Study Skills for Criminology
Publication Year: 2012
The new edition of this best-selling study skills book provides a practical guide for success for students at every level of their study in criminology or criminal justice degree. Fully-revised and thoroughly updated to reflect changes in the curriculum, the book continues to provide students with practical and relevant information for their degree including topics on: choosing courses, sourcing and researching, applying theory to practice, writing essays, presentation skills, revision, taking exams, and careers after your degree. Additional content for the new edition includes:
a new chapter on plagiarism; developments in virtual learning environments and e-resources; expanded coverage of internet and e-learning skills; your move from high school to university and the varying levels within your degree.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction
- Programmes or Courses
- Using this Book
- Content of the Guide
- Part One
- Chapter 2: The Academic Environment
- 2.1 The Academic Year and Modular Structure
- 2.2 How will the Modules be Taught?
- 2.3 How Much Time will You be Expected to Spend Studying?
- 2.4 Who are Your Lecturers?
- 2.5 How should You Study?
- 2.6 What will Your Time at University be Like?
- 2.7 Coping with Anxiety
- 2.8 Summary
- Chapter 3: Assessment in Criminology
- 3.1 What is Assessment?
- 3.2 Types of Assessment – Formative and Summative
- 3.3 Peer Assessment
- 3.4 Self-Assessment
- 3.5 Learning Outcomes
- 3.6 Marking Criteria
- 3.7 Choosing Modules to Study
- 3.8 Relative Weighting of Assessments
- 3.9 Assessment Range
- 3.10 Summary
- Chapter 4: Presentation Skills
- 4.1 Presentations
- 4.2 Report Writing
- 4.3 Portfolio Building
- 4.4 Summary
- Chapter 5: Examination Assessment
- 5.1 Why Examinations?
- 5.2 Types of Examination
- 5.3 Planning Your Examination Preparation
- 5.4 Organising Your Examination Revision
- 5.5 Gathering Information
- 5.6 Summarising Information
- 5.7 Memory Strategies
- 5.8 Past Papers as a Revision Aid
- 5.9 Examination Strategies
- 5.10 Writing Style
- 5.11 Using References
- 5.12 Protocols to be Observed during Examinations
- 5.13 Marking Criteria
- 5.14 Feedback
- 5.15 Summary
- Part Two
- Chapter 6: Studying Criminology at University
- 6.1 What is Criminology?
- 6.2 How does Criminology Relate to other Disciplines?
- 6.3 Summary
- Chapter 7: Finding Information about Criminology
- 7.1 Why should we Read?
- 7.2 Starting Out
- 7.3 Reading for a Purpose
- 7.4 Sources of Information
- 7.5 How to Use the Web
- 7.6 Using a Variety of Sources
- 7.7 Finding Information
- 7.8 Summary
- Chapter 8: Essay Writing
- 8.1 Planning Your Essay Preparation
- 8.2 Reading and Understanding the Question
- 8.3 Gathering Information for Your Essay
- 8.4 Taking Notes from the Literature
- 8.5 Writing the Essay
- 8.6 References and Bibliography
- 8.7 Presentation
- 8.8 Marking Criteria
- 8.9 Dissertation/Research Project Writing
- 8.10 Feedback
- 8.11 Summary
- Chapter 9: Understanding Plagiarism
- 9.1 Introduction
- 9.2 Definition
- 9.3 Types of Plagiarism
- 9.4 The Consequences of Plagiarism
- 9.5 Why Plagiarise?
- 9.6 Avoiding Plagiarism
- 9.7 Summary
- Chapter 10: Studying Criminological Theory and Criminal Justice Practice
- 10.1 Criminological Theories
- 10.2 Criminology Theories, Policy and Practice
- 10.3 Summary
- Part Three
- Chapter 11: Reflections on Studying at University
- 11.1 Reflections on Studying at University
- Chapter 12: Making Your Degree Work for You
- 12.1 Personal Development Planning
- 12.2 Criminological Occupations
- 12.3 Continuing in Education
- 12.4 Constructing a Curriculum Vitae (CV)
- 12.5 Summary
The Natural Home[Page ii]
SAGE has been part of the global academic community since 1965, supporting high quality research and learning that transforms society and our understanding of individuals, groups, and cultures. SAGE is the independent, innovative, natural home for authors, editors and societies who share our commitment and passion for the social sciences.
