Space and Social Theory
Publication Year: 2008
The importance of the spatial dimension of the structure, organization and experience of social relations is fundamental for sociological analysis and understanding. Space and Social Theory is an essential primer on the theories of space and inherent spatiality, guiding readers through the contributions of key and influential theorists: Marx, Simmel, Lefebvre, Harvey and Foucault. Giving an essential and accessible overview of social theories of space, this books shows why it matters to understand these theorists spatially. It will be crucial reading for students in sociology, urban studies, human geography, politics, and anthropology.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Karl Marx: The Implicit Spatiality of Historical Materialism
- Chapter 2: Georg Simmel: The Space of Formal Sociology
- Chapter 3: Henri Lefebvre: The Production of Space
- Chapter 4: David Harvey: The Political Economy of Space
- Chapter 5: Michel Foucault: Space, Knowledge and Power
- Chapter 6: Legacies and Prospects: Spatialising Contemporary Modernity
BSA: New Horizons in Sociology[Page ii]
The British Sociological Association is publishing a series of books to review the state of the discipline at the beginning of the millennium. New Horizons in Sociology also seeks to locate the contribution of British scholarship to the wider development of sociology. Sociology is taught in all the major institutions of higher education in the United Kingdom as well as throughout North America and the Europe of the former western bloc. Sociology is now establishing itself in the former eastern bloc. But it was only in the second half of the twentieth century that sociology moved from the fringes of UK academic life into the mainstream. British sociology has also provided a home for movements that have renewed and challenged the discipline; the revival of academic Marxism, the renaissance in feminist theory, the rise of cultural studies, for example. Some of these developments have become sub-disciplines whilst yet others have challenged the very basis of the sociological enterprise. Each has left their mark. Now therefore is a good time both to take stock and to scan the horizon, looking back and looking forward.
Series Editor: Bridget Fowler, University of Glasgow
Published titles include:
Nationalism and Soical Theory
Gerard Delanty and Patrick O'Mahoney
Paul Atkinson and William Housley
The New Sociology of Economic Behaviour
The Sociology of Religion
© Andrzej Zieleniec 2007
First published 2007
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
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[Page v]For Kasia, Rowan and Audrey[Page vi]
Space is or has been all too often taken for granted and assumed as a relatively unacknowledged aspect or backdrop to life. It is just there to be filled up, used, crossed over or negotiated in everyday life. In this it is much the same with much social theory. There is or has been an apparent neglect of the detailed consideration of space as an issue or a factor worthy of systematic analysis at least that is, until the last quarter of the twentieth century. Since then and with the publication of a number of influential texts and studies, particularly in the realm of a re-imagined human or cultural geography, space has become increasingly acknowledged as a fundamental and crucial area for social enquiry and analysis.
Space and spatial analysis are now increasingly being considered as an essential element in the development of theoretical knowledge and understanding as well as empirical investigations in a range of social scientific disciplines. No longer is the consideration and analysis of space deemed the preserve of geographical perspectives on the interplay between the human and ‘natural’ environments. Human-made environments and the social relations that made them as well as the interactions that occur in and through them is now the subject of critical and detailed analysis. Due credit then must be given to human and social geographers for their role in promoting and furthering the reprioritisation of space as a fundamental element for a comprehensive understanding of the complexity of social relations. However, in this new climate of inter-disciplinary activity there is the potential for an expansion in distinctly spatial analyses that should provide not only new horizons but also new directions for a variety of disciplines. Such a fecund future is premised on the recognition of the development and applicability of theories of space and spatial theories.
The aim of this book is to present some of these theoretical perspectives and to highlight their importance for the development of a more inclusive and accepted social theory of space. In this the intention is not to present a comprehensive overview of all the contributions to the corpus of knowledge that constitutes the field of social theories of space. Instead the objective is to be necessarily selective and approach the development of ‘thinking on space’ in a somewhat chronological manner. Similarly, the impacts and influence of such theories and analyses are to provide an indication of the fruitfulness of incorporating a social [Page ix]theory of space into empirical and theoretical investigations of the complex social relations that constitutes, in various forms, the investigation of social reality. In particular, but not exclusively, these theories are important for providing an understanding of the city and the urban which has and continues to be the focus of much social analysis of modernity. It is perhaps instructive to give some personal details of my own ‘coming to terms’ with space as a fundamental importance for social analysis and investigation.
