The Basics of Geomorphology: Key Concepts
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction: Concepts and Geomorphology
- Section A: System Contexts
- Chapter 2: The Systems Approach
- Chapter 3: Uniformitarianism
- Chapter 4: Landform
- Chapter 5: Form, Process and Materials
- Chapter 6: Equilibrium
- Chapter 7: Complexity and Non-linear Dynamical Systems
- Section B: System Functioning
- Chapter 8: Cycles
- Chapter 9: Force-Resistance
- Chapter 10: Geomorphic Work
- Chapter 11: Process-form Models
- Section C: System Adjustments
- Chapter 12: Timescales
- Chapter 13: Forcings
- Chapter 14: Change Trajectories
- Chapter 15: Inheritance
- Chapter 16: The ‘Anthropocene’
- Section D: Drivers for the Future
- Chapter 17: Geomorphic Hazards
- Chapter 18: Geomorphic Engineering
- Chapter 19: Prediction and Design
- Chapter 20: The Concept of Geomorphology
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
3 Church Street
#10-04 Samsung Hub
© Kenneth J. Gregory and John Lewin 2014
First published 2014
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2014933582
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-4739-0575-7 (pbk)
Editor: Robert Rojek
Assistant editor: Keri Dickens
Production editor: Katherine Haw
Copyeditor: Audrey Scriven
Marketing manager: Michael Ainsley
Cover design: Francis Kenney
Typeset by: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed in India at the Replika Press Pvt Ltd
About the Authors
A headline in The Times for 17th May 2013 was ‘“Medieval” lectures could be replaced by free online courses’. This was stimulated by a conference hosted by UUK, called to consider the popularity of free online courses offered by many of America's leading universities. Views espoused included: students don't look forward to listening to a distant lecturer in a lecture hall with as many as 400 other students; students place high value on quality programme time, interactive content time with the academic community; lectures were medieval concepts introduced in Europe nearly 800 years ago and haven't changed much in that time; universities will be forced to rethink what they offer, with fees as high as £9,000 per year, as millions of people are now able to sign up for free courses anywhere in the world; new university buildings no longer include large lecture theatres; new methods of learning include providing 20 minute video lectures on line before the students attend timetabled classes with further discussion; flip lectures have developed where students watch a video or talk beforehand and then have questions or discussion in the lecture hall. These views illustrate dramatically the new environment in higher education learning, but how does it affect individual disciplines and books written for students? Perhaps no longer do they depend upon the comprehensive and often very substantial volumes of the past, together with separate treatments of a discipline, its philosophy and epistemology. In higher education do we now need books that focus on the very heart of the discipline, thus providing students with an anchor from which they can work? A foundation for independent, self-paced learning is required for this new and unfolding learning environment.
Concepts provide just such an integrating theme. In any discipline it is necessary to know those that have prevailed and evolved during the development of that discipline in order to understand the ones that are paramount in contemporary study. With the enormous volume of literature now available, much being too technically demanding to be understood easily, some students may be satisfied by knowing the basics about concepts. However, we hope that many will also want to know how the concepts were derived and to understand debates of the past and present. Students may be confused by the vigour and tenor of some debates, by those geomorphologists who take such a pessimistic view that it is [Page x]difficult to discern what is left! In attempting to present a balanced view we see this book on at least two levels: first the basic content of the text, supported secondly by a web resource which enables enquiries to be updated, pursued further and in greater depth - exactly what academic enquiry is all about. Where the mass lecture is no longer the central element in higher education learning, the focus of this book can provide the basis for interactive questioning by students as they approach the discipline through enquiries related to the fundamental concepts. In that way this book provides access to the basics of landform science in a way appropriate for new learning environments.
This book aspires to provide a pedagogic text that gives a detailed description and analysis of key concepts for geomorphology. The intended readership encompasses senior undergraduates and early stage postgraduates looking for a full treatment of key concepts - where they come from and what they involve. It deliberately differs from textbooks by providing an in-depth treatment of the concepts, ideas and hypotheses that lie at the heart of geomorphology, rather than supplying a comprehensive region-by-region or system-by-system treatment of earth surface processes and forms. In order to present sufficient material in a short book so that it is central to student learning, we use tables to consolidate information, the web support to provide greater elaboration, together with extensive references and examples in Progress in Physical Geography. Topics for enquiry are suggested not only to illuminate concepts but also to facilitate geomorphological understanding. Now that recent conceptual developments have been absorbed it is very timely to focus on the underlying concepts, which are extremely appropriate for adaptive learning. This potentially enables what Bill Gates has identified as ‘a special time in education’ .
Every effort has been made to establish copyright, make acknowledgement and obtain permissions for figures, but if any have been missed please let us know.
How to use the Book and Website[Page xi]How to use this Book
The Basics of Geomorphology: Key Concepts aspires to provide a pedagogic text that gives a detailed description and analysis of key concepts for geomorphology, providing an in-depth treatment of the concepts, ideas and hypotheses that lie at the heart of geomorphology, rather than a comprehensive region-by-region or system-by-system treatment of earth surface processes and forms. In order to present sufficient material in a short book so that it is central to student learning, we use tables to consolidate information, the web support to provide greater elaboration, together with extensive references and examples in Progress in Physical Geography. We want to provide access to the basics of landform science in a way that is appropriate for new learning environments.
The book is complete so that a reader can gain sufficient understanding of the background to geomorphology and its development (Chapter 1), to major concepts which are each the subject of chapters (Chapters 2–19), and then of geomorphology itself as a concept (Chapter 20). To assist the reader a synopsis of content is given at the beginning of each chapter, and references for further reading are given at the end of the chapter. Topics are suggested to encourage further thinking about the subject matter of the chapter or to be a focus for discussion. Citations in the text of Figures, Tables and Boxes that are provided on the website are in bold so that Figure X.n, Table Y.n or Box.Z.n will appear in this form.
Where the mass lecture is no longer the central element in higher education learning, the focus of this book can provide the basis for interactive questioning by students as they approach the discipline through enquiries related to the fundamental concepts.How to use the Website
The website (study.sagepub.com/gregoryandlewin) provides a resource which:
- gives detailed material - to provide a more in-depth understanding of the content of the chapters, and thus several detailed tables have [Page xii]been compiled which show how concepts developed; several chapters refer to Boxes which contain material that amplifies sections in the chapters of the book;
- makes figures and diagrams available - those that are essential for understanding the text are included in the book but those that elaborate points made or examples can be accessed on the website. Citations in the text of Figures, Tables and Boxes that are provided on the website are emboldened as Figure X.n, Table Y.n or Box Z.n.
- provides a reference list which includes all the references cited in the text: for a book of this kind the references cited are necessarily numerous, many students may not need to refer to all of them, but they can be accessed as required;
- makes a glossary available - throughout the book key concepts are the basis for book chapters and other concepts are mentioned (often shown in bold in the text) including many that have been used in other disciplines but are pertinent to geomorphology. The glossary has been compiled to aid readers by giving brief definitions for major concepts; it is not intended to be exhaustive because a glossary is available in The Earth's Land Surface (Gregory, 2010) and many definitions are provided in The Dictionary of Physical Geography (Thomas and Goudie, 2000); some terms have been adopted from the variety of parallel sciences but may be used in slightly different senses in geomorphology;
- suggests relevant articles in Progress in Physical Geography - there are many recent articles, including Progress Reports, that provide helpful up-to-date surveys of recent developments. By accessing these readers can be notified about the most recent developments.
The basic content of the text, supported by the web resource, enables enquiries to be pursued further, in greater depth and up-dated - exactly what academic enquiry is all about.