Surveillance & Crime

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Roy Coleman & Michael McCahill

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  • Surveillance & Crime

    As Surveillance Studies goes from strength to strength with numerous degree courses, international journals, conferences and symposia dedicated to it each year, the time seems perfect for a book like Surveillance & Crime to inspire students and established scholars alike. Written by two of the leading scholars who have had an influential role in shaping the contours of the field over the last decade, Surveillance & Crime discusses the subject of surveillance in all its technological and human dimensions.

    Like the subject of surveillance itself, this volume is provocative, challenging and continuously fascinating. Drawing on a dazzling array of theoretical ideas from across the social sciences, Roy Coleman and Mike McCahill situate the study of surveillance not only within the familiar contexts of ‘security’, ‘order’, ‘policing’ and ‘risk’, but also within less well-trodden territories (for a book of this kind, at least), including cultural theory, historical perspectives, globalization and gender politics – all of which make Surveillance & Crime a perfect companion to the other volumes in the Key Approaches to Criminology series.

    YvonneJewkes Series Editor

    Copyright

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    Acknowledgements and Dedication

    We would like to pass on our thanks to Joe Sim, Dave Whyte and Steve Tombs for reading various chapters in this book, and providing us with useful comments and insights.

    We dedicate this book to Denis McCahill and Elizabeth, George and Gary Coleman.

  • Glossary

    Actuarial – This term originally refers to the activity of a person (an ‘actuary’) working in the field of insurance to calculate risks and payments for insurance companies by studying the frequency of accidents and other events. In the field of policing and criminal justice, this refers to how similar forms of ‘actuarial’ thinking are applied to the ‘risks’ posed by crime and actions that might be taken to ‘deter’ or ‘pre-empt’ those ‘risks’.

    Algorithm – Algorithms use a series of mathematical steps to provide answers to particular kinds of problems or questions. An example of ‘algorithmic’ surveillance would be when digital CCTV surveillance cameras are linked with sophisticated computer software which compares the faces of people captured by the cameras with those of known offenders on the database.

    Anti-Social behaviour orders (ASBOs) – An anti-social behaviour order (ASBO) is a legal order restricting the activities or movements of someone who has repeatedly behaved in a way that upsets or annoys other people.

    Automated socio-technical environments (ASTEs) – A term used by Lianos and Douglas (2000) to describe ‘technology-based contexts of interaction’ designed to regulate human behaviour by integrating it into a ‘pre-arranged environment’.

    Automated surveillance – Automated surveillance systems rely on machines, rather than people, to collect (or extract) and process personal information.

    Big Brother – The term ‘Big Brother’ was first used in George Orwell's dystopian novel, Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949), to describe the figure that appeared on the ever-present telescreens to monitor citizens in his fictitious totalitarian state. In recent years the term has been adopted by the makers of a ‘reality’ TV show of the same name which uses surveillance cameras to monitor contestants and then displays the images synoptically to the wider nation.

    Biometrics – This refers to the methods used to recognise people based upon physical or behavioural traits, such as fingerprints, DNA, iris recognition or behavioural traits such as ‘gait’ or ‘voice’ recognition.

    Bio-power – A term used by Michel Foucault to refer to the practices used by modern states to regulate citizens through the use of a range of techniques directed at the ‘body’ and the entire ‘population’.

    Bureaucratisation – A term coined by the German sociologist, Max Weber, to describe rationalised forms of information gathering and the regulations that are in place in large modern organisations to control activity.

    Carceral punishment – Carceral punishment refers to the processes of surveillance and classification developed as punishment and control techniques in the nineteenth-century prison. According to Foucault, carceral techniques disseminate throughout society, proliferating disciplinary control in relation to the targeting of a range of human behaviours.

    Categorical suspicion – A term used by Norris and Armstrong (1999) to describe suspicion based on personal characteristics (age, ethnicity, dress) or membership of a ‘suspect’ group.

    ‘Crime’ – A term carrying great censuring power that is contested in historical, legal, political and moral terms. In this sense, ‘crime’ is the result of various constructions (in legal, media and political debate) and its meaning is as much a result of the power to criminalise as the power to eschew criminalisation within particular institutional and historical settings.

    Crime mapping and crime analysis (CM/CA) – Crime mapping and crime analysis is used by analysts in law enforcement agencies to gather information on the temporal, spatial and social aspects of crime in an attempt to identify patterns which can then be analysed and used for ‘pre-emptive’ policing.

