Sourcebook of Family Theory & Research
Publication Year: 2005
Sponsored by the National Council on Family Relations, the Sourcebook of Family Theory and Research is the reference work on theory and methods for family scholars and students around the world. This volume provides a diverse, eclectic, and paradoxically mature approach to theorizing and demonstrates how the development of theory is crucial to the future of family research. The Sourcebook reflects an interactive approach that focuses on the process of theory building and designing research, thereby engaging readers in ‘doing’ theory rather than simply reading about it. An accompanying Web site, http://www.ncfr.org/sourcebook, offers additional participation and interaction in the process of doing theory and making science.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Setting the Context for Future Family Research
- Chapter 1: Theory and Theorizing in Family Research
- Spotlight on Theory: Applying Kuhn's “Scientific Structure of Revolutions” to Family Science
- Spotlight on Methods: The Cyclical Process of Theory and Data in Science
- Case Study: The Use of Explicit Theory in Family Research: A Case Analysis of the Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1990–1999
- Case Study: A Scientific Theory of the Family?
- Discussion and Extension: Theorizing Family: From the Particular to the General
- Chapter 2: Contemporary and Emerging Theories in Studying Families
- Spotlight on Theory: Application of Pepper's World Hypotheses to Family Theories
- Spotlight on Theory: In Search of a Philosophical Foundation for Family Theory and Therapy
- Case Study: Agony or Ecstasy? Evolving Theory and Methods of the Circumplex Model
- Case Study: On the Use of Probability in Family Theory
- Chapter 3: Contemporary and Emerging Research Methods in Studying Families
- Spotlight on Methods: Asking New Questions of Existing Qualitative Data
- Case Study: Mixed Methods: Meaning and Validity in the Development of Self-Report Items for Children
- Case Study: Analyzing Family Interaction Patterns from Videotapes over Time
- Discussion and Extension: Deductive Qualitative Analysis and Family Theory Building
Part II: Changing Family Patterns
- Chapter 4: Explanations of Family Change: A Family Demographic Perspective
- Spotlight on Theory: The New Demographics of Families
- Spotlight on Methods: Does Marriage Make People Happier? Marriage, Cohabitation, and Trajectories in Well-Being
- Case Study: Strengths and Resilience in Chinese Immigrant Families: An Initial Effort of Inquiry
- Discussion and Extension: Family Change: Decline or Resilience?
- Chapter 5: Family Composition and Family Transitions
- Spotlight on Theory: Family Disruption—Chaos versus Havoc: A Chaos Theory (Dynamical Systems) View of Family Structure and Change
- Spotlight on Methods: Causal Analysis of Family Structure Effects
- Case Study: Predicting Marital Success or Failure: Burgess and beyond
- Discussion and Extension: The Adjustment of Children in Divorced and Remarried Families
- Chapter 6: Decentering Heteronormativity: A Model for Family Studies
- Case Study: Backward Socialization and Gay Identity Negotiation in Families
- Case Study: Gay Marriage and Social Science
- Discussion and Extension: Reflections on Queer Theory and Family Science
- Chapter 7: Theorizing and Studying Sibling Ties in Adulthood
- Spotlight on Theory: Theorizing about Sibling Relationships When Parents become Frail
- Spotlight on Methods: Twin Studies and Dementia
- Case Study: Reaching Beyond the Dyad: Research on Adult Siblings
- Discussion and Extension: Sibling Relationships in Childhood: Implications for Life-Course Study
- Chapter 8: Ecological Changes in Ethnic Families of Color
- Spotlight on Theory: Empirical Reality and Vision: Studying People of Color
- Spotlight on Methods: Methodological Considerations in the Study of Families of Color
- Case Study: Black-White Interracial Marriage and Multiracial Families
- Discussion and Extension: The Demographics of the 21st-Century Family: Examining Race, Ethnicity, and Culture within Geographic and Generational Context
- Chapter 9: Advancing Theory Through Research: The Case of Extrusion in Stepfamilies
- Spotlight on Theory: Emotionally Focused Family Therapy with Stepfamilies
- Spotlight on Methods: Exploring the Diversity of Stepfamily Relationships
- Case Study: Identity Enactment and Verification in Gay and Lesbian Stepfamilies
- Discussion and Extension: Leaving Whose Home? When Stepchildren Leave is it Always Extrusion?
