Sport and Society: A Student Introduction


Edited by: Barrie Houlihan

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    List of Figures

    • 4.1 Use of Leicester leisure pass compared to membership totals 95
    • 13.1 Sports industry 315
    • 17.1 Sports-tourism demand continuum 398
    • 18.1 The pattern of public and private financing of the Olympic Games, 1972–2000 418
    • 18.2 Number of bid cities (including applicant cities) and the year they started their bid 427
    • 18.3 ‘Winners’ of the overall economic effects of the Olympic Games 431
    • 18.4 ‘Losers’ of the overall economic effects of the Olympic Games 432

    List of Tables

    • 2.1 The scope of political science 35
    • 2.2 Three definitions of politics and the implications for the study of sport politics 39
    • 2.3 Motives of selected actors involved in the national stadium debate 44
    • 2.4 Women's participation in selected Summer Olympic Games 47
    • 2.5 Percentage of women coaches in a selection of the 10 most popular women's intercollegiate sports 49
    • 2.6 Macro-level perspectives on sports politics and policy 52
    • 4.1 Leisure expenditure in different groups of household 81
    • 4.2 The effect of gender, disability, ethnicity and class in sports participation 83
    • 4.3 Social inequalities in participation across the leisure spectrum 86
    • 4.4 Local authorities with leisure and loyalty cards, 1999 93
    • 4.5 Multiple constraints and exclusion in sport and leisure 96
    • 5.1 Different implications between a needs approach and a rights-based perspective 109
    • 5.2 Typology of main forms of abuse, neglect and violence in competitive sports 112
    • 5.3 A child-centred sport system: 10 fundamental principles 124
    • 6.1 Sports participation rates by sex and occupational group, 2002: % participation four weeks before interview 137
    • 6.2 Gender differentiation in social policy and sports participation 140
    • 8.1 Formations of sports-related violence 175
    • 9.1 Examples of national disability sports organisations (1948–98) 215
    • 9.2 The Summer Paralympics, 1952–2004 220
    • 10.1 Racialisation in sport: a framework for policy intervention 248
    • 16.1 Major drugs and banned practices based on the WADA list: medical uses, benefits in sport and side effects 377
    • 16.2 Milestones in the development of anti-doping policy 382
    • 17.1 The economic impact of sports tourism in the UK 404
    • 18.1 Changed land utilisation caused by the Olympic Games 429
    • 19.1 Impacts of major facilities and events 441
    • 19.2 Typical annual energy consumption, cost and CO2 emissions in sports buildings (total area) 444
    • 19.3 Saving energy in sports facilities 444
    • 19.4 Potential impacts of recreation 446
    • 19.5 Managing recreation impacts 448
    • 19.6 Urban transformation through the Olympic Games 455
    • 19.7 London 2012's environmental action plan 460
    • 21.1 Media coverage of women's, mixed and men's sports, 1996 500
    • 23.1 Sport and national identity: the developing role of sport in Algerian society 544
    • 24.1 Sport and the outcomes of globalisation 561
    • 24.2 Global reach and local response in sport 569

