Television and the Public Sphere: Citizenship, Democracy and the Media

Books

Peter Dahlgren

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • The Media, Culture & Society Series

    Editors: John Corner, Nicholas Garnham, Paddy Scannell, Philip Schlesinger, Colin Sparks, Nancy Wood

    Media, Culture and Society A Critical Reader

    edited by Richard Collins, James Curran, Nicholas Garnham, Paddy Scannell, Philip Schlesinger and Colin Sparks

    Capitalism and Communication Global Culture and the Economics of Information

    Nicholas Garnham, edited by Fred Inglis

    Media, State and Nation Political Violence and Collective Identities

    Philip Schlesinger

    Broadcast Talk

    edited by Paddy Scannell

    Journalism and Popular Culture

    edited by Peter Dahlgren and Colin Sparks

    Media, Crisis and Democracy

    edited by Marc Raboy and Bernard Dagenais

    Culture and Power A Media, Culture & Society Reader

    edited by Paddy Scannell, Philip Schlesinger and Colin Sparks

    Interpreting Audiences The Ethnography of Media Consumption

    Shaun Moores

    Feminist Media Studies

    Liesbet van Zoonen

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Dedication

    For my mother and the memory of my father

    Preface

    One of my earliest memories of television journalism was watching the coverage of the J.F. Kennedy assassination and its aftermath. Aside from the solemnity of the occasion, I recall how strongly I was gripped by the idea that not only was I watching this with my parents at home, but I was also watching it with millions of other people at the same time. Unbeknown to me at the time, I had stepped into the public sphere. Habermas' Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere had appeared in German the previous year, but it would be many years before I encountered the full Swedish (1984) and English (1989) translations. But even prior to the availibility of those texts, I had become intrigued by the role of the media in modern societies and their relation to the functioning of democracy. The emergence of the critical paradigm invited a sceptical turn in such reflection, and with the translations of Habermas' book, an overarching critical framework was made available. The concept of the public sphere, as the historically conditioned social space where information, ideas and debate can circulate in society, and where political opinion can be formed, became a central, organizing motive. This framework cast the public sphere as a sociological concept as well as an inspirational vision of something better yet to be attained.

    Despite the impressive scope of Habermas' book, questions remained. Literature from a variety of fields addressed some of the issues, often raising still new questions. With the translation of Habermas' Theory of Communicative Action (1984, 1987), yet another major step had been taken in theoretical clarification of communicative processes and the social order. However, again issues arose, and it seemed that a whole industry of secondary literature emerged, interpreting, summarizing and criticizing Habermas' project. I encountered yet other studies, though not directly engaging with Habermas, charting trajectories relevant for examining the relationships between the public sphere, the media and democracy. There was – and is – still much to learn.

    One of the basic difficulties with the notion of a public sphere is that once one begins to unpack it and examine how the various theoretical and empirical components fit together, it becomes very convoluted. All things are connected (as both Hegel and Buddha would affirm from their respective notions of Enlightenment), and in the case of the public sphere, it becomes difficult to see not only all the interfaces but also the boundaries which demarcate the phenomenon from its environment.

    This book is an essayistic effort to explore some of the connections and boundaries of the public sphere, partly empirically but largely theoretically. It is chiefly a project of clarification, an attempt to ‘sort things out’ at the conceptual level, with the intention of providing a clearer platform for future empirical work. It is in part an encounter with Habermas, because his work is so obviously central here, even if I find difficulties with it. I also draw from a variety of literature within social, cultural and political theory, as well as media studies. I have found inspiration in various strands of feminist theory. I try to highlight some of the more significant debates around key points of contention. While I strive to steer my own course through all this material, it will be evident that in many cases there are no easy answers. I would be misleading the reader if I implied that he or she should anticipate full resolution on all the issues. Indeed, much of the discussion pivots on an encounter between the critical tradition and what I see as the more constructive versions of postmodern theorizing – and much of the message of the latter is that we need to heighten our tolerance for ambiguity.

    Television figures prominently in this study since it has become, for better or worse, the major institution of the public sphere in modern society. I examine television from the horizon of the public sphere and the public sphere is illuminated, in part, with television in mind. I try to elucidate the limits and possibilities – the conditions – for their relationship. Television is evolving rapidly, technologically and structurally. My horizon here incorporates the dominant, ‘mainstream’ public service and commercial television (which I see as now including cable and satellite television as well broadcasting). While some of the newer developments such as the links to computers and telecommunication are of significance and will no doubt continue to grow in their import, I will leave such developments for a future treatment. The concrete examples from television which I use are drawn largely from Sweden and, to some extent, the USA, since it is with these that I am most familiar. However, these illustrations are largely of a generic nature and it is my assumption that any reader familiar with Western television culture will recognize the type of programming to which I am referring in each instance.

    Given that television and other media institutions and their output are vital to the public sphere, the pursuit of progressive media policy remains of utmost importance. Yet to understand the public sphere, we must see the limits of the role that especially television can play, even under the very best of circumstances. Hence, while Chapters 2 and 3 are devoted to discussions of television, the ensuing chapters take up other topics. Social structure, for example, broadly understood, of course plays a major role in defining the character of the public sphere. Also, one of the recurring themes in the text is that we must understand the public sphere in terms of sociocultural interaction among citizens.

    Sociocultural interaction has to do not only with encounters in which people act out their roles as citizens and discuss social and political issues. It also has to do with the more fundamental construction of social reality at the intersubjective level. Society is in part generated, maintained and altered in our ongoing interactions, in a complex interplay with structural and historical factors. Norms, collective frames of reference, even our identities, ultimately derive from sociocultural interaction. In short, it is via such interaction, and the practices it embodies, that we generate our culture. This dimension of interaction constitutes an irreducible component of the public sphere. Not all interaction is a manifestation of the public sphere, but the point is that the functioning of the public sphere is greatly dependent upon the nature of sociocultural interaction. That is why the democratization of civil society – which is a way of conceptualizing the terrain of interaction – is of vital importance for the public sphere.

    Each chapter in the book approaches a certain set of issues and it is my aim that the organization and sequence of the chapters will foster the gradual unfolding of an overall perspective. There are a number of cross-referencing notes scattered throughout the text, concerning topics touched upon but postponed for fuller treatment further on. This is particularly evident in the first chapter, where many topics are introduced to convey an overview of the discussions to come. Some themes, such as the notion of rationality and the tensions around it, appear in several contexts, but I have done my best to avoid repetition.

    Chapter 1 situates the theme of the public sphere in the larger problematics of contemporary democracy, centring on the relationship between state and civil society. I provide a cursory treatment of Habermas' by now rather familiar concept of the public sphere, and go on to discuss some of the critical response to it. The issues which emerge – and to which I return in later chapters – can be organized into four themes; these provide a conceptual framework of four dimensions of the public sphere: social structure, media institutions, media representations, and sociocultural interaction.