As an undergraduate I was encouraged in the development of my own ‘sociological imagination’ through instruction in the classical theoretical foundations of the discipline (of Marx, Weber, Durkheim, Simmel, Comte, Saint Simon, Tonnies, etc.) and the development of contemporary theoretical approaches, perspectives, paradigms (from C. W. Mills, Williams, Elias, E. P. Thompson, Goffman, Popper, Kuhn, Bauman, Bourdieu, Foucault, Giddens, Beck, the post-modern debates of Jameson, Lyotard, Baudrillard, etc.). These provided the epistemological and ontological foundations of the discipline as well as its subsequent development and which informed the study of substantive areas including the urban, modernity, mass media, culture, consumption, stratification, work, literature and informed the detailed exploration of the methodological practice of sociology as well as its intellectual framework. In retrospect, it is perhaps easier to identify omissions than accentuate the positive aspects of my own foundation in sociology. In this, I could highlight the lack of an appreciation of the importance of a sociological analysis and understanding of the spatial dimension of the structure, organisation and experience of social relations and activities in the various ‘specialisms’ that were covered.
This relative lack of focus on space in sociological analysis and in my own knowledge only became apparent when conducting doctoral thesis research necessitated understanding of the problematics of space. My thesis research involved the analysis of the origins and development of urban public parks as inherent features of the social and physical landscape of the city of modernity. What was revealed in my research was that public parks, as fairly universal and ubiquitous urban spaces, are composed of a complex interaction of physical features, dominant representations and everyday uses and experiences that all combined to ‘define’ them as social spaces with the network of spaces and spatial arrangements that constituted the social landscape of the city. This complexity required a comprehensive understanding and analysis of existing social theories of space and spatial social theory to provide a theoretical framework for the empirical analysis of their origins and development within the historical, social, economic, political and spatial [Page x]growth of the city in modernity. What became evident was that although social theoretical analyses of space exist in a number of disciplines, particularly within social and cultural geography, there is within sociology no coherent body of works that analysed space as a fundamental factor in the critical social analysis of modernity.
What was required and achieved in my own work was an investigation of various theoretical approaches and perspectives on space that led to an increasing recognition of why space is or should be important for sociological analysis. This then was the genesis of this book. Its aim is to attempt to address this omission by providing an introduction and overview of key social theories of space and spatial theories that emphasise the spatial dimension of the structure, organisation, regulation and experience of social relations and interactions. This emphasis on space is or should be considered as fundamental for sociological analysis and research as well as for other social and cultural disciplines. In this it may be a new horizon and direction for contemporary sociology but, I hope to demonstrate, one that has been present in an implicit if not explicit form in sociological theory from its inception through to more recent times.
This book is intended not just to be of interest and value to undergraduates in sociology, but also to those in other social sciences such as human geography, urban studies, politics, anthropology, economic and social history, as well as to those in architecture, design, planning and to social policy practitioners. It is also proposed as an introduction to theoretical perspectives on space for post-graduate researchers, academics and professionals engaged in teaching and research in which the spatial element of social interaction, conflict, exclusion, migration, work, etc. can be understood and applied. Consideration of the importance of space and of the applicability of spatial analyses that are grounded in a theoretical framework will be shown not only to offer essential insights into the development of contemporary social relations, formations and practices but also to provide valuable conceptual and analytical frameworks for future research. Space then can no longer be overlooked or ignored.
The social world of relations and interactions is one which increasingly is being considered or understood as global, whether networked or not. In a world increasingly represented, expressed and understood as a global network of social, economic, leisure and political links and relations the conquest of space and time is a fundamental feature of this discourse. Knowledge of the social production of space is therefore increasingly fundamental for understanding not only the how of the social relations of contemporary existence but to ask questions of how [Page xi]this came to be, and why they exist in such forms and arrangements as they do. But to paraphrase some objections, we must be aware that to ‘think global and act local’ is to consider how social relationships and interactions take place in and over the space we inhabit, occupy and use in our everyday lives. We need knowledge of the global connections of modern life as well as understanding the space(s) which we experience, and potentially shape. The questions asked of space can inform us of the development of structures and organisations, institutions and practices, behaviours and experiences, power and politics that have moulded and been characteristic of modernity. It is such a challenge that the social theory of space poses.
