The Art of Educational Leadership: Balancing Performance and Accountability

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Fenwick W. English

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  • Larry E. Frase (1945–2005)

    This volume is dedicated to the memory of friendship, professional work tasks shared, and a zest for life of my times with Larry Eugene Frase. Larry came into my life at Arizona State University in 1970 where we were doctoral students together. He was the youngest doctorate awarded at that time, at the tender age of 26. He was idealistic, energetic, focused, and open to new ideas and practices. I soon learned he had a wonderful sense of humor and we struck up a long-lasting friendship and professional relationship over the next 30-plus years. I followed his career as he became an assistant superintendent on Long Island and later superintendent in the Catalina Foothills of Tucson. Later, he joined the faculty of the College of Education at San Diego State University in California where he attained the rank of full professor in 1 year's time. He wrote prodigiously and read extensively. He was a dedicated teacher. He brought not only a sense of realism from the field into his classroom and scholarship, but a deep love for profound ideas. One of his beloved research areas was with the concept of flow and he developed a friendship with Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, its creator. He reported that research at the University Council for Educational Administration and the American Education Research Association.

    My wife and I traveled with Larry and his lovely wife, Maria, in Prague and the Danube River, Portugal and the Douro River, and New Zealand. There were stops along the way for local cheese and wine and to learn about the countryside, the people, and what was important to them. Larry was always a student and he enjoyed lively conversation, libation, and good times. Those are already sorely missed. Such friends do not come along in very great numbers in a person's existence. I feel fortunate to have spent some time on this road called life with Larry Eugene Frase. I am the richer for it. He leaves behind friends everywhere, grateful students, and a loving wife who miss his presence more than they can express. I think Larry would have liked this book. He's certainly in it in many ways.

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    Preface

    This volume argues that for educational leadership as a field of professional studies to advance intellectually and practically in the 21st century, a better balance between the science and art of leading must emerge. Science alone will not improve practice unless and until it is also concerned with “artful performance.” That involves reconnecting to the humanities (drama, literature, history, philosophy) in order to reconsider what Eugenie Samier (2005) has so poignantly described as “individual agency” (p. 24). Unless people matter, leaders can't matter, at least leaders that are human. So I reject Lakomski's (2005) assertion that notions of leadership are mostly “folk psychology” (p. 73) and are not real. While I agree that leadership is socially constructed and linguistically dependent within a culture, I think history will show that leaders matter a lot. The idea that leadership just can't be defined adequately and so doubts are raised about it existing at all (although admitting it is a construct) is because notions of leadership cannot be objectively examined outside of the perspectives in which they function. There's no way we can stand outside a social construct without being contained within it. Definitions end up being synonyms and correlative instead of predictive and “objective.” This is the heart of Jacques Derrida's (1967) concept of différance. As part of the volume's position that reconnecting to the humanities instead of continuing to be dependent on the social sciences, particularly management science, is critical to restoring a capacity to lead morally, the re-insertion of forms of life writing as viable texts in the preption of educational leaders is advocated and illustrated. The last topic of the book is a foray into the debate regarding national leadership standards and a deconstruction of some of the proposals being advanced from various perspectives. Current national standards are lopsidedly pushing an agenda that is reductionistic and pdoxically antipractice because it is devoid of any indications of artful performance. Instead, the national standards are replete with the jargon of total quality management and the gospel of efficiency, a familiar and unproductive vein that has been overmined for many years and offers very little promise for improving the practice of educational leadership

    How to Use This Book

    The professor and student who are going to use this book as part of a formal graduate preption program may proceed along two lines. The first is the keeping of a personal journal of reflective writing. Critical practice involves learning how to engage in serious and sustained examination of practices and the underlying assumptions and theories that support them. The questions at the end of each chapter are designed as a jumping off point to begin this process. Students should not be constrained by them, however. There are many questions that could be asked at the end of every chapter. A good exemplar of a personal journal and critical practice is Deborah Meier's (1995) The Power of Their Ideas: Lessons for America From a Small School in Harlem.

    The inclusion of definitions of terms of key concepts will serve as a way to clarify what is meant in class and in personal discussions. There are 102 such definitions included in the volume.

    Finally, this volume makes use of films/video as classroom pedagogical tools. I have used all of them in my graduate classes in educational leadership at the University of Kentucky, Iowa State University, and currently at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The use of film is a powerful way to teach leadership. It is unsurpassed as a vehicle to illustrate the interaction between context, culture, decisions, and outcomes. While one can read about leadership theory in written texts, film involves more than cognition because it also brings into immediate play the psychology of leadership and the connection between emotion, drama, and decision-related situational content (see English & Steffy, 1997, pp. 107–108; Trier, 2001). While traditional written texts can present or discuss nearly all of the elements contained in film, the written form requires linearity (left to right on horizontal lines) and hence sequence in such a presentation. The “discourse of print media” (see Cotter, 2003) contains its own logic embedded in linguistic conventions. Although film is also sequential and linear in a different way than written text, it is able to show situations at many levels simultaneously and engage the student in a wider range of intellectual/emotional responses. This distinctive aspect of film means that it is a “supersaturated form(s) of information and present(s) [both] further opportunity and difficulty in analysis” (Collier & Collier, 1986, p. 176).