Find out more at: http://www.sagepublications.com
© John Harrison, Mark Simpson, Olwen Harrison and Emma Martin 2012
First edition published 2005
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At the time we wrote the first edition of this book we stated that it ‘has been written to take account of some of the significant changes that are taking place in Higher Education’ (Harrison et al. 2005): we pointed to a number of areas of change that were evident, including widening participation, a greater emphasis on vocational programmes, a focus on employability skills and the introduction of Foundation Degrees. As we write the second edition we find ourselves in an equally fluid time for Higher Education. While these changes are focused on student funding, controlling student numbers and creating new opportunities for studying for a degree, the underlying rationale for this text remains valid.
The rapid expansion in student numbers over the past five years has slowed down and meeting the entry criteria is a major factor in being offered a place at all universities. The introduction of new fees does not alter this situation. The idea that those of you coming to university need to develop good study habits that will enable you to get the most out of your programme of study while making the most of your experience of university life remains as important as it was previously.
The intention in this second edition, as it was in the first, is to produce a guide designed to develop skills for this level of study which will therefore be useful when you first arrive at university and throughout the duration of your degree.
Another significant feature of learning and the gathering of data has been the rapidly changing nature of communications and data collection. The use of the internet is commonplace, and we see blogs and podcasts being used in a variety of learning environments. Social networking sites have developed at such a rate that universities are on Facebook and Twitter; also many use YouTube for marketing purposes. All of this suggests the potential for a vastly different learning experience than existed even five years ago.
This rapid change has not completely overtaken the more traditional ways in which universities function, and resources and assessments continue to require you to apply yourself to gain the best grades. So this book still has a [Page x]place in helping you to become familiar with same three areas that we identified in 2005:
This glossary contains a combination of academic terms and criminological terms, it is not an exclusive listing and more in-depth definitions and discussions of these terms can be found in other literature. Examples of such texts can be found throughout this book and include The Sage Dictionary of Criminology (McLaughlin and Muncie, 2006). The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (Maguire et al., 2007) and texts on criminological theory.
Anomie Ethical normlessness or deregulation, associated with the work of Durkheim and Merton.
Behaviour modification Attempts to alter behaviour (of offenders) using learning theories.
Biological Criminology The belief that certain people inherit a genetic or physiological predisposition to commit crime. Lombroso and Ferrero are early proponents of this view.
Chicago School School of thought linking environmental factors and crime.
Classicism Theoretical perspectives that are underpinned by free will and rational choice. Seeks to develop a criminal justice system in which punishment is proportionate to the criminal act and acts as a deterrent. Key here is individual choice, the common interest and the social contract.
Community sentences A range of penalties imposed for offending behaviour that does not involve custody. Often seen as alternatives to custody.
Conflict Theory Often contrasted with the positivist view that there is a consensus in society. Involves conflict based on group identity, class identity or cultural identity. Often seen as relating to power and authority and attempts to understand the way in which the criminal law serves the interests of specific groups in society.
Corporate crime Acts punishable by legislation that are the result of deliberate actions taken by formal organisations. Usually includes large [Page 172]companies, businesses and corporations. Not to be confused with ‘white-collar crime’.
Crime control The view that the main role of criminal justice agencies is to control crime. The primary function of the criminal justice system is the apprehension, conviction and punishment of offenders.
Criminal justice The process through which the state deals with unacceptable behaviour. Involves arrest, trial, conviction and punishment of offenders. The agencies involved on this constitute ‘the criminal justice system’.
Cultural Criminology A recent perspective that emphasises the importance of style, image, representation and meaning in the construction of crime and crime control.
Cybercrime Electronic communications used to commit illegal acts. Typically involves the internet and web-based information and communication technologies.