    In Chapter 2, I focus my attention on television as a medium, reviewing the literature on television research and on what is sometimes loosely called ‘television theory’. I approach television as an industry, as audio-visual texts, and as sociocultural experience. The industry side includes its political economy, its organization, as well as professional practices. In discussing television as audio-visual text, I emphasize among other things the contingency of meaning, and the significance of its mimetic quality. Also I take up the tension between television as popular culture and public knowledge. Television as sociocultural experience takes us into its ubiquity, its reception, its pleasures, and how its mythic, narrative mode of representation resonates in everyday life. As an institution of the public sphere, television certainly has its liabilities, but we must not ignore its assets.

    I turn in Chapter 3 to a discussion of television journalism, which I organize around the theme of its increasing popularization. The notion of the popular becomes an entry port to a discussion of a number of television journalism's contemporary formats, including talk shows and tele-tabloids. The ‘force field’ between information and story is examined, and I also probe the possibilities of the dialogic dimension in television journalism and its relation to moral sensibility. Popular television journalism includes both promises and pitfalls, but it may not always be evident which is which.

    Chapter 4 represents a shifting of gears, as I attempt to sketch some of the contours of the social and epistemological contingencies of modernity. It is my contention that any serious thinking about the public sphere must come to terms with the dominant dynamics of the historical present, including the multilayered relationship between ‘public’ and ‘private’. In this chapter I thus take up some key aspects of modernization – economic, political, technical and cultural – but I also emphasize the importance of recognizing our current epistemic situation. Our knowledge is expanding exponentially, yet the grounds for knowing seem increasingly unsteady. At the same time, we as individuals, groups and societies have made reflexivity a key feature of modernity. These developments impinge on the conditions of the public sphere.

    Much of Chapter 5 is an engagement with elements of Habermas' theory of communicative action. I underscore both its importance and its limitations, highlighting what I see to be unnecessary restrictions engendered by his rather austere notion of rationality. By exploring the arational, by opening up the discussion to versions of the unconscious and its link to signifying practices – the imaginary and the emancipatory – I indicate a somewhat different theoretical route to communication and intersubjectivity.

    Chapter 6 explores two key themes: civil society and citizenship. As the setting for the interactional dimension of the public sphere, civil society also provides an analytic opening for recontextualizing television reception. I take up recent attempts to theorize civil society and to link it to Habermas' framework, noting both gains and limititations in this effort. The struggle for a viable public sphere must also go via civil society, institutionally securing it and culturally filling it with democratic values. Citizenship has returned to the agenda with a vengeance, and it is apparent that changing historical circumstances are altering its definitions and implications. While political theory and philosophy have much to tell us on this score, so do theories of identity, especially as developed within feminism. Citizenship becomes – or rather, must become – an integrated element of the self if a democratic culture is to thrive. Citizenship has to do with belonging and participating, and again we see how the public sphere is inexorably intertwined with social structural and interactional dimensions.

    There is neither a full summary nor firm conclusions in Chapter 7, but I do synoptically review some of the main points from the previous chapters and probe some of their implications. In particular, I take up the role of television journalism and explore some of the political horizons of civil society. I also offer some reflections which point to media policy, arguing that we need a ‘polyphonic’ public sphere which consists of what I call a common domain and an adversary domain.

    I feel I have incurred massive debts in putting together this book. I would like to express my gratitude to the Humanities Faculty of Stockholm University for a part-time research grant which made the work possible. I began my research in earnest while a visiting scholar at the Department of Film and Media Studies, University of Stirling, during the autumn semester of 1992 and am very grateful for the opportunity. I especially wish to thank Philip Schlesinger for his hospitality and advice. My colleagues and doctoral students at the Department of Journalism, Media and Communication have provided a supportive intellectual environment where these ideas could grow. In particular Johan Fornäs, with whom I recently taught a course on Modern Critical Theory, has offered many helpful insights.

    For helpful conversations at various stages of the project I wish to thank John Corner and Marc Raboy. Louis Quéré provided helpful feedback in the context of the annual summer course of the European Doctoral Network in Communication at the University of Stendhal – Grenoble 3. Simon Frith and Michael Schudson read early drafts; Klaus Bruhn Jensen read several chapters; Veronica Stoehrel and Johan Fornäs read the whole manuscript. My appreciation goes out to them all. They are, of course, all absolved of responsibility for shortcomings in the text.

    I am also grateful for encouragement from the Media, Culture and Society Series editors Paddy Scannell and Colin Sparks, and particularly to Sage editor Stephen Barr for his guidance and patience.

    Finally, warm thanks to Karin, Max and Finn, for tolerance during all the evenings and weekends when work on this project intruded on our private sphere.

