The Blended Learning Blueprint for Elementary Teachers

Books

Jayme Linton

  • Citations
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  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    Acknowledgements

    For Ken, who would have been the first to read it.

    Preface

    Rationale

    Districts, schools, and teachers are turning to blended learning as a way to leverage devices for student success. Although fully brick-and-mortar and fully virtual learning environments offer benefits to various types of learners, a blend of face-to-face and online learning opportunities has the potential to increase K–12 student learning and engagement. This is particularly true in elementary classrooms, where students and their families typically have fewer options beyond the brick-and-mortar school. Blended learning enables teachers to take advantage of the affordances of technology while increasing the impact of face-to-face instruction. Through purposeful design and facilitation of face-to-face and online learning experiences, teachers can meet the needs of each learner and manage personalized learning pathways for students.

    School districts tend to focus their technology efforts (funds, professional development, and policies) on high school students to equip them for their futures in higher education and the workforce. Programs that involve purchasing a device for every student (1-to-1) or enable students to bring devices from home (BYOD) tend to be targeted at our oldest K–12 students. This leads elementary teachers to seek out their own solutions for leveraging technology to shift teaching and learning in their classrooms.

    I argue that blended learning is a natural fit for the elementary classroom, where many teachers already think flexibly about the learning environment, resources, and time in order to meet diverse student needs. However, making the shift to blended learning requires intentional planning and support. As more and more classrooms become settings for blended learning, teachers and school and district leaders need to develop a shared understanding of the characteristics of effective instruction in blended environments. Blended learning involves more than simply adding devices to a traditional classroom model. However, in many schools implementing blended learning, the conversation quickly shifts to devices while overlooking the essential foundations of a blended learning environment.

    The goal of this book is to help guide elementary teachers through the transition toward blended learning, focusing on support for the most critical component of an effective blended environment: the teacher. This book aims to help elementary educators working in or transitioning toward blended settings develop a blueprint for successful implementation of blended learning in their classrooms.

    Organization

    The iNACOL Blended Learning Teacher Competency Framework, a framework outlining the characteristics of successful blended teachers, provides a common lens and shared language for this book. The first chapter of the book provides an in-depth look at the competency framework to foster a deeper understanding of the teacher competencies needed for effective blended learning environments. As teachers read Chapter 1, they will identify their own strengths and needs related to the blended teacher competencies.

    The remainder of the book serves as a guide to support teachers through a successful transition to blended instruction. Teachers will be guided through the development of a blueprint for designing and facilitating blended learning in their classrooms. This book will serve as a workbook, providing strategies and examples of blended learning in elementary classrooms along with opportunities for teachers to design and reflect on their own plans for blended instruction. This format will make visible the instructional decisions of effective blended teachers, helping make quality blended instruction transparent and actionable.

    Features of each chapter focus on blended learning in action, including images, lesson plans, student work samples, and digital resources.

    Readers will be able to

    • Reflect on the competencies needed for effective blended instruction
    • Explore strategies and methods for blended learning environments
    • Design a blueprint for implementing blended learning in their classrooms
    • Evaluate and reflect on instruction in their own blended contexts

    This book aims to take the mystery out of effective blended teaching and provide a guide to support elementary teachers in designing and facilitating blended learning. By crafting a blueprint, readers will design their own personalized implementation plans for blended learning.

    Possible Uses

    This guidebook is designed to help K–5 teachers develop and carry out a plan for effective instruction in blended environments. Serving as a step-by-step guide, this book will present the competencies blended teachers need and strategies for developing those competencies and prompt teachers to develop a personalized implementation plan for successful blended instruction. Elementary teachers and school and district leaders could use this book to assist with the design and facilitation of quality blended learning experiences. In addition to supporting individual teachers in developing competencies for blended learning, schools and districts can use this book to develop a shared understanding of quality blended learning environments and work collaboratively to leverage blended methods for student learning.

    Educators who provide professional development for elementary teachers, including instructional technology facilitators, instructional coaches, and others, could use this book to design face-to-face, blended, and online professional development for blended teachers. Each section of the book could be the focus of a professional development session. Professional development providers could use the book as a guide during hands-on, application-based professional development as teachers create or redesign blended learning opportunities based on ideas and resources provided in the book.

    University instructors could use this book as required or suggested reading in courses focused on blended teaching methods. In those courses, undergraduate and graduate students could use the book as a guide to complete course assignments and apply effective blended teaching methods in their coursework, blended teaching practica, and K–12 blended learning environments.