Decarceration A deliberate move away from imprisonment as the predominant penal sanction.
Delinquency Loosely used to refer to youthful misbehaviour.
Deterrence The use of sanctions to prevent criminal activity. Seeks to demonstrate the penalties for criminal acts outweigh the benefits to the offender.
Deviance A term used to describe those acts that deviate from accepted social norms. It is often contested as the concept of deviance is relative rather than absolute.
Deviancy amplification When media, public, criminal justice agencies and the state react to non-conformity in such a way that rather than controlling deviancy they increase it.
Discrimination The unfavourable treatment of individuals or groups based on criteria such as age, gender, sex, race, culture, disability, ethnicity, language, social class, disability, sexual preference or any other inappropriate criteria.
Due process The administration of justice according to legal rules that are transparent to the public and are seen as fair and just.
Ethnography A research method based on the study of small groups, situations and contexts. Emphasises the importance of how individuals interpret and socially construct their world.
Fear of crime Anxiety caused by the belief that individuals or groups are in danger of becoming victims of crime. This fear can be rational or irrational.[Page 173]
Feminist criminologies Analysis using feminist or critical theories to question the place of gender/sex in understanding crime and justice.
Focus groups Interviews involving a number of individuals who discuss a specific topic supported by a facilitator. The data collected through the interaction that takes place are used to inform and develop research projects.
Folk devil Seen as the stereotypical ‘trouble maker’ or ‘drain on society's resources’ and used to demonstrate the failings in society. Presented in a stylised manner by the mass media.
Functionalism A perspective that is based on the understanding that society is structured in a specific way and sees crime and deviance as ‘social facts’. These ‘facts’ are seen to perform a function in maintaining the smooth running of society. Functionalists would reject the view that criminals are pathological or abnormal.
Genetics An attempt to identify the biological source/s of criminal and anti-social behaviour.
Hate crime Crimes committed against individuals, groups or property and motivated by hatred, bias or prejudice. This is usually based on race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation or religion.
Hedonism The pursuit of pleasure at the expense of rationality. Can be associated with risk and excitement in relation to crime.
Hidden crime Crimes that fail to appear in official statistics, go unreported or are under-reported.
Incapacitation One justification for punishment that seeks to prevent re-offending by the physical or geographical removal of an individual from the opportunity to commit crime. This can include imprisonment, banishment or amputation of limbs, with the death penalty being the ultimate form of incapacitation.
Incarceration Confining deviant populations into specialist institutions for punishment or treatment.
Informal justice This is an attempt to deal with criminal and anti-social behaviour without recourse to the formal processes of the criminal justice system.
Labelling The sociological understanding of the way in which certain groups and individuals are classified and categorised by others in society. The stereotyping leads the labelled individuals to respond to their label which then reinforces the self-perception of individuals and the perception of society to those groups.[Page 174]
Longitudinal studies A study collected over time using the same research participants, sometimes at key points in their life course. Sometimes referred to as cohort studies.
Moral panic Reaction to behaviours, people or groups that is disproportionate to any real threat posed to society's values and is based on stereotypical, media representations. Often leads to calls for greater social control.
Official crime statistics Based on data recorded by the police and the Courts. Indicates the extent of crime. There are debates that question the relevance of these figures in relation to the amount of actual crime committed.
Participant observation Collection of data through active participation with groups or individuals who are the subject of the study.
Positivism This theoretical approach emerged during the nineteenth century. It argues that social relations and events can be studied using methods that are drawn from the natural sciences. Positivists seek to explain and predict future behaviour.
Probation Supervision of offenders in the community by officers of the Court.
Reflexivity Monitoring and reflecting on all aspects of research, from initial idea to writing final report.
Sub-culture Often applied in relation to delinquency. Refers to different values that challenge the mainstream norms of the dominant culture.
Underclass Refers to those who are seen to be poor but have adopted values that lack morality. Are ‘feckless’ or ‘undeserving’.