  • References

    (Note: In the cases of translation into English, I have restricted myself to providing only the dates of English publication and not noting original publications in other languages.)
    Abercrombie, N., Lash, S. and Longhurst, B. (1992) ‘Popular representation: recasting realism’ in S.Lash and J.Friedman (eds), Modernity and Identity. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Achille, Y. and Bueno, J.I. (1994) Les télévisions publiques en quête d'avenir. Grenoble: Presses Universitaires de Grenoble.
    Adbusters Quarterly: Journal of the Mental Environment (1992) (Vancouver, BC).
    d'Agostino, P. and Tafler, D. (eds) (1995) Transmission: Toward a Post-Television Culture.
    2nd edn
    . London: Sage.
    Alcoff, L. (1988) ‘Cultural feminism versus post-structuralism’. Signs13(31).
    Alejandro, R. (1993) Hermeneutics, Citizenship, and the Public Sphere. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Alexander, J. (1991) ‘Habermas and critical theory: beyond the marxian dilemma?’ in A.Honneth and H.Joas (eds), Communicative Action. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Allen, R.C. (ed.) (1992) Channels of Discourse, Reassembled. London: Routledge.
    Altheide, D. (1985) Media Power. London: Sage.
    Altheide, D. and Snow, R. (1991) Media Worlds in the Post-Journalism Era. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
    Almond, G. and Verba, S. (eds) (1963) The Civic Culture. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Ang, I. (1991) Desperately Seeking the Audience. London: Routledge.http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203321454
    Ang, I. (1994) ‘Ethnography and radical contextualism in audience studies’ in L.Grossberg (ed.), Towards a Comprehensive Theory of the Audience. Boulder/Oxford: Westview Press.
    Apter, D. (1992) ‘Democracy and emancipatory movements: notes for a theory of inversionary discourse’ in J.N.Pieterse (ed.), Emancipations, Modern and Postmodern. London: Sage.
    Arato, A. (1994) ‘The rise, decline and reconstruction of the concept of civil society and the directions for future research’. The Public (Javnost)1(1–2) (Ljubljana).
    Arendt, H. (1958) The Human Condition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Arnason, J.P. (1990) ‘The theory of modernity and the problematic of democracy’ in P.Beilharz, G.Robinson and J.Rundell (eds), Between Totalitarianism and Postmodernism: A Thesis Eleven Reader. London: MIT Press.
    Baldi, P. (1994) ‘New trends in European programmes’. Diffusion EBU: Summer.
    Barker, D. (1988) ‘“It's been real”: forms of television representation’. Critical Studies in Mass Communication5:42–56.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295038809366684
    Barrett, M. (1991) The Politics of Truth. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Barry, A. (1993) ‘Television, truth and democracy’. Media, Culture and Society15:487–96.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344393015003010
    Baudrillard, J. (1983) Simulations. New York: Semiotext(e).
    Bauman, Z. (1991) Modernity and Ambivalence. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Bauman, Z. (1992) Intimations of Postmodernity. London: Routledge.
    Baxter, H. (1987) ‘System and life-world in Habermas' Theory of Communicative Action’. Theory and Society16:39–86.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00162659
    Beaud, P. (1994) ‘“Medium without message? Public opinion, in spite of all”’. Réseaux: The French Journal of Communication2(2).
    Beck, U. (1992) Risk Society. London: Sage.
    Beck, U., Giddens, A. and Lash, S. (1994) Reflexive Modernization. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Benhabib, S. (1986) Critique, Norm and Utopia. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Benhabib, S. (1992) Situating the Self. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Benhabib, S. and Cornell, D. (eds) (1987) Feminism as Critique. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Benjamin, A. (ed.) (1989) The Lyotard Reader. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Bennett, L. (1988) News: The Politics of Illusion. New York: Longman.
    Bennett, L. and Edelman, M. (1985) ‘Toward a new political narrative’. Journal of Communication35(3).
    Bennington, G. (1988) Lyotard: Writing the Event. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    Berger, P. and Luckmann, T. (1967) The Social Construction of Reality. London: Penguin.
    Berman, M. (1982) All That is Solid Melts into Air. London: Penguin.
    Berman, R. (1991) ‘Popular culture and populist culture’. Telos87: Spring.
    Bernstein, R. (1983) Beyond Objectivism and Relativism. London: Blackwell.
    Best, S. and Kellner, D. (1987) ‘(Re)watching television: notes toward a political criticism’. Diacritics: Summer.
    Best, S. and Kellner, D. (1991) Postmodern Theory. London: Macmillan.
    Björkegren, D. (1994) ‘Turbo TV’. Stockholm School of Economics: MTC Annual Report.
    Bock, G. and James, S. (eds) (1992) Beyond Equality and Difference: Citizenship, Feminist Politics and Female Subjectivity. London: Routledge.
    Bourdieu, P. (1977) Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Brenkman, J. (1987) Culture and Domination. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Brown, Wendy (1988) Manhood and Politics: A Feminist Reading in Political Theory. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield.
    Brown, M.E. (ed.) (1990) Television and Women's Culture. London: Sage.
    Bruner, J. (1986) Actual Minds, Possible Worlds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Burkitt, I. (1991) Social Selves. London: Sage.http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446212769
    Butler, J. and Scott, J.W. (eds) (1992) Feminists Theorize the Political. London: Routledge.
    Calhoun, C. (ed.) (1992) Habermas and the Public Sphere. London: MIT Press.
    Calhoun, C. (1993) ‘Civil society and the public sphere’. Public Culture5(2): Winter.http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/08992363-5-2-267
    Camauër, Leonor (1993) ‘Populär TV-journalistik och offentlighetsteori: en fallstudie av Ikväll: Robert Aschberg’ in PeterDahlgren (ed.), Den mångtydiga rutan: nordisk forskning om TV. Stockholm: Department of Journalism, Media and Communication, Stockholm University.
    Canovan, M. (1994) ‘Politics as culture: Hannah Arendt and the public realm’ in L.P.Hinchman and S.K.Hinchman (eds), Hannah Arendt: Critical Essays. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Carey, J.W. (1989) Communication as Culture. London: Unwin.
    Carpignano, P., Anderson, R., Aronowitz, S. and Difazio, W. (1990) ‘Chatter in the age of electronic reproduction: talk television and the “public mind”’. Social Text25/26:33–55.http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/466239
    Castoriadis, C. (1987) The Imaginary Institution of Society. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Castoriadis, C. (1994) ‘Radical imagination and the social instituting imaginary’ in G.Robinson and J.Rundell (eds), Rethinking Imagination. London: Routledge.
    Caughie, J. (1991) ‘Adorno's reproach: repetition, difference and television genre’. Screen32(2).
    Chaney, D. (1993) Fictions of Collective Life: Public Drama in Late Modern Culture. London: Routledge.
    Charon, J.-M. (1994) ‘The fragmentation of journalism’. Réseaux: the French Journal of Communication2(1).
    Cohen, A., Levy, M., Gurevitch, M. and Roeh, I. (1995) Eurovision and the Globalization of Television News. London: John Libby.
    Cohen, J. and Arato, A. (1992) Civil Society and Political Theory. London: MIT Press.
    Cohen, S. and Taylor, L. (1992) Escape Attempts.
    2nd edn
