Space and Social Theory

Books

Andrzej Zieleniec

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • BSA: New Horizons in Sociology

    The British Sociological Association is publishing a series of books to review the state of the discipline at the beginning of the millennium. New Horizons in Sociology also seeks to locate the contribution of British scholarship to the wider development of sociology. Sociology is taught in all the major institutions of higher education in the United Kingdom as well as throughout North America and the Europe of the former western bloc. Sociology is now establishing itself in the former eastern bloc. But it was only in the second half of the twentieth century that sociology moved from the fringes of UK academic life into the mainstream. British sociology has also provided a home for movements that have renewed and challenged the discipline; the revival of academic Marxism, the renaissance in feminist theory, the rise of cultural studies, for example. Some of these developments have become sub-disciplines whilst yet others have challenged the very basis of the sociological enterprise. Each has left their mark. Now therefore is a good time both to take stock and to scan the horizon, looking back and looking forward.

    Series Editor: Bridget Fowler, University of Glasgow

    Published titles include:

    Nationalism and Soical Theory

    Gerard Delanty and Patrick O'Mahoney

    Interactionism

    Paul Atkinson and William Housley

    Feminist Sociology

    Sara Delamont

    The New Sociology of Economic Behaviour

    Ralph Fevre

    The Sociology of Religion

    Grace Davie

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Dedication

    For Kasia, Rowan and Audrey

    Preface

    Space is or has been all too often taken for granted and assumed as a relatively unacknowledged aspect or backdrop to life. It is just there to be filled up, used, crossed over or negotiated in everyday life. In this it is much the same with much social theory. There is or has been an apparent neglect of the detailed consideration of space as an issue or a factor worthy of systematic analysis at least that is, until the last quarter of the twentieth century. Since then and with the publication of a number of influential texts and studies, particularly in the realm of a re-imagined human or cultural geography, space has become increasingly acknowledged as a fundamental and crucial area for social enquiry and analysis.

    Space and spatial analysis are now increasingly being considered as an essential element in the development of theoretical knowledge and understanding as well as empirical investigations in a range of social scientific disciplines. No longer is the consideration and analysis of space deemed the preserve of geographical perspectives on the interplay between the human and ‘natural’ environments. Human-made environments and the social relations that made them as well as the interactions that occur in and through them is now the subject of critical and detailed analysis. Due credit then must be given to human and social geographers for their role in promoting and furthering the reprioritisation of space as a fundamental element for a comprehensive understanding of the complexity of social relations. However, in this new climate of inter-disciplinary activity there is the potential for an expansion in distinctly spatial analyses that should provide not only new horizons but also new directions for a variety of disciplines. Such a fecund future is premised on the recognition of the development and applicability of theories of space and spatial theories.

    The aim of this book is to present some of these theoretical perspectives and to highlight their importance for the development of a more inclusive and accepted social theory of space. In this the intention is not to present a comprehensive overview of all the contributions to the corpus of knowledge that constitutes the field of social theories of space. Instead the objective is to be necessarily selective and approach the development of ‘thinking on space’ in a somewhat chronological manner. Similarly, the impacts and influence of such theories and analyses are to provide an indication of the fruitfulness of incorporating a social theory of space into empirical and theoretical investigations of the complex social relations that constitutes, in various forms, the investigation of social reality. In particular, but not exclusively, these theories are important for providing an understanding of the city and the urban which has and continues to be the focus of much social analysis of modernity. It is perhaps instructive to give some personal details of my own ‘coming to terms’ with space as a fundamental importance for social analysis and investigation.

    As an undergraduate I was encouraged in the development of my own ‘sociological imagination’ through instruction in the classical theoretical foundations of the discipline (of Marx, Weber, Durkheim, Simmel, Comte, Saint Simon, Tonnies, etc.) and the development of contemporary theoretical approaches, perspectives, paradigms (from C. W. Mills, Williams, Elias, E. P. Thompson, Goffman, Popper, Kuhn, Bauman, Bourdieu, Foucault, Giddens, Beck, the post-modern debates of Jameson, Lyotard, Baudrillard, etc.). These provided the epistemological and ontological foundations of the discipline as well as its subsequent development and which informed the study of substantive areas including the urban, modernity, mass media, culture, consumption, stratification, work, literature and informed the detailed exploration of the methodological practice of sociology as well as its intellectual framework. In retrospect, it is perhaps easier to identify omissions than accentuate the positive aspects of my own foundation in sociology. In this, I could highlight the lack of an appreciation of the importance of a sociological analysis and understanding of the spatial dimension of the structure, organisation and experience of social relations and activities in the various ‘specialisms’ that were covered.

    This relative lack of focus on space in sociological analysis and in my own knowledge only became apparent when conducting doctoral thesis research necessitated understanding of the problematics of space. My thesis research involved the analysis of the origins and development of urban public parks as inherent features of the social and physical landscape of the city of modernity. What was revealed in my research was that public parks, as fairly universal and ubiquitous urban spaces, are composed of a complex interaction of physical features, dominant representations and everyday uses and experiences that all combined to ‘define’ them as social spaces with the network of spaces and spatial arrangements that constituted the social landscape of the city. This complexity required a comprehensive understanding and analysis of existing social theories of space and spatial social theory to provide a theoretical framework for the empirical analysis of their origins and development within the historical, social, economic, political and spatial growth of the city in modernity. What became evident was that although social theoretical analyses of space exist in a number of disciplines, particularly within social and cultural geography, there is within sociology no coherent body of works that analysed space as a fundamental factor in the critical social analysis of modernity.

    What was required and achieved in my own work was an investigation of various theoretical approaches and perspectives on space that led to an increasing recognition of why space is or should be important for sociological analysis. This then was the genesis of this book. Its aim is to attempt to address this omission by providing an introduction and overview of key social theories of space and spatial theories that emphasise the spatial dimension of the structure, organisation, regulation and experience of social relations and interactions. This emphasis on space is or should be considered as fundamental for sociological analysis and research as well as for other social and cultural disciplines. In this it may be a new horizon and direction for contemporary sociology but, I hope to demonstrate, one that has been present in an implicit if not explicit form in sociological theory from its inception through to more recent times.

    This book is intended not just to be of interest and value to undergraduates in sociology, but also to those in other social sciences such as human geography, urban studies, politics, anthropology, economic and social history, as well as to those in architecture, design, planning and to social policy practitioners. It is also proposed as an introduction to theoretical perspectives on space for post-graduate researchers, academics and professionals engaged in teaching and research in which the spatial element of social interaction, conflict, exclusion, migration, work, etc. can be understood and applied. Consideration of the importance of space and of the applicability of spatial analyses that are grounded in a theoretical framework will be shown not only to offer essential insights into the development of contemporary social relations, formations and practices but also to provide valuable conceptual and analytical frameworks for future research. Space then can no longer be overlooked or ignored.

    The social world of relations and interactions is one which increasingly is being considered or understood as global, whether networked or not. In a world increasingly represented, expressed and understood as a global network of social, economic, leisure and political links and relations the conquest of space and time is a fundamental feature of this discourse. Knowledge of the social production of space is therefore increasingly fundamental for understanding not only the how of the social relations of contemporary existence but to ask questions of how this came to be, and why they exist in such forms and arrangements as they do. But to paraphrase some objections, we must be aware that to ‘think global and act local’ is to consider how social relationships and interactions take place in and over the space we inhabit, occupy and use in our everyday lives. We need knowledge of the global connections of modern life as well as understanding the space(s) which we experience, and potentially shape. The questions asked of space can inform us of the development of structures and organisations, institutions and practices, behaviours and experiences, power and politics that have moulded and been characteristic of modernity. It is such a challenge that the social theory of space poses.

    However, this is not the preserve of a single disciplinary perspective or fiefdom. What is apparent is the relevance and significance of space and spatial analysis for understanding and investigating the totality of the complexity of social life. It is with this re-prioritisation of space that the genesis of this book arose. If social theory had seemingly given scant notice and consideration to space until the mid- to late 20th century, would it be possible to conduct a partial archaeology of those classical theorists whose legacy for the social sciences and specifically sociology is still acknowledged as influential to the development of the discipline.