However, this is not the preserve of a single disciplinary perspective or fiefdom. What is apparent is the relevance and significance of space and spatial analysis for understanding and investigating the totality of the complexity of social life. It is with this re-prioritisation of space that the genesis of this book arose. If social theory had seemingly given scant notice and consideration to space until the mid- to late 20th century, would it be possible to conduct a partial archaeology of those classical theorists whose legacy for the social sciences and specifically sociology is still acknowledged as influential to the development of the discipline.
Whilst space cannot be said to be entirely absent from our experience or understanding or from the imagination of the modern era it can be said to be viewed from two distinct perspectives. The first may be said to be that of a somewhat ‘out of this world’, ‘somewhere up there’ phenomena in which the advent of technological extra-planetary expeditions and investigations has focused attention on space as a popularised ‘final frontier’ of humanity's and specifically scientific knowledge. The development of increasingly sophisticated and powerful telescopes has increased the scope and range of astronomy's exploration and understanding of the space of the cosmos. In a similar and related technological advance the first tentative steps of extra-planetary travel have begun the journey of the conquest of vaster distances, worlds and territories. Whilst the ‘space junk’ of satellite communication and surveillance systems has created a new zone of competition and enterprise, most of which is focused downwards on the monitoring, communication and transposition of information and communication flows in an increasingly coordinated global economic system. This outward space has also been colonised by the imagination of science fiction and fantasy which has provided a very broad canvas on which has been painted, written and projected numerous realms of possibilities and prophecies for the future development and experience of the species. We can call this grand macro-cosmic awareness and exploration of space a natural [Page xii]extension of the scientific and technological conquest of the physical space of the earth taken beyond the limited confines of narrow territorial and earthly global experience. The triumph of science whilst not complete has turned its attention to outer space.
In distinction but not necessarily in opposition to outer space is the view of space as an inner-wordly realm of religious, spiritual or individualistic knowledge, and self-awareness. This is the territory of self-actualising techniques, of developmental and faith-based systems of meaning, promised enlightenment and the expansions of the minds' horizons beyond the limits of the corporeal or physical world of existence. The realm of the soul or the spirit is an inner space of visions and the accumulation or achievement of a possible wisdom of the meaning of existence, of life, the universe and everything. An attempt to impose some order and glean some meaning in an increasingly meaningless world of consumption and vicarious experience and sensory stimulation has led to a focus on the inner space of the mind, spirit and soul. This has led to the development of numerous promissory gurus, cults, therapies and techniques that have colonised the traditional spiritual landscape of the soul of the established faiths and religions with one of an increasingly individualistic emphasis.
Whether micro-cosmic or macro-cosmic, inner or outer, space is taken to be a fertile ground for exploration and knowledge building. However, the space we inhabit, make use of, and imagine in our everyday lives is one that is inherently social. As such it is subject to the forces and processes to which all of social life has been subject. As collectivities and societies the space that is associated with and which is fashioned to represent and to perpetuate that culture and that society's values, goals and ideologies is not only historically contingent but also socially produced. The social world then is one which makes its own space, whether spaces of production, consumption, circulation, representation, of leisure and pleasure, or of play and imagination. Space is created to enact, to embody and to symbolise the dreams, aspirations and achievements of society in each stage of development. What kinds of space are produced and created has consequences for the quantity and quality of social relations. The kinds of activities that are allowed, encouraged, prohibited, etc. is influenced by the design, shape, size, organisation and ultimately control over delimited and functionalised space. Places for production and for manufacturing for example, are made to permit the maximum and most efficient processes of production. Hence the craft workshops inhabited by single skilled workers have developed to huge edifices in which thousands of workers are organised in space (as well as in time) in a variety of inter-related processes to [Page xiii]manufacture an end product. Similarly, different spaces of play, of leisure or of consumption are created, produced or designed for particular purposes. One space does not fit all. How space is organised, designed and represented has consequences for how it can and may be used. This is the space of the social and it matters. What kinds of spaces are made, by whom, for whom, where, when and why instructs us in the kinds of social worlds we have created and the kinds or types of activities that categorise or reflect our priorities and our interests.
