Studying Organization: Theory & Method


Edited by: Stewart R. Clegg & Cynthia Hardy

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  • Editorial Board

    Howard E. Aldrich

    Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

    Mats Alvesson

    Department of Business Administration, Lund University

    Koya Azumi

    Department of Social Sciences, International Christian University

    Per Olof Berg

    Management Research Institute, Copenhagen Business School

    Gibson Burrell

    School of Industrial and Business Studies, University of Warwick

    Marta Calás

    School of Management, University of Massachusetts

    Barbara Czarniawska

    School of Economics and Management, Lund University

    Peter Frost

    Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration. University of British Columbia

    Jane Marceau

    Pro- Vice Chancellor Research, University of Western Sydney, Macarthur

    Stella Nkomo

    Belk College of Business Administration, University of North Carolina at Charlotte

    Andrew Pettigrew

    Centre for Corporate Strategy and Change. Warwick Business School

    Linda L. Putnam

    Department of Speech Communication, Texas A & M University

    Karlene Roberts

    Walter A. Haas School of Business, University of California

    Suzana Rodrigues

    Faculty of Management, Federal University of Minais Geras

    Linda Smircich

    School of Management, University of Massachusetts

    Barry Staw

    Walter A. Haas School of Business. University of California

    Roberto Venosa

    Getúlio Vargas Foundation, St. Pauls Business College

    Karl E. Weick

    Faculty of Management. University of Michigan

    David Whetten

    Department of Business Administration, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign


    View Copyright Page


    Stewart dedicates this book to Lynne who, as ever, was a great help in so many ways, but also to Jonathan and William as well as Bill and Joyce

    Cynthia dedicates this book to all the wonderful friends she leaves behind in Canada and all the friends – old and new – she joins in Australia


    Mats Alvesson is a Professor at the Department of Business Administration at Lund University, Sweden. He is interested in critical theory, organizational culture and symbolism, gender and philosophy of science. Empirical work has mainly been conducted especially in professional service and knowledge-intensive companies. He is a co-editor of the journal Organization. Recent books include Corporate Culture and Organizational Symbolism (1992, with P.O. Berg), Cultural Perspectives on Organizations (1993), Gender, Managers and Organizations (1994, with Yvonne Billing), Making Sense of Management: a Critical Introduction (1996, with Hugh Willmott) and Management of Knowledge-Intensive Companies (1995).

    Jay B. Barney is a Professor of Management and holder of the Bank One Chair for Excellence in Corporate Strategy at the Max M. Fisher College of Business, the Ohio State University. After completing his education, Professor Barney joined the faculty at the Anderson Graduate School of Management at UCLA. He moved to Texas A&M University in 1986, then joined the faculty at Ohio State in 1994. In his research, Professor Barney focuses on the relationship between idiosyncratic firm skills and capabilities and sustained competitive advantage. He has published over thirty journal articles. He has served on the editorial boards of several journals, and is currently senior editor at Organization Science. Professor Barney has published three books: Organizational Economics (with William G. Ouchi), Managing Organizations: Strategy, Structure, and Behavior (with Ricky Griffin) and Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage. He won the College of Business Distinguished Research Award at Texas A&M in 1992, and presented the Holger Crafoord Memorial Lecture at the University of Lund, Sweden, in 1993. In addition, he has consulted with a wide variety of public and private organizations, focusing on implementing large-scale organizational change and strategic analysis.

