The Advertising Business: Operations Creativity Media Planning Integrated Communications


Edited by: John Philip Jones

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: How Agencies Operate

    Part II: Creative Aspects

    Part III: Media Aspects

    Part IV: Sales Promotions and Specialist Media

    Part V: Legislation and Ethics

  • Copyright

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    This series of handbooks is dedicated to David Ogilvy.


    While you are responsible to your clients for sales results, you are also responsible to consumers for the kind of advertising you bring into their homes.

    —David Ogilvy, 1068 (from an internal Ogilvy & Mather document)
  • Name Index

    About the Contributors

    Beth E. Barnes is Associate Professor and Chair of the Advertising Department at the S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications, Syracuse University. She has also taught at Northwestern University and Pennsylvania State University. She was educated at the College of William and Mary, and she received her Ph.D. from Northwestern University. Her professional background includes work at IBM, in product marketing in the field of consumer and industrial durables, and at DDB Needham, Chicago. She is coauthor, with Don E. Schultz, of Strategic Advertising Campaigns, and she has published a number of book chapters and articles.

    William H. Bolen is Business Alumni Professor of Marketing and the Director of the Center for Retailing Studies at Georgia Southern University. A graduate of Georgia Southern (B.S., 1964) and the University of Arkansas (M.B.A., 1966; Ph.D., 1972), he joined the Georgia Southern faculty in 1966. He serves in leadership roles in various professional organizations, including the American Collegiate Retailing Association, where he holds the office of President, and Beta Gamma Sigma Business Honorary, where he serves as President of the Georgia Southern Chapter. He has written for numerous publications and serves on several editorial boards. In addition, he is the author of two books: Contemporary Retailing and Advertising. He is also active as a consultant to business organizations and provides seminars on various topics for the business community.

    Rex Briggs is Vice President of Millward Brown Interactive and the leading authority on the study of on-line advertising. In 1997, he and his colleagues conducted the landmark IAB Advertising Effectiveness Study. Recently, ward Brown Interactive won the 1997 Tenagra Award for Internet Marketing Excellence because of the company's methodology, providing advertisers with the right metrics to quantify the value of brand advertising on the Web. As a result of this groundbreaking work, he has been quoted extensively in the New York Times, Time, Marketing Computers, and Advertising Age. Formerly, he was research director of HotWired (Wired Ventures's family of Web sites), where he spearheaded the 1996 HotWired Advertising Effectiveness Study, the first of its kind. Before that, he spent several years at Yankelovich Partners, where he headed up major technology adoption studies, including the Cybercitizen Study.

    Carri Brown, a graduate of the S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications, Syracuse University (M.S. in advertising), is Associate Media Director at Ogilvy & Mather, Toronto. Previously, she worked as a media planner in New York City at Margeotes, Fertitta & Partners. She has worked on such accounts as Tylenol, Benckiser (Jet-Dry, Calgon, Electrasol), Godiva Chocolatier, MediaOne, and American Movie Classics.

    Ian R. Bruce has had more than 12 years' experience in marketing communications and public relations in Europe and the United States, primarily in the high-technology area. His award-winning public relations campaigns have resulted in international media exposure, and one campaign was credited with raising the stock valuation of his client by more than 15%. He holds a B.Sc. in electrical engineering and an M.A. in communications, and is currently working on his Ph.D. at the S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications, Syracuse University.

    Jeremy Bullmore was educated at Harrow School and afterward served in the British army before going to Oxford University, where he spent 2 years not reading English. His first job, in 1954, was as a Trainee Copywriter with J. Walter Thompson in London, and he stayed with that agency until his retirement in 1987. He became, successively, Copywriter, Writer/Producer, Creative Group Head, and Head of Television; then, from 1964 to 1975, he was Head of the Creative Department, and from 1976 to 1987, Chairman of the London agency. He was a member of the J. Walter Thompson worldwide board and, from 1981 to 1987, Chairman of the (British) Advertising Association. In 1985 he received a decoration from the British government for his services to the advertising profession. Throughout his time in advertising he wrote and spoke frequently on the subject. Since 1988, he has remained active in the business as a nonexecutive director of the British newspaper organization the Guardian Media Group plc. and WPP Group plc. (the parent company of J. Walter Thompson and Ogilvy & Mather).

    Rick Burton, a graduate of the S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications, Syracuse University, is Director of the James H. Warsaw Sports Marketing Center and Woodard Family Instructor of Sports Marketing, Lundquist College of Business, University of Oregon. He received his M.B.A. from Marquette University, where he also taught promotional strategy. He spent more than 12 years at the Miller Brewing Company (Milwaukee) in sports public relations, advertising, and product management, and then served as Vice President of Sports and Entertainment Marketing for Performance Properties (Clarion Marketing and Communications). He has consulted for National Football League Properties, the National Hockey League, the Australian National Basketball League, Nike, Inc., and Universal Studios.