    Acknowledgments

    This book would not be possible without the inspiration, effort, and support of many incredible educators. Thank you to the teachers and administrators at the Shuford School of Blended Learning in Newton-Conover City Schools and Oakwood Elementary in Hickory Public Schools. I would especially like to thank Jessica Fitzgerald, Melissa White, and Caitlan Reese for welcoming me into their classrooms and their principals, Patrick Nelson and Dr. Jennifer Griffin, who supported this project. Thanks also to Tammy Brown, Stacey Mrazek, and Dr. David Stegall for their contributions and support. I’m grateful that my children, along with many others, have benefited from the passion, talent, and hard work of the educators featured in this book.

    I also owe a debt of gratitude to my colleagues in the School of Education at Lenoir-Rhyne University who tirelessly support preservice teachers and who have improved the quality of learning for students in so many classrooms. They constantly raise the bar for teaching and learning, and I am grateful to be among them. Go Bears!

    No amount of effort on my part would have been sufficient to lead to the publication of this book without the support and constant encouragement of my family. My mother, Lynne Morris, has been my cheerleader and my editor for many years, and she continues to challenge me to be better as an educator, a scholar, and a person. My husband, Angelos, makes what I do possible. Thank you for giving me time to write. Thanks also to my sweet Annie and Deacon, who make me prouder than anything else in my life. I’m so blessed to be your mom.

    Publisher’s Acknowledgments

    Corwin gratefully acknowledges the following reviewers for their editorial insight and guidance:

    • Tamara Daugherty, Fourth-Grade Teacher
    • Zellwood Elementary
    • Zellwood, Florida
    • Kendra Hanzlik, Instructional Coach
    • Prairie Hill Elementary
    • Cedar Rapids, Iowa
    • Tanna Nicely, Executive Principal
    • South Knoxville Elementary
    • Knoxville, Tennessee

    About the Author

    Dr. Jayme Linton is Assistant Professor of Education at Lenoir-Rhyne University in Hickory, North Carolina. Jayme is married to a high-energy husband and mom to two fun-loving children, ages ten and six. Jayme developed and coordinates Lenoir-Rhyne’s graduate program in online teaching and instructional design. She received her PhD in teacher education from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, a bachelor’s degree in elementary education from Western Carolina University, and a master’s degree in curriculum and instruction from Appalachian State University. Previously, she held positions as instructional technology facilitator, staff development coordinator, instructional coach, and elementary teacher. She was recognized by the National School Board Association as one of the “20 to Watch” for 2012–2013 and was selected for the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE)’s Making IT Happen Award by the North Carolina Technology in Education Society (NCTIES) in 2013. Her research and professional learning focus on preparation and support for online instructors, online and blended learning communities for educators, blended learning in K–12, personal learning networks for preservice teachers, and professional learning for technology integration.

  • Appendices

    Blueprint for Blended Learning

    1. Crafting Your Vision

    a. What is your purpose? Why blended learning?

    b. How can you adapt existing blended learning models for your own context?

    c. What is the role of the teacher?

    d. What is the role of the student?

    e. What teaching practices are getting in the way of effective blended learning?

    f. How can you redesign the learning space to support blended learning?

    2. Maximizing Instructional Time

    a. What is the best way to use face-to-face instructional time?

    b. What is the best way to use digital learning opportunities?

    c. How can you rethink your daily/weekly schedule to leverage blended opportunities?

    d. How can you think about content in a more interconnected way?

    e. How can you “clone” yourself to provide multiple instances of targeted instruction?

    f. What are some missed opportunities resulting from how you use instructional time?

    3. Making It Personal

    a. How can you move from differentiated instruction toward personalized learning?

    b. Sketch a design for personalized pathways.

    c. How can you give students control over time, place, path, and pace?

    d. What routines and procedures do you need to establish, teach, and practice?

    e. What will be the teacher’s role as students work on pathway tasks?

    f. What challenges do you anticipate? How might you solve them?

    4. Empowering Students

    a. In what ways do students have agency over their learning?

    b. What are opportunities for increasing student agency and empowerment?

    c. How can you leverage assessments to help students make learning decisions?

    d. What structures and processes can help students manage data and set goals?

    e. How can you authentically model data tracking and goal-setting?

    f. How can you tap into students’ interests and passions?

    5. Expanding Your Toolbox

    a. How can you leverage technology to create collaborative learning opportunities?

    b. How can you leverage technology to amplify student voice?

    c. How can students use technology to connect with an authentic audience?

    d. How can you leverage adaptive tools for self-paced learning?

    e. Which technologies best support your vision for blended learning?

    f. What criteria can help you evaluate new technologies?