    Whilst space cannot be said to be entirely absent from our experience or understanding or from the imagination of the modern era it can be said to be viewed from two distinct perspectives. The first may be said to be that of a somewhat ‘out of this world’, ‘somewhere up there’ phenomena in which the advent of technological extra-planetary expeditions and investigations has focused attention on space as a popularised ‘final frontier’ of humanity's and specifically scientific knowledge. The development of increasingly sophisticated and powerful telescopes has increased the scope and range of astronomy's exploration and understanding of the space of the cosmos. In a similar and related technological advance the first tentative steps of extra-planetary travel have begun the journey of the conquest of vaster distances, worlds and territories. Whilst the ‘space junk’ of satellite communication and surveillance systems has created a new zone of competition and enterprise, most of which is focused downwards on the monitoring, communication and transposition of information and communication flows in an increasingly coordinated global economic system. This outward space has also been colonised by the imagination of science fiction and fantasy which has provided a very broad canvas on which has been painted, written and projected numerous realms of possibilities and prophecies for the future development and experience of the species. We can call this grand macro-cosmic awareness and exploration of space a natural extension of the scientific and technological conquest of the physical space of the earth taken beyond the limited confines of narrow territorial and earthly global experience. The triumph of science whilst not complete has turned its attention to outer space.

    In distinction but not necessarily in opposition to outer space is the view of space as an inner-wordly realm of religious, spiritual or individualistic knowledge, and self-awareness. This is the territory of self-actualising techniques, of developmental and faith-based systems of meaning, promised enlightenment and the expansions of the minds' horizons beyond the limits of the corporeal or physical world of existence. The realm of the soul or the spirit is an inner space of visions and the accumulation or achievement of a possible wisdom of the meaning of existence, of life, the universe and everything. An attempt to impose some order and glean some meaning in an increasingly meaningless world of consumption and vicarious experience and sensory stimulation has led to a focus on the inner space of the mind, spirit and soul. This has led to the development of numerous promissory gurus, cults, therapies and techniques that have colonised the traditional spiritual landscape of the soul of the established faiths and religions with one of an increasingly individualistic emphasis.

    Whether micro-cosmic or macro-cosmic, inner or outer, space is taken to be a fertile ground for exploration and knowledge building. However, the space we inhabit, make use of, and imagine in our everyday lives is one that is inherently social. As such it is subject to the forces and processes to which all of social life has been subject. As collectivities and societies the space that is associated with and which is fashioned to represent and to perpetuate that culture and that society's values, goals and ideologies is not only historically contingent but also socially produced. The social world then is one which makes its own space, whether spaces of production, consumption, circulation, representation, of leisure and pleasure, or of play and imagination. Space is created to enact, to embody and to symbolise the dreams, aspirations and achievements of society in each stage of development. What kinds of space are produced and created has consequences for the quantity and quality of social relations. The kinds of activities that are allowed, encouraged, prohibited, etc. is influenced by the design, shape, size, organisation and ultimately control over delimited and functionalised space. Places for production and for manufacturing for example, are made to permit the maximum and most efficient processes of production. Hence the craft workshops inhabited by single skilled workers have developed to huge edifices in which thousands of workers are organised in space (as well as in time) in a variety of inter-related processes to manufacture an end product. Similarly, different spaces of play, of leisure or of consumption are created, produced or designed for particular purposes. One space does not fit all. How space is organised, designed and represented has consequences for how it can and may be used. This is the space of the social and it matters. What kinds of spaces are made, by whom, for whom, where, when and why instructs us in the kinds of social worlds we have created and the kinds or types of activities that categorise or reflect our priorities and our interests.

    To know space is to understand the social world and ultimately to understand ourselves. The kinds of social space that are made and that we use and inhabit structures not only our social experiences and interactions as social beings and collectivities but also our ability to know ourselves, as individuals and as social actors and as agents of change. However, the business of space is not a one-way street. As space delimits, influences or determines our activities and actions, so the meanings attached to space and the priorities that are reflected in them can be contested and changed by the kinds of uses and practices to which we put them and which challenge the designed intentions of those who seek to functionalise space and to control our access and use of it. Space then is not just the world of plans, logic and science. It is not just the world of ideology and power. It is also the world we live in, inhabit, negotiate and make use of in our own ways. It is the stuff in which, through which and around which we as social beings attempt to make our lives and in which we dream. Space then is inherently social and needs to be critically analysed as such.

    This book then is intended as a short introduction to social theory and space. As a bland and somewhat overly simplistic starting point it is nevertheless appropriate to stress that simply put ‘social relations must take place somewhere’ and that somewhere is always in a social space that is not neutral, not just there, a void waiting to be filled by human actions. Space is shaped by human relations, but conversely human relations are also shaped by space. This will be at the core of those theorists that will be addressed in the following chapters. How space is perceived, conceived, represented, imagined and used has been crucial to how the contemporary world has come to be. Knowledge of the history of space, as Lefebvre argues, is crucial for understanding the space of the present. To paraphrase Marx on history, without knowledge of space one cannot fully comprehend the context and factors that shape the world we inhabit and we are doomed to repeat the mistake that the landscapes of our minds and of our existence are simply insignificant by-products of other processes. We need, therefore to address the meanings of the social construction of space the better to understand it and ourselves. The following theorists address the complex interaction between human action and interaction with their environment, whether natural or human-made, and the consequences this has for social organisation and of power. In this there is an orientation and convergence on the urban as a if not the dominant spatial form of capitalism.

    Chapter 1: Karl Marx: The Implicit Spatiality of Historical Materialism

    The first chapter presents a critical analysis of the implicit spatial dimension of Marx's historical materialism and critique of capitalism. It will address space as both a means and force of production under capitalism in which this dual characteristic of space as both a product and a means of production will necessarily consider its abstraction as an increasingly fetishised commodity. The ownership and control of space will then be considered as a factor in the organisation and perpetuation of increasingly urban capitalism within which the alienation of the proletariat is understood as being in part from their deracination from ‘nature’ as well as the products of their labour. Marx's insistence on the importance of the separation of town and country as the greatest division of material and mental labour will explore this perspective as well as introduce the urban as a form of produced space. The spatial dimension to the social division of labour reflects aspects of Marx's analysis of definitive characteristics of modern urban capitalism and is concerned not only with the spaces of production, but also those of the reproduction of labour. Finally, the consideration of spatiality inherent in Marx's identification of the expansion of capitalism to encompass a world market informs an understanding of imperialism and contemporary globalisation.

    Chapter 2: Georg Simmel: The Space of Formal Sociology

    Simmel's recently translated essay is an early sociological contribution to the consideration of space as an important area for understanding the form and content of social interaction. Whilst Simmel does not present a theory of space as such his identification and accentuation of various ‘aspects’ of space illuminates both Simmel's work as a whole as well as the importance of understanding space in social theory. These aspects of space (exclusivity, boundedness, fixity, mobility in space, proximity and distance) will be presented and considered as containing profound insights into the spatial orientation of social relations. They also provide an early foundation for the exploration of other social theories on space that follow as well as conceptual characterisations that are useful for contemporary spatial analysis and investigation.

    Chapter 3: Henri Lefebvre: The Production of Space

    Lefebvre's contribution to the analysis of space is fundamental for the recent resurgence of social scientific interest in space. His complex theory of the production of space is presented as a triad of interlinked and necessary elements to develop ‘true knowledge’ of space. Lefebvre's theoretical contribution provides a structural framework for social analysis and introduces the importance and complex interaction of consideration of a multiplicity of elements. This chapter will provide a brief summary of Lefebvre's intellectual biography that lead to his theory of The Production of Space and will consider in detail the salient features and implication of his triadic elements, that of practice, representation and use.

    Chapter 4: David Harvey: The Political Economy of Space

    Harvey's consideration of the development of spatial forms and structures indicative of and conducive to the growth and prioritisation of urban capitalism as the primary locus for production, consumption and circulation in modernity is heavily influenced by Lefebvre's spatial analysis. Harvey's analysis of the organisation and control of the form and structure of the space of the urban is a vital analysis of the perpetuation of processes of capital accumulation. The location of interrelated features in the space of the city reflects attempts at the efficient organisation of processes of production and reproduction of labour. Harvey's historical-geographical spatial analysis requires that factories, transport links for raw materials and finished products, a labour supply, and associated support services are concentrated and organised in an increasingly ordered and hierarchical urbanised mode of production.