    . London: Routledge.
    Collins, J. (1992) ‘Television and postmodernism’ in R.C.Allen (ed.), Channels of Discourse, Reassembled. London: Routledge.
    Collins, R. (1992) Satellite Television in Western Europe.
    Rev. edn.
    London: John Libby.
    Collins, R. (1993) ‘Public service versus the market ten years on: reflections on Critical Theory and the debate on broadcasting policy in the UK’. Screen34(3).
    Coole, D. (1992) ‘Modernity and its Other(s)’. History of the Human Sciences5(3).http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/095269519200500308
    Corner, J. (1991) ‘Meaning, genre and context: the problematics of “public knowledge” in the new audience studies’ in J.Curran and M.Gurevitch (eds), Mass Media and Society. London: Edward Arnold.
    Corner, J. (1992) ‘Presumption as theory: “realism” in television studies’. Screen33(1).
    Corner, J. (1995) Television Form and Public Address. London: Edward Arnold.
    Curran, J. (1990) ‘The new revisionism in mass communication research: a reappraisal’. European Journal of Communication5: 135–64.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0267323190005002002
    Curran, J. (1991) ‘Mass media and democracy: a reappraisal’ in J.Curran and M.Gurevitch (eds), Mass Media and Society. London: Edward Arnold.
    Dahlgren, P. (forthcoming) ‘Cultural Studies and media research’ in J.Corner, P.Schlesinger and R.Silverstone (eds), The International Handbook of Media Research. London: Routledge.
    Dahlgren, Peter and Sparks, Colin (eds) (1991) Communication and Citizenship. London: Routledge.
    Dahlgren, Peter and Sparks, Colin (eds) (1992) Journalism and Popular Culture. London: Sage.
    Davis, D.K. (1990) ‘News and politics’ in D.L.Swanson and D.Nimmo (eds) New Directions in Political Communication. London: Sage.
    Deming, R.H. (1985) ‘Discourse/talk/television’. Screen26(6).
    Dewey, J. (1954/1923) The Public and its Problems. Chicago: Swallow Press.
    Dews, P. (1987) Logics of Disintegration: Post-structuralist Thought and the Claims of Critical Theory. London: Verso.
    Dews, P. (1989) ‘The return of the subject in late Foucault’. Radical Philosophy51: Spring.
    Diamond, E. and Bates, S. (1988) The Spot: The Rise of Political Advertising on Television.
    3rd edn
    . London: MIT Press.
    Dietz, M. (1991) ‘Hannah Arendt and feminist politics’ in M.Lyndon and C.Pateman (eds), Feminist Interpretations and Political Theory. Cambridge: Polity Press. Also in: L.P.Hinchman and S.K.Hinchman (eds) (1994), Hannah Arendt: Critical Essays. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Dietz, M. (1992) ‘Context is all: feminism and theories of citizenship’ in C.Mouffe (ed.), Dimensions of Radical Democracy. London: Verso.
    Eder, K. (1993) The New Politics of Class: Social Movements and Cultural Dynamics in Advanced Societies. London: Sage.
    Eduards, M. (1991) ‘Toward a third way: women's politics and welfare policies in Sweden’. Social Research58(3).
    Eliasoph, N. (1990) ‘Political culture and the presentation of political self’. Theory and Society19(4).http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00137622
    Elliott, A. (1992) Social Theory and Psychoanalysis in Transition. London: Blackwell.
    Elliott, P. (1972) The Making of a Television Series. London: Constable.
    Elshtain, J.B. (1993) Public Man, Private Woman: Women in Social and Political Thought.
    2nd edn
    . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Enzensberger, H.M. (1993) Inbördes krig. Stockholm: Norstedts. (‘De vill skicka sig själva till den absoluta botten’. Dagens Nyheter, 23 June, p. B3).
    Ericson, R.V., Baranek, B.M. and Chan, J.B.L. (1987) Visualizing Deviance: A Study of News Organization. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Ericson, R.V., Baranek, B.M. and Chan, J.B.L. (1989) Negotiating Control: A Study of News Sources. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Eyerman, R. and Jamison, A. (1991) Social Movements: A Cognitive Approach. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Falk, R. (1994) ‘The making of global citizenship’ in B.van Steenbergen (ed.), The Condition of Citizenship. London: Sage.http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446250600
    Fay, B. (1987) Critical Social Science. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Featherstone, M. (ed.) (1990) Global Culture. London: Sage.
    Featherstone, M. (1991) Consumer Culture and Postmodernism. London: Sage.http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446212424
    Featherstone, M. (1992) ‘Postmodernization and the aestheticization of everyday life’ in S.Lash and J.Friedman (eds), Modernity and Identity. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Featherstone, M. (1993) ‘Global and local cultures’ in J.Bird, B.Curtis, T.Putnum, G.Robertson and L.Tickner (eds), Mapping the Futures. London: Routledge.
    Ferguson, M. (1992) ‘The mythology about globalization’. European Journal of Communication7:69–93.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0267323192007001004
    Feuer, J. (1992) ‘Genre study and television’ in R.C.Allen (ed.), Channels of Discourse, Reassembled. London: Routledge.
    Findahl, O. (1988) Televisionen möjligheter och begränsningar. Stockholm: Swedish Broadcasting.
    Findahl, O. and Höijer, B. (1981) ‘Media content and human comprehension’ in K.E.Rosengren (ed.), Advances in Content Analysis. London: Sage.
    Findahl, O. and Höijer, B. (1985) ‘Some characteristics of news viewing and comprehension’. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media29(49).
    Fiske, J. (1987) Television Culture. London: Routledge.
    Fiske, John (1989) ‘Popular news’ in J.Fiske (ed.), Reading the Popular. London: Unwin Hyman.
    Flax, J. (1990) ‘Postmodernism and gender relations in feminist theory’ in Linda J.Nicholson (ed.), Feminism/Postmodernism. London: Routledge.
    Fornäs, J. (1995) Cultural Theory and Late Modernity. London: Sage.
    Foucault, M. (1984) ‘What is Enlightenment?’ in P.Rabinow (ed.), The Foucault Reader. New York: Pantheon.
    Fraser, N. (1987) ‘What's critical about critical theory? The case of Habermas and gender’ in S.Benhabib and D.Cornell (eds), Feminism as Critique. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Fraser, N. (1990) ‘Talking about needs: interpretive contests as political conflicts in welfare state societies’ in C.R.Sunstein (ed.), Feminism and Political Theory. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press.
    Fraser, N. (1992) ‘Rethinking the public sphere: a contribution to the critique of actually existing democracy’ in C.Calhoun (ed.), Habermas and the Public Sphere. London: MIT Press.
    Frosh, S. (1991) Identity Crisis: Modernity, Psychoanalysis and the Self. London: Macmillan.
    Gamson, W.A. (1992) Talking Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Gamson, W.A. and Wolfsfeld, G. (1993) ‘Movements and media as interacting systems’. Annals, AASSS528: July.
    Gandy, O. (1993) The Panoptic Sort: A Political Economy of Personal Information. San Francisco/Oxford: Westview Press.
    Gans, H. (1979) Deciding What's News. New York: Random House.
    Garnham, N. (1983) ‘Public service versus the market’. Screen5(1).
    Garnham, N. (1992) ‘The media and the public sphere’ in C.Calhoun (ed.), Habermas and the Public Sphere. Cambridge, MA and London: MIT Press.
    Gellner, E. (1994) Conditions of Liberty: Civil Society and its Rivals. New York: Allen Lane/Penguin Press.
    Giddens, A. (1990) The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Giddens, A. (1991) Modernity and Self-Identity. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Gitlin, T. (1985) Inside Prime Time. New York: Pantheon.