Part III: Changing Family Interactions within and across Generations
- Chapter 10: Through the Lens of Time: How Families Live in and Through Time
- Spotlight on Theory: Family in and beyond Time
- Spotlight on Methods: The Experience Sampling Method
- Case Study: Viewing Time Through the Eyes of Overscheduled Children and Their Underconnected Families
- Discussion and Extension: Time and Time Again: A Critical Look at Order in Family Life
- Chapter 11: Theorizing about Marriage
- Spotlight on Theory: Theory-Driven Couple Evaluation
- Spotlight on Methods: Studying Marriages Longitudinally
- Case Study: Cultural Narratives and Individual Experiences in Relationships
- Case Study: Couples under Stress: Studying Change in Dyadic Closeness and Distance
- Discussion and Extension: Theorizing the Particulars of Marriage
- Chapter 12: Analyzing Couples and Families: Multilevel Methods
- Spotlight on Theory: Personality and Family Process
- Spotlight on Theory: Families in Community Contexts
- Discussion and Extension: A Comment on the Use of Multilevel Methods in Family Research
- Chapter 13: Theorizing about Aggression between Intimates: A Dialectical Approach
- Spotlight on Theory: Family Resilience
- Spotlight on Methods: Holding Multiple Theories in Our Hands: Advanced Dialectical Research Methods
- Case Study: An Ecological Perspective on an Intergenerational Family Problem
- Discussion and Extension: The Challenges and Promise of a Dialectical Approach to Theorizing about Intimate Violence
- Chapter 14: Fatherhood and Father Involvement: Emerging Constructs and Theoretical Orientations
- Case Study: Incarceration and Reentry of Fathers into the Lives of Their Families
- Case Study: The Unanticipated Consequences of Promoting Father Involvement: A Feminist Perspective
- Discussion and Extension: Fathers, Fatherhood, and Families: (Re)Casting Issues of Diversity into Forming and Re-Forming Conceptualizations
- Chapter 15: Influences of Parents and Siblings on the Development of Children and Adolescents
- Spotlight on Theory: Parental Acceptance-Rejection Theory
- Spotlight on Methods: Observational Methods for Studying Families
- Case Study: Parent-Adolescent Relationships: Integrating Attachment and Bowenian Family Systems Theories
- Discussion and Extension: The Role of Families in Developmental Continuity and Change during Adolescence
- Chapter 16: Theorizing Intergenerational Family Relations: Solidarity, Conflict, and Ambivalence in Cross-National Contexts
- Spotlight on Methods: Qualitative Approaches to the Study of Intergenerational Relations
- Case Study: Testing Theories about Intergenerational Exchanges
- Case Study: Recent Shifts in Family Support for Older People in Ghana
- Discussion and Extension: Theorizing Intergenerational Relations across Societies
Part IV: Families and Larger Social Forces
- Chapter 17: Culture, Cognition, and Parenthood
- Spotlight on Theory: The Evolution of Parenting
- Spotlight on Methods: Studying Foster and Adoptive Parent-Child Relationships
- Case Study: River of Grief: Hearing Parents and Siblings following Child Death
- Discussion and Extension: Parenthood, Parenting, and Marital Interactions
- Chapter 18: Multicultural and Critical Race Feminisms: Theorizing Families in the Third Wave
- Spotlight on Theory: Veiled Heads: A Middle Eastern Feminist Perspective
- Spotlight on Methods: Kentucky Homeless Mothers
- Case Study: Challenges Faced by Nonelite Women in Higher Education
- Discussion and Extension: Integrating Youth into our Feminist Theory, Research, and Practice
- Chapter 19: Socioeconomic Status and Childhood Externalizing Behaviors: A Structural Equation Framework
- Case Study: Multisite, Mixed-Methods Study of Rural Low-Income Families
- Discussion and Extension: Promoting Positive Youth Development across Variations in Socioeconomic Status: Framing the Structural Equation Modeling Approach within a Developmental Systems Perspective
- Chapter 20: Don't Stop at the Borders: Theorizing beyond Dichotomies of Work and Family
- Spotlight on Theory: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Work-Family Conflict
- Spotlight on Methods: Methodological Challenges in Theorizing the Work-Family Complex
- Case Study: The Interface of Elder Caregiving and Paid Employment
- Discussion and Extension: Suggestions for a Multilevel Reframing of Work-Family Theory
- Chapter 21: Religion and Families
- Spotlight on Theory: “Good Enough” Theorizing about Families, Spirituality, and Religion: Facing our Own Fundamentalism
- Spotlight on Methods: Measurement Issues in the Study of Religion and Spirituality
- Case Study: Links between Families and Religion
- Discussion and Extension: How Highly Religious Families Strive to Fulfill Sacred Purposes