    Chapter 5: Michel Foucault: Space, Knowledge and Power

    Whilst Foucault did not produce a theory of space he did make a number of contributions that are important for understanding how the development of disciplinary knowledge of space achieved important interventions in the social and physical landscape of the city. The intervention of ‘disciplinary’ knowledge is explored through analyses of medical knowledge and discourses of the space(s) of the urban through the creation and perpetuation of dominant representations necessary for the application of power over the regulation and instruction of populations, areas, spaces, behaviours, etc. For example, the development of sanitary inspectors of public health and the municipal provision of a host of services represent the direct application of knowledge of space being pursued and applied by the power of the local state. Similar examples of disciplinary knowledge and discourses of space will be provided through examples of institutional spaces such as prisons, schools, work places as well as leisure spaces such as public parks and tourist resorts.

    Chapter 6: Legacies and Prospects: Spatialising Contemporary Modernity

    The final chapter explores the legacies and influences of those perspectives and theories considered previously. The implicit spatiality of Marx's analysis of capitalism will be assessed as providing the basis for other theories of space and for contemporary explanations of the practice and perpetuation of capitalism as well as aspects of the development of globalisation. Lefebvre and Harvey will likewise be shown to have made important contributions to the understanding of the importance of space whether in the urban or as a means and a mode by which capitalism has survived and prospered. They have also both had a profound influence on the development of new analyses of the spatiality of contemporary social life. Simmel's legacy and influence is perhaps less easy to assess but nonetheless it is possible to identify, whether acknowledged or not, examples of his ‘aspects of space’ being used and emphasised in the work of other investigators of space. Finally, Foucault's various contributions to social theory of space especially that of disciplinary discourses have enabled numerous investigations of how the spatial practices and representations of power have been effected and contested.

    In summary it is hoped that this introduction to these social theories of space will inform the reader of the importance of an understanding of space for social scientific and especially sociological enquiry. The importance of spatial social theory for empirical and substantive studies of macro and micro social relations in which the delimitation, organisation and regulation of space in general and particular forms of space in particular are major factors in the structuring of experience of society. The social construction of space is both historically and socially contingent and dependent on the operation of relations and processes of power and knowledge. It is thus also subject to contestation and change. The space of the future of social reality is not set, it is still to be imagined and constructed but this can only be done if it is understood.

    Acknowledgements

    Thanks to all those few who have provided assistance and encouragement, especially through all the ‘dark days’ of perpetual teaching on short-term, part-time contracts. Special mention to David Frisby for all the advice and expert knowledge, to Trisha McCafferty for being and remaining ‘a buddy’, for Mags McCarthy for ‘being there’ and to Bridget Fowler for the initial encouragement to submit the proposal.

    Thanks are also due to Chris Rojek and Mila Steele at Sage for your patience and understanding and to the anonymous reviewer whose positive feedback and comments helped shape the final work.

    I would also like to thank the following for permission to use selected text:

    From POWER/KNOWLEDGE by Michel Foucault, edited by Colin Gordon, copyright © 1972, 1975, 1976, 1977 by Michel Foucault, Preface and Afterward © by Colin Gordon. Bibliography © by Colin Gordon. This collection © 1980 by the Harvester Press. Used by permission of Pantheon Books, a division of Random House, Inc.

    THE SOCIOLOGY OF SPACE © Mark Ritter and David Frisby, 1997, Sage Publications

    Henri Lefebvre, THE PRODUCTION OF SPACE, 1991, Blackwell Publishing

    Henri Lefebvre, WRITING ON CITIES, 1996, Blackwell Publishing David Harvey, 1985, THE URBANISATION OF CAPITAL, Blackwell Publishing

    Last but not least thanks to Audrey, Rowan and Kasia: you inhabited my family space even if I wasn't always there to share it with you.