    6. Professional Learning

    a. How can you leverage technology to connect with stakeholders?

    b. How can technology increase or improve your collaboration with colleagues?

    c. What technologies can you leverage for personalized professional learning?

    d. What are your professional learning needs related to blended and personalized learning?

    e. Who can support you with implementing your blended learning blueprint?

    f. How can you support other educators with blended learning?

    7. Getting Started

    a. Based on your reflections in Chapters 1 through 7, what are your next steps?

    b. What is a realistic timeline for implementing each section of your blueprint?

    c. What is your vision for blended learning in three months? Six months? One year? Two years?

    d. What challenges do you anticipate as you carry out your vision? Brainstorm solutions.

    e. What are possible indicators of success with blended learning implementation?

    f. How can you work to integrate students’ face-to-face and digital learning?

    iNACOL Blended Learning Teacher Competency Framework

    Source: The International Association for K–12 Online Learning (iNACOL). 2014. iNACOL Blended Learning Teacher Competencies Framework. http://www.inacol.org/resource/inacol-blended-learning-teacher-competency-framework/

    Reflecting on the iNACOL Blended Learning Teacher Competencies

    As you work to develop the competencies needed for successful implementation of blended learning, where do your strengths lie? Which competencies are opportunities for growth? Which of these competencies can help you take blended learning to the next level in your classroom? Use the following tables to reflect on each competency and standard, identifying areas of strength and opportunities for growth. Along with each standard, you will find questions you can use to guide your own reflection and self-assessment. Consider using a digital journal or blog to make time and space for reflection as you design your blueprint.

    Mindsets
    Reflect on a New Vision for Teaching and Learning

    Standard

    Questions to Guide Reflection

    Reflection

    Standard A: Shift from teacher-led instruction to student-centered learning for the purposes of meeting individual needs and fostering engagement and motivation.

    How can I include student choice and interests? How will students be active learners? How can I incorporate purposeful talk among learners? How will students use technology?

    Standard B: Value collaboration with various stakeholders to enhance student learning.

    Who can support teaching and learning in my classroom? With whom could my students connect to extend their learning opportunities?

    Standard C: Create learning environments that are flexible and personalized, dependent on real-time data, direct observation, and interaction with and feedback from students.

    How might I reenvision this space? Where can I create flexible learning spaces? How can I involve students in redesigning the space?

    Standard D: Model a growth orientation toward learning for self and others.

    What are my strengths? What can I improve? How can I foster a growth mindset in students? What language can I use to model a growth mindset?

    Standard E: Have an entrepreneurial spirit, and possess creativity, imagination, and drive.

    What classroom procedure, concept, or idea can I approach in a different way?

    Reflect on an Orientation Toward Change and Improvement

    Standard

    Questions to Guide Reflection

    Reflection

    Standard A: Embrace change and model this for others.

    What is not working well and how can I improve it? What new technique have I learned about but not tried?

    Standard B: Proactively initiate change in response to students’ needs and progress.

    According to data on student learning, what changes are needed? What practice do I need to add, change, or remove?

    Standard C: Embrace uncertainty and ambiguity as part of improving teacher and learning practices.

    What am I wondering about my students? What is unclear? Who can help me see what I may be missing?

    Standard D: Model and encourage others to be independent and self-directed learners.

    What are my personal and professional learning needs and interests? What resources and tools can I use to learn?

    Standard E: Demonstrate the professional responsibility to contribute to the effectiveness, innovation, vitality, and self-renewal of the teaching profession, as well as to their [teachers’] school and community.

    How can I share what I am learning? How might my teaching practices affect the teaching of others? What do I need to share with my colleagues?

    Qualities
    Reflecting on Grit

    Standard

    Questions to Guide Reflection

    Reflection

    Standard A: Engage in deliberate practice and persevere toward ambitious, long-term educational and professional goals.

    What are my professional learning goals? What is my plan for accomplishing those goals? How can I share my goals with others? How might I overcome potential roadblocks and challenges?

    Standard B: Maintain and model persistence, confidence, and optimism to resolve issues.

    What current challenge am I facing? What resources and strategies are available? How can I help others resolve issues?

    Reflecting on Transparency

    Standard

    Questions to Guide Reflection

    Reflection

    Standard A: Openly and frequently share successes, failures, and challenges.

    What is working well and what isn’t? How can I share my failures and successes with students and colleagues?

    Standard B: Look objectively at all results (both positive and negative), and help others to do the same.

    What do the data reveal? What might I be missing in my data analysis? How can I help colleagues analyze results?

    Reflecting on Collaboration

    Standard

    Questions to Guide Reflection

    Reflection

    Standard A: Balance individual initiative with teamwork to accomplish organizational objectives.

    What goals is my team working toward? What is my role in helping the team meet those goals? What can I contribute?

    Standard B: Proactively seek to learn from and with other experts in the field.