    List of Boxes

    • 1.1 An Example of the Relationships between Structure and Agency 17
    • 2.1 Definition of ‘Policy’ 36
    • 2.2 Definitions of ‘the State’ and ‘Government’ 37
    • 4.1 Poverty in the UK 79
    • 4.2 Social Gradients in Forms of Sports Participation 84
    • 4.3 Variations in Sports Participation by Gender, Race and Disability 88
    • 5.1 Characteristics of Sports Systems That Potentially Increase the Vulnerability of Young Athletes to Sexual Abuse 115
    • 6.1 Case Study: How Gender Ideology Influences Sport 140
    • 7.1 Men and Sports-Related Pain and Injury 163
    • 7.2 Why Does the High Rate Of Sports-Related Injuries Receive So Little Attention? 164
    • 7.3 Sports Medicine beyond High-Performance Sport 167
    • 8.1 The 1980s: A Crisis Period in English Soccer Violence? 176
    • 8.2 Hazing in Canadian Sport 187
    • 8.3 Violence against Greyhounds 191
    • 9.1 The British Sports Association for the Disabled (BSAD) 216
    • 10.1 The Racial Equality Charter for Sport 243
    • 11.1 The National Curriculum for Physical Education 258
    • 11.2 The Relationship between Physical Education and Sports Performance 264
    • 11.3 Sport Education 265
    • 12.1 Spatialised and Racialised Health-Based Inequities in Baltimore 291
    • 13.1 The Business of Car Racing 309
    • 13.2 RBS Group and Rugby Union's Six Nations Championship 322
    • 13.3 The Scandal of Cricket 324
    • 14.1 The Choreography of the Opening of an Olympics: A Made-for-Television Spectacular 341
    • 15.1 Matrix Design 353
    • 15.2 The Mobilisation of Bases of Power 363
    • 18.1 Juan Antonio Samaranch 416
    • 18.2 The Economic History of the Olympic Games 417
    • 18.3 The History of Financing Sources 419
    • 18.4 Major Objectives of Host Cities and Countries 420
    • 18.5 Interest Groups and the Olympic Games 421
    • 19.1 UK Sport's Typology of Events 442
    • 20.1 High School Sport and Violence 477
    • 20.2 Sports Scholarships 480
    • 21.1 Pyjama Cricket 497
    • 21.2 ‘Sex Sells’ 500
    • 21.3 Racial Vilification and Australian Rules Football 504
    • 23.1 The Pillars of Islam 533
    • 23.2 Sheikh ‘Atiyyah Saqr's Fatwa on the Question of Sport (Definition, Etiquette and Ruling) 536
    • 23.3 Islamic Women Games, Tehran 545
    • 23.4 President Lifts Ban on Women Watching Football in Iran 546
    • 23.5 Hassiba Boulmerka's Victory at the Tokyo World Athletics Championships in August 1991 546
    • 24.1 Varieties of Globalisation 554


    Mahfoud Amara is Lecturer in Sport and Leisure Policy and Management at the School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University. His principal research area is comparative sports policy with a specific focus on sport in Arabo-Muslim countries and communities.

    John Amis is an Associate Professor in the Department of Management at the University of Memphis. He also holds courtesy appointments in the Department of Health & Sport Sciences and the Center for Community Health. Amis's research interests centre predominantly on issues of organisational and institutional change, particularly the role of individuals in interpreting and realizing change. His work has been published in Academy of Management Journal, Organizational Research Methods, Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, European Marketing Journal, Journal of Sport Management, Leisure Studies and European Sport Management Quarterly.

    David L. Andrews is an Associate Professor of Physical Cultural Studies in the Department of Kinesiology at the University of Maryland at College Park, and an affiliate faculty member of the Departments of American Studies and Sociology. He is Assistant Editor of the Journal of Sport & Social Issues, and on the editorial board of a number of journals including the Sociology of Sport Journal and Leisure Studies. He has published on a variety of topics related to the critical analysis of sport as an aspect of contemporary commercial culture. His recent publications include Sport-Commerce-Culture: Essays on Sport in Late Capitalist America (Peter Lang, 2006), East Plays West: Essays on Sport and the Cold War (with S. Wagg, Routledge, 2007) and Sport, Culture, and Advertising: Identities, Commodities, and the Politics of Representation (with S.J. Jackson, Routledge, 2005).

    Kathleen Armour is a Reader in Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy in the School of Sport & Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University. Her main research area is career-long professional learning for physical education teachers and coaches. She is also engaged in evaluation research into physical education and sport initiatives for young people funded by both public and corporate bodies.

    Ben Carrington teaches sociology at the University of Texas at Austin, where he is also the Associate Director of the Center for European Studies, and is a Carnegie Visiting Research Fellow at Leeds Metropolitan University. He is co-editor, with Ian McDonald, of ‘Race’, Sport and British Society (Routledge, 2001).

    Mike Collins is Visiting Professor at the University of Gloucestershire, and Visiting Research Fellow at Loughborough University, was Head of Research, Strategy and Planning at the Sports Council for many years, and Senior Lecturer in Loughborough's School of Sport & Exercise Sciences for 16 years. He is author of Sport and social exclusion (Routledge, 2002) and editor of and major contributor to Examining Sports Development (Routledge, forthcoming). Besides those topics, his research interests include sport and its social, environmental and economic impacts, and the structure and role of voluntary sport and its relationships with the other sectors.

    Paulo David is Regional Representative for the Pacific of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) based in Suva, Fiji Islands. He has worked for over 15 years in the field of human rights and specialises in the rights of the child. He is the author of Human Rights in Youth Sport: a Critical Review of Children's Rights in Competitive Sports (Routledge, 2005).

    Peter Donnelly is Director of the Centre for Sport Policy Studies, and a Professor in the Faculty of Physical Education and Health, at the University of Toronto. His research interests include sport politics and policy issues (including the area of children's rights in sport), sport subcultures and mountaineering (history). His recent books include Taking Sport Seriously: Social Issues in Canadian Sport (1997; 2nd edition, 2000) and Inside Sports (1999) and the Canadian edition of Sports in Society (2004, both with Jay Coakley).