- Chapter 22: Families, Theories, and Social Policy
- Spotlight on Theory: Families and Policy: Health Issues of Older Women
- Spotlight on Methods: Investigating Child Abuse Investigations
- Case Study: Theoretical Threads Weave the Foundation for Family Policy Research
- Discussion and Extension: Thoughts on Families and Public Policy as Viewed by Phyllis Moen and Scott Coltrane
Part V: Preparing the Next Generation of Family Scholars
- Chapter 23: College Professors' Conversations about Teaching Family Theories
- Spotlight on Theory: Walking the Walk: Teaching Systems Theory by Doing Theory
- Spotlight on Theory: Human Ecology Theory for the 21st Century
- Spotlight on Theory: Teaching Theory 101A
- Spotlight on Methods: Linking Theory, Methods, Community Wisdom, and Local Need
- Case Study: A Family with Gender Inequality: Theory in Clinical Teaching
- Chapter 24: Teaching Methods of Family Research
- Spotlight on Methods: Making Statistics Come Alive
- Spotlight on Methods: Developing Professional Skills in Methods: Writing Grant Proposals
- Case Study: Getting to the Bottom of the Spanking Debate: Bringing in the Ethics of Research
- Chapter 25: Controversies and Firestorms: An Epilogue
- Spotlight on Methods: Are You a “Positivist”? An Epistemological Self-Assessment
- Spotlight on Theory: Where Does Queer Theory Take Us?
- Spotlight on Theory: Pushing the Boundaries of the Sourcebook
Vern L. Bengtson
Alan C. Acock
Katherine R. Allen
David M. KleinEditorial Advisory Board
Bert N. Adams
Ana Mari Cauce
Kerry J. Daly
Stan J. Knapp
Harriette Pipes McAdoo
Velma McBride Murry
Jay D. Teachman
William L. Turner
Manfred H. M. van Dulmen
Alexis J. Walker
G. Clare Wenger
Copyright © 2005 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Sourcebook of family theory and research / edited by Vern L. Bengtson [et al.].
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-7619-3065-5 (cloth) — ISBN 1-4129-4085-0 (pbk.)
1. Family—Research—Methodology. I. Bengtson, Vern L.
06 07 08 09 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquiring Editor: Jim Brace-Thompson
Editorial Assistant: Karen Ehrmann
Project Editor: Claudia A. Hoffman
Copy Editor: Judy Selhorst
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Indexer: Molly Hall
Theories are social constructions based on research, practice, and creative thinking. They are expected to change. The process of theorizing is ongoing. This Sourcebook prepares a new generation of scholars for this essential process. With unsurpassed diversity across disciplines and views, this book helps scholars reformulate existing theories and create new ones about how and why contemporary families remain resilient or break down. How do family systems support their children, adults, and elders? I congratulate the editors and contributing scholars of this comprehensive and inclusive volume. It ensures that the process of theorizing about such questions—and others—will continue.
Why is it necessary to continue theorizing about families? Today, more than ever, family scholars need to be curious. To be relevant, we need to ask new questions and generate new hypotheses. We need new frameworks and methods through which to understand differences and commonalities in couples and families across the United States and around the world. To analyze the enormity of data, we need linkages to frameworks, but they must be culturally inclusive. Whether we use models or metaphors, we can make sense of old and new knowledge about a diversity of families in diverse contexts—sickness and health, poverty and prosperity, conflict and harmony, and in times of peace and war. Theoretical thinking helps us see the big picture.
It is at the edges between disciplines that new theories tend to emerge, so cross-disciplinary teams are a good idea. The editors and the contributors to this Sourcebook illustrate such collaboration. Refreshingly, they do not hide their diverse viewpoints. Rather, their paradigmatic, methodological, and experiential differences lead us to a confluence of ideas that stimulates new thinking about the delicate balance between family continuity and change. The possibilities for discovery are enhanced.
The process of theorizing also includes self-reflection. What are our own experiences and biases about family life? How do they fit with the particular families we are studying? There exists a range of family forms and functions, but we continue the debate about the definitions of marriage and family. Family processes that do not fit the norm are devalued. Does this mean that Ozzie and Harriet were wrong? Reading this volume and critically discussing its contents will help you know for yourself.