    The use of film in teaching educational leadership offers a healthy counterbalance to the dominant traditions of viewing leadership exclusively via the social sciences. For professors who are not adequately schooled in the humanities, there may be some reluctance to venture into this alternative perspective. But I maintain that discussions regarding morality, social justice, and equity cannot be adequately taught or learned without involving the emotional side of human existence. And the social science approach works to systematically eliminate human emotion as an inherently unpredictable and destabilizing influence in understanding human interaction. It is often something to be eliminated in research designs approaching leadership because of its difficulty in being measured and its elusive nature in creating subjectivities hard to control. Yet, how can social movement be understood unless one comes to grips with the human emotion that is necessary to sustain it? Social movements may be born in libraries (I think here of Marx toiling away on Capital in the reading room of the British Museum; see Wheen, 1999, p. 166), but they are implemented in the day-to-day interactions of humans in the streets and arenas of power far removed from reading rooms and academia. Written text alone, whether books or case studies, is not adequate to teach leadership. The use of film offers the opportunity of emotional context. It adds the power to leadership preption, which is the crucible of learning about leading in context.

    I offer here the Ghandian notion of ahimsa, the kind of creative power that leads to constructive and nonaggressive action, which leads to social change. Gandhi called it “soul force” because

    … it is independent of pecuniary or material assistance, usable by all men, women and children, applicable to all human relationships. It is to violence and to all tyranny and injustice what light is to darkness, one of the world's great principles which no power on earth can wipe out. (Iyer, 1973, p. 184)

    Clemens and Wolff (1999) said it best: “… leadership is not solely about practice and technique. It also depends on the much more complex qualities of insight, compassion, moral perception, values, and emotional balance”(p. xv). If we are serious about teaching morality, social justice, and equity in a program preparing educational leaders, we must augment our teaching with pedagogical approaches that include human emotion as an integral part of the equation of changing schools within the existing social order. I proffer film as one such pedagogy to accomplish that purpose.

    It is my hope and my intent to redirect the teaching of educational leadership by regrounding it on different axes. The social sciences have all but petered out in telling us anything new or different about leadership. Leadership studies must move beyond the sciences and recognize that effective leading is about drama and performance—artistry! Artistry involves the whole human, not simply the head, but the heart. Human action contains vision, emotion, and belief embodied in artful performance. So let us begin the journey.

    Fenwick W.English
    R. Wendell Eaves Senior Distinguished Professor of Educational Leadership
    School of Education
    The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    References
    Clemens, J., & Wolff, M. (1999). Movies to manage by: Lessons in leadership from great films. Chicago: NTC/Contemporary Publishing Group.
    Collier, J., & Collier, M. (1986). Visual anthropology: Photography as a method. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
    Cotter, C. (2003). Discourse and media. In D.Sciffrin, D.Tannen, & H.Hamilton (Eds.), The handbook of discourse analysis (pp. 416–436). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
    Derrida, J. (1967). Of grammatology (G. C.Spivak, Trans.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    English, F., & Steffy, B. (1997, February). Using film to teach leadership in educational administration. Educational Administration Quarterly, 33(1), 107–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013161X97033001006
    Iyer, R. (1973). The moral and political thought of Mahatma Gandhi. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Lakomski, G. (2005). Managing without leadership: Towards a theory of organizational functioning. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
    Meier, D. (1995). The power of their ideas: Lessons for America from a small school in Harlem. Boston: Beacon.
    Samier, E. (2005). Toward public administration as a humanities discipline: A humanistic manifesto. Haluskultuur, 6, 6–59.
    Trier, J. (2001). The cinematic representation of the personal and professional lives of teachers. Teacher Education Quarterly, 28(3), 127–142.
    Wheen, F. (1999). Karl Marx: A life. New York: Norton.

    Acknowledgments

    If there is a starting point for this book, it perhaps began with a paper I gave at Division A of the American Educational Research Association (AERA) in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1993. There, for the first time, I was able to break up the landscape of educational administration into typologies and begin the process of examining the field by stepping outside it. For me, the intellectual geography began to become differentiated in a more novel way than I had previously been able to conceptualize it. The rupture, if it can be called that, was prompted by a lot of reading in poststructuralism and postmodernism. One year later, my book, Theory in Educational Administration, published by HarperCollins and now out of print, was released.

    Much of this book is firmly rooted in that work, with some sections repeated in various chapters where I believed them to remain relevant to the discussion at hand. Chapter 7 is largely drawn from a piece titled “Understanding Leadership in Education: Life Writing and Its Possibilities,” which was published in 2006 in a special issue of the British Journal of Educational Administration and History edited by Peter Ribbins. Chapter 8 was largely, but not exclusively, drawn from an invited lecture I gave at the National Council of Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA) Summit Meeting in Washington, DC, in 2005 titled “Educational Leadership for Sale: Social Justice, the ISLLC Standards, and the Corporate Assault on Public Schools.”