    Joel A.C. Baum is Professor of Strategy and Organization at the Rotman School of Management (with a cross-appointment to the Department of Sociology), University of Toronto. Studying economic phenomena from the point of view of a sociologist, Joel is concerned with how institutions, inter-organizational relations and managers shape patterns of competition and cooperation among firms, organizational founding and failure, and industry evolution. His recent publications include a series of articles on antecedents to and consequences of multimarket competition among commuter airlines, with Helaine J. Korn, appearing in the Academy of Management Journal and Strategic Management Journal, and another on interorganizational learning among hotels and hotel chains, with Paul Ingram, appearing in Administrative Science Quarterly, Management Science, and Strategic Management Journal. Joel has also recently edited two books, Disciplinary Roots of Strategic Management Research (Advances in Strategic Management, Vol. 15, JAI Press) and Variations in Organization Science: In Honor of Donald T. Campbell (Sage), co-edited with Bill McKelvey. He is currently involved in two major research projects: one examining the rise of chain nursing homes in Ontario and the other analysing the effects of strategic alliances and intellectual property development on competition and firm performance in the Canadian biotechnology industry. Joel is a member of the editorial board of Administrative Science Quarterly and editor-in-chief of Advances in Strategic Management (JAI Press).

    Gibson Burrell is Professor of Organizational Behaviour at Warwick Business School and Chair of the Faculty of Social Studies, University of Warwick. He is editor of the journal Organization and has recently completed a book entitled Pandemonium which explores some undeveloped themes in organization theory.

    Marta B. Calás is Associate Professor of Organization Studies and International Management at the School of Management of the University of Massachusetts-Amherst. She was born in Cuba and has lived and worked in various countries. Prior to her current position she was Professor and Associate and Acting Dean of the School of Business at the University of Puerto Rico-Mayagüez. The exile experience has facilitated for her a nomadic position from which to write and teach about the intersections between organization studies and postmodern, feminist and postcolonial theorizing.

    In their collaborative scholarly work Marta B. Calás and Linda Smircich apply perspectives from cultural studies and feminist theories to question current understandings of organizational topics such as leadership, business ethics, and globalization. They are the Americas’ co-editors of the new journal Organization. Their articles and book chapters have appeared in several national and international publications. They are the editors of two recent volumes, Critical Perspectives on Organization and Management Theory and Post-Modern Management Theory.

    Stewart R. Clegg moved to Australia for a job in 1976 and has been there ever since, apart from an interregnum in Scotland in the early 1990s. He has held a Chair in Sociology at the University of New England, 1985-9; a Chair in Organization Studies at the University of St Andrews, 1990-3; and the Foundation Chair of Management at the University of Western Sydney, Macarthur, 1993-6. Currently he is a Professor in the School of Management, University of Technology, Sydney. He was a founder of APROS (Asian and Pacific Researchers in Organization Studies) in the early 1980s, and has been the co-editor of The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology, as well as editor of a leading European journal, Organization Studies. He serves on the editorial boards of many other leading journals. Amongst the many books that he has published are Modern Organizations: Organization Studies in the Postmodern World (1990), Capitalism in Contrasting Cultures (1990), Constituting Management (1996, with Gill Palmer), The Politics of Management Knowledge (1996, with Gill Palmer), Global Management (1998, with Eduardo Ibarra and Luis Montaño), Transformations of Corporate Culture (1998, with Toyohira Kono), and Changing Paradigms (1998, with Thomas Clarke). He has published widely in the journals. He researched the leadership and management needs of embryonic industries for the Taskforce on Leadership and Management in the Twenty First Century commissioned by the Federal Government of Australia, which reported in 1995.

    Stanley Deetz is a Professor of Communication at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey where he teaches courses in organizational theory, organizational communication and communication theory. He is author of Transforming Communication, Transforming Business: Building Responsive and Responsible Workplaces (1995), Democracy in an Age of Corporate Colonization: Developments in Communication and the Politics of Everyday Life (1992), and editor or author of eight other books. He has published numerous essays in scholarly journals and books regarding stakeholder representation, decision-making, culture, and communication in corporate organizations and has lectured widely in the US and Europe. In 1994 he was a Senior Fulbright Scholar in the Företagsekonomiska Institutionen, Göteborgs Universitet, Sweden, lecturing and conducting research on managing knowledge-intensive work. He has served as a consultant on culture, diversity, and participatory decision-making for several major corporations. He also served as President of the International Communication Association in 1996-7.