To formulate your own ideas about family research and theorizing, it is essential that you conduct free and independent inquiry. This includes self-reflection, critical thinking, and the opportunity to study the different methods of discovery. The differences in methods only enrich the process of theorizing (Boss, 2004). Elsewhere, I have written:
There are different ways to search for knowledge. The creative process of theory development requires methods of proof and methods of discovery. The poet shapes a verse; the therapist tries an intervention; the researcher tests or generates hypotheses. But the theorist must be aware of all three possibilities. (Boss, 1999, p. 112)
In this Sourcebook, uniquely, all three possibilities are addressed. I encourage you to [Page xvi]open your mind to different possibilities as you read. And to help you maintain perspective as you do this work, I add a cautionary note. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, an 18th-century German poet and philosopher, wrote in his poem Studier Zimmer,
Grau, teurer Freund, ist alle Theorie
Und grün des Lebens goldner Baum.
May we not limit ourselves to theorizing about families, but also find, in this frenzied world, a real group to call family, and an actual place to call home.—PaulineBossProfessor of Family Social Science University of Minnesota–St. PaulReferences1999). Ambiguous loss: Learning to live with unresolved grief. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(2004). Ambiguous loss and ambivalence when a parent has dementia. In K.Pillemer & K.Lüscher (Eds.), Intergenerational ambivalences: New perspectives on parent-child relations in later life (pp. 207–224). Oxford: Elsevier Science.(
This is a book about the process of research about families. Its focus is on epistemology in family studies—the origin, nature, and limits of knowledge about families—and on how we can develop more effective theories and methods to advance that knowledge. We call it a sourcebook—a source for many ideas and perspectives—because we hope readers will use this volume as a companion while they develop their own studies of families and familylike relationships. This will, we hope, lead to more useful theories and methods in the future.Background
This Sourcebook of Family Theory and Research is part of an important and impressive tradition. It is the third publication since the 1970s sponsored by the Theory Construction and Research Methods (TCRM) Workshop and the Research and Theory Section of the National Council on Family Relations (NCFR) to encourage development of research methods and theory in family studies. It builds on the success of the 1993 Sourcebook of Family Theories and Methods: A Contextual Approach (edited by Pauline Boss, William J. Doherty, Ralph LaRossa, Walter R. Schumm, and Suzanne K. Steinmetz) and the 1979 two-volume Contemporary Theories About the Family (edited by Wesley R. Burr, Reuben Hill, F. Ivan Nye, and Ira L. Reiss). These volumes stimulated many new developments in family research and theory. The traditions they developed are described more fully in Chapters 2 and 3 of this Sourcebook.
The current Sourcebook extends the earlier projects by emphasizing today's more diverse, eclectic, and process-oriented approaches to theorizing. The contributors demonstrate how crucial the development and use of theory and theorizing are to the future of family research. How family scholars conceptualize and theorize about the issues of the day are keys to addressing the pressing needs that families face in the changing contexts in which they live.Goals
Our mission in developing this Sourcebook was to generate a text for theorizing about families that, first and foremost, would be useful to both scholars and students throughout the coming decade. We wanted a Sourcebook that would not simply sit on shelves but would be engaged and consulted repeatedly by family researchers over the next few years. We wanted to create an environment for the community of scholars generating the materials for this Sourcebook that would lead them to become interactive in ongoing theory construction by a community of future family scholars.
A second goal was to create an open process whereby the gates to theorizing could be as wide open as possible, including not simply main chapters in the style of traditional handbooks, but also permutations, elaborations, and challenges to these ideas within each chapter. Authors from many specialties and parts of the world have contributed to this Sourcebook. With the addition of a companion Web site for this Sourcebook[Page xviii](http://www.ncfr.org/sourcebook), we hope to engage additional interaction in the process of doing theory and constructing cumulative knowledge.
Third, we felt that a text for the 21st century should not have chapters organized around a few selected theoretical frameworks, as did the 1979 and 1993 volumes noted above. Such a format did not seem to be practical or relevant for contemporary theorizing about families. Graduate students, publishers, journal articles, and our own experiences reminded us that theorizing is increasingly eclectic. We wanted this Sourcebook not only to ride the wave of what is different about theorizing today but also to chart a new course of action and make the process of theorizing more relevant. Our challenge was to create a road map for a future in which we are unclear about where we want to go, and in which we often seem to go in divergent directions.Process
We were selected to serve as editors of this Sourcebook in spring 2002 as part of a process initiated in 2000 by the TCRM Workshop and the Research and Theory Section of NCFR. A call for nominations, disseminated through NCFR and TCRM Listservs, resulted in the submission of the names of 31 scholars to serve on the editorial board. We were ultimately chosen as volume editors by an editorial selection committee appointed at the TCRM business meeting. The goal was to create an editorial board that optimized both diversity and balance in terms of theoretical and methodological expertise, past experience with other Sourcebook projects, disciplinary background, geographic region, and scholarly seniority. All five editors would share equally in editorial responsibilities. We developed a proposal concerning the mission, structure, and budget of the project that was approved by the TCRM Workshop and the Research and Theory Section of NCFR at their annual meetings in November 2002.