  • Bibliography

    Adam, B., Beck, U. and Loon, J. V. (eds) (2000) The Risk Society and Beyond: Critical Issues in Social Theory, London, Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446219539
    Adler, S. and Brenner, J. (1992) ‘Gender and space: lesbians and gay men in the city’International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 16, 24–34http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijur.1992.16.issue-1
    Allen, J. (2000) ‘On Georg Simmel: proximity, distance and movement’ in Crang, M. and Thrift, N. (eds) (2000) Thinking Space, London, Routledge
    Allen, J. (2003) Lost Geographies of Power, Oxford, Blackwellhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470773321
    Allwood, J. (1977) The Great Exhibitions, London, Studio Vista
    Amin, A. (1999) ‘Spatialities of globalisation’Environment and Planning A34, 3385–99
    Amin, A. (2002) ‘Ethnicity and the multicultural city: living with diversity’Environment and Planning A13:6, 959–80http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a3537
    Anderson, B. (1983) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, London, Verso
    Anderson, R. J., Hughes, J. A. and Sharrock, W. W. (eds) (1987) Classic Disputes in Sociology, London, Allen and Unwin
    Armitage, R. (2002) ‘To CCTV or not to CCTV?’A Review of Current Research into the Effectiveness of CCTV Systems in Reducing Crime, London, NACRO
    Armstrong, D. (1983) The Political Anatomy of the Body, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press
    Armstrong, D. (1994) ‘Bodies of knowledge/knowledge of bodies’ in Jones, R. and Porter, C. (eds) (1994) Reassessing Foucault: Power, Medicine and the Body, London, Routledge
    Armstrong, T. J. (1992) Michel Foucault: Philosopher, London, Harvester, Wheatsheaf
    Atkinson, R. and Moon, G. (1994) Urban Policy in Britain, Basingstoke, McMillan
    Bale, J. and Philo, C. (eds) (1998) Body Cultures: Essays on Sport, Space and Identity, London, Routledge
    Barnes, T. and Gregory, D. (eds) (1997) Reading Human Geography, London, Edward Arnold
    Baudrillard, J. (1994) The Illusion of the End, Stanford, Stanford University Press
    Beck, U. (1992) Risk Society, London, Sage
    Beck, U. (1995) Ecological Politics in an age of Risk, Cambridge, Polity Press
    Beck, U. (1999) World Risk Society, Cambridge, Polity Press
    Beck, U. and Willms, J. (2004) Conversations with Ulrich Beck, Polity Press, Cambridge
    Beck, U., Giddens, A. and Lash, S. (1994) Reflexive Modernisation, Oxford, Polity Press
    Bell, D. and Jayne, M. (eds) (2004) City of Quarters, Aldershot, Ashgate
    Bell, D. and Valentine, G. (1995a) ‘The sexed self – strategies of performance and sites of resistance’ in Pile, S. and Thrift, N. (1995) Mapping the Subject: Geographies of Cultural Transformation, London, Routledge
    Bell, D. and Valentine, G. (eds) (1995b) Mapping Desire: Geographies of Sexualities, London, Routledge
    Benjamin, W. (1999) The Arcades Project, London, Harvard University Press
    Benko, G. and Strothmayer, U. (eds) (1997) Space and Social Theory, Oxford, Blackwell
    Bennett, D. (ed.) (1998) Multicultural States: Rethinking Difference and Identity, London, Routledge
    Bennett, T., Martin, C. G. and Mercer, C. (eds) (1981) Culture, Ideology and Social Process, Milton Keynes, Open University Press
    Bentham, J. (1843) Works, Vol. 4, J.Bowring (ed.), Edinburgh
    Berger, J. (1972) Ways of Seeing, London, Penguin
    Bhabha, H. K. (ed.) (1990), Nation and Narration, London, Routledge
    Blakely, E. J. and Snyder, M. (1997) Fortress America, Washington, The Brookings Institution
    Blowers, A. and Pain, K. (1999) ‘The unsustainable city’ in Pile, S.Brook, C. and Mooney, G. (eds) (1999) Unruly Cities: Order/Disorder, London, Routledge/Open University Press
    Bottomore, T. (1956) Karl Marx: Selected Writings on Sociology and Social Philosophy, London, McGraw-Hill
    Bourdieu, P. (1977) Outline of a Theory of Practice, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press
    Brenner, N. (2000) ‘The urban question as a scale question: reflections on Henri Lefebvre, urban theory and the politics of scale’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, vol. 24: 2, June 2000 http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijur.2000.24.issue-2
    Bruce, I. (1997) ‘Gay sites and the pink dollar’ in Murphy, P. and Watson, S. (1997) Surface City Sydney at the Millennium, Sydney, Pluto Press
    Bryder, L. (1988) Below the Magic Mountain – A Social History of Tuberculosis in 20th Century Britain, Oxford, Oxford University Press
    Burgess, R. E. with McKenzie, R. D. and Wirth, L. (1925/1984) The City: Suggestions for Investigation of Human Behaviour in the Urban Environment, IL Midway Reprint, University of Chicago Press
    Burke, P. (ed.) (1992) Critical Thought Series 2: Critical Essays on Michel Foucault, London, Scolar Press
    Byrne, D. (1999) Social Exclusion, Buckingham, Open University Press
    Caldeira, T. P. R. (1996a) ‘Building up walls: the new pattern of spatial segregation in Sao Paolo’International Social Science Journal, 48:1
    Caldeira, T. P. R. (1996b) ‘Fortified enclaves: the new urban segregation’Public Culture8:2, 329–54http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/08992363-8-2-303
    Calhoun, C. (ed.) (1992) Habermas and the Public Sphere, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press
    Castells, M. (1977) The Urban Question, London, Edward Arnold
    Castells, M. (1983) The City and The Grassroots, London, Arnold
    Castells, M. (1996) The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture Vol. I: The Rise of the Network Society, Oxford, Blackwell
    Castells, M. (1997) The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture Vol. II: The Power of Identity, Oxford, Blackwell
    Castells, M. (2000a) The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture Vol. III: End of Millennium, Oxford, Blackwell
    Castells, M. (2000b) ‘Materials for an explanatory theory of the network society’British Journal of Sociology51(3), 5–24http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/000713100358408
    Castells, M. (2000c) ‘Information technology and global capitalism’ in Giddens, A. and Hutton, W. (eds) (2000) On the Edge, London, Jonathan Cape
    Caygill, H. (1998) Walter Benjamin: The Colour of Experience, London, Routledge
    de Certeau, M. (1984) The Practice of Everyday Life, London, University of California Press
    de Certeau, M. (2000) The Certeau Reader, Oxford Maiden, MA, Blackwell Publishers
    Chadwick, E. (1842/1965) Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press
    Chalmers, A. K. (1930) The Health of Glasgow (1818–1925), Glasgow, Corporation of Glasgow
    ChambersA. J. (1997) ‘A stake in the country: women's experience of suburban development’ in Silverstone, R. (ed.) (1997) Visions of Suburbia, London, Routledge
    Chapman, T. and Hockey, J. (1999) Ideal Homes? Social Change and Domestic Life, London, Routledge
    Chatterjee, P. (1993) The Nation and its Fragments: Colonial and Post Colonial Histories, Princeton, Princeton University Press
    Chauncey, G. (1995) Gay New York: The Making of the Gay Male World 1890–1940, London, Harper Collins
    Clarke, A. J. (1992) ‘Tupperware suburbia: sociality and mass consumption’ in Colomina, B. (ed.) (1992) Sexuality and Space, New York, Princeton Architectural Press
    Cleland, J. (1836) Statistical Facts Descriptive of the Former and Present State of Glasgow, Glasgow, Bell and Bain
    Cohen, G. (1978) Karl Marx's Theory of History, Oxford, Oxford University Press
    Connell, R. W. (1995) Masculinities, Cambridge, Polity Press
    Coser, L. (ed.) (1965) Georg Simmel, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall
    Cosgrove, D. (1997) ‘Spectacle and society: landscape as theatre in premodern and postmodern cities’ in Groth, P. B. and Bressi, T. W. (eds) (1997) Understanding Ordinary Landscapes, London, Yale University Press
    Cosgrove, D. (1998) Social Formation and Symbolic Landscape, London, University of Wisconsin Press
    Cosgrove, D. and Daniels, S. (1988) The Iconography of Landscape, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press
    Cousins, M. and Hussain, A. (eds) (1984) Michel Foucault, London, Macmillan
    Cox, J. (2000) ‘Reasons to be cheerful: theories of anti-capitalism’International Socialism, 89, Winter
    Cox, K. (ed.) (1978) Urbanisation and Conflict in Market Societies, London, Methuen
    Crang, M. (1996) ‘Watching the city: video, resistance and surveillance’Environment and Planning A, 28
    Crang, M. and Thrift, N. (eds) (2000) Thinking Space, London, Routledge
    Darner, S. (1989) From Moorpark to Wine Alley: The Rise and Fall of a Glasgow Housing Scheme Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press
    Darner, S. (1990) Glasgow, Going for a Song, London, Lawrence and Wishart