    Ian Henry is Professor of Leisure Policy and Management and Director of the Centre for Olympic Studies and Research at Loughborough University. His research interests lie in the field of sport and leisure policy and politics and his recent publications include Transnational Research in Sport: Globalisation, Governance and Sport Policy (Routledge, 2007)

    Barrie Houlihan is Professor of Sport Policy in the Institute of Sport and Leisure Policy at Loughborough University. He has written widely in the area of sport policy and recent publications include The Politics of Sports Development: Development of Sport or Development through Sport? (with Anita White, Routledge, 2002), Elite Sport Development: Policy Learning and Political Priorities (with Mick Green, Routledge, 2005) and Sport Policy: a Comparative Analysis of Stability and Change (with N.A. Bergsgard, P. Mangset, S.I. Nødland and H. Rommetvedt, Butterworth–Heinemann, 2007).

    Guy Jackson was formerly a Lecturer in the Institute of Sport and Leisure Policy, Loughborough University, where his main research interests were in the interrelationship between sport and tourism and in the area of sports development and management. As a researcher he undertook studies for a wide range of national and local agencies and a number of sports governing bodies. He left Loughborough University in 2006 to take up the post of Manager of the National Cricket Centre for the England and Wales Cricket Board.

    Ruth Jeanes is a Research Associate working at the Institute of Youth Sport, Loughborough University. She works on a range of national evaluation projects examining youth sport and physical activity initiatives. Her research interests include gender identity, young people and football. She is also interested in ways of conducting research with young people and developing interactive methods and new approaches to collect data with children.

    Tess Kay is Senior Research Fellow in the Institute of Youth Sport at Loughborough University. Her research focuses on the relationship between sport, leisure and social structure and the use of sport to promote inclusion, especially among children and young people. She has undertaken research into sport and family, sport and gender, sport and community development in the UK, and the use of sport in HIV/AIDS education in Africa. She is the author with Michael Collins of Sport and Social Exclusion (Routledge, 2003), Managing Editor of Leisure Studies journal, and is currently editing a volume on Fathering through Sport and Leisure (Routledge, 2009).

    David Kirk is currently Dean of the Carnegie Faculty and Professor of Physical Education and Youth Sport at Leeds Metropolitan University. He has held academic appointments at Loughborough University, the University of Queensland and Deakin University. His research interests include curriculum change in physical education, young people's experiences of sport, and situated learning in physical education and sport.

    Tara Magdalinski is a Senior Lecturer at University College Dublin. She has published widely in sports studies and focuses on the cultural construction of performance enhancement, the role of nature in the bodies and site of the Sydney 2000 Olympics, and the corporate motives of Olympic education. Her first book, co-edited with Timothy Chandler, With God on their Side: Sport in the Service of Religion, was published by Routledge in July 2002.

    Ian McDonald teaches sociology and politics at the Chelsea School, University of Brighton. He is co-editor, with Ben Carrington, of ‘Race’, Sport and British Society (Routledge, 2001).

    Milena M. Parent is an Assistant Professor at the School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa. Her research interests include organisation theory, stakeholder management and event management. She is co-author of the textbook Understanding SportOrganizations, 2nd edition (Human Kinetics, 2006) with Trevor Slack. She has also published in the Journal of Sport Management, Journal of Business Ethics, Journal of Sport Finance and European Sport Management Quarterly.

    Murray Phillips teaches in the Sport Studies Department in the School of Human Movement Studies at the University of Queensland. His research interests are in the epistemological status of sport history, sport and gender, the football codes, swimming and coaching history. He is the author of From Sidelines to Centre Field: a History of Sports Coaching in Australia (University of South Wales Press, 2000).

    Robert Pitter is an Associate Professor in Kinesiology at Acadia University. His research and publications focus on sport, recreation and physical activity in three areas: government policy, social inequality and social identities/meanings. He is co-editor of Sporting Dystopias: the Making and Meaning of Urban Sport Cultures (with R. Wilcox, D.L. Andrews and D. Irwin, SUNY Press, 2003).

    Martin Polley is Senior Lecturer in Sport at the University of Southampton. He is the author of Moving the Goalposts: a History of Sport and Society Since 1945 (Routledge, 1998), A-Z of Modern Europe since 1789 (Routledge, 2000) and Sports History: a Practical Guide (Palgrave, 2007), and editor of the five-volume The History of Sport in Britain 1880–1914 (Routledge, 2004). He has also published numerous articles on various aspects of sports history, including diplomacy, national identity and amateurism. He is a past Chairman of the British Society of Sports History.