    Gitlin, T. (1991a) ‘Bites and blips: chunk news, savvy talk and the bifurcation of American politics’ in P.Dahlgren and C.Sparks (eds), Communication and Citizenship. London: Routledge.
    Gitlin, T. (1991b) ‘The politics of communication and the communication of politics’ in J.Curran and M.Gurevitch (eds), Mass Media and Society. London: Edward Arnold.
    Golding, P. (1990) ‘Political communication and citizenship: the media and democracy in an inegalitarian social order’ in M.Ferguson (ed.), Public Communication: The New Imperatives. London: Sage.
    Golding, P. and Elliott, P. (1979) Making the News. London: Longman.
    Golding, P. and Murdock, G. (1991) ‘Culture, communication and political economy’ in J.Curran and M.Gurevitch (eds), Mass Media and Society. London: Edward Arnold.
    Graber, D. (1987) Processing the News.
    2nd edn
    . New York: Longman.
    Griffin, M. (1992) ‘Looking at TV news: strategies for research’. Communication13:121–41.
    Gunter, B. (1987) Poor Reception: Misunderstanding and Forgetting Broadcast News. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Habermas, J. (1984, 1987/1981) The Theory of Communicative Action. 2 vols. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Habermas, J. (1989/1962) Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Habermas, J. (1992a) ‘Further reflections on the public sphere’ in C.Calhoun (ed.), Habermas and the Public Sphere. London: MIT Press.
    Habermas, J. (1992b) Postmetaphysical Thinking. Cambridge, MA and London: MIT Press.
    Hackett, R.A. (1984) ‘Decline of a paradigm? Bias and objectivity in news media studies’. Critical Studies in Mass Communication1(3).http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295038409360036
    Hagen, I. (1994) ‘The ambivalence of TV news viewing: between ideals and everyday practices’. European Journal of Communication9:193–220.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0267323194009002005
    Hall, S. (1974) ‘Media power: the double bind’. Journal of Communication: Autumn.
    Hall, S. (1984) ‘The narrative construction of reality’ (Interview). The Southern Review: 17 March.
    Hall, S. (1992) ‘The question of cultural identity’ in S.Hall, D.Held and T.McGrew (eds), Modernity and its Futures. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Hall, S., Held, D., and McGrew, T. (eds) (1992) Modernity and its Futures. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Hallin, D.C. (1994) We Keep America on Top of the World: Television Journalism and the Public Sphere. London: Routledge.
    Hannerz, U. (1992) Cultural Complexity: Studies in the Social Organization of Meaning. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Hansen, K. (1987) ‘Feminist conceptions of public and private’. Berkeley Journal of Sociology32.
    Hansen, M. (1993) ‘Unstable mixtures, dilated spheres: Negt and Kluge's The Public Sphere and Experience, twenty years later’. Public Culture5:179–212.http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/08992363-5-2-179
    Harris, D. (1992) From Class Politics to the Politics of Pleasure. London: Routledge.
    Hart, A. (1988) Making The Real World: A Study of a Television Series. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Hartley, J. (1992a) ‘Heliography: journalism and the visualization of truth’ in J.Hartley (ed.), The Politics of Pictures. London: Routledge.
    Hartley, J. (1992b) Tele-ology: Studies in Television. London: Routledge.
    Harvey, D. (1989) The Condition of Postmodernity. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Harvey, D. (1993) ‘From space to place and back again: reflections on the condition of post-modernity’ in J.Bird, B.Curtis, T.Putnam, G.Robertson and L.Tickner (eds), Mapping the Futures. London: Routledge.
    Heater, D. (1990) Citizenship: The Civic Ideal in World History, Politics and Education. London and New York: Longman.
    Heath, S. (1990) ‘Representing television’ in P.Mellancamp (ed.), Logics of Television. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press.
    Hebdige, D. (1988) Hiding in the Light. London: Routledge.
    Hekman, S.J. (1990) Gender and Knowledge: Elements of a Postmodern Feminism. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Held, D. (1989) Political Theory and the Modern State. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Held, D. (1991) ‘Between state and civil society: citizenship’ in G.Andrews (ed.), Citizenship. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
    Held, D. (1993) ‘Democracy: from city states to a cosmopolitan order?’ in D.Held (ed.), Prospects for Democracy. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Heller, A. and Fehér, F. (1988) The Postmodern Political Condition. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Herbst, S. (1993) ‘The meaning of public opinion: citizens' constructions of political reality’. Media, Culture and Society15(3).http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344393015003007
    Hermes, J. (1993) ‘Meaning, media and everyday life’. Cultural Studies7(3).http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09502389300490321
    Hirdman, Y. (1991) ‘The gender system’ in T.Andreasen (ed.), Moving On: New Perspectives on the Women's Movement. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.
    Hjarvard, S. (1993) ‘Pan-European television news: towards a European political public sphere?’ in P.Drummond, et al., (eds), National Identity and Europe: The Television Revolution. London: British Film Institute.
    Hobsbawm, E. (1994) Age of Extremes: the Short Twentieth Century 1914–1991. London: Michael Joseph. (Quoted in The Independent on Sunday, ‘The Sunday Review’, 16 Oct., 1994, pp. 9–11).
    Hohendahl, P. (1992) ‘The public sphere: models and boundaries’ in C.Calhoun (ed.), Habermas and the Public Sphere. London: MIT Press.
    Honig, B. (1992) ‘Toward an agonistic feminism: Hannah Arendt and the politics of identity’ in J.Butler and J.W.Scott (eds), Feminists Theorize the Political. London: Routledge.
    Hoy, D.C. and McCarthy, T. (1994) Critical Theory. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Hoynes, W. (1994) Public Television for Sale: Media, the Market and the Public Sphere. Oxford: Westview Press.
    Hvitfelt, H. (1994) ‘The commercialization of the evening news: changes in narrative techniques in Swedish TV news’. The Nordicom Review2:33–41.
    Höijer, B. (1992) ‘Socio-cognitive structures and television reception’. Media, Culture and Society14:583–603.
    Ingram, D. (1987) Habermas and the Dialectic of Reason. New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press.
    Jameson, F. (1983) ‘Pleasure: a political issue’ in Formations of Pleasure. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Jameson, F. (1991) Postmodernism: or, the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. London: Verso.
    Jensen, K.B. (1990) ‘The politics of polysemy: television news, everyday consciousness and political action’. Media, Culture and Society12:57–77.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344390012001004
    Jónasdóttir, A.G. (1991) Love, Power and Political Interests. Örebro, Sweden: University of Örebro Press.
    Joyrich, L. (1991–92) ‘Going through the e/motions: gender, postmodernism, and affect in television studies’. Discourse14(1).
    Katz, E. and Lazarsfeld, P. (1955) Personal Influence. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
    Keane, J. (1984) Public Life and Late Capitalism. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Keane, J. (1988a) Democracy and Civil Society. London: Verso.
    Keane, J. (ed.) (1988b) Civil Society and the State. London: Verso.
