Study Skills for Town and Country Planning
Publication Year: 2014
“Sheppard and Smith provide a clear, accessible and friendly guide to studying to become a planner, with great tips, insight and advice – including what employers will be looking for and the importance of lifelong learning”
- Michael Harris, Deputy Head of Policy and Research, Royal Town Planning Institute
“If you are thinking of studying town and country planning at university, this book tells you what to expect and how to succeed”
- Cliff Hague, Emeritus Professor of Heriot-Watt University and Past President of the Royal Town Planning Institute
Study Skills for Town and Country Planning is a basic introduction to studying planning, a ‘how to’ for students to develop a relevant skill set to succeed in their degree, and a guide to applying those skills in a very ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part 1: Studying in Higher Education
- Chapter 1: Town Planning and Society
- Chapter 2: Studying Town and Country Planning at University
- Chapter 3: Finding and using Information
Part 2: Study Skills for Town and Country Planning
- Chapter 4: Time Management
- Chapter 5: Leadership and Team-Working
- Chapter 6: Engagement and Negotiation
- Chapter 7: Spatial Analysis
- Chapter 8: Understanding Plans and Drawings (by James Burch)
- Chapter 9: Giving Presentations
- Chapter 10: Presenting your Work
- Chapter 11: Reports and Essay writing
- Chapter 12: Writing a Dissertation
Part 3: Planning Practice
The Natural Home[Page ii]
SAGE has been part of the global academic community since 1965, supporting high quality research and learning that transforms society and our understanding of individuals, groups and cultures. SAGE is the independent, innovative, natural home for authors, editors and societies who share our commitment and passion for the social sciences.
Find out more at: http://www.sagepublications.com
© Adam Sheppard and Nick Smith 2014
First published 2014
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
Library of Congress Control Number: 2013931186
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-4462-4969-7 (pbk)
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Numerous books exist that consider town and country planning from an academic and/or practice perspective, but few consider how it is studied. The aim of this text is to provide an effective introduction to the essential university study skills associated with town and country planning. The text is interspersed with activities, tips, definitions and further reading to help the reader develop their skills and understanding, and to support onward learning. The book will support those intending to study, or already studying for, a degree or high qualification in town and country planning and associated built environment fields such as architecture, geography, urban studies, housing, property development, construction and surveying.
For our family, friends and colleagues, whose love and support have been, and continue to be, invaluable.
List of Boxes[Page ix]
- 2.1 Learning outcomes for an RTPI-accredited spatial planning qualification 32
- 2.2 Learning outcomes for an RTPI-accredited specialist qualification 33
- 2.3 The Quality Assurance Agency standards for threshold, typical and excellent undergraduate town planning students 36
- 3.1 Thinking about your information requirements 41
- 3.2 Types of primary and secondary sources 43
- 3.3 Useful Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) codes associated with town planning (as used in the University of the West of England, Bristol) 48
- 3.4 Key membership groups associated with town and country planning 50
- 3.5 Referring to a book in your work 56
- 13.1 Job specification for a local authority role in planning policy 199
- 13.2 Personal specification for a local authority role in planning policy 200
- 14.1 Code of professional conduct for members of the Royal Town Planning Institute (RTPI) 211
List of Figures[Page x]
- 1.1 Careers in town and country planning 8
- 1.2 The hierarchy and organisation of town and country planning 12
- 5.1 Town and country planning teams 73
- 6.1 Examples of participants in town and country planning 85
- 6.2 The nature of negotiation 92
- 6.3 The negotiation process 94
- 7.1 Influence examples 101
- 8.1 Street projection as an elevation 117
- 8.2 Street projection as a plan 117
- 8.3 1:5,000 strategy plan, central Bristol 120
- 8.4 1:1,250 location plan, Park Street, Bristol 121
- 8.5 1:500 roof plan, Park Street, Bristol 122
- 8.6 1:200 street elevation, Park Street, Bristol 123
- 8.7 Urban analysis diagram of Park Street, Bristol 124
- 8.8 Sketch study of Charlotte Street's intersection with Park Street, Bristol 124
- 8.9 Sketch study of Great George Street's intersection with Park Street, Bristol 125
- 8.10 1:100 design elevation of no. 4 Park Street, Bristol (design by Yannis Hajigeorgis) 126
- 8.11 1:50 design cross-section through no. 4 Park Street, Bristol (design by Thomas Harper) 127
- 9.1 Presentation structure 137
- 9.2 Presentation scenarios 138
- 10.1 Mind-map example 147
List of Tables
About the Authors
Appendix One[Page 222]Key Books on Town and Country planning
Allmendinger, P. (2009) Planning theory. Second ed. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Barton, H., Grant, M. and Guise, R. (2010)Shaping neighbourhoods: For local health and global sustainability.London: Routledge.