    Lex Donaldson is Professor of Organization Design at the Australian Graduate School of Management in the University of New South Wales. His interest is theories of organization, especially of structure. Books include In Defence of Organization Theory: a Reply to the Critics (1985), American Anti-Management Theories of Organization: a Critique of Paradigm Proliferation (1995) and For Positivist Organization Theory: Proving the Hard Core (1996). He has also published a book for managers (with Frederick G. Hilmer), Management Redeemed: Debunking the Fads that Undermine Corporate Performance (1996). He has also edited a collection of key articles by classic contributors in Contingency Theory (1995), and published widely in the journals.

    Colin Eden is Professor and Head of the Department of Management Science at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland. Following an early career as a construction engineer, he moved to the University of Bath where he developed the use of cognitive mapping as the basis of a group decision support system for organizational problem solving. Since moving to Strathclyde, Colin's work has focused on strategy development and implementation and he has worked extensively with teams of senior managers in public, private and community sector organizations. His research in group decision support is widely known and accessed across the world. He is coauthor of Thinking in Organizations (1979) and Messing About in Problems (1983) and is co-editor of Tackling Strategic Problems (1990).

    Stephen Fineman is Professor of Organizational Behaviour at the School of Management, University of Bath. His background is in occupational psychology, but he has for many years been researching in social constructionist perspectives on issues of emotion in organization, stress, work meanings and unemployment. He is currently directing two major projects on the greening of management – how organizations are responding to pressures to be environmentally ‘responsible’. His recent books include Emotion in Organization (1993), Organizing and Organizations: an Introduction (1993) and Experiencing Organizations (1996).

    Suzy Fox holds a doctorate in industrial/organizational psychology from the University of South Florida. Her research interests include emotions, affective and behavioural responses to organizational frustration, and employees’ responses to new technology in the workplace. She holds the primary dependent variable of interest to be employee well-being. Currently she holds a Visiting Position at the University of South Florida.

    Peter Frost holds the Edgar F. Kaiser Chair in Organizational Behavior in the Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration at the University of British Columbia. He was recently a senior editor for Organization Science. He has published individually and collaboratively a number of books and journal articles on the topics of organizational culture, innovation and politics and on the sociology of science. Recent works include Reframing Organizational Culture (with Larry Moore, Meryl Louis, Craig Lundberg and Joanne Martin), Doing Exemplary Research (with Ralph Stablein) and a second edition of Publishing in the Organizational Sciences (with Larry Cummings). He recently completed a monograph Rhythms of Academic Life Susan Taylor, and is exploring new ways to think about leadership in organizations.

    Pasquale Gagliardi is Director of ISTUD (Istituto Studi Direzionali, an Italian management institute at Stresa, on Lake Maggiore) and Professor of Organization Theory at the Catholic University in Milan. His research focuses on the relationship between culture and organizational order. He has published books and articles on this topic in Italy. In English, he has edited Symbols and Artifacts: Views of the Corporate Landscape (1990) and co-edited Studies of Organizations in the European Tradition (1995). Professor Gagliardi is a consultant to many large Italian corporations.

    Cynthia Hardy is Professor in the Faculty of Management, Melbourne University, Australia, having previously been Professor of Policy Studies at McGill University, Montreal. Her research interests have spanned organizational power and politics; managing strategic change; retrenchment and downsizing; strategy making in universities; and interorganizational collaboration. She has published a number of books, including Managing Strategic Action: Mobilizing Change (1994), Strategies for Retrenchment and Turnaround: the Politics of Survival (1990), Managing Strategy in Academic Institutions: Learning from Brazil (1990), and Managing Organizational Closure (1985). An edited volume on Power and Politics in Organizations was published in 1995, and a book on retrenchment in Canadian universities in 1996. Dr Hardy has also published over forty articles in scholarly journals and books.