    Peggy H. Cunningham is Associate Professor at Queen's University's School of Business in Kingston, Canada. She holds a B.A. from Queen's University, an M.B.A. from the University of Calgary, and a Ph.D. from Texas A&M University. She is an experienced instructor who has taught in Germany, the United Kingdom, and China, as well as in the United States and Canada. She has received a number of teaching awards, including the Frank Knox Award for Teaching Excellence. She is coauthor of the Canadian edition of Principles of Marketing (with Philip Kotler and Gary Armstrong). She is currently researching the advertising effects of cause-related marketing campaigns and the ethics of these campaigns. She also studies event marketing, marketing strategy, and international marketing. The results of her research have been published in a number of marketing journals.

    John Deighton is Associate Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School. He was formerly on the faculties of the University of Chicago and Dartmouth College. He has had extensive professional experience at Unilever, and his research specialty is in marketing communications and database marketing, with a particular interest in the strategic use of directly addressable communication technologies.

    Erwin Ephron is a Partner at Ephron, Papazian & Ephron, Inc., a Manhattan-based consulting group, serving major advertisers, agencies, and the media. He is well-known for his pioneering work in recency planning, which has become the mainstream media planning model in the United States. He is also an unusual combination of researcher, media strategist, and entrepreneur. He has worked for Nielsen, held high-level media and marketing positions at major agencies, and owned and managed his own agency (Ephron Raboy and Tsao). He is the only person ever to have been elected president of both the Agency Media Research Directors Council and the Media Directors Council, and he is an elected member of the Market Research Council and an active member of the Advertising Research Foundation, having chaired several major ARF initiatives for improving television and print audience measurement. He is a founder of the Media School and a frequent speaker and writer on advertising matters. He is an honors graduate from Swarthmore College and holds an M.B.A. in economics from New York University.

    Betzi-Lynn Hanc graduated summa cum laude from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst with dual bachelors' degrees. Upon completion of her M.B.A. at Syracuse University, where she did course work at the S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications, she relocated to Boston, where she is a Services Marketing Program Manager in the high-tech industry.

    John Philip Jones has been a Professor in the S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications, Syracuse University, for 18 years; for 7 years, he served as Chairman of the Advertising Department. He is also Adjunct Professor at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Australia. He graduated in economics from Cambridge University (B. A. with honors and M.A.). He has 27 years' professional experience as an account director in advertising agencies in Europe (including 25 years with J. Walter Thompson), where he managed the advertising for major international brands of packaged goods. He currently works as a consultant to many leading manufacturing companies and advertising agencies worldwide, and he has published five books and more than 70 articles in all the important professional journals in the United States and other countries. In 1991, he was named Distinguished Advertising Educator of the Year by the American Advertising Federation. He is a member of the National Advertising Review Board. A specialist in the evaluation of advertising effects, he is the originator of the concepts of the advertising-intensiveness curve (AIC), the penetration supercharge, and Short-Term Advertising Strength (STAS).

    Herbert E. Krugman started his career in the Psychological Branch, Office of the Air Surgeon, HQ, U.S. Army Air Force. He has been on the faculties of Yale, Princeton, and Columbia Universities. He became Research Vice President at Raymond Leowy Associates and at Marplan before becoming Manager of Public Opinion Research at the General Electric Corporation. It was at GE that he became a seminal contributor to the study of the psychological workings of advertising, and originator of the concepts of high and low involvement. He later became Principal of Herbert E. Krugman & Associates. He has been President of the American Association for Public Opinion Research, the American Psychological Association (Consumer Psychology), and the Market Research Council, and board member of several research organizations, including the Advertising Research Foundation, Marketing Science Institute, and Roper Institute. He has published 60 articles.

    Aileen (Shih-I) Ku was born in Taiwan and was educated there as well as in Indonesia and the United States. She received her bachelor's degree in international business from Fu-jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan, in 1994, and graduated with a master of science/advertising degree from the S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications, Syracuse University, in 1995. She has been employed as a Senior Media Planner at Leo Burnett, Taipei, and as Account Coordinator at Investor's Business, Los Angeles. Currently, she is Media Director at Gauger & Silva, San Francisco.