    Keane, J. (1991) The Media and Democracy. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Kearney, R. (1991) The Poetics of Imagining. London: HarperCollins Academic.
    Kellner, D. (1990) Television and the Crisis of Democracy. Boulder/Oxford: Westview Press.
    Kelly, M. (ed.) (1994) Critique and Power: Recasting the Foucault/Habermas Debate. Cambridge, MA and London: MIT Press.
    Kepplinger, H.M. and Köcher, R. (1990) ‘Professionalism in the media world?’. European Journal of Communication5:285–311.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0267323190005002008
    Kilborn, R. (1994) ‘“How real can you get?”: recent developments in “reality” television’. European Journal of Communication9:421–39.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0267323194009004003
    Knight, G. (1989) ‘The reality effects of tabloid television news’ in M.Raboy and P.A.Bruck (eds), Communication For and Against Democracy. Montreal: Black Rose Books.
    Knight, G. and Dean, T. (1982) ‘Myth and the structure of news’. Journal of Communication32(2).http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1982.tb00502.x
    Kress, G. (1986) ‘Language in the media: the construction of the domains of public and private’. Media, Culture and Society8:395–419.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0163443786008004003
    Kristeva, J. (1984) Revolution in Poetic Language. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Laclau, E. and Mouffe, C. (1985) Hegemony and Socialist Strategy. London: Verso.
    Langer, J. (1992) ‘Truly awful news on television’ in P.Dahlgren and C.Sparks (eds), Journalism and Popular Culture. London: Sage.
    Larsen, P. (1992) ‘More than just images: the whole picture. News in the multi-channel universe’ in N.Skovmand and K.C.Schrøder (eds), Media Cultures. London: Routledge.
    Lash, S. (1990) The Sociology of Postmodernism. London: Routledge.
    Lash, S. (1994) ‘Reflexivity and its doubles: structure, aesthetics, community’ in U.Beck, A.Giddens and S.Lash, Reflexive Modernization. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Lash, S. and Urry, J. (1987) Disorganized Capitalism. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Lash, S. and Urry, J. (1994) Economies of Signs and Space. London: Sage.
    Lavoinne, Y. (1994) ‘Journalists, history and historians’. Réseaux: the French Journal of Communication2(2).
    Lawson, H. (1985) Reflexivity: The Postmodern Predicament. London: Hutchinson.
    Lee, B. (1993) ‘Going public’. Public Culture5:165–78.http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/08992363-5-2-165
    Lenart, S. (1994) Shaping Political Attitudes: The Impact of Interpersonal Communication and Mass Media. London: Sage.
    Lindell, K. (1992) ‘Den 4.e dimensionen’. Pressens Tidning20:12–13, 20.
    Livingstone, S. and Lunt, P. (1994) Talk on Television. London: Routledge.
    Lodziak, C. (1986) The Power of Television. London: Frances Pinter.
    Luke, T.W. (1989) Screens of Power. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
    Lull, J. (1990) Inside Family Viewing. London: Routledge.
    Lundqvist, Å. (1992) ‘Politiker som “opolitisk underhållning”’. Dagens Nyheter, 29 Nov., section C, p. 7.
    McCarthy, T. (1991) Ideals and Illusions. Boston, MA: MIT Press.
    McClure, K. (1992) ‘On the subject of rights: pluralism, plurality and political identity’ in C.Mouffe (ed.), Dimensions of Radical Democracy. London: Verso.
    McGrew, A. (1992) ‘A global society?’ in S.Hall, D.Hall and T.McGrew (eds), Modernity and its Futures. Cambridge: Polity Press/Open University.
    McGuigan, J. (1992) Cultural Populism. London: Routledge.
    McIntyre, J.S. (1987) ‘Repositioning a landmark: the Hutchins Commission and freedom of the press’. Critical Studies in Mass Communication4:136–60.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295038709360122
    McLaughlin, L. (1993a) ‘Feminism, the public sphere, media and democracy’. Media, Culture and Society15:599–620.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344393015004005
    McLaughlin, L. (1993b) ‘Chastity criminals in the age of electronic reproduction: reviewing talk television and the public sphere’. Journal of Communication Inquiry17(1).http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019685999301700103
    McLennan, G. (1992) ‘The enlightenment project revisited’ in S.Hall, D.Held and T.McGrew (eds), Modernity and its Futures. Cambridge: Polity Press/Open University.
    McManus, J.H. (1994) Market-Driven Journalism: Let the Citizen Beware?. London: Sage.
    Madison, G.B. (1988) The Hermeneutics of Postmodernity. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Mander, M. (1987) ‘Narrative dimensions of the news: omniscience, prophesy and morality’. Communication10:51–70.
    Marshall, B.L. (1994) Engendering Modernity: Feminism, Social Theory and Social Change. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Marshall, T.H. (1950) Citizenship and Social Class. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Meehan, E. (1993) Citizenship and the European Community. London: Sage.
    Melucci, A. (1989) Nomads of the Present. London: Hutchinson.
    MelucciA. (1992) ‘Liberation or meaning? Social movements, culture and democracy’ in J.Nederveen Pieterse (ed.), Emancipations, Modern and Postmodern. London: Sage.
    Meyrowitz, J. (1985) No Sense of Place. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Micheletti, M. (1994) Det civila samhället och staten. Stockholm: Fritzes.
    Milner, A. (1993) Cultural Materialism. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.
    Molander, B. (1993) Kunskap i handling. Göteborg: Daidalos.
    Moores, S. (1993a) Interpreting Audiences. London: Sage.
    Moores, S, (1993b) ‘Television, geography and “mobile privatization”’. European Journal of Communication8:365–79.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0267323193008003006
    Morley, D. (1992) Television, Audiences and Cultural Studies. London: Routledge.
    Morley, D. and Silverstone, R. (1990) ‘Domestic communication — technologies and meanings’. Media Culture and Society12:31–55.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344390012001003
    Morris, A.D. and Mueller, C.M. (eds) (1992) Frontiers in Social Movement Theory. New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press.
    Morse, M. (1985) ‘Talk, talk, talk’. Screen26(2).
    Mouffe, C. (1988a) ‘Hegemony and new political subjects: toward a new concept of democracy’ in C.Nelson and L.Grossberg (eds), Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    Mouffe, C. (1988b) ‘Radical democracy: modern or postmodern?’ in A.Ross (ed.), Universal Abandon? The Politics of Postmodernism. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    MouffeC. (ed.) (1992a) Dimensions of Radical Democracy. London: Verso.
    Mouffe, C. (1992b) ‘Democratic citizenship and the political community’ in C.Mouffe (ed.), Dimensions of Radical Democracy. London: Verso.
    Mouffe, C. (1992c) ‘Feminism, citizenship and radical democratic politics’ in J.Butler and J.W.Scott (eds), Feminists Theorize the Political. London: Routledge.
    Mouffe, C. (1993) The Return of the Political. London: Verso.
    Mulgan, G. (1991) Communication and Control: Networks and the New Economies of Control. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Mulgan, G. (1994) Politics in an Antipolitical Age. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Murdock, G. (1990) ‘Television and citizenship: in defence of public broadcasting’ in A.Tomlinson (ed.), Consumption, Identity and Style. London: Routledge.
    Murdock, G. (1992) ‘Citizens, consumers, and public culture’ in M.Skovmand and K.C.Schrøder (eds), Media Cultures. London: Routledge.