To know space is to understand the social world and ultimately to understand ourselves. The kinds of social space that are made and that we use and inhabit structures not only our social experiences and interactions as social beings and collectivities but also our ability to know ourselves, as individuals and as social actors and as agents of change. However, the business of space is not a one-way street. As space delimits, influences or determines our activities and actions, so the meanings attached to space and the priorities that are reflected in them can be contested and changed by the kinds of uses and practices to which we put them and which challenge the designed intentions of those who seek to functionalise space and to control our access and use of it. Space then is not just the world of plans, logic and science. It is not just the world of ideology and power. It is also the world we live in, inhabit, negotiate and make use of in our own ways. It is the stuff in which, through which and around which we as social beings attempt to make our lives and in which we dream. Space then is inherently social and needs to be critically analysed as such.
This book then is intended as a short introduction to social theory and space. As a bland and somewhat overly simplistic starting point it is nevertheless appropriate to stress that simply put ‘social relations must take place somewhere’ and that somewhere is always in a social space that is not neutral, not just there, a void waiting to be filled by human actions. Space is shaped by human relations, but conversely human relations are also shaped by space. This will be at the core of those theorists that will be addressed in the following chapters. How space is perceived, conceived, represented, imagined and used has been crucial to how the contemporary world has come to be. Knowledge of the history of space, as Lefebvre argues, is crucial for understanding the space of the present. To paraphrase Marx on history, without knowledge of space one cannot fully comprehend the context and factors that shape the world we inhabit and we are doomed to repeat the mistake that the landscapes of our minds and of our existence are simply insignificant by-products of other processes. We need, therefore to address the meanings of the social construction of space the better to understand it [Page xiv]and ourselves. The following theorists address the complex interaction between human action and interaction with their environment, whether natural or human-made, and the consequences this has for social organisation and of power. In this there is an orientation and convergence on the urban as a if not the dominant spatial form of capitalism.Chapter 1: Karl Marx: The Implicit Spatiality of Historical Materialism
The first chapter presents a critical analysis of the implicit spatial dimension of Marx's historical materialism and critique of capitalism. It will address space as both a means and force of production under capitalism in which this dual characteristic of space as both a product and a means of production will necessarily consider its abstraction as an increasingly fetishised commodity. The ownership and control of space will then be considered as a factor in the organisation and perpetuation of increasingly urban capitalism within which the alienation of the proletariat is understood as being in part from their deracination from ‘nature’ as well as the products of their labour. Marx's insistence on the importance of the separation of town and country as the greatest division of material and mental labour will explore this perspective as well as introduce the urban as a form of produced space. The spatial dimension to the social division of labour reflects aspects of Marx's analysis of definitive characteristics of modern urban capitalism and is concerned not only with the spaces of production, but also those of the reproduction of labour. Finally, the consideration of spatiality inherent in Marx's identification of the expansion of capitalism to encompass a world market informs an understanding of imperialism and contemporary globalisation.Chapter 2: Georg Simmel: The Space of Formal Sociology
Simmel's recently translated essay is an early sociological contribution to the consideration of space as an important area for understanding the form and content of social interaction. Whilst Simmel does not present a theory of space as such his identification and accentuation of various ‘aspects’ of space illuminates both Simmel's work as a whole as well as the importance of understanding space in social theory. These aspects of space (exclusivity, boundedness, fixity, mobility in space, proximity and distance) will be presented and considered as containing profound [Page xv]insights into the spatial orientation of social relations. They also provide an early foundation for the exploration of other social theories on space that follow as well as conceptual characterisations that are useful for contemporary spatial analysis and investigation.Chapter 3: Henri Lefebvre: The Production of Space
Lefebvre's contribution to the analysis of space is fundamental for the recent resurgence of social scientific interest in space. His complex theory of the production of space is presented as a triad of interlinked and necessary elements to develop ‘true knowledge’ of space. Lefebvre's theoretical contribution provides a structural framework for social analysis and introduces the importance and complex interaction of consideration of a multiplicity of elements. This chapter will provide a brief summary of Lefebvre's intellectual biography that lead to his theory of The Production of Space and will consider in detail the salient features and implication of his triadic elements, that of practice, representation and use.Chapter 4: David Harvey: The Political Economy of Space