    Crimes of the powerful – Like the concept of crime, crimes of the powerful do not denote a unitary category. However, in contrast to the routine pursuit of conventional crime (‘street’ crime), crimes of the powerful refers to those harmful and socially injurious activities (which may or may not be codified in law) committed by relatively powerful groups in the realms of corporate violence, domestic violence and sexual assault, and police ‘crimes’. Crimes of the powerful tend to exist on the margins of legal and enforcement priorities and practices.

    Cultural toolkits – A set of familiar symbols, skills and rituals that people acquire as they grow up and which shapes their behaviour and worldview.

    Data image – An ‘electronic’ or ‘virtual’ version of our embodied selves that is created through our use of information technology to conduct transactions with organisations, databases and individuals widely separated in time and space.

    Data mining – The use of sophisticated data search capabilities and statistical algorithms to collect information stored in databases in order to find out about people's behaviour, such as shopping habits.

    Differential surveillance – Refers to the uneven development and targeting of surveillance (whether panoptic or synoptic) in relation to groups defined in class, ‘racial’, gender, age or sexual terms.

    Disciplinary power – A form of power that aims to make people conform with proscribed rules or regulations.

    Electronic monitoring – An electronic device, sometimes described as ‘tagging’, that can be placed on a convicted offender on community supervision, parole, or mandatory supervision to monitor his/her location and activities.

    Entrepreneurial urbanism – The term is used to denote a range of powerful economic, political and social forces whose prescriptions for managing cities in more ‘business-like’ terms has impacts on the development and targeting of urban surveillance practices (e.g. CCTV, access control, zero-tolerance policing).

    Function creep – The process whereby surveillance technologies introduced for one purpose eventually end up being used for other purposes that go beyond the original stated aims.

    Great un-watched – Whereas the ‘great un-washed’ was a derogatory term used to describe ‘common people’ or the ‘working class’, the term ‘great un-watched’ refers to those powerful groups who find that their deviant activities are not subject to any form of surveillance or, when they are monitored, are subject to ‘light touch’ surveillance (see below).

    Lateral surveillance – A term used by Chan (2008) to describe surveillance which takes place not from the ‘top-down’ or from the ‘bottom-up’, but in a sideways direction when, for example, one neighbour is encouraged to monitor another neighbour.

    Light touch surveillance – Light touch surveillance is characterised as having lesser degrees of enforcement power, resources committed to it and less punitive in its impacts than the routine forms of surveillance aimed at conventional (‘street’) crime and criminality where more intense and heavy-handed surveillance operates. Most fruitfully, it is applicable to powerful social agencies (states and corporations) where less routine and stigmatising kinds of surveillance discourses and practices apply.

    Modernity – ‘Modernity’ is understood as an historical period lasting from around the mid-eighteenth century through to the latter decades of the twentieth century and was characterised by capitalist industrialisation, urbanisation, the establishment of democratic government and a welfare state. This stands in contrast to ‘modernism’, which is understood as a philosophy or intellectual outlook that was shaped by the dominant Enlightenment belief in progress and science.

    New penology – A term used by Feeley and Simon (1994) to describe the shift away from ‘punishment’ or ‘treatment’ programmes directed at individual offenders (Old Penology) towards strategies that aimed instead to identify, classify and manage whole groups and populations ‘assorted by levels of dangerousness’.

    New surveillance – A term developed by Gary T. Marx (2002) to refer to new monitoring technologies that emerged in the last quarter of the twentieth century that are routine, relatively hidden and ubiquitous. It is thought that such technologies for collecting personal information probe more deeply, widely and ‘softly’ than older surveillance methods.

    Panopticon – Jeremy Bentham's proposal, written in 1787, for an architectural system of social discipline, applicable to prisons, factories, workhouses and asylums, which created a state of conscious and permanent visibility that assured the automatic functioning of self-control and self-discipline.

    Policeman-state – A term developed by the historian V.A.C. Gatrell (1990) that refers to the consolidation of classificatory surveillance practices in the mid-nineteenth century in and around the developing state form within which the ‘new police’ became one, albeit important, dimension.

    Primary definers – A term originally developed by Hall et al. (1978). Primary definition indicates a form of cultural and political power within which particular ideologies and preferred meanings are circulated throughout the wider social body so as to set limits upon what is, and what is not, linguistically and practically credible in terms of identifying, understanding and responding to social problems such as crime. The process of primary definition occurs across state and corporate boundaries and reflects and reinforces the interests and values of powerful social actors.