Booth, P (2003) Planning by consent: The origins and nature of British development control. London: Routledge.
Carmona, M., Heath, T., Oc, T. and Tiesdell, S. (2010) Public places urban spaces: The dimensions of urban design. London: Architectural Press.
Clifford, B. and Tewdwr-Jones, M. (2013) The collaborating planner? Practitioners in the neoliberal age. Bristol: Policy Press.
Cullingworth, B. and Nadin, V. (2006) Town and country planning in the UK. Fourteenth ed. London: Routledge.
Dimitrou, H. and Thompson, R. (2007) Strategic planning for regional development in the UK. London: Routledge.
Dühr, S., Colomb, C. and Nadin, V. (2010) European spatial planning and territorial cooperation. London: Routledge.
Fainstein, S. (2011) Readings in urban theory. Third ed. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
Gallent, N. and Tewdwr-Jones, M. (2006) Decent homes for all: Reviewing planning's role in housing provision. London: Routledge.
Gallent, N., Juntti, M., Kidd, S. and Shaw, D., eds (2008) Introduction to rural planning (the natural and built environment series). London: Routledge.
Gehl, J. (2010) Cities for people. Washington: Island Press.
Gibbs, R. (2011) Principles of urban retail planning and development. London: John Wiley and Sons.
Gilg, A. (2005) Planning in Britain: Understanding and evaluating the post-war system. London: Sage.
Glasson, J, Therivel, R. and Chadwick, A. (2011) Introduction to environmental impact assessment (natural and built environment series). London: Routledge.
Hall, P. (2002) Cities of tomorrow: An intellectual history of urban planning and design in the twentieth century. Third ed. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
Hall, P. and Tewdwr-Jones, M. (2010) Urban and regional planning. Fifth ed. London: Routledge.
Headicar, P. (2009) Transport policy and planning in Great Britain. London: Routledge.
Healey, P. (2010) Making better places: the planning project in the twenty-first century. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.[Page 223]
Hull, A. (2010) Transport matters: Integrated approaches to planning city-regions. London: Routledge.
Isaac, D., O'Leary, J., and Daley, M. (2010) Property development: Appraisal and finance (building and surveying series). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
LeGates, R. (ed.) (2011) The city reader. Fifth ed. London: Routledge.
Marshall, T. (2012) Planning major infrastructure: A critical analysis. London: Routledge.
Moor, N. (2011) The look and shape of England. London: The Book Guild.
Moore, V and Purdue, M. (2012) A practical approach to planning law. Twelfth ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Morphet, J. (2010) Effective practice in spatial planning. London: Routledge.
Morphet, J. (2013) How Europe shapes British public policy. Bristol: Policy Press.
Morris, A. (1994) A history of urban form: Before the industrial revolutions. London: Longman.
Pacione, M. (2009) Urban geography: A global perspective. Third ed. London: Routledge.
Parker, G. and Doak, J. (2012) Key concepts in planning (key concepts in human geography). London: Sage.
Ratcliffe, J., Stubbs M. and Shepherd, M. (2009) Urban planning and real estate development. Third ed. London: Routledge Press.
Rudlin, D. and Falk, N. (2009) Sustainable urban neighbourhood: Building the 21st century home. London: Architectural Press.
Rydin, Y. (2011) The purpose of planning: Creating sustainable towns and cities. Bristol: The Policy Press.
Squires, G. (2012) Urban and environmental economics. London: Routledge.
Tallon, A. (2013) Urban regeneration in the UK. Second ed. London: Routledge.
Taylor, N. (1998) Urban planning theory since 1945. London: Sage.
Tewdwr-Jones, M. (2012) Spatial planning and governance. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Ward, C. (2004) Planning and urban change. Second ed. London: Sage.
Wates, N. and Thompson, J. (2008) The community planning event manual: How to use collaborative planning and urban design events to improve your environment (tools for community planning). London: Routledge.
Williams, J. (2011) Zero-carbon homes: A road map. London: Routledge.
Wilson, E. and Piper, J. (eds.) (2010) Spatial planning and climate change (natural and built environment series). London: Routledge.