Harvey's consideration of the development of spatial forms and structures indicative of and conducive to the growth and prioritisation of urban capitalism as the primary locus for production, consumption and circulation in modernity is heavily influenced by Lefebvre's spatial analysis. Harvey's analysis of the organisation and control of the form and structure of the space of the urban is a vital analysis of the perpetuation of processes of capital accumulation. The location of interrelated features in the space of the city reflects attempts at the efficient organisation of processes of production and reproduction of labour. Harvey's historical-geographical spatial analysis requires that factories, transport links for raw materials and finished products, a labour supply, and associated support services are concentrated and organised in an increasingly ordered and hierarchical urbanised mode of production.Chapter 5: Michel Foucault: Space, Knowledge and Power
Whilst Foucault did not produce a theory of space he did make a number of contributions that are important for understanding how the development [Page xvi]of disciplinary knowledge of space achieved important interventions in the social and physical landscape of the city. The intervention of ‘disciplinary’ knowledge is explored through analyses of medical knowledge and discourses of the space(s) of the urban through the creation and perpetuation of dominant representations necessary for the application of power over the regulation and instruction of populations, areas, spaces, behaviours, etc. For example, the development of sanitary inspectors of public health and the municipal provision of a host of services represent the direct application of knowledge of space being pursued and applied by the power of the local state. Similar examples of disciplinary knowledge and discourses of space will be provided through examples of institutional spaces such as prisons, schools, work places as well as leisure spaces such as public parks and tourist resorts.Chapter 6: Legacies and Prospects: Spatialising Contemporary Modernity
The final chapter explores the legacies and influences of those perspectives and theories considered previously. The implicit spatiality of Marx's analysis of capitalism will be assessed as providing the basis for other theories of space and for contemporary explanations of the practice and perpetuation of capitalism as well as aspects of the development of globalisation. Lefebvre and Harvey will likewise be shown to have made important contributions to the understanding of the importance of space whether in the urban or as a means and a mode by which capitalism has survived and prospered. They have also both had a profound influence on the development of new analyses of the spatiality of contemporary social life. Simmel's legacy and influence is perhaps less easy to assess but nonetheless it is possible to identify, whether acknowledged or not, examples of his ‘aspects of space’ being used and emphasised in the work of other investigators of space. Finally, Foucault's various contributions to social theory of space especially that of disciplinary discourses have enabled numerous investigations of how the spatial practices and representations of power have been effected and contested.
In summary it is hoped that this introduction to these social theories of space will inform the reader of the importance of an understanding of space for social scientific and especially sociological enquiry. The importance of spatial social theory for empirical and substantive studies of macro and micro social relations in which the delimitation, organisation and regulation of space in general and particular forms of space in particular are major factors in the structuring of experience [Page xvii]of society. The social construction of space is both historically and socially contingent and dependent on the operation of relations and processes of power and knowledge. It is thus also subject to contestation and change. The space of the future of social reality is not set, it is still to be imagined and constructed but this can only be done if it is understood.
Thanks to all those few who have provided assistance and encouragement, especially through all the ‘dark days’ of perpetual teaching on short-term, part-time contracts. Special mention to David Frisby for all the advice and expert knowledge, to Trisha McCafferty for being and remaining ‘a buddy’, for Mags McCarthy for ‘being there’ and to Bridget Fowler for the initial encouragement to submit the proposal.
Thanks are also due to Chris Rojek and Mila Steele at Sage for your patience and understanding and to the anonymous reviewer whose positive feedback and comments helped shape the final work.
I would also like to thank the following for permission to use selected text:
From POWER/KNOWLEDGE by Michel Foucault, edited by Colin Gordon, copyright © 1972, 1975, 1976, 1977 by Michel Foucault, Preface and Afterward © by Colin Gordon. Bibliography © by Colin Gordon. This collection © 1980 by the Harvester Press. Used by permission of Pantheon Books, a division of Random House, Inc.
THE SOCIOLOGY OF SPACE © Mark Ritter and David Frisby, 1997, Sage Publications
Henri Lefebvre, THE PRODUCTION OF SPACE, 1991, Blackwell Publishing
Henri Lefebvre, WRITING ON CITIES, 1996, Blackwell Publishing David Harvey, 1985, THE URBANISATION OF CAPITAL, Blackwell Publishing
Last but not least thanks to Audrey, Rowan and Kasia: you inhabited my family space even if I wasn't always there to share it with you.
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