    Sidney C. Liebenson has been a direct marketing professional since 1974. He is now Executive Vice President, Director of Marketing, for DraftWorld-wide, a global agency specializing in brand building, direct marketing, and promotional advertising. He supervises the Worldwide Marketing Resource Services for the agency, assisting in strategic planning and corporate training for all offices in the agency's worldwide network. He has worked with a wide variety of clients, including traditional and nontraditional direct marketers in various business categories, helping develop innovative, award-winning campaigns. A frequent speaker at industry functions, he has conducted direct marketing courses at Northwestern and DePaul Universities. He is a former Chairman of the Direct Marketing Association's Agency Leaders Group and served as President of the Chicago Association of Direct Marketing, 1995–1996.

    Carla V. Lloyd is a tenured Associate Professor at the S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications, Syracuse University, and former chair of the Advertising Department. She holds a B.A. from the University of Utah; an M.A. from the Medill School of Journalism, Northwestern University; and a Ph.D. in sociology from the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University. She is a widely recognized teacher who specializes in advertising media planning and has won a number of awards. She also has professional experience in publishing, retailing, and newspaper sales. Before she joined the Syracuse University faculty, she was an Instructor at the University of Miami in Oxford, Ohio. She has copublished articles with Dr. Dennis Martin (author of the widest-selling media workbook, The Media Flight Plan).

    Abhilasha Mehta is Director of Research, Gallup & Robinson, Inc., Advertising & Marketing Research (G&R), in Pennington, New Jersey. Prior to joining G&R in 1993, she was Assistant Professor at the S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications at Syracuse University. She has had more than 15 years' experience in advertising and marketing communications research, both in the industry and in academe. She received the 1998 ARF David Ogilvy Research Award for Outstanding Research Contributions to the Development of Successful Advertising Campaigns. She has published widely, including in the Journal of Advertising Research. She has also been an active presenter at the national conferences of the Advertising Research Foundation, American Academy of Advertising, and American Psychological Association. She holds a Ph.D. in social psychology from the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University.

    Debra L. Merskin is Assistant Professor at the School of Journalism and Communication at the University of Oregon. She received her Ph.D. from the S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications at Syracuse University in 1993. Her extensive experience includes working as an account executive and media planner at a number of small advertising agencies in Florida, as a broadcast media buyer for W. B. Doner & Company, and as media director for Bozell. Accounts she has handled include Heilman Breweries, American Airlines, Chrysler Corporation, De Laurentiis Films, and the Florida Lottery. Her publications include articles in Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Journalism Educator, and Journal of Communication Inquiry.

    Eric Mower heads Eric Mower and Associates, the largest advertising and public relations agency in New York State outside Manhattan (the agency was ranked at number 87 on Adweek's 1997 listing of America's Top 100 Agencies). Since 1968, he has guided his fully integrated marketing and communications agency in its growth to nearly 200 professionals, with offices in Buffalo, Rochester, Syracuse, and Albany, New York. Agency capitalized billing in 1997 approached $120 million. He graduated from Syracuse University with a bachelor's degree in the liberal arts and he holds a master's degree from the S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications. He has served as Director-at-Large and Secretary-Treasurer of the American Association of Advertising Agencies, as Chair of the AAAA Eastern Region Board of Governors, and as Chair of the AAAA New York State Council. He currently serves on the National Advertising Review Board, the Coalition for Advertising Supported Information and Entertainment, and the New York State Governor's Task Force on New Media and the Internet.

    David Ogilvy is a Scot born in England in 1911. Educated at Fettes College, Edinburgh, and Oxford University, he came to the United States in 1938. He had a variety of jobs between the time he left Oxford and his founding of Ogilvy & Mather in New York in 1948. By the time he had retired, Ogilvy & Mather had become one of the leading advertising agencies in the world. With a background in market research, he made his name as a creative thinker and writer of forceful and elegant advertising. Without any question, he is the most important figure in the advertising world since the 1950s. This series of volumes is dedicated to him.

    Damian O'Malley is a Director of O'Malley and Hogan Ltd., a marketing company based in Dublin, Ireland, that provides fresh insights into consumer self-construction and new thinking on the definition and successful management of brands—international brand architecture. He launched the company with partner Declan Hogan in November 1997. They are working with domestic and international clients to develop and implement brand and communication programs based on rigorous strategic analysis and brilliant creativity. He has a unique breadth of account planning and marketing experience. In 1977 he began his career in the United Kingdom at the home of account planning, Boase Massimi Pollitt. He founded his own agency, Woollams Moira Gaskin O'Malley, 10 years later; for 5 years, he was Executive Vice President and Strategic Planning Director of the New York Office of DDB Needham.

