Teaching Primary Physical Education
Physical Education is an important part of the primary curriculum and one that provides unique challenges for those involved with its teaching. Teaching Primary Physical Education provides a concise overview of the knowledge, skills and understanding required for the confident teaching of physical education in primary schools.
Author Julia Lawrence offers a balanced and comprehensive overview of the subject, covering issues such as safe practice in PE, inclusion, subject leadership and cross-curricular approaches to physical education supported by an accessible theory-informed approach.
Teaching Primary Physical Education is supported by a companion website http://www.sagepub.co.uk/lawrence, which includes further practical examples of applications, links to relevant literature and teaching resources, offering further student-friendly material for use across different physical disciplines.
This is essential reading for all students studying primary physical education ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Why Physical Education?
- Chapter 2: How Pupils Learn and Develop
- Chapter 3: Approaches to the Teaching of Physical Education
- Chapter 4: Inclusion in Physical Education
- Chapter 5: Safe Practice in Physical Education
- Chapter 6: Developing Motor Competences
- Chapter 7: Developing Knowledge, Skills and Understanding Across Areas of Activity
- Chapter 8: Planning the Learning Experience
- Chapter 9: Promoting Physical Education Across the Curriculum
- Chapter 10: Physical Education and the Wider Community
- Chapter 11: Subject Leadership in Physical Education
Education at SAGE[Page ii]
SAGE is a leading international publisher of journals, books, and electronic media for academic, educational, and professional markets.
Our education publishing includes:
- accessible and comprehensive texts for aspiring education professionals and practitioners looking to further their careers through continuing professional development
- inspirational advice and guidance for the classroom
- authoritative state of the art reference from the leading authors in the field
Find out more at: http://www.sagepub.co.uk/education
© Julia Lawrence 2012
First published 2012
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
All material on the accompanying website can be printed off and photocopied by the purchaser/user of the book. The web material itself may not be reproduced in its entirety for use by others without prior written permission from SAGE. The web material may not be distributed or sold separately from the book without the prior written permission of SAGE. Should anyone wish to use the materials from the website for conference purposes, they would require separate permission from us. All material is © Julia Lawrence 2012
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
3 Church Street
#10-04 Samsung Hub
Library of Congress Control Number: 2011933715
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-0-85702-736-8 (pbk)
Typeset by C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed and bound by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon, CR0 4YY
Printed on paper from sustainable resources
For mum[Page vi]
About the Author
Teaching Primary Physical Education provides both theoretical and practical perspectives on teaching physical education in primary schools. The clear presentation and well argued positions covered in the book should help teachers in the primary school to develop their understanding of the subject and hence become reflective practitioners in relation both to their work in this curriculum area and to the contribution physical education can make to the education of primary school children. This critically reflective stance should enable them to improve their practical day-to-day teaching of the subject as well as have the confidence and understanding to take on leadership roles in physical education, arguing for its unique and significant place in the curriculum.
This is a particularly valuable text as little has been written on the philosophy underpinning physical education in the primary school. Most recent research, debate and text books about physical education centre on secondary education. There are a number of reasons for this, including the fact that physical educationists involved in secondary school are specialists who have followed an in depth study of the subject, whilst there are very few teachers in the primary school who have specialist knowledge of the subject area. Primary teachers are, in the main, generalists who have to cover the whole curriculum. These teachers have had minimal time to reflect on physical education on account of the multiple demands on their time in training and in school. Regrettably this lack of training has resulted in lack of knowledge of the movement and its importance in the all-round education of the child.[Page xii]
This leaves the impression that physical education in the primary school is of less importance than that in the secondary school. This is far from the truth. Physical education in the primary school is the critical foundation for work at secondary level and can establish attitudes to involvement in physical activity that can persist throughout life. There is an urgent need for scholarly work in the area of physical education in the primary school to enhance the teaching and standing of the subject. I therefore welcome this book in adding to the literature available on physical education in primary schools.Professor and Head of School of Sport and Education, Brunel University
The teaching of physical education in primary schools has always be debated and questioned. Proposed changes to national curricula and continuing debates around physical activity and healthy active lifestyles suggest that a rise in the importance of physical education as a core subject may be just round the corner. This book provides an overview of key aspects associated with the development and delivery of effective physical education experiences.
Chapters 1, 2 and 3 provide a theoretical perspective on physical education looking at not only a rationale for the inclusion of the subject within education, but also a review of theories of learning and development associated with the subject as well as the range of teaching approaches that can be used to create effective learning opportunities.
The diverse nature of pupils is explored in Chapter 4 where consideration is given to providing learning opportunities reflective of the needs of all pupils. This is supported by Chapter 5 which covers the health and safety aspects of delivery.
Chapter 8 draws together the previous chapters by looking at how the concepts and activities explored are integrated and reflected in the planning process.[Page xiv]
Chapters 9 and 10 explore education in the contribution of physical education to the wider curriculum and cross-curricular themes, as well as links to the wider community. To conclude, Chapter 11 looks at how you might develop as a subject leader within physical education.
