Substance Use & Abuse: Cultural and Historical Perspectives

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Russil Durrant & Jo Thakker

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    Preface

    Thomas De Quincey's first experience with opium in the early nineteenth century, taken to relieve the pain of a nagging toothache, was an overwhelmingly positive one. Not only did the opium assuage his pain, but, as he later related in Confessions of an English Opium Eater, it also opened up new vistas of “divine engagement.” Later, opium became a necessity for De Quincey, but despite his warnings about its addictive properties, it is his rhapsodic eulogies to opium's mind-altering effects that tantalize the modern reader. The experience of William Burroughs with opiates in the middle of the twentieth century, related in matter-of-fact fashion in another classic in the genre of personal drug confession, Junky, provides a stark contrast to De Quincey's. The serenity of De Quincey's personal visions are replaced with a paranoid world of sickness, crime, and violence, populated by “junkies,” “tea-heads,” “feds,” and “stool pigeons.”

    The similarities in Burroughs's and De Quincey's experiences with opiates are clear: Dependence develops, as choice, over time, becomes necessity. Yet the differences are also revealing. In the early nineteenth century opium was a valued medicinal agent, legal and freely available. Recreational use was limited, and opiates were typically consumed orally in the form of lozenges, powders, and tinctures. By the 1940s, opiate use in most Western nations was illegal, users were branded as criminals, and harsh penalties were meted out to offenders. Medicinal use was limited, and opiates were usually taken for “recreational” reasons in the form of heroin, which was injected rather than swallowed. These changes, and many others like them, were to have a profound impact on patterns of drug use in the twentieth century, with important implications for treatment, prevention, and public policy.

    In this book, we set out to complement the vast literature on the biological and psychological aspects of drug use with a perspective that emphasizes the importance of cultural and historical factors. Understanding the way that drugs have been used at different times and in different cultural contexts can provide valuable information about the nature of drug use and how a range of often neglected factors may affect patterns of use. Historians have made valuable contributions to our understanding of drug use throughout history (e.g., Courtwright, 2001; Davenport-Hines, 2001), and anthropologists and sociologists have provided a wealth of fascinating detail regarding the way that drugs are used among different cultural groups (e.g., Furst, 1990; Dobkin de Rios, 1990). Our aim in this book, however, is not only to describe patterns of drug use at different times and in different cultures but also to elucidate how cultural and historical perspectives may be integrated into a mainstream “biopsychosocial” approach in a way that can prove valuable in addressing a range of pragmatic issues relating to prevention, treatment, and public policy.

    We have written this book primarily for psychologists, sociologists, and public health professionals who have an interest in drug-related issues. Although it is essential to focus on very specific concerns and issues within any academic discipline, it is also important to step outside of particular areas of expertise to consider the “larger picture.” In understanding the nature of drug use and ameliorating drug-related problems, the elucidation of relevant biological and psychological mechanisms is a necessary task, but it must always be recognized that drug use occurs in a context. Moreover, the “background” against which drugs are taken can influence in important ways the experiences that individuals have with drugs, the prevalence of drug use in society, and the harms that might arise. In this book we have brought the “background” into the “foreground” by elaborating the many cultural and historical factors that influence drug use, and how such factors may be related to different patterns of use among different cultural groups over time. We have also addressed the more fundamental question of why drug use is such a ubiquitous feature of human society by exploring the evolutionary basis of drug-taking behavior. Throughout, we argue that our understanding of drug use and drug-related problems is best advanced by adopting an interdisciplinary approach.

    Acknowledgments

    There are many people we would like to thank for their support throughout the writing of this book. First, we would like to acknowledge Jack Schumaker, who suggested the idea for this book a number of years ago and encouraged us to pursue this project. We would also like to thank the psychology department at the University of Canterbury, and especially Garth Fletcher, for providing the time, space, and resources without which the writing of this book could not have been accomplished. Our thanks are also extended to Tony Ward, Alice Brigance, Sam Jeffries, and four anonymous reviewers who read through portions of this manuscript and provided many thoughtful comments.

    The editorial staff at Sage Publications, and especially Jim Brace-Thompson, must also be thanked for their unflagging support and encouragement. Many others provided support of various kinds, particularly Lynne and Murray Wood, Darryl Forsyth, Alex McKenzie, Adrian Portis, Anthony Terry, and the volunteers at SAFE. Finally, we would like to thank Dave H. for putting everything in perspective.

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    Author Index

    About the Authors

    Russil Durrant received his Ph.D. from the University of Canterbury, where he has recently completed a post-doctoral fellowship. He currently works at the Centre for Behavioral Research in Cancer, at the Cancer Control Research Institute in Melbourne, Victoria. His current research involves the design and evaluation of mass media tobacco prevention programs; his other research interests include evolutionary psychology, cultural psychology, and the social history of drug use.

    Jo Thakker is a lecturer in clinical psychology at the University of Waikato in Hamilton, New Zealand. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Canterbury and has worked as a clinical psychologist in a variety of therapeutic contexts. Along with work in the substance abuse area, her research interests include cultural psychology and mental health issues in relation to migrants and refugees.


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