Bibliography[Page 175]2003a) The Dynamics of Economic Crime Control (Vol. 14). Espoo, Finland: Poliisiammattikorkeakoulun tutkimuksia.(2003b) ‘Economic crime investigators at work’, Policing and Society, 13 (2): 115–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10439460308028(1977) Social Learning Theory. London: Prentice Hall.(1986) Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. London: Prentice Hall.(1963) Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. New York: Free Press.(2008) The Penal System (4th edn). London: Sage.and (1977) Law and Order News: An Analysis of Crime Reporting in the British Press. London: Tavistock.(1973) ‘The failures of criminology’, The Listener, 8 November.(1988) Against Criminology. Oxford and New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.(1998) Crime and Society in Britain. Harlow: Longman.(1985) Confronting Crime: An American Challenge. New York: Pantheon.(2000) Consensus Kills: Health and Safety Tripartism – a Hazard to Workers' Health?London: AJP Dalton.(1988) Safety at Work: The Limits of Self-Regulation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press., , and (1992) Families without Fatherhood. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.and (1979) Contrology: Beyond the New Criminology. London: Macmillan.(1998) Understanding Deviance: A Guide to the Sociology of Crime and Rule Breaking (3rd edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.and (2003) Understanding Deviance (4th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.and (2003) ‘Referral Orders: some reflections on policy transfer and “what works”’, Youth Justice, 2 (3): 141–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/147322540200200303, and (1996) Reading, Writing and Reasoning: A Guide for Students (2nd edn). Milton Keynes: Open University Press.and ([Page 176]1992a) ‘Juvenile delinquency’, in J.C.Coleman (ed.) The School Year (2nd edn). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.(1992b) ‘Criminal career research in the United Kingdom’, British Journal of Criminology, 32 (4): 521–36.(1995) Cultural Criminology. Boston, MA: Northeast University Press.and (2007) ‘Developmental and risk-focused prevention’, in Maguire, M., Morgan, R. and Reiner, R. (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (4th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1991) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of The Prison. London: Penguin.(1985) Punishment and Welfare: A History of Penal Systems. Aldershot: Ashgate.(1990) Punishment and Modern Society: A Study in Social Theory. Oxford: Clarendon Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226922508.001.0001(2001) The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1997) Sociology (3rd edn). Cambridge: Polity Press.(2002) ‘Youth crime, the “parenting deficit” and state intervention: a contextual critique’, Youth Justice, 2 (2): 82–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/147322540200200203and (1978) Policing the Crisis: Mugging the State and Law and Order. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan., , , and (2004) City Limits: Crime, Consumer Culture and the Urban Experience. London: Cavendish Press.(Hayward, K.J. and Presdee, M. (eds) (2010) Cultural Criminolgy and the Image. Abingdon: Routledge.1996) The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in America. New York: Free Press.and (1992) A Sociology of Crime. London: Routledge.and (Home Office (1997) No More Excuses. London: Home Office. Also available at: http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs04/dpr26.pdf2003) Justice in the Risk Society. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218785(Hughes, G., McLaughlin, E. and Muncie, J. (eds) (2002), Crime Prevention and Community Safety: New Directions. London: Sage.2010) Tackling Knife Crime Together: A Review of Local Anti-knife Crime Projects. London: Home Office. Also available at: http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/publications/crime/tackling-knife-crime-together/tackling-knife-crime-report?view=Binary.(2011) Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences (5th edn). London: Sage., and (MacDonald, R. (ed.) (1997) Youth, the ‘Underclass’ and Social Exclusion. London: Routledge.2002) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (3rd edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press., and (2007) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (4th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press., and (McLaughlin, E. and Muncie, J. (eds) (1996) Controlling Crime. London: Sage.McLaughlin, E. and Muncie, J. (eds) (2001) Controlling Crime (2nd edn). London: Sage.2006) The Sage Dictionary of Criminology (2nd edn). London: Sage.and (1934) Crime Law and Social Science. New York: Harcourt, Brace Jovanovich.(1938) ‘Social structure and anomie’, American Sociological Review, 3: 672–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2084686(1970) The Sociological Imagination. Oxford: Oxford University. Press.