    What face-to-face and online opportunities are available to learn from and alongside other educators?

    Adaptive Skills
    Reflecting on Reflection

    Standard

    Questions to Guide Reflection

    Reflection

    Standard A: Continuously take note of what is or is not working (via student-level data, technology applications, pedagogical strategies, supervisor feedback, etc.) and identify a plan of action.

    What do the data reveal about progress toward student learning goals? What data sources am I using? What additional data sources may be available? What should I celebrate? What are areas for improvement? What strategies can I implement to address those needs?

    Standard B: Collaboratively, transparently, and proactively seek out feedback from students, parents, and colleagues to continuously improve instruction and teaching practices.

    How can I gather feedback on my teaching? Whose input do I currently have? What perspectives are missing?

    Standard C: Apply lessons and takeaways about their [teachers’] own experiences as learners, both online and offline, to their work with students.

    How can my own learning experiences affect my instruction? What works for me as a learner? How might I use that in my teaching?

    Reflecting on Continuous Improvement and Innovation

    Standard

    Questions to Guide Reflection

    Reflection

    Standard A: Engage in problem solving through continuous planning, designing, testing, evaluation, and recalibration of teaching methods.

    What new or revised teaching method have you used? What new or revised teaching method might you try? How have you/can you gather data to determine their effectiveness?

    Standard B: Use technology creatively and purposefully to work effectively and efficiently.

    What technologies do you use to increase productivity, effectiveness, and efficiency? What process could you improve through technology?

    Reflecting on Communication

    Standard

    Questions to Guide Reflection

    Reflection

    Standard A: Connect learners to sources of information beyond the classroom teacher and textbook.

    What sources of information do students have access to at school and outside school? How can I design learning opportunities to leverage those sources?

    Standard B: Establish and maintain open communication channels, online and in-person, with students, educators, and other stakeholders to support student learning.

    What face-to-face and online communication channels do I and can I use with students, families, colleagues, and others? How can I leverage online communication for student learning?

    Technical Skills
    Reflecting on Data Practices

    Standard

    Questions to Guide Reflection

    Reflection

    Standard A: Use qualitative and quantitative data to understand individual skills, gaps, strengths, weaknesses, interests, and aspirations of each student, and use that information to personalize learning experiences.

    How do you gather ongoing data about student strengths, gaps, interests, and goals? How do you use that data to personalize learning experiences? What additional data sources might you use?

    Standard B: Continually assess student progress against clearly defined standards, goals, and outcomes to identify specific topics in which each student needs additional support to achieve mastery of a concept or skill.

    How do you determine goals for student learning? How do you communicate those goals with students? What data do you use to assess progress toward those goals?

    Standard C: Use data from multiple sources, including data systems, in a complementary way to inform and adjust individual student instruction and groupings.

    What do the data reveal about student learning? What are the learning needs of specific students and groups of students? How do I and can I use flexible grouping?

    Standard D: Create ways to move ownership and analysis of data to students to promote independent learning.

    How are students involved in data collection and goal-setting? How do I share data about student learning with students? How can I move ownership of data to students?

    Standard E: Continually evaluate technologies, tools, and instructional strategies to ensure their effectiveness.

    How do I determine the effectiveness of strategies and tools? Which strategies and tools are working and which are not?

    Reflecting on Instructional Strategies

    Standard

    Questions to Guide Reflection

    Reflection

    Standard A: Provide resources for students to learn content and enable them to work independently and/or in cooperative groups.

    How do I use the learning management system to provide content? In what ways do students work independently and cooperatively? What new opportunities might I create for independent and collaborative learning?

    Standard B: Provide resources for students to create evidence of their knowledge in a variety of formats to demonstrate mastery.

    How do students show what they know? How might I provide choice in how students show what they know?

    Standard C: Create customized learning pathways with students, where learning goals and objectives are linked to explicit and diverse learning experiences, matched to the individual student’s learning performance level and preferences.

    How is learning personalized for students? What is the role of students in developing individualized learning pathways? How can I create new, diverse pathways linked to individual students’ learning needs and goals?

    Standard D: Tailor content and instructional strategies to individual learning goals, needs, and interests.

    How are my instructional strategies matched to student learning needs, goals, and interests? How might I add more variety to my instructional strategies?

    Standard E: Create pedagogical approaches and learning experiences that promote content-based problem solving and online collaboration.

    How often do my students engage in face-to-face and online collaborative problem solving? How might I use project-based learning to promote authentic problem solving and collaboration?

    Reflecting on Management of Blended Learning Experience

    Standard

    Questions to Guide Reflection

    Reflection

    Standard A: Understand and manage the face-to-face and online components of lesson planning and organization within a blended course.