Appendix Two[Page 224]Key Journals Associated with Town and Country Planning
Annals of the Association of American Geographers (Routledge)
Applied Geography (Elsevier)
City, Culture and Society (Elsevier)
Coastal Management (Taylor & Francis)
Conservation and Sustainability in Historic Cities (Wiley)
Cultural Geographies (Sage)
Environment and Planning A (Pion)
Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design (Pion)
Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy (Pion)
Environment and Planning D: Society and Space (Pion)
European Planning Studies (Routledge)
European Urban and Regional Studies (Sage)
Gender, Place and Culture (Routledge)
Housing Studies (Routledge)
International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development (Taylor & Francis)
International Planning Studies (Routledge)
Irish Geography (Routledge)
Journal of Cultural Geography (Routledge)
Journal of Developing Studies (Sage)
Journal of Environment Planning and Management (Routledge)
Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning (Routledge)
Journal of Historical Geography (Elsevier)
Journal of Planning Education and Research (Sage)
Journal of Planning History (Sage)
Journal of Rural Studies (Elsevier)[Page 225]
Journal of the American Planning Association (Routledge)
Journal of Town and City Management (Henry Stewart Publications)
Journal of Urban Affairs (Wiley)
Journal of Urban Design (Routledge)
Journal of Urbanism (Routledge)
Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal (Henry Stewart)
Land Use Policy (Elsevier)
Local Environment (Routledge)
Planning Perspectives (Routledge)
Planning Practice and Research (Routledge)
Planning Theory and Practice (Routledge)
Population Studies (Routledge)
Progress in Human Geography (Sage)
Progress in Planning (Elsevier)
Regional Studies (Routledge)
Social and Cultural Geography (Routledge)
Sociologia Ruralis (Wiley)
Sustainable Cities and Society (Elsevier)
The Geographical Journal (Wiley)
The Journal of Environment and Development (Sage)
The Professional Geographer (Routledge)
Tourism Geographies (Routledge)
Town Planning Review (Liverpool University Press)
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers (Wiley)
Transport Reviews (Routledge)
Transportation Planning and Technology (Routledge)
Urban Affairs Review (Sage)
Urban Policy and Research (Routledge)
Urban Studies (Sage)
Appendix Three[Page 226]Useful Websites Relating to Town and Country PlanningA general A to Z
[Page 227]UK Government Departments
- ATLAS (planning for large scale development): http://www.atlasplanning.com/page/index.cfm
- Association of National Park Authorities: http://www.nationalparks.gov.uk
- Building Research Establishment: http://www.bre.co.uk/
- Campaign for Better Transport: http://www.bettertransport.org.uk/
- Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport in the UK – CILT(UK): http://www.ciltuk.org.uk/pages/home
- Community Planning: http://communityplanning.net/
- Design Council CABE: http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/our-work/CABE/
- GOV.UK: https://www.gov.uk
- European Parliament: http://www.europarl.europa.eu
- European Union: http://europa.eu/
- Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment: http://www.iema.net/
- Local Transport Planning Network: http://www.ltpnetwork.gov.uk/
- Office for National Statistics Authority: http://ons.gov.uk/ons/index.html
- Planning Advisory Service: http://www.pas.gov.uk/pas/core/page.do?pageId=1
- Planning Aid: http://www.rtpi.org.uk/planning-aid/
- Planning Portal: http://www.planningportal.gov.uk
- Planning Resource: http://www.planningresource.co.uk/home/
- Planning for Sustainable Travel: http://www.plan4sustainabletravel.org/
- Regeneration and Renewal: http://www.regen.net/
- Resource for Urban Design Information: http://www.rudi.net/
- Royal Geographical Association: http://www.rgs.org/HomePage.htm
- Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors: http://rics.org/
- Royal Town Planning Institute: http://www.rtpi.org.uk
- Town and Country Planning Association: http://www.tcpa.org.uk
- Transport Planning Society: http://www.tps.org.uk/
- United Nations Statistical Division: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/default.htm
- Urban Design Group: http://www.udg.org.uk/
(The jurisdiction of each of these departments and bodies varies in response to the devolution of UK policy. Coverage often varies with the specific policy being covered. You should check the coverage of relevant policy by referring to the websites listed here.)