    Nujchayada Pangsapa is an account executive at Grey (Thailand) Limited in Bangkok, where she handles Procter & Gamble's Pantene Pro-V hair-care account. She graduated with a master's degree in advertising from the S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications, Syracuse University in 1996, having completed her undergraduate studies in marketing at the Lubin School of Business, Pace University, where she earned a bachelor's degree in business administration in 1994.

    Stephen P. Phelps is a nationally recognized media professional, with a career spanning more than 20 years at Leo Burnett and D'Arcy Masius Benton & Bowles, ending as Senior Vice President and Media Director, with experience with major repeat-purchase packaged goods clients. A former Chair of the New Media Model Committee at the Advertising Research Foundation and Assistant Professor at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, he is currently Executive Director of the Council of Lutheran Churches of Greater St. Louis.

    Paula Pierce is Vice President, Director of Qualitative Services, for McCollum Spielman Worldwide (MSW). She holds a B.A. in psychology and sociology from Fairleigh Dickinson University, and has completed doctoral course work at the City University of New York Graduate Center. She is heavily involved in the development and direction of MSW's international, multicultural projects, qualitative, quantitative, and custom. With some 20 years in the business, her experience encompasses concept, strategy, copy, and product and packaging evaluation, as well as attitude/usage and customer satisfaction studies. She writes and edits MSW's newsletter, Topline, and has written many MSW white papers on topics such as celebrities in advertising, humor in advertising, emotional advertising, and multicultural advertising. She has had articles published in the Journal of Advertising Research, Quirk's, and other industry journals, and has recently contributed chapters to the marketing/advertising college textbooks edited by Larry Percy and Giep Franzen. She is a member of the Qualitative Research Consultant Association.

    Jay Quinn was educated at the College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, Massachusetts, and has a master's degree in advertising from the S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications, Syracuse University. He joined Eric Mower and Associates, Syracuse, in 1974 as Account Executive. He was made Executive Vice President in 1987 and appointed Managing Partner of Eric Mower's Rochester office in 1994. He has extensive experience of a wide variety of advertising clients and is an active member of many professional organizations.

    Jeremiah L. Rosen received his master's degree from the S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications, Syracuse University, in 1996. That same year, he also graduated from the Syracuse University College of Law with a J.D. In August 1996 he moved to New York City to begin a career in advertising at N. W. Ayer & Partners. Since November 1997, he has been an Account Executive working on the Coca-Cola account at Wieden & Kennedy in Portland, Oregon. He is a member of the New York State Bar Association.

    Randall Rothenberg, a graduate of Princeton University, is an author and journalist who has covered communications, technology, and culture for 20 years. He is the author of Where the Suckers Moon: An Advertising Story (1994), the chronicle of the birth, evolution, life, and death of a single advertising image. He is also author of The Neoliberals: Creating the New American Politics (1984), the first book to detail the rise of the “New Democratic Party.” From 1986 to 1991, he worked at the New York Times as the science, technology, and food editor of its Sunday Magazine, and as a media reporter and the daily advertising columnist. Subsequently, he served as a senior consulting editor for Bloomberg Business News in Europe, and as a writer, columnist, and editorial director at Esquire magazine. He is currently a contributing editor to Wired magazine.

    Rana S. Said is a graduate of Valparaiso University, Indiana, and received her M.S. in advertising from the S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications, Syracuse University. An experienced traffic manager, she is currently an account manager in an advertising agency in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, handling a number of local and international accounts. In the early 1990s she held the position of Advertising Instructor at Syracuse University, teaching the principles of advertising, and has been teaching at the American University in Dubai, specializing in integrated marketing communications and the environmental/economic factors influencing buying behavior. In 1991, she participated in a research project devoted to this topic that was published in Adweek.

    Don E. Schultz is Professor of Integrated Marketing Communication, Medill School of Journalism, Northwestern University. He is also President of the consulting firm Agora, Inc., in Evanston, Illinois, and Senior Partner of Targetbase Marketing International in Dallas, Texas. He holds a marketing/journalism degree from the University of Oklahoma, a master's in advertising, and a Ph.D. in mass media from Michigan State University. After 10 years with Tracy-Locke Advertising, where he resigned as Senior Vice President, he reentered academia and has been on the faculty of Northwestern since 1977. He has authored many books and articles, including Integrated Marketing Communications, the seminal text in the area, and Measuring Brand Communication ROI. He lectures, consults, and gives seminars all over the world, is a member of numerous professional and academic organizations, and has been recognized repeatedly for contributions in the area of marketing and communication.