    What model of blended learning do I currently use? What management challenges do I face? How can I better manage face-to-face and online instruction?

    Standard B: Provide balanced opportunities for students to participate in asynchronous and synchronous modalities.

    What synchronous and asynchronous tools would work well with my learners? How might I use them to provide opportunities for online discussions?

    Standard C: Develop, practice, model, and embody respectful behaviors in both face-to-face and online learning environments.

    How do you model and explicitly teach respectful behaviors face-to-face and online? What specific behaviors do your students need to learn?

    Standard D: Demonstrate technical troubleshooting skills during the online component of learning (e.g., change passwords, download plug-ins, etc.).

    What potential technical difficulties may pose a challenge during online instruction? How can I proactively address those challenges?

    Reflecting on Instructional Tools

    Standard

    Questions to Guide Reflection

    Reflection

    Standard A: Use learning management system and/or other online collaborative tools to organize and manage the blended learning environment.

    How am I currently using the learning management system and other online collaborative tools? How can these tools help me manage blended learning? What tools do I need to learn and implement?

    Standard B: Demonstrate skill in the evaluation, selection, and use of effective instructional materials, tools, strategies, and resources for students, and engage students in this process to help their achievement and development of academic skills.

    How do I identify, evaluate, and use instructional strategies, materials, and tools? What should I consider when evaluating new strategies, materials, and tools? How can I involve students in this process?

    Standard C: Provide assistive technologies to facilitate learning.

    What current learning needs should I address through assistive technologies? What assistive technologies are available to me? What assistive technologies do students need that are not currently available?

    Recommended Reading
    Print Resources
    • Action Research: Improving Schools and Empowering Educators (5th edition), by Craig A. Mertler
    • Blended: Using Disruptive Innovation to Improve Schools, by Michael B. Horn and Heather Staker
    • Building Successful Communities of Practice, by Emily Webber
    • Crucial Conversations, by Kerry Patterson, Joseph Grenny, Ron McMillan, Al Switzler, and Laura Roppe
    • Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance, by Angela Duckworth
    • How Children Succeed: Grit, Curiosity, and the Hidden Power of Character, by Paul Tough
    • The Innovator’s Mindset: Empower Learning, Unleash Talent, and Lead a Culture of Creativity, by George Couros
    • Learning by Doing: A Handbook for Professional Learning Communities at Work, by Richard DuFour, Rebecca DuFour, Robert Eaker, and Thomas W. Many
    • Mindset: The New Psychology of Success, by Carol Dweck
    • Professional Learning Communities at Work and Virtual Collaboration: On the Tipping Point of Transformation, by Richard DuFour and Casey Reason
    • Protocols for Professional Learning, by Lois Brown Easton
    • The Relevant Educator: How Connectedness Empowers Learning, by Tom Whitby and Steven W. Anderson
    • Transparency: How Leaders Create a Culture of Candor, by Warren Bennis, Daniel Goleman, James O’Toole, and Patricia Ward Biederman
    Web Resources
    Guide for Coaching and Supporting Blended Teachers
    Mindsets
    Understood, adopted, and committed to

    Competency 1: New Vision for Teaching and Learning

    Standards

    Questions to Guide Planning, Reflection, and Goal-Setting

    Coaching Strategies

    1A: Shift from teacher-led instruction to student-centered learning for the purposes of meeting individual needs and fostering engagement and motivation.

    How can I include student choice and interests? How will students be active learners? How can I incorporate purposeful talk among learners? How will students use technology?

    Model in classrooms and through videos. Observe classrooms with a focus on student-centered learning.

    1B: Value collaboration with various stakeholders to enhance student learning.

    Who can support teaching and learning in my classroom? With whom could my students connect to extend their learning opportunities?

    Bring in others for collaborative planning. Connect teachers with external resources virtually and in person.

    1C: Create learning environments that are flexible and personalized, dependent on real-time data, direct observation, and interaction with and feedback from students.

    How might I reenvision this space? Where can I create flexible learning spaces? How can I involve students in redesigning the space?

    Visit innovative spaces. Model flexible spaces in classrooms and other school areas.

    1D: Model a growth-orientation toward learning for self and others.

    What are my strengths? What can I improve? How can I foster a growth mindset in students? What language can I use to model a growth mindset?

    Model growth mindset. Share articles, books, and resources for teachers and students.

    1E: Have an entrepreneurial spirit, and possess creativity, imagination, and drive.

    What classroom procedure, concept, or idea can I approach in a different way?

    Provide time and space for play and exploration.