    Darner, S. (1992) ‘Last exit to blackhall: the stigmatisation of a glasgow housing scheme’University of Glasgow, Centre for Housing Research, Discussion Paper, no. 37
    Darner, S. (2000) ‘Patrolling the poor: the social practice of Council House Management in Glasgow, 1885–1939’Urban Studies, 36/11, 2000
    Dandeker, C. (1990) Surveillance, Power and Modernity, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press
    Daniels, S. (1989) ‘Marxism, culture and the duplicity of landscape’ in Peet, R. and Thrift, N.New Models in Geography Vol. 2, London, Unwin Hyman
    Davis, M. (1990) City of Quartz, London, Verso
    Davis, M. (1994) Beyond, Blade Runner: Urban Control – The Ecology of Fear, Westfield, NJ, Open Magazines Pamphlet Series
    Davis, M. (1998) Ecology of Fear, New York, Metropolitan Books
    Davis, M. (2000) Magical Urbanism, London, Verso
    Deutsche, R. (1991) ‘Boys town’Environment and Planning D Society and Space, 9, 5–30http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d090005
    Deutsche, R. (1998) Evictions: Art and Spatial Politics, London, MIT Press
    Deutsche, R. (1999) Evictions: Art and Spatial Politics, London, MIT Press
    Dimendberg, E. (1998) ‘Henri Lefebvre and abstract space’ in Light, A. and Smith, J. M. (eds) Philosophy and Geography II: The Production of Space, Oxford, Rowman and Littlefield
    Ditton, J., Short, E., Phillips, S., Norris, C. and Armstrong, G. (1999) The Effect of Closed Circuit Television on Recorded Crime Rates and Public Concern about Crime in Glasgow, Edinburgh, Stationary Office
    Donnelly, M. (1992) On Foucault's uses of the notion of ‘Biopower’ in Armstrong, T. J. (1992) Michel Foucault Philosopher, London, Harvester Wheatsheaf
    Douglas, M. (1993) ‘The idea of home: a kind of space’ in Mack, A. (ed.) Home: A Place in the World, New York, New York University Press
    Dreyfus, H. and Rabinow, P. (eds) (1982) Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics, Chicago, Universisty of Chicago Press
    Driver, F. (1985) ‘Power, space and the body: a critical assessment of Foucault's discipline and punish’Environment and PlanningD: 3
    Driver, F. (1992) ‘Geography and power: the work of Michel Foucault’ in Burke, P. (ed.) (1992) Critical Thought Series 2: Critical Essays on Michel Foucault, London, Scolar Press
    Driver, F. (1994) ‘Bodies in space: Foucault's account of disciplinary power’ in Jones, C. and Porter, R. (eds) (1994) Reassessing Foucault: Power, Medicine and the Body, London, Routledge
    Duncan, J. and Duncan, J. (1988) ‘(Re)reading the landscape’Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 6: 117–26http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d060117
    Duncan, J. and Ley, D. (eds) (1993) Place/Culture/Representation, London, Routledge
    Durkheim, E. (1915/1976) The Elementary Forms of Religious Life, London, Allen and Unwin
    Durkheim, E. (1933/1964) The Division of Labour in Society, New York, The Free Press
    Durkheim, E. (1950) The Rules of Sociological Method, New York, The Free Press
    Durkheim, E. (1957) Professional Ethics and Civic Morals, London, Routledge and Kegan Paul
    Durkheim, E. (1993) Suicide, London, Routledge
    Ely, G. (1992) ‘Nations, publics and political culture: placing habermas in the nineteenth century’ in Calhoun, C. (ed.) (1992) Habermas and the Public Sphere, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press
    Engels, F. (1882/1969) The Condition of the English Working Class, Glasgow, Grafton Books
    England, K. V. L. (1991) ‘Gender relations and the spatial structure of the city’Geoforum22(2), 135–47http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0016-7185%2891%2990003-9
    Felski, R. (1999) ‘The invention of everyday life’New Formations, 39, 15–31
    Fischer, E. (1970) Marx in His own Words, Harmondsworth, Penguin
    Fiske, J., Hodge, B. and Turner, G. (1987) Myths of Oz: Reading Australian Popular Culture, Sydney, Allen and Unwin
    Fitzgerald, F. (1986) Cities on a Hill, New York, Pantheon
    Flyberg, B. (1998) ‘Habermas and Foucault: thinkers for civil society?’British Journal of Sociology49:2, 210–33http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/591310
    Foucault, M. (1973) The Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medical Perception, London, Tavistock
    Foucault, M. (1977) Discipline and Punish, London, Penguin
    Foucault, M. (1979) ‘Governmentality’Ideology & Consciousness6, 5–21
    Foucault, M. (1980a) Power/Knowledge – Selected Interviews and Other Writings (1972–1977), London, Harvester Wheatsheaf
    Foucault, M. (1980b) ‘Body/power’ in Gordon, C. (1980) Power/Knowledge – Selected Interviews and Other Writings (1972–1977), London, Harvester Wheatsheaf, 55–63
    Foucault, M. (1980c) ‘The eye of power’ in Gordon, C. (1980) Power/Knowledge – Selected Interviews and Other Writings (1972–1977), London, Harvester Wheatsheaf, 146–65
    Foucault, M. (1980d) ‘The politics of health in the eighteenth century’ in Gordon, C. (ed.) Power/Knowledge – Selected Interviews and Other Writings (1972–1977), London, Harvester Wheatsheaf, pp. 166–82
    Foucault, M. (1980e) ‘Questions on geography’ in Gordon, C.Power/Knowledge – Selected Interviews and Other Writings (1972–1977)London, Harvester Wheatsheaf, 63–77
    Foucault, M. (1980f) ‘Two lectures’ in Gordon, C.Power/Knowledge – Selected Interviews and Other Writings (1972–1977)London, Harvester Wheatsheaf, 78–108
    Foucault, M. (1981) The History of Sexuality, vol. 1, London, Penguin
    Foucault, M. (1982a) ‘Interview with Michel Foucault on space knowledge and power’, Skyline, March
    Foucault, M. (1982b) ‘The subject and power’ in Dreyfus, H. and Rabinow, P.Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics, Chicago, University of Chicago Press
    Foucault, M. (1984) ‘Of other spaces’ in Architecture-Mouvement-Continuite, October 1984, republished in Diacritics, Spring 1986, translated by JayMiskowiec
    Foucault, M. (1986) ‘Space, knowledge and power’ in Rabinow, P. (ed.) The Foucault Reader, Harmondsworth, Penguin
    Fox, N. J. (1998) ‘Foucault, Foucauldians and sociology’British Journal of Sociology, 49, September, 415–33http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/591391
    Franz, D. and Collins, C. (1999) Celebration, USA: Living in Disney's Brave New Town, New York, Henry Holt and Co.
    Freiburg, J. W. (ed.) (1979) Critical Sociology: European Perspectives, London, John Wiley and Sons
    Frisby, D. (1983) The Alienated Mind, London, Heineman
    Frisby, D. (1984/2002) Georg Simmel, London, Routledge
    Frisby, D. (1986) Fragments of Modernity, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press
    Frisby, D. (1989) ‘Simmel on leisure’ in Rojek, C.Leisure for Leisure, London, MacMillan
    Frisby, D. (1992) Simmel and Since, London, Routledge
    Frisby, D. (1994a) ‘The foundation of sociology’ in Georg Simmel: Critical Assessments, vol. 1, London, Routledge
    Frisby, D. (1994b) ‘The flaneur in social theory’ in Tester, K. (1994) The Flaneur, London, Routledge
    Frisby, D. (1997) ‘Introduction to the texts’ in Frisby, D. and Featherstone, M., Simmel on Culture, London, Sage
    Frisby, D. (1999) ‘Culture, memory and metropolitan modernity’The Contemporary Study of Culture, Vienna, Turia and Kant
    Frisby, D. (2001) Cityscapes of Modernity, London, Blackwell
    Frisby, D. and Featherstone, M. (1997) Simmel on Culture, London, Sage
    Frisby, D. and Sayer, D. (1986) Society, London, Tavistock
    Fyfe, N. R. and Bannister, J. (1996) ‘City watching: closed circuit television surveillance in public places’Area28(1), 37
    van Gennep, A. (1960) Rites of Passage, Chicago, University of Chicago Press
    Giddens, A. (1984) The Constitution of Society: Outline of Theory of Structuration, Cambridge, Polity Press
    Giddens, A. (1990) The Consequences of Modernity, Cambridge, Polity Press
    Giddens, A. and Hutton, W. (eds) (2000) On the Edge, London, Jonathan Cape
    Gilbert, A. (1994) The Latin American City, London, The Latin American Bureau
    Gilloch, G. (1996) Myth and Metropolis – Walter Benjamin and the City, Cambridge, Polity Press
    Gordon, C. (1980) Power/Knowledge – Selected Interviews and Other Writings (1972–1977), London, Harvester Wheatsheaf
    Gottdiener, M. (1984) The Social Production of Urban Space (
    2nd edn
    1994), Texas, University of Texas Press
    Gottdiener, M. (1985) The Social Production of Space, Austin, University of Texas
    Gottdiener, M. (1987) ‘Space as a force of production’International Journal of Urban and Regional Research11, 404–16
    Gottdiener, M. (1993) ‘A Marx for our time: Henri Lefebvre and the production of space’Sociological Theory, 11(1) http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/201984
    Gottdiener, M. (1994) The New Urban Sociology, New York, McGraw-Hill
    Gottdiener, M. (1997) The Social Production of Urban Space, Austin, Texas University Press