As the Sourcebook editors, we sent out a broad invitation for individuals to send in proposals for chapters and contributions. We included in this invitation the entire membership of NCFR, the Family Sociology Section of the American Sociological Association, and the Division on Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association. In return, we received 73 chapter proposals—far too many to include in a 700-page volume. How could we accommodate the wealth of material proposed? After lengthy evaluation and dialogue, we decided to use several formats in the Sourcebook. It would consist of 25 main chapters, each centered on a specific theoretical and methodological topic; case studies that would elaborate or shed further light on the chapter topics; discussions that would extend the ideas presented in the chapters; and brief pieces on theory and on methods (“spotlights”) that would highlight innovation. Thankfully, most of the scholars who submitted proposals agreed to work within these formats. Many struggled with the highly constrained length limitations we placed on them and with a very tight timeline. However, they accepted the challenge of doing things differently, and in record time. Also, as we noted above, we created a companion Web site for the Sourcebook on which the contributors could post additional materials. We look forward to our readers' assessments of these innovations: Have they worked for you? Has this diverse format helped you to learn more?
From the history of the previous Sourcebook projects, we knew that producing this volume would be a long-term commitment (3 or 4 years of our time) for which we would receive no financial compensation. All royalties from this volume go to the National Council on Family Relations, the TCRM Workshop, and NCFR's Research and Theory Section. No honoraria or royalties are paid to the 198 authors of chapters or features, the 17 members of the Editorial Advisory Board, or the five editors. Working on the Sourcebook has been both a privilege and a labor of love for all of us over the past several years. This project is dedicated to the future of family theory and research methods: The authors and editors—and, most important, those who purchase the Sourcebook—are “financing the future” in that [Page xix]proceeds from sales of this volume will go toward financing the next Sourcebook, which we hope will be published 10 years from now.
We were able to bring this book to press in record time for two reasons: First, the contributors all made extraordinary efforts to meet the deadlines we imposed; and second, we received support from the TCRM Workshop and NCFR that allowed the editorial team to meet 10 times over several years. We traveled, over weekends and holidays, to many places for meetings: to the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (twice); to the University of Southern California (twice); to the University of Notre Dame; to the cities in which the TCRM Workshop, NCFR, and the American Sociological Association were holding their annual meetings; and, in a final spurt inspired by panic over the fast-approaching publication deadline, to a nondescript hotel near Chicago's O'Hare Airport. These meetings were essential for our negotiations of ideas. We needed to meet face-to-face, as a group or in pairs or threesomes, to generate ideas, iron out differences, edit, brainstorm about reviewers or authors, come up with titles, and deal with the endless minutiae that accompany such a large-scale project. Even settling on the design of a cover for the book was a group effort requiring much debate. During our final year of work, we all took part in weekly conference calls that typically took several hours of preparation.Objectives
We decided early on that one of our primary objectives for this Sourcebook would be inclusiveness. Having solicited input from a wide array of students and scholars in the field, we were sure that the volume should allow the voices of many different authors to be heard, authors who vary in ideas and in backgrounds, by race, gender, sexual orientation, age, seniority, religion, and professional affiliation, as well as in other ways that matter.
Therefore, our first objective was to be as inclusive as possible in terms of authors, ideas, and editorial advice. We hope we have achieved that goal. The 198 separate contributors to this Sourcebook represent a very diverse group. We wanted to be inclusive in the race/ethnicity of contributors as well as in their age and seniority. We wanted to involve individuals new to the family field as well as seasoned researchers, teachers, and theorists. Consequently, the authors include graduate students working on degrees, part-time instructors at 2- and 4-year institutions, independent scholars without university affiliations, emeritus professors, and widely known professors at research institutions. We also attempted to include the most salient theorizing being done today on as wide a variety of family issues as possible. Further, we attempted to go beyond North American contributors, involving European and Asian family scholars as well. To enhance this inclusiveness, we created an International Editorial Advisory Board, some of the members of which are scholars who reflect areas or issues we had not been able to cover with the group of authors who emerged.