    Competency 2: Orientation Toward Change and Improvement

    Standards

    Questions to Guide Planning, Reflection, and Goal-Setting

    Coaching Strategies

    2A: Embrace change and model this for others.

    What is not working well and how can I improve it? What new technique have I learned about but not tried?

    Be transparent about change for improvement.

    Celebrate change.

    2B: Proactively initiate change in response to students’ needs and progress.

    According to data on student learning, what changes are needed? What practice do I need to add, change, or remove?

    Assist with data analysis. Brainstorm changes to address learning needs.

    2C: Embrace uncertainty and ambiguity as part of improving teacher and learning practices.

    What am I wondering about my students? What is unclear? Who can help me see what I may be missing?

    Observe and provide honest feedback.

    2D: Model and encourage others to be independent and self-directed learners.

    What are my personal and professional learning needs and interests? What resources and tools can I use to learn?

    Model and provide opportunities for self-directed learning.

    2E: Demonstrate the professional responsibility to contribute to the effectiveness, innovation, vitality, and self-renewal of the teaching profession, as well as to their [teachers’] school and community.

    How can I share what I am learning? How might my teaching practices affect the teaching of others? What do I need to share with my colleagues?

    Model and provide opportunities for contributing to the school, community, and profession.

    Qualities
    Coached, encouraged, and reinforced

    Competency 1: Grit

    Standards

    Questions to Guide Planning, Reflection, and Goal-Setting

    Coaching Strategies

    1A: Engage in deliberate practice and persevere toward ambitious, long-term educational and professional goals.

    What are my professional learning goals? What is my plan for accomplishing those goals? How can I share my goals with others? How might I overcome potential roadblocks and challenges?

    Model perseverance toward goals. Assist with development of professional learning plans.

    1B: Maintain and model persistence, confidence, and optimism to resolve issues.

    What current challenge am I facing? What resources and strategies are available? How can I help others resolve issues?

    Collaborate in problem solving. Celebrate small wins.

    Competency 2: Transparency

    Standards

    Questions to Guide Planning, Reflection, and Goal-Setting

    Coaching Strategies

    2A: Openly and frequently share successes, failures, and challenges.

    What is working well and what isn’t? How can I share my failures and successes with students and colleagues?

    Create and facilitate opportunities for celebration.

    2B: Look objectively at all results (both positive and negative), and help others to do the same.

    What do the data reveal? What might I be missing in my data analysis? How can I help colleagues analyze results?

    Facilitate data analysis. Provide objective feedback.

    Competency 3: Collaboration

    Standards

    Questions to Guide Planning, Reflection, and Goal-Setting

    Coaching Strategies

    3A: Balance individual initiative with teamwork to accomplish organizational objectives.

    What goals is my team working toward? What is my role in helping the team meet those goals? What can I contribute?

    Model individual initiative and teamwork. Facilitate goal-setting.

    3B: Proactively seek to learn from and with other experts in the field.

    What face-to-face and online opportunities are available to learn from and alongside other educators?

    Provide opportunities to teach and learn from others.

    Adaptive Skills
    Developed through modeling, coaching, and reflective practice

    Competency 1: Reflection

    Standards

    Questions to Guide Planning, Reflection, and Goal-Setting

    Coaching Strategies

    1A: Continuously take note of what is or is not working (via student-level data, technology applications, pedagogical strategies, supervisor feedback, etc.) and identify a plan of action.

    What do the data reveal about progress toward student learning goals? What data sources am I using? What additional data sources may be available? What should I celebrate? What are areas for improvement? What strategies can I implement to address those needs?

    Facilitate data analysis. Provide data through observations and feedback. Assist with development of action plans.

    1B: Collaboratively, transparently, and proactively seek out feedback from students, parents, and colleagues to continuously improve instruction and teaching practices.

    How can I gather feedback on my teaching? Whose input do I currently have? What perspectives are missing?

    Provide feedback on teaching practices. Create opportunities for collaborative feedback.

    1C: Apply lessons and takeaways about their [teachers’] own experiences as learners, both online and offline, to their work with students.

    How can my own learning experiences affect my instruction? What works for me as a learner? How might I use that in my teaching?

    Provide professional learning opportunities and encourage teacher reflection.

    Competency 2: Continuous Improvement and Innovation

    Standards

    Questions to Guide Planning, Reflection, and Goal-Setting

    Coaching Strategies

    2A: Engage in problem solving through continuous planning, designing, testing, evaluation, and recalibration of teaching methods.

    What new or revised teaching method have you used? What new or revised teaching method might you try? How have you/can you gather data to determine their effectiveness?

    Teach and model the design process as a way to design and test innovative teaching methods.

    2B: Use technology creatively and purposefully to work effectively and efficiently.