    John L. Sellers is Professor of Visual Communications at Syracuse University. He received an M.A. from the George Peabody College for Teachers in 1961. After an award-winning professional career in advertising and publishing, he began teaching advertising design at Syracuse University. He has advised 1,000-plus undergraduate and 300-plus graduate students, most of whom are now art directors, copywriters, creative directors, agency partners, and/or advertising faculty members, internationally.

    Jan S. Slater is Assistant Professor of Advertising in the E. W. Scripps School of Journalism at Ohio University in Athens, Ohio. Prior to her appointment at Ohio University, she was Assistant Professor and coordinator of the advertising major at Xavier University in Cincinnati, Ohio, and an Instructor in Advertising at the S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications at Syracuse University as well as at the University of Nebraska in Omaha. In addition to her 10 years of teaching experience, she has 20 years' experience in the advertising industry, having worked in both private industry and advertising agencies. Until 1990, she owned her own agency, J. Slater & Associates in Omaha, Nebraska. She earned her B.A. from Hastings College in Hastings, Nebraska; an M.S. in advertising from the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana; and a Ph.D. in mass communications from the S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications at Syracuse University.

    Emily Soell is Vice Chairman, Chief Creative Officer of DraftWorldwide, the world's second-largest direct marketing agency. She began her career at Rapp Collins, training with Tom Collins and Stan Rapp—two of the industry's most respected practitioners—and rose from Copywriter to Executive Creative Director before joining Draft in 1996. She has created direct-acting advertising for such accounts as American Express, Avis, Chase Bank, Condé Nast, Delta Airlines, Gillette, Hyatt Hotels, IBM, Pharmacia & Upjohn, Philip Morris, and Mercedes Benz. She was named the 1995 Direct Marketer of the Year by Target Marketing. She has also won the Irving Wunderman Award for a lifetime body of creative work, and was named “Woman of the Year” by the Women's Direct Response Group. She has served on the Board of the Direct Marketing Association and helped create the direct marketing curriculum at New York University, where she has also taught.

    Nicholas Staveley (1934–1994) was a British advertising practitioner and journalist. He spent his childhood in the United States, but attended Rugby School in Britain and graduated from Oxford University. He had extensive advertising agency experience in London at Ogilvy & Mather and J. Walter Thompson. From 1972 he held senior marketing positions at Unilever, the International Wool Secretariat, and British Telecom. He ran his own consulting business from 1988 to 1994, and served as Editor of Admap from 1990 to 1994. His chapter in this volume is his last piece of work.

    Shirley F. Taylor is Associate Professor of Marketing in the School of Business at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario. Her research revolves around three streams: event marketing, services marketing, and predicting the adoption of new behaviors.

    Esther Thorson was educated at Macalester College and the University of Minnesota (Ph.D. in psychology). She has taught at Denison University and the University of Wisconsin-Madison. She is currently Associate Dean for Graduate Studies and Research at the School of Journalism, University of Missouri at Columbia, and Acting Director of the Center for Advanced Social Research. She has published many papers on perception, memory, and emotional processes, as well as on political advertising. She is coauthor of Integrated Communications: The Synergy of Permissive Voices.

    Brian Philip Webster is Production Manager with Internet and travel and resort television provider, Resort Sports Network. He is also a production freelancer for such groups as E!, NBC Nightly News, Harpo Productions, and Lifetime. He received an M.S. in media administration from the S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications, Syracuse University, and a B.S. in communications, television field production, from Fredonia College. His career began with a 2-year stint as a mastercontrol operator/sports-news photographer for WTZA in Kingston, New York. He has since worked extensively in news production with NBC Syracuse on its number-one morning news program. He currently specializes in mountain sports and auto racing videography. He is involved in syndicated negotiations on a day-to-day basis.

    Jay B. Wright is Professor at the S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications, Syracuse University, where he teaches communications law. His bachelor's and master's degrees in advertising are from the Medill School of Journalism, Northwestern University, and his Ph.D. in mass communications is from Syracuse. He earned a master of studies in law degree from Yale Law School as a postdoctoral Ford Foundation Fellow. He has also taught at Northwestern University and at the College of Law, Syracuse University. He is the coauthor of three books on communications law: The First Amendment and the Fourth Estate (7th edition, 1997), The First Amendment and the Fifth Estate (4th edition, 1996), and The Legal Handbook for New York State Journalists (3rd edition, 1998). He is a former advertising agency copywriter and was Executive Director of the New York Fair Trial Free Press Conference.

    Laura A. York graduated cum laude from Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, and received her M.S. in advertising from the S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications, Syracuse University. She is currently an Account Executive at Arnold Communications in Boston, Massachusetts.

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