    Gottdiener, M. (2000) ‘Lefebvre and the bias of academic urbanism: what can be learnt from the 'new urban analysis’?City, 4:1http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/713656983
    Gottdiener, M. and Feagin, J. (1988) ‘The paradigm shift in urban sociology’Urban Affairs Quarterly, 24: 163–87http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/004208168802400201
    Gramsci, A. (1971) Selections from the Prison Notebooks, London, Lawrence and Wishart
    Gray, R. (1981) ‘Bourgeois hegemony in Victorian Britain’ in Bennett, T., Graham, C. M. and Mercer, C. (eds) Culture, Ideology and Social Process, Milton Keynes, Open University Press
    Greenbie, B. B. (1981) Spaces: Dimensions of the Human Landscape, London, Yale University Press
    Gregory, D. (1994) Geographical Imaginations, Oxford, Blackwell
    Gregory, D. and Urry, J. (1985) Social Relations and Spatial Structures, London, Macmillan
    Gregory, D., Martin, R. and Smith, G. (1994) Human Geography-Society-Space and Social Science, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press
    Groth, P. B. and Bressi, T. W. (eds) (1997) Understanding Ordinary Landscapes, London, Yale University Press
    Habermas, J. (1992) The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Cambridge, The Polity Press
    Habermas, J. (1996) ‘Georg Simmel on philosophy and culture: postscript to a collection of essays’, Critical Inquiry22, Spring 1996 http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/ci.1996.22.issue-3
    Harvey, D. (1973) Social Justice and the City, London, Edward Arnold
    Harvey, D. (1977a) ‘Population resources and the ideology of science’ in Peet, R. (ed.) Radical Geography, London, Macmillan
    Harvey, D. (1977b) ‘The geography of capitalist accumulation: a framework for analysis’ in Peet, R. (ed.) Radical Geography, London, Macmillan
    Harvey, D. (1978a) ‘The urban process under capitalism: a framework for analysis’International Journal of Urban and Regional Research2, 101–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijur.1978.2.issue-1-4
    Harvey, D. (1978b) ‘Labour, capital and class struggle around the built environment in advanced capitalist societies’ in Cox, K. (ed.) Urbanisation and Conflict in Market Societies, London, Methuen
    Harvey, D. (1982) The Limits to Capital, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press
    Harvey, D. (1985a) The Urbanisation of Capital, Oxford, Basil Blackwell
    Harvey, D. (1985b) Consciousness and the Urban Experience, Oxford, Basil Blackwell
    Harvey, D. (1989) The Urban Experience, Oxford, Blackwell Publishers
    Harvey, D. (1990) The Condition of Postmodernity, Cambridge, Blackwell
    Harvey, D. (1996) Justice, Nature and the Geography of Difference, Oxford, Blackwell
    Harvey, D. (1997) ‘Between space and time: reflections on the geographical imagination’ in Barnes, T. and Gregory, D. (eds) Reading Human Geography, London, Edward Arnold
    Harvey, D. (2000) Spaces of Hope, Edinburgh, Edinburgh Univeristy Press
    Harvey, D. (2001) Spaces of Capital: Towards a Critical Geography, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press
    Harvey, D. (2003) Paris, Capital of Modernity, London, Routledge
    Harvey, D. (2005) The New Imperialism, Oxford, Oxford University Press
    Hayden, D. (1997) ‘Urban landscape history: the sense of place and the politics of space’ in Groth, P. B. and Bressi, T. W.Understanding Ordinary Landscapes, London, Yale University Press
    Helms, G. (2003) Towards Safe City Centres? Remaking the Spaces of an Old-Industrial City, Glasgow, Glasgow University
    Hey, V. (1986) Patriarchy and Pub Culture, London, Tavistock
    Hindle, P. (1994) ‘Gay communities and gay space in the city’ in Whittle, S. (ed.) The Margins of the City: Gay Men's Urban Lives, Aldershot, Arena
    Howell, P. (1993) ‘Public space and the public sphere: political economy and the historical geography of modernity’ in Environment and Planning D – Space and Society, 11
    Hubbard, P., Kitchin, R. and Valentine, G. (eds) (2004) Key Thinkers on Space and Place, London, Sage
    Hutnyk, J. (1996) The Rumour of Calcutta: Tourism, Charity and the Poverty of Representation, London, Zed Books
    Janicaud, D. (1992) ‘Rationality, force and power’ in Armstrong, T. J. (ed.) Michel Foucault: Philosopher, London, Harvester Wheatsheaf
    Johnston, L. and Valentine, G. (1995) ‘Wherever I lay my girlfriend that's my home: the performance and surveillance of lesbian identities in domestic environments’ in Bell, D. and Valentine, G. (eds) Mapping Desire: Geographies of Sexualities, London, Routledge
    Jones, C. and Porter, R. (eds) (1994) Reassessing Foucault: Power, Medicine and the Body, London, Routledge
    Katz, C. and Kirkby, A. (1991) ‘In the nature of things: the environment and everyday life’Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 16
    Kay, J. P. (1832/1969) The Moral and Physical Condition of the Working Class, Manchester, Morton
    Kay, J. P. (1839) ‘The training of pauper children’ in the Fifth Annual Report of the Poor Law Commissioners for England and Wales British Parliamentary Papers, 1839, vol. XX
    Keith, M. and Pile, S. (eds) (1993) Place and the Politics of Identity, London, Routledge
    Kelton, T. and Valentine, G. (eds) (1998) Cool Places: Geographies of Youth CulturesLondon, Routledge
    Klein, N. (2000) No Logo, London, Flamingo
    Knopp, L. (1990) ‘Some theoretical implications of gay involvement in an urban land market’Political Geography Quarterly9, 337–52http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0260-9827%2890%2990033-7
    Knopp, L. (1992) ‘Sexuality and the spatial dynamics of capitalism’Environment and Planning D Society and Space10:6, 651–70http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d100651
    Kofman, E. and Lebas, E. (1996) ‘Introduction: lost in transposition – time, space and the city’ in Lefebvre, H. (1996) Writings on Cities, Oxford, Blackwell
    Landes, J. B. (ed.) (1998) Feminism, the Public and the Private, Oxford, Oxford University Press
    Lash, S. and Urry, J. (1994) Economies of Signs and Space, London, Sage
    Lauria, M. and Knopp, L. (1985) ‘Towards an analysis of the role of gay communities in urban renaissance’Urban Geography5(3), 152–69http://dx.doi.org/10.2747/0272-3638.6.2.152
    Lechner, F. J. (1991) ‘Simmel on social space’Theory, Culture and Society8, 195–201http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026327691008003013
    Lefebvre, H. (1947) The Coming of the French Revolution, Princeton, Princeton University Press
    Lefebvre, H. (1968a) Dialectical Materialism, London, Jonathan Cape
    Lefebvre, H. (1968b) The Sociology of Marx, Allen Lane
    Lefebvre, H. (1969) Napoleon, London, Routledge and K. Paul
    Lefebvre, H. (1970) ‘Du Rural a l'Urbain’Anthropos
    Lefebvre, H. (1971) Everyday Life in the Modern World, London, Allen Lane The Penguin Press
    Lefebvre, H. (1972) La Pensee Marxiste et la Ville, Paris, Gallimard
    Lefebvre, H. (1976) The Survival of Capitalism, London, Allison and Busby
    Lefebvre, H. (1977) ‘Reflections on the politics of space’ in Radical GeographyPeet, R. (ed.) London, Methuen and Co.: 339–52. Also in Antipode8no. 2 (1976) 30–7
    Lefebvre, H. (1978) ‘Les Contradictions de L'Etat Moderne La Dialectique de L'Etat’, vol. 4, 1978
    Lefebvre, H. (1979) ‘Space social product and use value’ Ch. 12. in Freiburg, J. W. (ed.) (1979) Critical Sociology: European Perspectives, London, John Wiley and Sons
    Lefebvre, H. (1987) ‘An interview with Henri Lefebvre’Environment and Planning D: Society and Space5, 27–38http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d050027
    Lefebvre, H. (1991a) Critique of Everyday Life, London, Verso
    Lefebvre, H. (1991b) The Production of Space, Oxford, Blackwell
    Lefebvre, H. (1995) Introduction to Modernity, London, Verso
    Lefebvre, H. (1996) Writings on Cities, Oxford, Blackwell
    Levine, D. N., Carter, E. B. and Gorman, E. M. (1976a) ‘Simmel's influence on American sociology I’The American Journal of Sociology81:4 (January 1976), 813–45
    Levine, D. N.Carter, E. B. and Gorman, E. M. (1976b) ‘Simmel's influence on American sociology II’The American Journal of Sociology81:5 (March 1976), 1112–32
    Lewis, M. (1994) ‘A sociological pub crawl around gay Newcastle’ in Whittle, S. (ed.) (1994) The Margins of the City: Gay Men's Urban Lives, Aldershot, Arena
    Leyshon, P. and Thrift, N. (1997) Money/Space, London, Routledge
    Light, A. and Smith, J. M. (eds) (1998) Philosophy and Geography II: The Production of Space, Oxford, Rowman and Littlefield
    Lyon, D. (1988) The Information Society, London, Polity
    Lyon, D. (1994) The Electronic Eye, London, Polity
    Lyon, D. (2001) Surveillance Society, Open University Press, Buckingham
    Mack, A. (ed.) Home: A Place in the World, New York, New York University Press