    Privacy – A concept that has evolved with modernity and is used as a basis to defend against, and contest, surveillance practice as this may be defined as ‘infringements to liberty’. Usually couched in individual terms, the concept is seen as limited in contesting surveillance (Lyon, 2001) and is understood as a differential process (see above) replete with social ordering properties (see below).

    Racialisation of surveillance – The use of surveillance practices not only to target and categorise people on the grounds of ‘race’, but also the processes by which these individuals and groups are viewed through a racial lens and a culturally invented racial framework.

    Resistance – Any active behaviour by individuals or interest groups that opposes the collection and processing of personal data, either through the micro-practices of everyday resistance to defeat a given application, or through political challenges to wider power relations which contest the surveillance regime per se.

    Responsibilisation strategies – ‘Neo-liberal’ government policies and strategies designed to devolve the responsibility for crime control on to individuals, organisations and sectors that operate ‘beyond-the-state’, but which are still connected to the state through a series of complex alignments.

    Rhizome – A rhizome is the horizontal stem of a plant that sends out roots and shoots from its nodes.

    Risk management – In the context of policing and security, ‘risk management’ refers to an approach which focuses on governing the future through proactive prevention rather than reactive punishment.

    Scopophilia – A term that originates from Latin and refers to a ‘love of looking’ or to the pleasure that is derived from looking.

    Simulation – This refers to the act of imitating the behaviour of some process by means of something suitably analogous. In computer science, simulation refers to the technique of representing the real world by a computer program.

    Social control – In its broadest sense, the term ‘social control’ simply refers to processes designed to produce conforming behaviour. In this book, however, we follow Stan Cohen (1985) and use a much more ‘narrow’ definition to refer to ‘those organised responses to crime and deviance’.

    Social ordering – Surveillance works through social ordering via the differential value placed upon its classifications, such as ‘young’ and ‘old’, ‘foreign’ and ‘national’, ‘black’ and ‘white’, ‘poor’ and ‘affluent’ and ‘feminine’ and ‘unfeminine’. Someone or some agency makes a decision about what it is necessary to know and for what purpose and in doing so initiates surveillance that reinforces and reflects predominant institutional or social values and power networks.

    State assemblage – A state assemblage is a relatively coordinated terrain of power resulting from the institutional alliances and correspondences of interests forged between powerful actors and agencies (for example, those alliances found under conditions of entrepreneurial urbanism between publically constituted authorities and private or corporate bodies) who are involved in the primary definition (see above) of ‘crime’, ‘deviance’ and ‘dissent’ as well as the development and deployment of authorised surveillance practices.

    Superpanopticon – A term used by Gandy (1993) and Poster (1990) to describe how the emergence of information technology and computer databases has extended and intensified the principles of ‘panopticism’ in the sense that disciplinary surveillance is no longer confined to the enclosed and controlled settings of buildings.

    Surveillance – The collection, processing and analysis of personal information about individuals or populations in order to regulate, control, govern, manage or enable their activities.

    Surveillance discourses – Surveillance discourses entail formal and informal rules about what can be said, how it can be said, and who can speak credibly in relation to a surveillance regime. The outcomes arising from such discourses impinge upon the regulation of action and the preferred mode of intervention of a surveillance regime.

    Surveillance reach – This term refers to the ability of a surveillance regime to penetrate its targeted domain, activity or group. Surveillance reach is differential (see differential surveillance) depending on the terms set by the surveillance discourse (see above) that surrounds it and the ability of the surveilled to contest the aims and scope of the monitoring process.

    Surveillant assemblage – A term used by Haggerty and Ericson (2000) to refer to a set of loosely linked systems, to be distinguished from the operation of the central state or government, and which ‘works by abstracting bodies from places and splitting them into flows to be reassembled as virtual data-doubles’ (Lyon, 2003b: 31).

    Synopticon – The growth of the mass media has given rise to the ‘synopticon’, which allows the many to watch and scrutinise the activities of the ‘few’. The process of synoptic representation renders particular forms of crime as a spectacle for mass consumption.

    Totalitarian – A political system in which there is only one political party which controls everything and does not allow any opposition parties.

    Zero tolerance policing – Zero tolerance policing is based on a conservative criminology and political philosophy. It came to fruition in the 1990s in the USA and found expression in other national jurisdictions. It imposes surveillance and automatic punishment for infractions of rules with the goal of eliminating ‘undesirable conduct’. In particular, zero tolerance policing has punitively applied to poor and vulnerable groups, and features in twenty-first-century ‘public–private’ urban policing networks.

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