Publication Year: 2012
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter n1: Introduction
- Introducing Television Journalism: Sustaining its Influence into the Twenty-First Century
- ‘Death of TV News … Much Exaggerated’: A Story of Declining Television Audiences but Signs of a Revival?
- The Scope of the Book
- Chapter n1: The Role of News in Television Culture: Current Debates and Practices in Contemporary Journalism
- Television and the Public Sphere: Journalism in a Multi-Channel Environment
- Scheduling Wars: Locating Television News in an Increasingly Entertainment-Based Medium
- (Re)shaping Television Journalism: Public and Commercial Models of Broadcasting
- Changing Times, Changing Values: Television News's Shifting Values and Conventions
- Towards a Post-Broadcasting Culture? Television News and Media Convergence
Part I: History and Context
- Chapter n2: From Radio to Television: Making Sense of Broadcasting History
- Section I: The Birth of Broadcasting: Creating National Broadcast Ecologies
- Making Sense of Television: Reshaping News Journalism
- Deregulating Broadcast Structures: Towards a Commercial News Environment
Part II: Trends in Television Journalism
- Chapter n3: Redefining What's Newsworthy: Towards 24-Hour News Values and Conventions?
- News Values: What Makes Television Journalism Distinctive?
- The Arrival and Impact of 24-Hour News Channels: Three Phases of Global Television Journalism
- Live, Rolling News Drama: Empirical Endeavours into 24-Hour News Conventions
- Interrupting the News for What Purpose? Exposing the Myth of Breaking News
- The Systemic Impact of Rolling News Journalism: Towards 24-Hour News Values and Audience Expectations?
- Chapter n4: The Rise of Partisan News Consumption: Towards a Polarisation of Television Journalism and Audiences?
- Network News in Retreat: A New Era of Political Journalism?
- News Audiences Go Political: Which Television Channels are People Watching and Why?
- Letting the Fox off the Leash: The Relaxation of the Fairness Doctrine and the ‘Foxification’ of Television News
- Redefining Political News Journalism: Blurring the Lines between News and Comedy
- Making Sense of Comedy News: Scholarly Readings into ‘Popular’ Political Programming
- Keeping the Fox on a Leash: Towards the Polarisation of News Audiences beyond the US?
- Chapter n5: Reporting the Politics of Devolved Nations: Towards More Localised Television News?
- Localised News, National Media: Sustaining Journalism Locally
- Four Nations, One Union: Devolving Politics without Devolving National Media Ecologies
- Reflecting the Four Nations? The King Report and Television Coverage of Devolved Politics
- Market Deficit, Public Service Requirement: The BBC Trust and the Impact of Interventionist Regulation
- Challenging ‘Light-Touch’ Orthodoxy: Towards More Evidence-Driven Interventionist Re-Regulation
Part III: Journalists and Scholars
- Chapter n6: Entering the Profession: Who are Television Journalists?
- Who are Television Journalists: A Professional or Occupational Pursuit?
- A Face for Television? Gender and Ethnic Minority Status amongst Journalists
- Educating or Training? Towards an Increasingly Middle-Class Graduate-Led Occupation
- Distinguishing between News Sources: Which Journalists and Journalism do Audiences Trust?
- Chapter n7: Putting Television News Centre Stage: The Past, Present and Future Shape of Journalism Scholarship
- Introduction: Studying ‘Journalism’
- Television Journalism Scholarship: The Formative Years
- (Re)prioritising ‘Old’ above ‘New’ Media: Why Online Journalism is Punching above its Democratic Weight
- New Directions in Television News Studies: The Future of Journalism Studies
Journalism Studies: Key Texts
Journalism Studies: Key Texts is a new textbook series that systematically maps the crucial connections between theory and practice in journalism. It provides the solid grounding students need in the history, theory, ‘real-life’ practice and future directions of journalism, while further engaging them in key critical debates. Drawing directly from how journalism is studied and understood today, the series is a full-service resource for students and lecturers alike.
Series Editors: Martin Conboy, David Finkelstein, Bob Franklin
Radio Journalism Guy Starkey and Andrew Crissell Alternative Journalism Chris Atton and James Hamilton Newspaper Journalism Peter Cole and Tony Harcup Magazine Journalism Tim Holmes and Liz Nice International Journalism Kevin Williams
© Stephen Cushion 2012
First published 2012
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
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List of Tables[Page viii]
- Table 0.1 Evening network (ABC, CBS, NBC) news viewers in the US from 1980 to 2009 5
- Table 0.2 Evening cable news (Fox News, MSNBC and CNN) viewers in the US from 1998 to 2009 5
- Table 1.1 Time slots for the evening news bulletins on UK terrestrial television channels 18
- Table 1.2 Time slots for the evening news bulletins on Australian terrestrial television channels 18
- Table 1.3 Time slots for the evening news bulletins on US terrestrial television channels 18
- Table 3.1 Per cent of time spent on breaking news items as a proportion of news time (including sport) overall on Sky News and the BBC News channel in 2004, 2005/6 and 2007 75
- Table 3.2 Per cent of breaking news topics covered by Sky News and the BBC News channel in 2004 and 2007 76
- Table 4.1 Per cent of US viewers who regularly watch news channels who were either Republican, Democrat or Independent in 2004 89
- Table 4.2 Per cent of Republican or Democrat viewers likely to believe in all or most of what a news organisation says in 2008 89
- Table 4.3 Prime-time audiences on cable news network programmes in 2009 90 [Page ix]
- Table 5.1 List of ITV's pre- and post-2009 regional news opt-outs across the UK 119
- Table 5.2 List of BBC 6.30pm regional news bulletins across the UK 119
- Table 5.3 List of major devolved powers for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland 121
- Table 5.4 BBC1 news audiences by nation for weekday network news programmes 123
- Table 5.5 Per cent of news items relating to one of the four nations in BBC television and commercial news coverage 128
- Table 5.6 Per cent of news items with a reporter on location in one of the four nations in BBC television and commercial news coverage 128
- Table 5.7 Per cent distribution of reporter location across television bulletins in 2007 and 2009 in BBC and commercial television news coverage 133
- Table 6.1 Comparisons of five and ten year median local television news salaries in the US with inflation 149
- Table 6.2 The salaries for top-earning television news journalists in the US 150
- Table 6.3 Ethnic minorities working in radio and television news as a proportion of the minority population in the US 155
- Table 6.4 Level of trust towards different news media in the US, UK, Brazil, Egypt, Germany, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Russia and South Korea 163
- Table 6.5 Per cent of US viewers that trust news channels ‘a great deal’ 164
- Table 6.6 Per cent of US viewers who consider news channels liberal, mostly fair or conservative in news coverage, investigations and discussions of major issues 165
- Table 6.7 Per cent of UK viewers who trust journalists to ‘tell the truth’ in 2003 and 2010 165 [Page x]
- Table 6.8 Per cent of television news sources spontaneously mentioned as being trustworthy in the US, UK, Brazil, Egypt, Germany, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Russia and South Korea 167
- Table 7.1 Mass media journals from the 1920s to the 1990s 171
- Table 7.2 Top 20 news websites in the US 183
I would like to thank colleagues at the Cardiff School of Journalism, Media and Cultural Studies for their support whilst researching and writing the book. In particular my gratitude goes to Justin Lewis for collaborating on several of the research projects that are explored in some of the chapters that follow and to Bob Franklin for encouraging me to write Television Journalism. I would also like to thank Mila Steele, Sarah-Jayne Boyd, Imogen Roome and the rest of the Sage team for helping with the production of the book.