    John Hassard was Professor of Organizational Behaviour at the University of Keele, England, and in 1998 took up a professional appointment at UMIST, in the Manchester School of Management. Before joining Keele, he was Fellow in Organizational Behaviour at the London Business School. His recent books include Time, Work and Organization (1989), The Sociology of Time (1990), The Theory and Philosophy of Organizations (1990), Sociology and Organization Theory (1993), Postmodernism and Organizations (1993) and Towards a New Theory of Organizations (1994). Professor Hassard is currently researching organizational change in manufacturing companies in China and the Czech Republic, and compiling a historical analysis of cinéma vérité studies of work and occupations.

    William Hesterly is Associate Professor of Management in the David Eccles School of Business at the University of Utah. His current research interests are emerging organizational forms, interfirm networks, and vertical integration. He has authored and co-authored various articles on organizational economics, most recently in the journals Organization Science and Academy of Management Review.

    Chris Huxham is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Management Science and Chair of MBA Programmes in the Graduate Business School at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland. Developed from a background of research at the Universities of Sussex and Aston in the analysis of conflict and in group decision support, Chris has been researching interorganizational collaboration for the past six years. In this time she has worked in a variety of collaboration contexts in the public and community sectors. Particular focuses have been with groups concerned with collaboration for economic and social development and for anti-poverty initiatives.

    Richard Marsden is an Associate Professor of Industrial Relations in the Centre for Economics, Industrial Relations and Organization Studies (CEIROS) at Athabasca University, Canada's open and distance university, where he is Director of its national Industrial Relations program. He holds a PhD from the University of Warwick. His interests focus on the uses of social theory for understanding IR-HRM and the politics of work, and his work appears in Sociology, Journal of Historical Sociology, Organization Studies and the Electronic Journal of Radical Organization Theory. He is currently working on using critical realism to develop a chronological-bibliographic reading of Marx and on marrying this with the work of Foucault.

    Joanne Martin is the Fred H. Merrill Professor of Organizational Behavior at the Graduate School of Business and, by courtesy, in the Department of Sociology, Stanford University, California. She has been at Stanford since 1977. Her current research interests include organizational culture, with particular emphasis on subcultural identities and ambiguities, and gender and race in organizations, focusing on subtle barriers to acceptance and advancement. Her most recent books are Reframing Organizational Culture (1991, co-edited and co-written with Peter Frost, Larry Moore, Meryl Louis and Craig Lundberg) and Cultures in Organizations (1992).

    Walter R. Nord is currently Professor of Management at the University of South Florida. Previously he was at Washington University-St Louis (1967-89). His current interests centre on developing a critical political economics perspective of organizations, organizational innovation, and organizational conflict. He has published widely in scholarly journals and edited/authored a number of books. His recent books include The Meanings of Occupational Work (with A. Brief), Implementing Routine and Radical Innovations (with S. Tucker), Organizational Reality: Reports from the Firing Line (with P. Frost and V. Mitchell), and Resistance and Power in Organizations (with J. Jermier and D. Knights). He is currently co-editor of Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal and a recent past book review editor for the Academy of Management Review. He has served as consultant on organizational development and change for a variety of groups and organizations.

    Michael Reed is Professor of Organization Theory in the Department of Behaviour in Organizations at Lancaster University, UK. His research interests include theoretical development in organization analysis, changes to the expert division of labour and their implications for organizational forms, and the emergence of ‘disorganized organizations’ in high/postmodernity. His previous publications include Redirections in Organizational Analysis (1985), The Sociology of Management (1989), The Sociology of Organizations (1992), Rethinking Organization (1992, co-edited with M. Hughes) and Organizing Modernity (1994, co-edited with L. Ray). He is currently working on a book provisionally entitled Beyond the Iron Cage? which will be published in 1997. He is the joint editor with Professor Gibson Burrell of the journal Organization.

    Linda Smircich is Professor of Organization Studies and was Acting Chair of the Management Department at the School of Management of the University of Massachusetts-Amherst. Originally from Long Island, New York, she was always interested in anthropology, but instead of going off to some distant locale, she stayed in the Northeast and has ended up studying some interesting natives: organizations and their management. The collaborative work of Linda Smircich and Marta B. Calás is described in the biography of the latter.

