice in the investigation of economic crime and suggests factors that affect the success and length of investigations. Currently, he is employed as a senior auditor at the State Audit Office, Finland. In addition to this, he is currently working on a doctoral thesis on how Finnish economic life prevents the development of a gray economy and whether the measures carried out to ensure this economic life have taken or could conceivably take the place of official supervision to a certain degree.

    Louise Westmarland is Lecturer in Criminology at the Open University in the United Kingdom. Her research interests include gender and policing, corruption, ethics, and integrity in the criminal justice system. She is also interested in ethnographic research methods in criminology, and in danger, fear, and ethics in situations where privileged access leads to dilemmas for researchers. Her recent key projects have included the first published ethnography of gender and policing conducted in the United Kingdom and research on police informers and how they are regulated—and the effect of this on rights and justice. Her first degree was a bachelor's with honors in sociology from the University of York (in the United Kingdom). She then studied for a Ph.D. in sociology and social policy at the University of Durham, supervised by Professor Dick Hobbs. The title of her thesis was An Ethnography of Gendered Policing. Prior to her current employment as Lecturer in Criminology at the Open University in Milton Keynes, Westmarland held a research post at the University of Durham and was a Research Fellow in Department of Sociology, University of York. She has held lecturships at University College Scarborough, Teesside University, and the Scarman Centre, University of Leicester. In her current post at the Open University, she is Course Chair of an undergraduate criminology degree course titled “Crime, Order and Social Control.”

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