    What technologies do you use to increase productivity, effectiveness, and efficiency? What process could you improve through technology?

    Model creative and purposeful uses of technology. Provide professional learning.

    Competency 3: Communication

    Standards

    Questions to Guide Planning, Reflection, and Goal-Setting

    Coaching Strategies

    3A: Connect learners to sources of information beyond the classroom, teacher, and textbook.

    What sources of information do students have access to at school and outside school? How can I design learning opportunities to leverage those sources?

    Assist with development, curation, and evaluation of digital content.

    3B: Establish and maintain open communication channels, online and in-person, with students, educators, and other stakeholders to support student learning.

    What face-to-face and online communication channels do I and can I use with students, families, colleagues, and others? How can I leverage online communication for student learning?

    Model effective in-person and online communication. Assist with school-wide communication.

    Technical Skills
    Acquired and mastered through instruction, training, and practice

    Competency 1: Data Practices

    Standards

    Questions to Guide Planning, Reflection, and Goal-Setting

    Coaching Strategies

    1A: Use qualitative and quantitative data to understand individual skills, gaps, strengths, weaknesses, interests, and aspirations of each student, and use that information to personalize learning experiences.

    How do you gather ongoing data about student strengths, gaps, interests, and goals? How do you use that data to personalize learning experiences? What additional data sources might you use?

    Model personalized learning for teachers. Facilitate data analysis. Assist with development of data collection plans.

    1B: Continually assess student progress against clearly defined standards, goals, and outcomes to identify specific topics in which each student needs additional support to achieve mastery of a concept or skill.

    How do you determine goals for student learning? How do you communicate those goals with students? What data do you use to assess progress toward those goals?

    Facilitate goal-setting and data analysis. Assist with development of personalized learning plans for students.

    1C: Use data from multiple sources, including data systems, in a complementary way to inform and adjust individual student instruction and groupings.

    What do the data reveal about student learning? What are the learning needs of specific students and groups of students? How do I and can I use flexible grouping?

    Assist with locating data sources and analyzing data. Model the use of data for flexible grouping.

    1D: Create ways to move ownership and analysis of data to students to promote independent learning.

    How are students involved in data collection and goal-setting? How do I share data about student learning with students? How can I move ownership of data to students?

    Assist with data notebooking and student-led conferencing.

    1E: Continually evaluate technologies, tools, and instructional strategies to ensure their effectiveness.

    How do I determine the effectiveness of strategies and tools? Which strategies and tools are working and which are not?

    Create and facilitate processes for ongoing evaluation of strategies and tools.

    Competency 2: Instructional Strategies

    Standards

    Questions to Guide Planning, Reflection, and Goal-Setting

    Coaching Strategies

    2A: Provide resources for students to learn content and enable them to work independently and/or in cooperative groups.

    How do I use the learning management system to provide content? In what ways do students work independently and cooperatively? What new opportunities might I create for independent and collaborative learning?

    Provide professional learning for instructional design. Assist with designing collaborative learning opportunities.

    Competency 2: Instructional Strategies

    Standards

    Questions to Guide Planning, Reflection, and Goal-Setting

    Coaching Strategies

    2B: Provide resources for students to create evidence of their knowledge in a variety of formats to demonstrate mastery.

    How do students show what they know? How might I provide choice in how students show what they know?

    Create a database of student work samples as a model for teachers.

    2C: Create customized learning pathways with students, where learning goals and objectives are linked to explicit and diverse learning experiences, matched to the individual student’s learning performance level and preferences.

    How is learning personalized for students? What is the role of students in developing individualized learning pathways? How can I create new, diverse pathways linked to individual students’ learning needs and goals?

    Model use of individualized learning pathways for teachers. Assist with development of customized learning pathways for students.

    2D: Tailor content and instructional strategies to individual learning goals, needs, and interests.

    How are my instructional strategies matched to student learning needs, goals, and interests? How might I add more variety to my instructional strategies?

    Share instructional strategies. Provide feedback from classroom observations.

    2E: Create pedagogical approaches and learning experiences that promote content-based problem solving and online collaboration.

    How often do my students engage in face-to-face and online collaborative problem solving? How might I use project-based learning to promote authentic problem solving and collaboration?

    Share technologies that support online collaboration. Facilitate collaborative planning to design project-based learning challenges.

    2F: Develop and deliver valid and reliable assessments, projects, and assignments that meet standards-based criteria and assess learning progress by measuring student achievement of learning goals.

    How do I ensure alignment between standards and assessments, projects, and assignments? In what ways do I measure student learning according to standards? How can I better measure student achievement of learning goals?