    Ralph Stablein is currently employed in the Management Department at the University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand. His teaching and research interests revolve around notions of knowledge: what gets labelled as knowledge, how it is ‘produced’ and used, and so on.

    Pamela S. Tolbert is currently an Associate Professor and Chair of the Department of Organizational Behavior in the School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell. She has taught graduate and undergraduate courses in organization theory, occupations and professions, organizations and environmental change, and stratification. Much of her research has focused on professionals in organizations, and includes studies of career choices among engineers and engineering students, systems of decision-making within corporate law firms, and determinants of compensation and promotion of university faculty members. She was awarded the American Sociological Association's prestigious EGOS award in 1987 for a research study of the development of administrative offices in public and private universities. Among her current research projects are a study of the effects of work at home on engineering employees’ careers and work attachment, and an analysis of the processes of curriculum change in higher education institutions.

    Barbara Townley taught industrial relations and human resource management at the Universities of Lancaster and Warwick, in the UK, before moving to Canada, where she is Professor in the Department of Organizational Analysis at the University of Alberta. Her research interests include using Foucault to reconceptualize human resource management, a theme developed in her book Reframing Human Resource Management: Power, Ethics and the Subject at Work (1994).

    Lynne G. Zucker is Professor of Sociology (since 1989) and Director (since 1986) of the Organizational Research Program at the Institute for Social Science Research at UCLA. Concurrently she holds appointments as Research Associate with the National Bureau of Economic Research and as Consulting Sociologist with the American Institute of Physics, and is a member of the affiliated faculty of the UCLA School of Education. Zucker is the author of four books and monographs and numerous journal and other articles on organizational theory, analysis, and evaluation, institutional structure and process, trust production, civil service, government spending and services, unionization, science and its commercialization, and permanently failing organizations. She serves or has served as associate editor or editorial board member on several journals. She has also served on the NSF Young Presidential Scholar Award Panel and the NSF Sociology Panel and as Acting Director of the UCLA Institute for Social Science Research. Zucker has had a variety of university and other appointments since 1974, including Economist with the Statistics of Income Division of the US Internal Revenue Service (1989-94), and visiting appointments in the Department of Sociology of the University of Chicago (1982), the Program on Non-Profit Organizations of the Institute for Social and Policy Studies at Yale University (1986), and the PhD Program in Organizational Behavior at the Harvard Business School (1987).


    This volume derives from the 1996 Handbook of Organization Studies. Originally, the Handbook was launched primarily for a research audience. Since its launch, the book's success has led to many requests for a paperback edition, particularly in a format that instructors and students might use. Recognition from the American Academy of Management which honoured the Handbook with its 1997 George R. Terry award for ‘the most outstanding contributions to the advancement of management knowledge’ has further increased interest in the Handbook. Accordingly, the editors and the publisher decided to launch a paperback version in 1999.

    We decided to split the Handbook into two volumes. We wanted to produce a paperback version that would be more practical for teaching purposes. On the other hand, we also wanted to preserve the original integrity and structure of the Handbook. Volume 1 consists of the original Parts One and Three. It focuses on theoretical issues and the link between theory and practice. Volume 2 consists of the original Part Two and focuses on substantive organizational issues. Of course, there is some overlap between these categories but, nonetheless, each volume stands as a coherent entity with appeal to particular audiences.

    The editors would like to thank Rosemary Nixon and the wonderful team at Sage, in both the UK and the US, who did so much to ensure the success of this project. We would also like to thank the contributors once again. We should point out that they did not have the opportunity to update their chapters owing to the pressures of the publication deadline. The desire to make the paperback version of the Handbook available as quickly as possible precluded revision. It was more important to make the existing material more readily available than to engage in the lengthy process of overhauling thirty, still very current, chapters.

    Stewart R.CleggCynthiaHardy

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