- (Department for) Business, Innovation and Skills: http://www.bis.gov.uk/ (United Kingdom)
- Cabinet Office: http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk (United Kingdom)
- (Department for) Communities and Local Government: http://www.communities.gov.uk (England)
- (Department for) Culture, Media and Sport: http://www.culture.gov.uk/ (England)
- (Department for) Energy and Climate Change: http://www.decc.gov.uk/ (United Kingdom)
- English Heritage: http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/ (England)
- Environment Agency: http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/ (England and Wales)
- (Department for) Environment, Food and Rural Affairs: http://www.defra.gov.uk/ (United Kingdom)
- Forestry Commission: http://www.forestry.gov.uk (Great Britain)
- (Department of) Health: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/ (United Kingdom)
- The Highways Agency: http://www.highways.gov.uk/ (England)
- Historic Scotland: http://www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/index.htm (Scotland)
- Homes and Communities Agency: http://www.homesandcommunities.co.uk (England)
- (Department for) International Development: http://www.dfid.gov.uk (United Kingdom)
- (Her Majesty's) Land Registry: http://www1.landregistry.gov.uk/genq/ (England and Wales)
- Ordnance Survey: http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk (Great Britain)
- The National Archives: http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk (United Kingdom)
- National Assembly for Wales: http://www.assemblywales.org (Wales)
- Natural England: http://www.naturalengland.org.uk (England)
- Northern Ireland Assembly: http://www.niassembly.gov.uk/
- Northern Ireland Planning Portal: http://www.planningni.gov.uk/ (Northern Ireland)
- Planning Inspectorate: http://www.planning-inspectorate.gov.uk (England); http://planninginspectorate.wales.gov.uk (Wales)
- Scottish Environment Protection Agency: http://sepa.org.uk/ (Scotland)
- Scottish Government (Planning): http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Built-Environment/planning (Scotland)
- The Scottish Parliament: http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/index.aspx (Scotland)
- Statistics Authority, UK: http://www.statisticsauthority.gov.uk (United Kingdom)
- (Department for) Transport: http://www.dft.gov.uk (England and Wales)
- Transport Scotland: http://www.transportscotland.gov.uk (Scotland)
- Welsh Government: http://wales.gov.uk (Wales)
- Welsh Government (Heritage): http://cadw.wales.gov.uk/?lang=en (Wales)
- Welsh Government (Planning): http://wales.gov.uk/topics/planning/?lang=en (Wales)
Appendix Four[Page 228]How do I Reference …An Act of Parliament (Statutes)
Great Britain. Name of Act. Chapter number. (Year of publication) Place of publication: Publisher.
Great Britain. Local Democracy, Economic Development and Construction Act. Chapter 20. (2009) London: The Stationary Office.A Book
Author's surname, Author's initial. (Year of publication) Title. Edition (if it is not the first). Place of publication: Publisher.
Rydin, Y. (2011) The Purpose of planning: Creating sustainable towns and cities. Bristol: Policy Press.An Electronic Book
Author's surname, Author's initial. (Year of publication) Title [online]. Edition (if it is not the first). Place of publication: Publisher. [Accessed DD Month YYYY]
Hall, P. and Tewdwr-Jones, M. (2010) Urban and regional planning [online]. Fifth ed. London: Routledge. [Accessed 10 August 2012]A Book Chapter
Author's surname, Author's initial. (Year of publication) ‘Book chapter title’. In Author's surname, Author's initial., Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, page numbers.[Page 229]
Shaftoe, H. and Tallon, A. (2009) ‘Bristol: not a design-led renaissance’. In Punter, J., Urban design and the British urban renaissance. London: Routledge, pp. 115–131.An Official Command Paper (‘White’ and ‘Green’ Publications Issued by the UK Government) or Departmental Paper
Country. Name of Committee, Department or Royal Commission (Year of publication) Title. Place of publication: Publisher. (Paper number)
Great Britain. Department of Communities and Local Government (2012) Re-imagining urban spaces to help revitalise our high streets. Department for Communities and Local Government.
Great Britain. Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (2012) Review of the balance of competences between the United Kingdom and the European Union [online]. London: The Stationary Office. (Cm 8415)A House of Commons/House of Lords Paper
Country. Parliament. Name of House. Name of Committee (if applies) (Year of publication) Title. Place of publication: Publisher. (HC/HL paper number YYYY/YYYY)
Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons (2012) Olympic Delivery Authority Annual Report and Accounts 2011–12. London: The Stationary Office. (HC 0321 2012–13)A Conference Paper
Author's surname, Author's initial. (Year of publication) ‘Title of conference paper/contribution’. In Editor Surname, initials., ed. Title of Conference Proceedings. Place of conference, date of conference. Place of publication (if known): Publisher, page numbers.