    Murdock, G. (1993) ‘Communication and the constitution of modernity’. Media, Culture and Society15:521–39.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344393015004002
    Murdock, G. and Golding, P. (1989) ‘Information poverty and political inequality: citizenship in the age of privatized communications’. Journal of Communication39(3).http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1989.tb01051.x
    Negt, O. and Kluge, A. (1993/1972) The Public Sphere and Experience. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Neumann, R.W., Just, M.R. and Crigler, A.N. (1992) Common Knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Newcomb, H. and Hirsch, P.M. (1984) ‘Television as a cultural forum’ in W.D.Rowland and B.Watkins (eds), Interpreting Television. London: Sage.
    Nicholson, L. (ed.) (1991) Feminism/Postmodernism. London: Routledge.
    Nicholson, L. (1992) ‘Feminist theory: the private and the public’ in L.McDowell and R.Pringle (eds), Defining Women. Cambridge: Polity Press/Open University.
    Olson, S.R. (1987) ‘Meta-television: popular postmodernism’. Critical Studies in Mass Communication4:284–300.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295038709360136
    Passerin d'Entrèves, M. (1992) ‘Hannah Arendt and the idea of citizenship’ in C.Mouffe (ed.), Dimensions of Radical Democracy. London: Verso.
    Pateman, C. (1987) ‘Feminist critiques of the public/private dichotomy’ in A.Phillips (ed.), Feminism and Equality. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Pateman, C. (1988) ‘The fraternal social contract’ in J.Keane (ed.), Civil Society and the State. London: Verso.
    Pateman, C. (1992) ‘The patriarchal welfare state’ in L.McDowell and R.Pringle (eds), Defining Women. Cambridge: Polity Press/Open University Press.
    Peck, J. (1995) ‘Talk shows as therapeutic discourse: the ideological labor of the televised talking cure’. Communication Theory5(1):58–81.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.1995.tb00098.x
    Peters, J.D. (1993) ‘Distrust of representation: Habermas on the public sphere’. Media, Culture and Society15(4).http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344393015004003
    Phillips, A. (1991) Engendering Democracy. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Phillips, A. (1993) Democracy and Difference. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Philo, G. (1990) Seeing and Believing: The Influence of Television. London: Routledge.http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203326251
    Pieterse, J.N. (ed.) (1992) Emancipations, Modern and Postmodern. London: Sage.
    Poole, R. (1991) Morality and Modernity. London: Routledge.http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203168936
    Porter, E.J. (1991) Women and Moral Identity. North Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
    Porter, V. (1993) ‘The consumer and transfrontier television’. Consumer Policy Review3(3).
    Poster, M. (1989) Critical Theory and Poststructuralism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Postman, N. (1985) Amusing Ourselves to Death. New York: Viking.
    Powers, R. (1977) The Newscasters: The News Business as Show Business. New York: St. Martin's Press.
    Price, V. (1992) Public Opinion. London: Sage.
    Raboy, M. (1991) ‘L'économie politique des médias et le nouvel espace public de la communication’ in M.Beauchamp (ed.), Communication Publique et Société. Boucherville, Québec: Gaëtan Morin.
    Raboy, M. (1994) ‘The role of the public in broadcast policy-making and regulation: lessons for Europe from Canada’. European Journal of Communication9:5–23.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0267323194009001001
    Raboy, M. and Dagenais, B. (eds) (1992) Media, Crisis and Democracy. London: Sage.
    Rajchman, J. (1988) ‘Habermas's complaint’. New German Critique46: Fall.
    Readings, B. (1991) Introducing Lyotard: Art and Politics. London: Routledge.
    Reimer, B. (1994) The Most Common of Practices: On Mass Media Use in Late Modernity. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International.
    Reimer, B. (1995) ‘The media in public and private spheres’ in J.Fornäs and G.Bolin (eds), Youth Culture in Late Modernity. London: Sage.
    Rheingold, H. (1994) Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier. New York: Harper Perennial.
    Richardson, L. (1990) ‘Narrative and sociology’. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography19(1).http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124190019001006
    Ricoeur, P. (1974) ‘Consciousness and the unconscious’ in P.Ricoeur (ed.), The Conflict of Interpretations. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
    Ricoeur, P. (1981) Hermeneutics and the Human Sciences. J.B.Thompson (ed. and trans.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Ricoeur, P. (1984, 1986) Time and Narrative. 2 vols. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Ricoeur, P. (1986) Ideology and Utopia. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Ricoeur, P. (1994) ‘Imagination in discourse and action’ in G.Robinson and J.Rundell (eds), Rethinking Imagination. London: Routledge.
    Robertson, R. (1992) Globalization. London: Sage.
    Robins, K. (1993) ‘The war, the screen, the crazy dog and poor mankind’. Media, Culture and Society15:321–7.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0163443793015002013
    Robinson, J.P. and Levy, M.R. (1986) The Main Source: Learning from Television News. Beverley Hills, CA: Sage.
    Roche, M. (1992) Rethinking Citizenship: Welfare, Ideology and Change in Modern Society. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Rosen, J. (1986) ‘The impossible press: American journalism and the decline of public life’. PhD dissertation, New York University.
    Rosenstiel, T.B. (1992) ‘Talk-show journalism’ in P.S.Cook, D.Gomery and L.W.Lichty (eds), The Future of News. London: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Ruellan, D. (1993) ‘An undefined profession: the issue of professionalism in the journalistic milieu’. Réseaux: the French Journal of Communication1(2).
    Rundell, J. (1994) ‘Creativity and judgement: Kant on reason and imagination’ in G.Robinson and J.Rundell (eds), Rethinking Imagination. London: Routledge.
    Saenz, M. (1992) ‘Television viewing as a cultural practice’. Journal of Communication Inquiry16(2).http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019685999201600204
    Scannell, P. (1989) ‘Public service broadcasting and modern public life’. Media, Culture and Society11:135–66.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344389011002002
    Scannell, P. (ed.) (1991) Broadcast Talk. London: Sage.
    Schiller, H. (1991) ‘Not yet the post-imperialist era’. Critical Studies in Mass Communication8:13–28.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295039109366777
    Schlesinger, P. (1987) Putting Reality Together.
    2nd edn
    . London: Methuen.
    Schlesinger, P. (1993) ‘Wishful thinking: cultural politics, media and collective identities in Europe’. Journal of Communication43(2).http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1993.tb01258.x
    Schlesinger, P. (1994) ‘Europe's contradictory communicative space’. Dædalus: Spring.
    Schudson. M. (1978) Discovering the News. New York: Basic Books.
    Schudson. M. (1991) ‘The sociology of news production revisited’ in J.Curran and M.Gurevitch (eds), Mass media and Society. London: Edward Arnold.
    Schutz, A. (1970) On Phenomenology and Social Relations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Schwoch, J. (1993) ‘Cold war, hegemony, postmodernism: American television and the world-system, 1945–92’. Quarterly Review of Film & Video14(3).http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10509209309361403