Throughout the book practical activities, case studies and extended readings provide you with an opportunity to reflect upon your own learning and development, while materials available from the companion website provide further support. This can be found at http://www.sagepub.co.uk/lawrence and by clicking on the Sample Materials tab.Companion Website
Support materials for Chapter 2
- Examples of resource cards
Support materials for Chapter 3
- Sport Education
Support materials for Chapter 4
- Behaviour management strategies
- Keywords for areas of activities
- Differentiation strategies
Support materials for Chapter 5
- Activity specific websites
- Warming up and cooling down activities
- Entering and exiting pools
- Examples of risk assessments
Support materials for Chapter 6
- Resources for developing motor skills
Support materials for Chapter 7
- Resources for athletics
- Resources for dance [Page xv]
- Resources for games activities
- Resources for gymnastics
- Resources for swimming
- Resources for problem solving
- Resources for orienteering
- Lesson planning templates
- Promoting cross curricular themes
References[Page 161]1996) ‘Reflective practice in initial teacher education: some successes and points for growth’, Journal of Teacher Development, 5(3): 11–22.and (2006) Teaching physical education: a handbook for primary and secondary school teachers. London: Routledge.(2006) The educational benefits claimed for physical education and school sport: an academic review. London: British Educational Research Association (BERA)., , , , and (1989) ‘Social cognitive theory’, in R.Vasta (ed.), Annals of child development, vol 6: Six theories of child development. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. pp. 1–60.(2001) ‘Social cognitive theory: an agentic perspective’, Annual Review Psychology, 52: 1–26.(2008) A review of services for children and young people (0–19) with speech, language and communication needs. Nottingham: DCSF Publications. Available at http://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/Bercow_Interim_Report.pdf (accessed September 2011).(1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives handbook 1: the cognitive domain. New York: David McKay Co Inc., , , and ([Page 162]1965) Child development: physical and psychological growth through adolescence. Philadelphia, London: W.B. Saunders Company.and (2003) ‘Changing hierarchies of power in physical education using sport education’, European Physical Education Review, 9(3): 267–84.(1982) ‘A model of the teaching of games in Secondary Schools’, Bulletin of Physical Education, 18(1): 5–8.and (2003) ‘A study of current practice in liaison between primary and secondary schools in physical education’, European Physical Education Review, 9(2): 115–34., and (2004) ‘Information exchanged between primary and secondary schools about physical education to support the transition from Key Stage 2 to Key Stage 3’, Educational Research, 46(3): 283–300., and (2007) ‘The transfer of pupils from primary to secondary school: A case study of a foundation subject – physical education’, Research in Education, 77: 14–30., and (2002) ‘Physical activity for everyone: what every physical educator should know about promoting lifelong physical activity’, Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 21: 128–44.(1997) Concepts of physical fitness. Madison, W.S: Brown and Benchmark Publishers.and (2005) ‘Schemes of work and lesson planning’, in S.Capel, M.Leask and Turner, T. (eds), Learning to teach in the secondary school: a companion to school experience,and (4th edn.London: Routledge. pp. 66–47.1998) ‘Preferred coordination modes in the steps of learning complex gymnastics skill’, Human Movement Science, 17: 221–41., , , , and (Department for Children, Families and Schools (2008) The education of children and young people with behavioural, emotional and social difficulties as a special educational need. London: DCFS.Department for Education (1995) Physical education in the National Curriculum. London: HMSO.Department for Education and Employment (1999) Physical education: the National Curriculum for England. London: HMSO.Department of Education and Science (1991) Physical education for ages 5–16. London: HMSO.Department of Education and Skills (2001) Special educational needs: code of practice. London: HMSO.Department for Education and Skills (2002) Learning through PE and sport. London: HMSO.Department of Education and Skills (2004) Removing barriers to achievement: the government's strategy for SEN. Nottingham: DfES Publications.[Page 163]Department of Health (2004) At least five a week – Evidence on the impact of physical activity and its relationship to health. London: HMSO.1995) Childhood and society,(2nd edn.London: Vintage.1992) ‘Not another inventory, rather a catalyst for reflection’, To improve the academy, 11: 137–55.and (1988) ‘The child's perspective in physical education part 2: children's participation motives’, The British Journal of Physical Education, 19(2): 79–82.and (1995) Understanding motor development: infants, children, adolescents, adults,and (3rd edn.Iowa: Brown and Benchmark Publishers.1999) Intelligence reframed: multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York: Basic Books.(2000) Theories of childhood: an introduction to Dewey, Montessori, Erikson, Piaget and Vygotsky. Minnesota: Redleaf Press.(Griffin, L.L. and Butler, J.I. (eds) (2005) Teaching games for understanding: theory, research and practice. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.2005) ‘Assessment for learning’, in S.Capel, M.Leask and T.Turner (eds) Learning to teach in the secondary school: a companion to school experience,(4th edn.London: Routledge. pp. 301–24.2005) ‘How does the concept of physical literacy affect what is and might be the practice of Physical Education?’ Available at: http://www.physical-literacy.org.uk (accessed September 2011).(1986) Life span motor development. Illinois: Human Kinetics.(2003) ‘The right of the child to develop and learn in quality environments’, International Journal of Early Childhood, 3(1 and 2): 12–22.(2009) An introduction to child development,and (2nd edn.Thousand Oaks: Sage.2005) ‘Physical Education, youth sport and lifelong participation: the importance of early learning experiences’, European Physical Education Review, 11(3): 1–16.(1984) Experiential learning: experience as the source of learning and development. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.(1964) Taxonomy of educational objectives; the classification of educational goals handbook II: the affective domain. New York: Longman, Green., and (2009) Enhancing self-esteem in the classroom,(3rd edn.London: Sage.2006) Negotiating change: the impact of school transfer on attainment, self-esteem, self-motivation and attitudes in physical education. Unpublished PhD thesis. Brunel University.(2004) ‘Learning to teach sport education: misunderstandings, pedagogical difficulties, and resistance’, European Physical Education Review, 10(2): 135–55., , and ([Page 164]2005) Instructional models for physical education,(2nd edn.Arizona: Holcomb Hathaway Publishers.2008) ‘The relationship between PE biographies and PE teaching practices of classroom teachers’, Sport, Education and Society, 13(4): 373–91.and (1994) Teaching physical education,and (4th edn.New York: Macmillan College Publishing Company.Office for Standards in Education (2003) Special educational needs in the mainstream. LEA policy and support services (HMI 556). London: Office in Standards in Education.2003) ‘Sport education and situated learning: problematizing the potential’, European Physical Education Review, 9(3): 301–08.(2000) ‘The absent agenda: pedagogy and physical education’, Journal of Sport Pedgagogy, 6(1): 4–37.and (Physical Education Association of the United Kingdom (PEAUK) (2003) Observing Children Moving (CD-ROM). Worcester: Tacklesport (Consultancy) Company.1969) The psychology of the child. London: Routledge Kegan Paul.and (Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) (1999a) The national curriculum for England: music. London: DfEE and QCA.Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency (QCDA) (2010a) The national curriculum: primary handbook. Coventry: QCDA.Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency (QCDA) (2010b) Introducing the new primary curriculum: guidance for primary schools. Coventry: QCDA.2009) Independent review of the primary curriculum: final report. Nottingham: DCSF.(1983) The reflective practitioner: how professionals think in action. London: Temple Smith.(1991) ‘Increasing self-esteem and competency in children’, International Journal of Early Childhood, 23(1): 28–35.(2008) Successful teaching placements in secondary schools. Exeter: Learning Matters.and (1987) ‘Knowledge and teaching: foundations of the new reform’, Harvard Educational Review, 15(2): 4–14.(1994) Sport education: quality PE through positive sport experiences. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers.(1994) ‘Why no pedagogy in England’, in B.Moon and A.SheltonMayes (eds), Teaching and Learning in Secondary Schools. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.(1971) ‘Educational objectives in the psychomotor domain’, in M.B.Kapfer (ed.), Behavioural objectives in curriculum development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications, Inc. pp. 60–67.([Page 165]1998) Accelerated learning in practice: brain-based methods of accelerated motivation and achievement. London: Network Continuum Education.(1998) Understanding children's development,, , and (3rd edn.Oxford, London: Blackwell Publishers.2005) ‘Inclusion, Special Educational Needs, Disability and Physical Education’, in K.Green, Hardman, K. (eds). Physical education: essential issues. London: Sage.and (Social Policy Report (2010) Autism spectrum disorders – diagnosis, prevalence, and services for children and children. Society for Research in Child Development. Available at http://ea.nivsleadscape.org/docs/FINAL_PRODUCTS/LearningCarousel/ASDSocialPolicyReport.pdf (accessed September 2011).1979) ‘Information processing in children's motor skills’, Physical Education Review, 2(2): 123–140.and (Teacher Development Agency (1998) National standards for subject leaders. London: TDA.Teacher Development Agency (2009) Including pupils with SEN and/or disabilities in primary physical education. Manchester: TDA.2010) ‘Planning for an inclusive approach to learning and teaching’, in S.Capel and M.Whitehead (eds) Learning to teach physical education in the secondary school,(3rd edn.London: Routledge.2004) Physical Literacy: a debate. Paper presented at Pre-Olympic Congress, Thessaloniki, Greece, 2004.(2005) Developing physical literacy. Paper presented at Primary Physical Education Conference, Roehampton, 2005.(2009) ‘The current working definitions of physical literacy’. Available at: http://www.physical-literacy.org.uk/definitions.php.(Whitlam, P. and Beaumont, G. (eds) (2008) Safe practice in physical education and school sport. Leeds: Coachwise Ltd.Youth Sport Trust and Central YMCA (1998) Fit for TOPs handbook. Loughborough: YST.Youth Sport Trust (2004) TOP play and TOP sport student handbook: using TOP play and TOP sport in higher education institutions. Loughborough: YST.Youth Sport Trust (2005) TOP play and TOP sport student handbook. Loughborough: YST.[Page 166]