    MacNaughten, P. and Urry, J. (eds) (1998) Contested Natures, London, Sage
    MacNaughten, P. and Urry, J. (eds) (2001) Bodies of Nature, London, Sage
    Mann, M. (1993) The Sources of Social Power, Vol. 2, Cambridge, Cambridge University Presshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511570902
    Marcuse, P. (1989) ‘Dual city: a muddy metaphor for a quartered city’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research13, 697–708http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijur.1989.13.issue-4
    Marcuse, P. (1995) ‘Not chaos, but walls: postmodernism and the partitioned city’ in Watson, S. and Gibson, K. (eds) (1995) Postmodern Cities and Spaces, Oxford, Blackwell
    Marx, K. (1846/1964) The German Ideology, London, Lawrence and Wishart
    Marx, K. (1847/1936) The Poverty of Philosophy, London, Lawrence
    Marx, K. (1852/1977) The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, Moscow, Progress
    Marx, K. (1853) The Future Results of British Rule in India London, Friday July 22 1853 in New York Daily Tribune August 8 in Renton, D. (ed.) 2001 Marx on Globalisation, Lawrence and Wishart, London, pp. 90–6
    Marx, K. (1858/1973) The Grundrisse, Harmondsworth, Penguin
    Marx, K. (1859/1970) A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, Moscow, Progress Publishers
    Marx, K. (1867/1976) Capital Vol. 1, Harmondsworth, Penguin Books
    Marx, K. (1877/1957) Capital Vol. II, Moscow, Progress Publishers
    Marx, K. and Engels, F. (1848/1971) The Communist Party Manifesto, Moscow, Progress Publishers
    Marx, K. and Engels, F. (1848/1975) The Manifesto of the Communist Party, Peking, The Foreign Language Press
    Massey, D. (1984) Spatial Divisions of Labour, New York, Methuen
    Massey, D. (1985) ‘New directions in space’ in Gregory, D. and Urry, J. (eds) (1985) Social Relations and Spatial Structures, London, Macmillan
    Massey, D. (1991) ‘Flexible sexism’Environment and Planning D Society and Space9, 31–57http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d090031
    Massey, D. (1992) ‘A place called home’ in New Formations 17, London, Lawrence and Wishart
    Massey, D. (1994) Space Place and Gender, Cambridge, Polity Press
    Massey, D. (2005) For Space, London, Sage
    Matless, D. (1992) ‘An occasion for geography: landscape, representation and Foucault's corpus’Environment and Planning D, 10 (1), 1992
    Maver, I. (1997) ‘The quest for purity in the nineteenth century Scottish city’Paedagogica Historica, International Journal of the History of Education, XXXIII, 1997
    McCahill, D. (2002) The Surveillance Web: the Rise of Visual Surveillance in an English City, Cullompton, Willan
    McCann, E. J. (1999) ‘Race, protest and public space: contextualising Lefebvre in the US city’Antipode31:2, 163–84http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/anti.1999.31.issue-2
    McClellan, D. (1973) Marx's Grundrisse, St Albans, Paladin
    McClellan, D. (1980) The Thought of Karl Marx (
    2nd ed
    ), London, Macmillan
    McClintock, L. (1997) Imperial Leather, Race, Gender and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest, London, Routledge
    McDowell, L. (1983) ‘Towards an understanding of the gender division of urban space’Society and Space1, 59–72
    McDowell, L. (1997) Capital Culture: Gender at Work in the City, Oxford, Blackwellhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470712894
    McDowell, L. (1999) ‘Beyond patriarchy: a class based explanation of women's subordination’Antipode18:3, 311–21http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/anti.1986.18.issue-3
    McGrane, B. (1989) Beyond Anthropology: Society and the Other, New York, Colombia University Press
    Mehrotra, R. (1997) One Space, Two Worlds, London, Faber and Faber
    Merrifield, A. (1993) ‘Place and space: a Lefebvrian reconciliation’Transactions of the British Institute of Geographers18
    Merrifield, A. (1997) ‘Between process ad individuation: translating metaphors and narratives of urban space’Antipode29:4, 417–36http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/anti.1997.29.issue-4
    Merrifield, A. (no date) ‘Public space: integration and exclusion in public life’City, 5/6: 57–72
    Miles, S. and Miles, M. (2004) Consuming Cities, Basingstoke, Palgrave
    Mitchell, D. (1995) ‘The end of public space: people's park, definitions of the public and democracy’Annals of the Association of American Geographers85:1, 120
    Mitchell, R., Dorling, D. and Shaw, M. (2000) Inequalities in Life and Death Bristol, Policy Press/Joseph Rowntree Foundation
    Mith, S. J. (1987) ‘Design against crime? Beyond the rhetoric of residential crime prevention’Journal of Property Management5, 146–50http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb006654
    Mohan, J. (2000) A United Kingdom?London, Arnold
    Moscovici, S. (1993) The Invention of Society, Oxford, Polity Press
    Murphy, P. and Watson, S. (1997) Surface City: Sydney at the Millennium, Sydney, Pluto Press
    Newman, O. (1972) Defensible Space, New York, McMillan
    Nicholson-Lord, D. (1987) The Greening of the Cities, London, Routledge and Kegan Paulhttp://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203392614
    Norris, C., MoranJ. and Armstrong, G. (eds) (1998) Surveillance, Closed Circuit Television and Social Control, Aldershot, Ashgate
    Ollman, B. (1971) Alienation, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press
    O'Neill, J. (1986) ‘The disciplinary society: from Weber to Foucault’British Journal of Sociology37 (1) http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/591050
    Pacione, M. (ed.) (1997) Britain's Cities, London, Routledgehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203437346
    Pain, I. (1991) ‘Space, sexual violence and social control progress’ in Human Geography, 15:4, 415–31http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030913259101500403
    Pearce, J. (1996) ‘Urban youth cultures: gender and spatial forms’ in Youth and Policy, 52, 1–11
    Peet, R. (ed.) (1977) Radical Geography, London, Methuen and Co.
    Peet, R. (1998) Modern Geographical Thought, Oxford, Blackwell
    Peet, R. and Thrift, N. (eds) (1997) New Models in Geography Vol. 2, London, Unwin Hyman
    Philo, C. (1992) ‘Foucault's geography’ in Environment and Planning D: Society and Space10, 137–61http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d100137
    Philo, C. (ed.) (1995) Off the Map: The Social Geography of Poverty in the UK, London, Child Poverty Action Group
    Philo, C. and Bale, J. (eds) (1998) Body Cultures: Essays on Sport, Space and Identity, London, Routledge
    Philo, C. and Kearns, G. (eds) (1993) Selling Places: The City as Cultural Capital, Past and Present, Oxford, Pergamon Press
    Pile, S. and Thrift, N. (1995) Mapping the Subject: Geographies of Cultural Transformation, London, Routledge
    Pile, S., Brook, C. and Mooney, G. (eds) (1999) Unruly Cities: Order/Disorder, London, Routledge/Open University Press
    Pollock, G. (1988) ‘Modernity and the spaces of femininity’ in Visions and Difference: Femininity and Histories of Art, London, Routledge
    Poovey, M. (1993) ‘Anatomical realism and social investigation in early 19th century Manchester’Differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies5:3, 1–30
    Pratt, G. and Hanson, S. (1988) ‘Gender class and space’ in Environment and Planning D Society and Space6, 15–35http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d060015
    Rabinow, P. (ed.) (1984) The Foucault Reader, Harmondsworth, Penguin
    Renton, D. (ed.) (2001) Marx on Globalisation, London, Lawrence and Wishart
    Robinson, J. (1999) ‘Divisive cities: power and segregation in cities’ in Pile, S., Brook, C. and Mooney, G. (eds) Unruly Cities, London, Routledge, Open University Press
    Rojek, C. (ed.) (1989) Leisure for Leisure, London, MacMillan
    Rojek, C. (1993) Ways of Escape, Basingstoke, McMillanhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230373402
    Rose, G. (1993) Feminism and Geography, Minneapolis, University of Minneapolis Press
    Rose, N. (1994) ‘Medicine, history and the present’ in Jones, C. and Porter, R. (eds), (1994) Reassessing Foucault: Power, Medicine and the Body, London, Routledge
    Ross, A. (1999) The Celebration Chronicles: Life Liberty and the Pursuit of Property Values in Disney's New Town, New York, Ballantine Books
    Rotenberg, P. (1995) Landscape and Power in Vienna, London, John Hopkins University Press
    Russell, J. B. (1886) The Vital Statistics of Glasgow, Glasgow, MacDougall
    Russell, J. B. (1895) The Evolution of the Function of Public Health Administration, Glasgow, William Hodge and Co
    Russell, J. B. (1905) Public Health Administration in Glasgow, Glasgow, Corporation of Glasgow
    Said, E. (1978) Orientalism, London, Kegan Paul
    Said, E. (1993) Culture and Imperialism, London, Chatto and Windus