    Seidman, S. (1990) ‘Substantive debates: moral order and social crises — perspectives on modern culture’ in J.C.Alexander and S.Seidman (eds), Culture and Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Seligman, A.B. (1993) ‘The fragile ethical vision of civil society’ in B.Turner (ed.), Citizenship and Social Theory. London: Sage.
    Sennett, R. (1977) The Fall of Public Man. New York: Knopf.
    Sholle, D. (1993) ‘Buy our news: tabloid television and commodification’. Journal of Communication Inquiry17(1).http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019685999301700104
    Shotter, J. (1993a) Conversational Realities. London: Sage.
    Shotter, J. (1993b) ‘Psychology and citizenship: identity and belonging’ in B.Turner (ed.), Citizenship and Social Theory. London: Sage.
    Silverstone, R. (1981) The Message of Television. London: Heinemann.
    Silverstone, R. (1988) ‘Television, myth and narrative’ in J.Carey (ed.), Media, Myth and Narrative. London: Sage.
    Silverstone, R. (1990) ‘Towards an anthropology of the television audience’ in M.Ferguson (ed.), Political Communication: the New Imperatives. London: Sage.
    Silverstone, R. (1994) Television and Everyday Life. London: Routledge.
    Silverstone, R., Hirsch, E. and Morley, D. (1992) ‘Information and communication technologies and the moral economy of the household’ in R.Silverstone and E.Hirsch (eds), Consuming Technologies. London: Routledge.http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203401491
    Simonds, A. (1989) ‘Ideological domination and the political information market’. Theory and Society18:181–211.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00160754
    Smart, B. (1993) Postmodernity. London: Routledge.
    Smith, C.S. (1993) ‘Feminist media and cultural politics’ in P.Creedon (ed.), Women in Mass Communication.
    2nd edn
    . London: Sage.http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452233017
    Smith, D.E. (1988) The Everyday World as Problematic: A Feminist Sociology. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Smith, D. E. (1990) ‘Femininity as discourse’ in D.E.Smith (ed.), Texts, Facts and Femininity. London: Routledge.
    Smith, P. (1991) ‘Laclau's and Mouffe's secret agent’ in Miami Theory Collective (eds), Community at Loose Ends. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Smith, R.R. (1979) ‘Mythic elements in television news’. Journal of Communication Winter: 75–82.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1979.tb01684.x
    Smythe, D. (1994) Counterclockwise: Perspectives in Communication. Boulder/Oxford: Westview Press.
    Soloski, J. (1989) ‘News reporting and professionalism’. Media, Culture and Society11:207–28.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344389011002005
    Soper, K. (1990) Constructa ergo sum?’ in K.Soper (ed.), Troubled Pleasures. London: Verso.
    Sparks, C. (1991) ‘Goodbye Hildy Johnson: the vanishing “serious press”’ in P.Dahlgren and C.Sparks (eds), Communication and Citizenship. London: Routledge.
    Splichal, S. and Wasko, J. (eds) (1993) Communication and Democracy. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Stam, R. (1983) ‘Television news and its spectator’ in E.A.Kaplan (ed.), Regarding Television. Los Angeles: The American Film Institute.
    van Steenbergen, B. (ed.) (1994) The Condition of Citizenship. London: Sage.http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446250600
    Steiner, L. (ed.) (1994) ‘Review and criticism: public opinion paradigms’. Critical Studies in Mass Communication11:274–306.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295039409366902
    Stoehrel, V. (1994) ‘Berättelsestraegier, kunskap och reflektion’. PhD dissertation, Department of Journalism, Media and Communication, Stockholm University.
    van Tassel, J. (1994) ‘Yakety-yak, do talk back!’. Wired: January.
    Taylor, C. (1985) ‘Theories of meaning’ in C.Taylor (ed.), Philosophical Papers I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Taylor, C. (1991) Multiculturalism and ‘The Politics of Recognition’. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Taylor, C. (1992) The Ethics of Authenticity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Tester, K. (1992) Civil Society. London: Routledge.
    Tester, K. (1993) Media, Culture and Morality. London: Routledge.
    Thompson, J.P. (1990) Ideology and Modern Culture. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Tolson, A. (1985) ‘Anecdotal television’. Screen26(2).
    Tolson, A. (1991) ‘Televised chat and the synthetic personality’ in P.Scannell (ed.), Broadcast Talk. London: Sage.
    Tomlinson, A. (1991) Cultural Imperialism. London: Pinter Publishers.
    Tomlinson, A. (1994) ‘A phenomenology of globalization?: Giddens on global modernity’. European Journal of Communication9:149–72.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0267323194009002003
    Tuchman, G. (1978) Making News. New York: Free Press.
    Tulloch, J. (1990) Television Drama: Agency, Audience and Myth. London: Routledge.
    Turner, B. (ed.) (1993a) Citizenship and Social Theory. London: Sage.
    Turner, B. (1993b) ‘Contemporary problems in the theory of citizenship’ in B.Turner (ed.), Citizenship and Social Theory. London: Sage.
    Turner, B. (1994) ‘Postmodern culture/modern citizens’ in B.van Steenbergen (ed.), The Condition of Citizenship. London: Sage.http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446250600
    Twine, F. (1994) Citizenship and Social Rights. London: Sage.
    Venturelli. S.S. (1993) ‘The imagined transnational public sphere in the European Community's broadcast philosophy: implications for democracy’. European Journal of Communication8:491–518.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0267323193008004005
    Verstraeten, H. (1994) ‘The media and the transformation of the public sphere’. Unpublished paper, Centre for Media Sociology, Free University Brussels.
    Wagner, P. (1994) A Sociology of Modernity: Liberty and Discipline. London: Routledge.
    Wallis, R. and Baran, Stanley (1990) The Known World of Broadcast News. London: Routledge.
    Walzer, M. (1992) ‘The civil society argument’ in C.Mouffe (ed.), Dimensions of Radical Democracy. London: Verso.
    Wasko, J. and Mosco, V. (eds) (1992) Democratic Communications in the Information Age. Toronto: Garamond Press and Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Weibull, L. (ed.) (1991) Svenska Journalister. Stockholm: Tiden.
    White, M. (1992) Tele-Advising: Therapeutic Discourse in American Television. Chapel Hill, NC and London: University of North Carolina Press.
    White, S. (1988) The Recent Work of Jürgen Habermas. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Williams, R. (1974) Television: Technology and Cultural Form. London: Fontana.http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203426647
    Willis, S. (1991) A Primer for Daily Life. London: Routledge.
    Wilson, T. (1993) Watching Television: Hermeneutics, Reception and Popular Culture. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Yeatman, A. (1994) Postmodern Revisioning of the Political. London: Routledge.
    Young, I.M. (1987) ‘Impartiality and the civic public’ in S.Benhabib and D.Cornell (eds), Feminism as Critique. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Young, I.M. (1990a) ‘Polity and group difference: a critique of the ideal of universal citizenship’ in C.R.Sunstein (ed.), Feminism and Political Theory. London: University of Chicago Press.
    Young, I.M. (1990b) ‘The ideal of community and the politics of difference’ in L.J.Nicholson (ed.), Feminism/Postmodernism. London: Routledge.

    • Loading...
Back to Top