(1995) Social Divisions, Economic Decline and Social Structural Change. London: UCL Press.(1999) Youth and Crime: A Critical Introduction. London: Sage.(2002) ‘A new deal for youth? Early intervention and correctionalism’, in , and Crime Prevention and Community Safety. London: Sage.([Page 177]2009) Youth and Crime (3rd edn). London: Sage.(Muncie, J. and McLaughlin, E. (eds) (2001) The Problem of Crime (2nd edn). London: Sage, with the Open University.2004) Student Handbook of Criminal Justice and Criminology. London: Cavendish.and (1984) Losing Ground: American Social Policy 1950–1980. New York: Basic Books.(1990) The Emerging British Underclass. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.(1994) Underclass: The Crisis Deepens. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.(2007) The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism. Buckingham: Open University Press.(2003) Crime and Criminal Justice Policy (2nd edn). Harlow: Pearson Education.(Observer (2004) ‘Britain takes a crash course in happy families’, The Observer, 22nd February. Available at: http://observer.guardian.co.uk/politics/story/0,1153456,00.htmlPark, R. and Burgess, E.W. (eds) (1925) The City. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.1974) View from the Boys: A Sociology of Down-town Adolescents. Newton Abbot: David Charles.(1983) Hooligan. London: Macmillan.(1971) Sociological Aspects of Crime and Delinquency. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.(2001) ‘Korrectional Karaoke: New Labour and the zombification of youth justice’, Youth Justice, 1 (2): 3–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/147322540100100202(2000) Cultural Criminology and the Carnival of Crime. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203299142(2008) Studying and Learning at University: Vital Skills for Success in Your Degree. Sage Study Skills Series. London: Sage.(1943) A Short History of the Police. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2009) Rehabilitation: Theory, Research and Practice. London: Sage.and (2001) Surviving Your Dissertation. London: Sage.and (1984) ‘The social realities of deviance’, in R.J.Anderson and W.Sharrock (eds) Applied Sociological Perspectives. London: Allen and Unwin.(1995) ‘Beyond self-regulation: towards a critique of self-regulation as a control strategy for hazardous activities’, Journal of Management Studies, 35 (5): 619–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1995.tb00791.xand (2003) Youth Justice, Ideas, Policy, Practice. Cullompton, Devon: Willan Publishing.(Squires, P. (ed.) (2008) ASBO Nation: The Criminalisation of Nuisance. Bristol: The Polity Press.1975) ‘“The plague of blue locusts”: police reform and popular resistance in Northern England 1840–1857’, International Review of Social History, 20: 61–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020859000004843(2010) Criminology: Theory and Context. Harlow: Pearson Education.(2009) Theoretical Criminology (6th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press., and (1989) Victimology: The Victim and the Criminal Justice Process. London: Unwin Hyman.(2004) Poor Transitions, Social Exclusion and Young Adults. Bristol: Policy Press and Joseph Rowntree Foundation., , , , , and ([Page 178]2004) ‘Regulation and corporate crime’, in J.Muncie and D.Wilson (eds), Student Handbook of Criminal Justice and Criminology. London: Cavendish.(2004) Textbook on Criminology (5th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2001) Badfellas: Crime, Tradition and New Masculinities. Oxford: Berg.(1999) The Exclusive Society. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446222065(
Appendix 1: Sample Answers to Activity 7a[Page 179]
Activity 7a asks you to identify ten key issues/debates from the synopsis on youth crime. The following is an example of ten such areas. It is important to note, however, that these are not the only ten issues/debates that can be identified; you may well be able to think of others:
- Single-parent families. What does this term mean? Is the relationship between crime and one-parent families strong? If so, is it consistent across all single-parent family types?
- Why do young people commit crime? What does research show in relation to why young people commit crime? Boredom? Buzz? Drugs?
- Drugs and crime. (In your answer, you may choose to focus on one of the possible reasons discussed in 2 above, either because the evidence is strong or it is a recurring theme within the literature.) What is the role of drugs? What is the relationship between drug use and crime? (You need to keep this brief, however, and always relate it to the question. Therefore, one could argue, for example, that it is more about peer group, drugs and external factors outside the family that are more likely to play a role in shaping criminal careers.)