    Assist with development of valid and reliable assessments, projects, and assignments that are aligned with standards.

    Competency 3: Management of Blended Learning Experience

    Standards

    Questions to Guide Planning, Reflection, and Goal-Setting

    Coaching Strategies

    3A: Understand and manage the face-to-face and online components of lesson planning and organization within a blended course.

    What model of blended learning do I currently use? What management challenges do I face? How can I better manage face-to-face and online instruction?

    Share tools and processes for managing face-to-face and online instruction.

    3B: Provide balanced opportunities for students to participate in asynchronous and synchronous modalities.

    What synchronous and asynchronous tools would work well with my learners? How might I use them to provide opportunities for online discussions?

    Model the use of synchronous and asynchronous tools.

    Competency 3: Management of Blended Learning Experience

    Standards

    Questions to Guide Planning, Reflection, and Goal-Setting

    Coaching Strategies

    3C: Develop, practice, model, and embody respectful behaviors in both face-to-face and online learning environments.

    How do you model and explicitly teach respectful behaviors face-to-face and online? What specific behaviors do your students need to learn?

    Model respectful behaviors in face-to-face and online environments.

    3D: Demonstrate technical troubleshooting skills during the online component of learning (e.g., change passwords, download plug-ins, etc.).

    What potential technical difficulties may pose a challenge during online instruction? How can I proactively address those challenges?

    Model technical troubleshooting.

    Competency 4: Instructional Tools

    Standards

    Questions to Guide Planning, Reflection, and Goal-Setting

    Coaching Strategies

    4A: Use learning management system and/or other online collaborative tools to organize and manage the blended learning environment.

    How am I currently using the learning management system and other online collaborative tools? How can these tools help me manage blended learning? What tools do I need to learn and implement?

    Model management of blended professional learning through the learning management system and other tools.

    4B: Demonstrate skill in the evaluation, selection, and use of effective instructional materials, tools, strategies, and resources for students, and engage students in this process to help their achievement and development of academic skills.

    How do I identify, evaluate, and use instructional strategies, materials, and tools? What should I consider when evaluating new strategies, materials, and tools? How can I involve students in this process?

    Share vetted resources, strategies, and tools. Assist with development of criteria for evaluating resources, strategies, and tools.

    4C: Provide assistive technologies to facilitate learning.

    What current learning needs should I address through assistive technologies? What assistive technologies are available to me? What assistive technologies do students need that are not currently available?

    Ensure access to assistive technologies as needed. Provide professional learning opportunities for teachers.

    References

    Bennis, W., Goleman, D., O’Toole, J., & Biederman, P. W. (2014). Transparency: How leaders create a culture of candor. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Child Development Project. (1996). Ways we want our class to be: Class meetings that build commitment to kindness and learning. Oakland, CA: Developmental Studies Center.
    Couros, G. (2015). The innovator’s mindset: Empower learning, unleash talent, and lead a culture of creativity. San Diego, CA: Dave Burgess Consulting.
    Duckworth, A. (2017). Grit: The power of passion and perseverance. London, UK: Vermillion.
    DuFour, R., DuFour, R., Eaker, R., & Many, T. (2006). Learning by doing: A handbook for professional learning communities at work (
    3rd
    ed.). Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.
    DuFour, R., & Reason, C. (2016). Professional learning communities at work and virtual collaboration: On the tipping point of transformation. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.
    Dweck, C., Gavin, M., & Gildan Media Corp. (2011). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York, NY: Gildan Media Corp.
    Easton, L. B. (2009). Protocols for professional learning. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
    Hallermann, S., Larmer, J., Mergendoller, J. R., & Buck Institute for Education. (2016). PBL in the elementary grades: Step-by-step guidance, tools and tips for standards-focused K–5 projects. Novato, CA: Buck Institute for Education.
    Horn, M. B., & Staker, H. (2014). Blended: Using disruptive innovation to improve schools. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    The International Association for K–12 Online Learning (iNACOL). (2014). iNACOL Blended Learning Teacher Competencies Framework. http://www.inacol.org/resource/inacol-blended-learning-teacher-competency-framework/
    Mertler, C. A. (2017). Action research: Improving schools and empowering educators (
    5th
    ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Patterson, K., Grenny, J., McMillan, R., Switzler, A., Covey, S. R., & Roppe, L. (2013). Crucial conversations. Grand Haven, MI: Brilliance Audio.
    Tough, P. (2013). How children succeed: Grit, curiosity, and the hidden power of character. Boston, MA: Mariner Books, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
    Webber, E. (2016). Building successful communities of practice. London, UK: Drew London.
    Whitby, T., & Anderson, S. W. (2014). The relevant educator: How connectedness empowers learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

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