Gehl, Y. (2010) ‘People cities = sustainable cities’. In Naidu, D. ed. Liveable and Sustainable Cities for the Future: World Cities Summit. Singapore, 28 June to 1 July. Singapore: Centre for Liveable Cities, pp. 81–2.Discussion Group
Listname/Groupname/Board [online] (Year of latest update). Available from: URL. [Accessed DD Month YYYY][Page 230]
Royal Town Planning Institute LinkedIn (2012). Available from: http://www.linkedin.com/groups?gid=3036245&trk=myg_ugrp_ovr. [Accessed 10 August 2012]A (Student) Dissertation
Author's surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title of Thesis, Dissertation or Project. Level of qualification, Name of University.
Crellen, J. (2012) Do the principles underpinning Sharp's 1946 reconstruction plan have relevance to the future of Exeter? BA (Hons) Town and Country Planning, University of the West of England.A Film or One-Off TV Programme
Title of programme (Year of first broadcast) [TV]. Directed by Directors name. Channel of first broadcast, Day and Month of first broadcast.
The Truth about Climate Change (2008) [TV]. Directed by Sir David Attenborough. BBC1, 11 November.A Journal Article
Author's surname, Author's initial. (Year of publication) ‘Title of the article’. Journal Title. Volume no.(Part no.): page numbers.
Vigar, G. and Healey, P. (2010) ‘Territorial integration and plan-led planning’. Planning Practice and Research. 14(2): 153–69.
Author's surname, Author's initial (Year) Title of the article. Journal Title [online]. Volume no.(Part no.): page numbers if available. [Accessed DD Month YYYY]
Pendlebury, J. and Strange, I. (2011) ‘Urban conservation and the shaping of the English city’. Town Planning Review [online]. 82(4): 361–92. [Accessed 10 August 2012]A Map
Corporate author or publisher (Year of publication) Title, sheet number, scale. Place of publication: Publisher. (Series).[Page 231]
Ordnance Survey (2007) Bristol and Bath (OS Explorer Map Series): Keynsham and Marshfield, sheet 155, 1:25,000. Southampton: Ordnance Survey.Minutes of a Meeting
Author's surname, Author's initial. (Individual or group if identified) (Year of meeting) ‘Item being referenced’. Title and DD Month of Meeting, Organisation, Location of Meeting.
Alexander, L. (2012) ‘Provision of gypsy and traveller sites’. Minutes of Full Council Meeting 17 June, Bristol City Council, Bristol.A Newspaper Article
Where the author is known:
Author's surname, Author's initial. (Year of publication) ‘Title of the article’. Title of Newspaper. Day and Month of publication, page number of article (if given).
Harvey, F. (2012) ‘Europe looking for a shortcut in race for resources’. The Guardian. 1 August, p. 18.
In an electronic format:
Author's surname, Author's initial. (Year of publication) ‘Title of article’. Title of Newspaper [online]. Day and Month of publication, page number of article (if given). Available from: URL. [Accessed DD Month YYYY]
Goldenberg, S. (2012) ‘Climate change the cause of summer's extreme weather, Congress told’. The Guardian [online]. 1 August. Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2012/aug/01/climate-change-extreme-weather-congress. [Accessed 02 August 2012]Podcast
Author's surname, Author's initial. (Year of posting) ‘Title of the podcast’. Title of the website [podcast]. Available from: URL. [Accessed DD Month YYYY]
Blyth, R. (2012) ‘Why we need a map for England’. Recent podcasts from the RTPI [podcast]. Available from: http://www.rtpi.org.uk/briefing-room/podcasts/#2031. [Accessed 02 August 2012][Page 232]Reports
Author's surname, Author's initial./Organisation (Year of publication) Report title. Place of Publication: Publisher. E.g.:
Savills (2012) UK shopping centre and high street bulletin: quarter three. London: Savills.Websites
Author's surname, Author's initial./Organisation (Year of publication or last update) ‘Title of website’. Available from: URL. [Accessed DD Month YYYY]
Town and Country Planning Association (2012) ‘Planning and climate change coalition’. Available from: http://www.tcpa.org.uk/pages/climate-coalition.html. [Accessed 02 August 2012]
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