- Underclass/moral decline. Is there an underclass? Has there been moral decline typified by single-parent families? Is there an ideal family type?
- Poverty and crime. Is it more to do with poverty rather than a decline in morality? Is there a relationship between poverty and crime?
- Crime types. What types of crime are we discussing? Is it that certain types of crime are linked? For example, visible street crime rather than white-collar crime.
- Poverty, crime type and policing. It may be that because of poverty the young person lives in an area that is over-policed and they commit visible crimes and therefore are more likely to be involved in behaviour that is detected.[Page 180]
- Responsibility. Who should be responsible for the behaviour – the child, their parent/guardian? What is the role of schooling and peer group?
- External family factors. What is the role of the local school, employment market, youth service provision, for example? Are these issues more important than the family?
- Discipline. What is the role of discipline? Is crime created as a result of families without fathers and therefore a disciplinarian?
Appendix 2: Rationale for Activity 10g[Page 181]
Activity 10g is asking you to consider the concept that crime is a consequence of social factors and the influence of social institutions. This is significant when we try to understand why, how and when criminal activity takes place. Essentially, this challenges the notion that we can identify criminals using scientific research. Within this extract (which should represent a small part of your reading) we can find references and quotations that would be useful in constructing a debate around the key debates discussed in Chapter 10.
There is for example, Mead's (1934) concept of crime being a consequence of the way behaviour is perceived by others or, indeed, self-perception. As the authors suggest, crime is a consequence of ‘social interaction’. This challenges the view that criminals behave as they do because of genetic, psychological or physical factors, but rather as a consequence of their relationship to the communities in which they live.
Crime, then, is a not a universal phenomenon. Concepts of what is and is not criminal vary across, time, place and societies and, to this extent, crime is a socially created phenomenon, rather than an absolute form of unacceptable behaviour.[Page 182]
Appendix 3: Useful Websites[Page 183]
The authors do not take any responsibility for the content of the websites.Corporate and White-Collar Crime
Corporate AccountabilityCrime Prevention/Reduction
Home Office Crime Reduction Website
International Centre for Crime Prevention
NACRO (National Association for the Care and Resettlement of Offenders)Courts and Criminal Justice
European Court of Justice
Inspection of Court Services[Page 184]
Magistrates AssociationDomestic Violence
Black Women's Rape Action Project
Campaign Against Domestic Violence
CPS – Domestic Violence
Home Office Domestic Violence Pages
Ministry of Justice
European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction
Home Office Drugs Website
Institute for Alcohol Studies
Scottish Drugs ForumHuman and Civil Rights
British Institute of Human Rights
Innocent Until Proven Guilty (remand prisoners)
Miscarriages of Justice
Office of the United Nations Higher Commissioner for Human Rights
United Nations Children's FundPolice
Association of Chief Police Officers[Page 186]
Association of Chief Police Officers – Scotland
Association of Police Authorities
Criminal Records Bureau
Gay Police Association
Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary
Home Office Police Reform
National Black Police Association
Police Service UK
Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA)Prisons and Probation
Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Prisons for England and Wales
Her Majesty's Prison Service for England and Wales
National Offender Management Service
Howard League for Penal Reform
Howard League for Penal Reform in Scotland
Inside Out Trust
Northern Ireland Prison Service
Northern Ireland Probation Board
Prison Reform Trust[Page 187]
Prison and Probation Ombudsman
Scottish Prison Service
UnlockYouth, Youth Crime and Youth Justice
Centre for Adolescent Rehabilitation (C-FAR)
Children's Rights Alliance
Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime
Save the Children
Youth Justice Board
Appendix 4: Further Reading[Page 189]Criminological Theory
Criminological theory is probably the best place to start with your further reading as it will provide you with a basis to explore many of the key issues and debates within the discipline. The following texts are a good place to start:
Lilly, J.R., Cullen, F.T. and Ball, R. (2011) Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences (5th edn). London: Sage.