    Holger Preuss is Junior Professor at the Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Germany. There he teaches Sports Sociology and Sports Economics and is a member of the ‘Research Team Olympia’. Since 2006 he has been a Visiting Professor at the Beijing Sport University and since 2007 International Scholar in Sports Management at SUNY Cortland, State University of New York. His research focuses on economic impacts of mega sport events, especially the economic implications of hosting the Olympic Games from Munich 1972 to Beijing 2008.

    Leigh Robinson is a Lecturer in Sport and Leisure Management in the Institute of Sport and Leisure Policy at Loughborough University. Her main research area is the management of sport and leisure organisations. She is the author of Managing public sport and leisure services (Routledge, 2003) and recent publications include ‘Customer expectations of sport organisations’ (European Sport Management Quarterly 2006). She is the Chief Editor (with J. Camy) of an IOC-funded project ’Managing Olympic Sport Organisations’.

    Parissa Safai is an Assistant Professor in the School of Kinesiology and Health Science at York University. Her research interests focus on sport at the intersection of risk, health and healthcare including: sport's ‘culture of risk’; the development and social organisation of sport and exercise medicine in Canada; and the social determinants of athletes' health.

    Michael Silk is Senior Lecturer at the University of Bath. His research and scholarship centres on the production and consumption of space, the governance of bodies, and the performative politics of identity within the context of neo-liberalism. He has recently published a number of book chapters and journal articles in Media, Culture, Society, Journal of Sport & Social Issues, Sociology of Sport Journal, International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Sport, Culture and Society, International Journal of Media & Cultural Politics, Media Culture: A Review, Journal of Sport Management and Cultural Studies - Critical Methodologies.

    Trevor Slack is a Professor at the University of Alberta and Adjunct Professor at the University of Ottawa. In 2002 he suffered a stroke. He has published three books since that time. He has published in such sports and leisure journals as Journal of Sport Management, International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship; Sport Management Review, European Sport Management Quarterly, International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Journal of Leisure Research, Leisure Studies; Culture, Sport Society and International Journal of Sport Finance. He has also published in Organization Studies, Journal of Management Studies, Human Relations, European Journal of Marketing, Journal of Applied Behavioral Science and the Academy of Management Journal. He has also published a number of books and chapters on the management of sport.

    David Stead is a Lecturer in Sociology of Sport in the School of Sport and Exercise Sciences at Loughborough University. Formerly concerned with youth sport policy, he currently researches globalisation and sport, the personal and professional experiences of elite athletes and the interrelationship between sport and the media. His publications include “Rite de passage” or passage to riches? The motivation and objectives of Nordic/Scandinavian players in English league soccer’ (with Prof. Joseph Maguire, Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 2000).

    Nigel Thomas is Head of Sport and Exercise at Staffordshire University. He began his career in higher education following 10 years in local authority and governing body sports development roles, specifically focusing on the development of opportunities for young disabled people. His research interests include the media coverage of disability sport and the integration of children with special educational needs into mainstream physical education. In 2004 he completed his PhD at Loughborough University on the policy process in disability sport.

    Mike Weed is Professor of Sport in Society and Director of Research in the Department of Sport Science, Tourism and Leisure at Canterbury Christ Church University, UK. He is interested in all aspects of the relationship between sport and tourism, but particularly in the experiences of sports tourists. He is the Editor of the Journal of Sport & Tourism, and is author/editor of Sports Tourism: Participants, Policy and Providers (Elsevier, 2004), Sport & Tourism: A Reader (Routledge, 2007) and Olympic Tourism (Elsevier, 2007).

    Kevin Young is Professor of Sociology at the University of Calgary. He has published on a variety of sports-related topics such as violence, gender and subcultural identity. His books include Sport and Gender in Canada (Oxford University Press, 2007), Theory, Sport & Society (Elsevier, 2002), Sporting Bodies, Damaged Selves: Sociological Studies of Sports-Related Injury (Elsevier, 2004) and Global Olympics: Historical and Sociological Studies of the Modern Games (Elsevier, 2005). He has served on the editorial boards of several journals, such as the International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Sociology of Sport Journal, Soccer and Society and Avante, as well as on the Executive Board of the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport. He is currently serving a second four-year, elected term as Vice-President of the International Sociology of Sport Association.

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