    Said, E. (2000) ‘Invention, memory and place’Critical Inquiry26: 175–92http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/ci.2000.26.issue-2
    Saunders, P. (1981) Social Theory and the Urban Question, London, Hutcheson
    Saunders, P. (1985) ‘Space, the city and urban sociology’ in Gregory, D. and Urry, J. (1985) Social Relations and Spatial Structures, London, Macmillan
    Savage, M., Warde, A. and Ward, K. (2003) Urban Sociology, Capitalism and Modernity (
    2nd edn
    ) Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan
    Scott, J. C. (1985) Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance, London, Yale University Press
    Sennett, R. (1971) Uses of Disorder, London, Allen Lane
    Sharp, J., Philo, C., Routledge, P. and Paddison, R. (2000) Entanglements of Rower: Geographies of Domination/Resistance, London, Routledge
    Shaw, M., Dorling, D. and GordonG. D. (1999) The Widening Gap, Bristol Policy Press
    Shields, R. (1997) ‘Spatial stress and resistance: social meaning of spatialisation’ in Benko, G. and Strothmayer, U. (eds) (1997) Space and Social Theory, Oxford, Blackwell
    Shields, R. (2000) Lefebvre, Love and Struggle, London, Routledge
    Silverstone, R. (ed.) (1997) Visions of Suburbia, LondonRoutledge
    Simmel, G. (1950) ‘The stranger’ in Wolff, K. H. (1950) The Sociology of Georg Simmel, New York, Free Press
    Simmel, G. (1959a) ‘The problem of sociology’ in Wolff, K. H. (1959) Georg Simmel, Columbus, Ohio, Columbus Ohio State University Press
    Simmel, G. (1959b) ‘How is society possible’ in Wolff, K. H. (1959) Georg Simmel, Columbus, Ohio, Columbus Ohio State University Press
    Simmel, G. (1978/2004) The Philosophy of Money, London, Routledge
    Simmel, G. (1997a) ‘The adventure’ in Frisby, D. and Featherstone, M. (eds) (1997) Simmel on Culture, London, Sage
    Simmel, G. (1997b) ‘The Alpine journey’ in Frisby, D. and Featherstone, M. (eds) (1997) Simmel on Culture, London, Sage
    Simmel, G. (1997c) ‘The sociology of space’ in Frisby, D. and Featherstone, M. (eds) (1997) Simmel on Culture, London, Sage
    Simmel, G. (1997d) ‘The metropolis and mental life’ in Frisby, D. and Featherstone, M. (eds) (1997) Simmel on Culture, London, Sage
    Simmel, G. (1997e) ‘Bridge and door’ in Frisby, D. and Featherstone, M. (eds) (1997) Simmel on Culture, London, Sage
    Simmel, G. (1997f) ‘The Berlin trade exhibition’ in Frisby, D. and Featherstone, M. (eds) (1997) Simmel on Culture, London, Sage
    Simonsen, K. (2005) ‘Bodies, sensations, spaces and time: the contribution from Henri Lefebvre’Geografiska. Annaler 87 B1, 1–14http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/geob.2005.87.issue-1
    Smart, B. (ed.) (1995) Michel Foucault: Critical Assessments (2), London, Routledge
    Smith, M. (2001) ‘Repetition and difference: Lefebvre, Le Corbusier and modernity's (im)moral landscape’Ethics, Place and Environment4:1, 31–44http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13668790123378
    Smith, N. (1984) Uneven Development: Nature, Capital and the Production of Space, Oxford, Blackwell
    Soja, E. W. (1980) ‘The socio-spatial dialectic’Annals of Association of American Geographers70, 207–25http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8306.1980.tb01308.x
    Soja, E. W. (1989) Postmodern Geographies – The Reassertion of Space in Critical Social Theory, London, Verso
    Soja, E. W. (1996) Thirdspace: Journeys to Los Angeles and Other Real-And-Imagined Places, Oxford, Blackwell
    Soja, E. W. (1999) ‘Keeping space open’Annals of Association of American Geographers89, 348–53http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0004-5608.00152
    Soja, E. W. (2000) Postmetropolis, Oxford, Blackwell
    Soja, E. W. and Hadjimichalis, C. (1974) ‘Between historical materialism and spatial fetishism: some observations on the development of marxist spatial analysis’Antipode11, 3–11http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/anti.1979.11.issue-3
    Spigel, L. (1992) ‘The suburban home companion: television and the neighbourhood ideal’ in Colombina, B. (ed.) Sexuality and Space, Princeton, Princeton Architectural Press
    Staples, W. (1997) The Culture of Surveillance, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press
    Stow, D. (1833) Infant training: a dialogue explanatory of the system adopted in the Model Infant School, Glasgow
    Stratton, J. and Ang, I. (1988) ‘Multicultural imagined communities’ in Bennett, D. (ed.) (1998) Multicultural States: Rethinking Difference and Identity, London, Routledge
    Sturdy, S. and Cooter, C. (1998) ‘Science, scientific management and the transformation of Medicine in Britain, c. 1870–1950’History of Science, 36 (part 4)
    Taylor, I., Evans, K. and Fraser, P. (1996) ‘Out on the town: Manchester's gay village’ in A Tale of Two Cities: Global Change, Local Feeling and Everyday Life in the North of England – A Study in Manchester and Sheffield, London, Routledge
    TenbruckF. H. (1959) ‘Formal sociology’ in WolfK. H. (1959) Georg Simmel, Columbus, Ohio, Ohio State University Press
    Tester, K. (1994) The Flaneur, London, Routledge
    Teyssot, G. (1995) ‘Heterotopias and the history of space’ in Smart, B. (ed.) Michel Foucault: Critical Assessments (2), London, Routledge
    Thompson, E. P. (1967) ‘Time, work-discipline and industrial capitalism’Past and Present, 38, 58–67http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/past/38.1.56
    Thompson, E. P. (1978) The Making of the English Working Class, London, Penguin
    Thrift, N. (1996) Spatial Formations, London, Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446222362
    Tonnies, F. (1955) Gemeinshaft and Gesellschaft, London, Routledge and Kegan Paul
    Tucker, R. C. (1978) The Marx-Engels Reader (
    2nd edn
    ), London, Norton and Co.
    Turner, V. (1977) The Ritual Process, Ithaca, New York, Cornell University Press
    Unwin, T. (1992) The Place of Geography, Harlow, Essex, Longman
    Urry, J. (1987) ‘Nature and society: the organisation of space’ in Anderson, R. J., Hughes, J. A., Sharrock, W. W. (eds) Classic Disputes in Sociology, London, Allen and Unwin
    Urry, J. (1990) The Tourist Gaze, London, Sage
    Urry, J. (1995) Consuming Places, London, Routledge
    Urry, J. (2000) Sociology Beyond Societies, Routledge, London
    Valentine, G. (1989) ‘The geography of women's fear’Area21, 385–90
    Wakefield, A. (2003) Selling Security: The Private Policing of Public Space, Cullompton, Willan
    Watson, S. and Gibson, K. (eds) (1995) Postmodern Cities and Spaces, Oxford, Blackwell
    Watt, P. (1998) ‘Going out of town: youth race and place in the South East of England’Environment and Planning: Society and Space, 16, 687–703http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d160687
    Watt, P. and Stenson, K. (1998) ‘The street: it's a bit dodgy around there-safety, danger, ethnicity and young peoples use of public space’ in Kelton, T. and Valentine, G. (eds) (1998) Cool Places: Geographies of Youth Cultures, London, Routledge
    Webster, C. (2001) ‘Gated cities of tomorrow’Town Planning Review72:2
    Wekerle, G. (1984) ‘A woman's place is in the city’Antipode16(3), 11–19http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/anti.1984.16.issue-3
    Werlen, B. (1993) Society, Action and Space, London, Routledge
    Whittle, S. (ed.) (1994) The Margins of the City: Gay Men's Urban Lives, Aldershot, Arena
    Williams, R. (1973) The City and the Country, London, Hogarth Press
    Williams, R. (1976) Keywords, London, Fontanna
    Williams, R. (1977) Marxism and Literature, Oxford, Oxford University Press
    Wilson, E. (1991) The Sphinx in the City: Urban Life, the Control of Disorder and Women, London, Virago Press
    Wirth, L. (1938) ‘Urbanism as a way of life’American Journal of Sociology44:1, 1–24http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/ajs.1938.44.issue-1
    Wolff, K. H. (1950) The Sociology of Georg Simmel, New York, The Free Press
    Wolff, K. H. (1958) Essays on Sociology, Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio
    Wright, G. and Rabinow, P. (1982) ‘Spatialisation and power’, Skyline, March, 1982
    Zieleniec, A. J. L. (2002) Park space: leisure, culture and modernity – a Glasgow case study, Glasgow, Glasgow University, unpublished PhD thesis
    ZieleniecA. J. L. (forthcoming in 2007) ‘Night and day: the use and practice of public parks – a Glasgow case study’ in Stahl, G. and Kinik, A. (2007) Night and the City, London, Verso
    Zorbaugh, H. W. (1929/1983) The Gold Cost and The Slum: A Sociological Study of Chicago's Near North Side, Chicago, IL Midway Reprint, University of Chicago Press
    Zukin, S. (1995a) The Culture of Cities, Oxford, Blackwell
    Zukin, S. (1995b) Landscapes of Power: From Detroit to Disney World, Oxford, Blackwell

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website