Tierney, J. (2006) Criminology: Theory and Context. Harlow: Pearson Education.
Vold, G.B., Bernard, T. and Snipes, J.B. (2009) Theoretical Criminology (6th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.The Criminal Justice System
We have discussed various aspects of the criminal justice system throughout this book and some of the texts identified here are referred to in previous chapters. They are a good basis on which to begin to develop your understanding of this key aspect of your degree. It is important that you remember that legislation relating to crime and disorder is constantly changing and you need to keep up to date with these changes. The following are examples of accessible texts but there are many more that deal with the topic:
Cavadino, M. and Dignan, J. (2007) The Penal System: An Introduction (4th edn). London: Sage.
Davies, M., Croall, H. and Tyrer, C.J. (2005) Criminal Justice: An Introduction to the Criminal Justice System of England and Wales. London: Longman.[Page 190]
McConville, M. and Wilson, G. (2002) The Handbook of the Criminal Justice Process. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Home Office Reports and White Papers that discuss reform of the criminal justice process are also of value. These are available on the Home Office website (http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/science-research/research-statistics/).Policing
Police studies are increasingly a significant part of many Criminology degree programmes and there are a number of useful texts that provide a good overview of the history and development of policing.
Johnston, L. (2000) Policing Britain: Risk, Security and Governance. Harlow: Longman.
Rawlings, P. (2002) Policing: A Short History. Cullompton, Devon: Willan Publishing.
Reiner, R. (2010) The Politics of the Police (4th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Again, the Home Office produce research papers and reports relating to policing and these are an equally valuable source (http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk).Criminal Justice and Punishment
There have been some important reports written in relation to reform of the criminal courts and the sentencing process. These are easily accessible and provide some useful information in relation to the way this aspect of criminal justice is changing. One report is cited below. This is the basis on which much of the change and restructuring of the Court system in England and Wales is taking place.
Hough, M. and Jacobson, J. (2003) The Decision to Imprison: Sentencing and the Prison Population. London: Prison Reform Trust.
Hudson, B. (2003) Understanding Justice. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Sanders, A. and Young, R. (2000) Criminal Justice (2nd edn). London: Butterworth.‘Race’, Crime and Justice
There has been considerable discussion in relation to the subject of ‘race’ and the criminal justice process. Numerous reports have focused on the issue and there are some useful texts that will enable you to develop your understanding.[Page 191]
Bowling, B. and Phillips, C. (2002) Race, Crime and Criminal Justice. London: Longman.
Cook, D. and Hudson, B. (1993) Racism and Criminology. London: Sage.
Hudson, B. (ed.) (1996) Race Crime and Justice. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Russell-Brown, K. (2009) The Colour of Crime (2nd edn). London and New York: New York University Press.Crime Prevention
For some time the issue of crime prevention has become increasingly important. Government policy has focused considerable attention on the role communities can play in this as well as the way in which agencies can work together to impact on crime and disorder.
Crawford, A. (1998) Crime Prevention and Community Safety: Politics, Policies and Practices. London: Longman.
Farrall, S. and Calverley, A. (2006) Understanding Desistance from Crime: Emerging Theoretical Directions in Resettlement and Rehabilitation. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Hughes, G. (1998) Understanding Crime Prevention: Social Control Risk and Late Modernity. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Hughes, G., McLaughlin, E. and Muncie, J. (eds) (2002) Crime Prevention and Community Safety: New Directions. London: Sage.General Introduction
In addition to the above texts and those identified earlier in the book relating to specific topic areas, there a number of good texts that provide a general introduction and background to the discipline of Criminology.
Maguire, M., Morgan, R. and Reiner, R. (2007) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (4th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
McLaughlin, E. and Muncie, J. (2006) The Sage Dictionary of Criminology (2nd edn). London: Sage.
McLaughlin, E., Muncie, J. and Hughes, G. (eds) (2003) Criminological Perspectives: A Reader. London: Sage.[Page 192]