    This piece was subsequently condensed and reworked and a smaller section was published in the August 2006 Educational Administration Quarterly titled “The Unintended Consequences of a Standardized Knowledge Base in Advancing Educational Leadership Preption.” Other selected sections came from my article titled “Cookie-Cutter Leaders for Cookie-Cutter Schools: The Teleology of Standardization and the De-Legitimization of the University in Educational Leadership Preption,” which appeared in Leadership and Policy Analysis of March 2003.

    Figure 3.4 is used with permission of Rowman and Littlefield and appeared in my chapter in the 2002 NCPEA Yearbook titled “The Fateful Turn: Understanding the Discursive Practice of Educational Administration,” edited by George Perreault and Fred C. Lunenburg.

    The section on film discussed in the Preface was part of an earlier paper given at the 2004 University Council of Educational Administration (UCEA) Conference in Kansas City titled “Developing Contextual and Theoretical Understanding of Leadership Through Film: Inserting the Emotional Component of Leadership Context to Prepare Future Educational Administrators to Be Active for Social Justice and Equity in the Schools.”

    I am extremely fortunate to have the privilege of knowing so many colleagues at different universities who have enriched my life with their friendship and conversation over many years at UCEA, AERA, and NCPEA. Many will never know how they have influenced me, if only to give me pause to reconsider a position I had taken or to offer support at times when my perspective was at odds with the mainstream. Dissent always has a price and those special colleagues who took time to offer their moral support, even when they did not agree with me, are indeed precious. I want to thank all of my colleagues at the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill who have had to put up with me in so many faculty meetings and office conversations: Catherine Marshall, Kathleen Brown, Frank Brown, Linda Tillman, Bill Malloy, Stan Schainker, Neil Shipman, and Jim Veitch. I think our program at UNC–Chapel Hill is so very special in the way that so much diversity remains productive and positive. I also want to thank two deans who supported and encouraged me at Chapel Hill whom I also consider colleagues: Madeleine Grumet and Tom James.

    At the national level I have to acknowledge all of my colleagues who also listened to my sometimes impassioned voice who served on the UCEA Executive Committee over many years, beginning with the executive director, Michelle Young. Michelle's leadership and her unusual sensitivity to dissent are especially appreciated by this author.

    My Executive Committee colleagues have provided me with some of the most intense and far-reaching discussions about important issues in the field: Gail Furman, Maria Luisa Gonzalez, Gary Crow, Fran Kochan, Margaret Grogan, Steve Jacobson, Jay Scribner, Richard Andrews, George Petersen, Michael Dantley, Jim Scheurich, James Korschoreck, Alan Shoho, and Fergus O'Sullivan. Other professional colleagues whose friendship and support have been critical to me were Charles Russo, Ira Bogotch, Joann Klinker, Catherine Lugg, Juanita Garcia, Ted Creighton, Duncan Waite, Jeff Brooks, Floyd Beachum, Martha McCarthy, Carol Mullen, Judy Alston, Gary Anderson, Rose Papalewis, John Hoyle, Joann Barbour, Carolyn Downey, William Kritsonis, William Poston, Jr., Helen Sobehart, Connie Moss, Bob Furman, Rick McCowan, John Schuh, Walt Gmelch, Jerry Gilley, Carolyn Shields, Donald Hackman, Eugenie Samier, Peter Ribbins, Jackie Blount, Cheryl Bolton, and Khaula Murtadha.

    There are so many more that have touched me through the years that there is not space to list them all. My apologies if any not cited feel slighted in anyway. I acknowledge my many doctoral students over the years who have taught me so much while I was mentoring them: Stan Landis, Fred McCoy, Karen Casto, Jerry Sasson, Jay Kemen, Martha McClure, Sandy Kestner, Craig Nikolai, Linda Chappel, Lorraine Tuck, Sherry Stout Stewart, Urmila Deva Dasi, John Heath, Mark Minskey, Anita Alpenfels, Frank Creech, Fara Zimmerman, Parry Graham, and John Tharp.

    At last I offer a note to my colleague, wife, and very gentle critic, Betty Steffy. Her sense of balance, good humor, professionalism, and common sense have been important in providing me the anchor and a safe harbor from which to venture forth from time to time and do battle for change.

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    About the Author

    Fenwick W. English is the R. Wendell Eaves Senior Distinguished Professor of Educational Leadership at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He has been both a practitioner and a professor and served in leadership positions in kindergarten through 12th-grade education and higher education. Dr. English served as a middle school principal in California, a project director in Arizona, an assistant superintendent in Florida, and a superintendent of schools in New York. In higher education, he has served as a department chair, program coordinator, dean, and vice-chancellor of academic affairs. Not only has he written about leadership in education, but he has been an educational leader in the public and private sectors. He was the elementary/secondary education practice director for KPMG Peat Marwick in the firm's Washington, DC, office for 3 years. Dr. English also was an associate director of the American Association of School Administrators (the AASA). He is the author or coauthor of over 20 books in education, and served as the general editor of the 2005 Sage Handbook of Educational Leadership and the 2006 Encyclopedia of Educational Leadership and Administration. He has been a symposium presenter at Divisions A&L of the American Education Research Association and served as president of the University Council for Educational Administration from 2006 to 2007.


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