Our second objective was to engage our readers in interaction—both with the text and with the volume's companion Web site. In this era of ever-increasing technical sophistication, when our students and our children know more about computers than we do, we knew that a traditional off-the-shelf volume would not suffice. This Sourcebook could not be only textually based; interactive to us meant that offering examples and “how-to” features was more important than tracing the histories of particular concepts.
We wanted our authors to be as interactive as possible with the students and scholars who read this volume. We attempted to foster such interaction in several ways. We encouraged all authors to post lists of additional readings, exercises, and information on the Sourcebook's companion Web site. Most of the chapters feature a “Spotlight on Theory” and a “Spotlight on Methods” in which scholars present important insights from their ongoing research that expand on the ideas discussed in the chapters. Most chapters also include at least one case study that illustrates the experiences of one researcher or team of researchers in regard to research associated with the chapter's topic.
[Page xx]Third, we wanted to focus on the process rather than the outcome of theory. We challenged our authors to consider theory as a verb (theorizing) rather than as a noun. We wanted them to focus on the process of theory building and methods development rather than on summarizing existing findings to date on family issues. We hoped that this would result in a product that is different from other handbook-type publications in family research, in which reviews of the existing literature—presenting findings from as many studies as possible—are the end goal, rather than the discussion of ideas that lead to explanations and the development of research methods to study them.
Fourth, we wanted to mix methods and theory in as many chapters as possible. We encouraged the authors to integrate their theorizing with discussions of research methods. We emphasized the value of multimethod approaches in family research. We asked the contributors to join us in our attempt to break down some of the artificial barriers between qualitative and quantitative methods. These have become something like implicit ideologies in family research, creating for many students an “either/or” dichotomy, to the disservice of both approaches.
Finally, we found in implementing our goal of inclusiveness that collaboration is the key. Collaboration is both absolutely necessary and much more difficult than is usually acknowledged. Collaboration is a multidimensional and multimethod process. We understand now that it is nearly impossible to cover only one theory in a chapter, because family scholars must blend, borrow, mix, and pair theories together.The EditorsVern L.BengtsonAlan C.AcockKatherine R.AllenPeggyeDilworth-AndersonDavid M.Klein
We want to acknowledge the many organizations and individuals who have contributed to the success of this Sourcebook project. Bringing this volume to press has truly been a collaborative process involving hundreds of contributors, and we recognize that we could not have completed it without their assistance.
The TCRM Workshop is the intellectual home base of this Sourcebook. Since its inception in 1982 through the work of Reuben Hill and other pioneers in family research, the TCRM has organized a preconference workshop held prior to the NCFR annual meeting as a forum for presenting in-process ideas about theory building and research methods. The workshop is open to anyone who wants to submit an idea or simply attend. This Sourcebook was conceived, sustained, nurtured, and launched through the TCRM, which provided not only the necessary funding but also the ideas and insights to keep it going year after year. The intellectual and emotional capital for this volume comes from the TCRM, and for that, we are all grateful and proud. We thank the three most recent chairpersons of the TCRM for their support of this project: Libby Blume, Stan Knapp, and Richard Bulcroft.
We acknowledge also the sustaining support of NCFR, which is the parent organization of the TCRM, and particularly Michael Benjamin, executive director of NCFR, for his willingness to support the Sourcebook project and to guarantee its expenses. We also thank John Pepper, financial administrator of NCFR, for his encouragement and guidance concerning many aspects of the Sourcebook development. We thank the Research and Theory Section of NCFR, whose officers and members voted to provide financial support for this Sourcebook project. Our thanks to Jane Gilgun and Ann Crouter, recent chairpersons for the Research and Theory Section, who responded to our requests for support. As we have noted above, royalties from this Sourcebook will go to expand theory and research and to provide support for the next Sourcebook project.
Special thanks are due to the members of the Sourcebook Editorial Advisory Board: Bert Adams, Ana Mari Cauce, David Cheal, Margaret Crosbie-Burnett, Kerry Daly, Thomas Holman, Stan Knapp, Ralph LaRossa, Harriett Pipes McAdoo, Velma McBride Murry, Bernhard Nauck, Jay Teachman, William Turner, Manfred van Dulmen, Alexis Walker, Clare Wenger, and Chin-Chun Yi. All of the member of this international group of highly respected scholars participated in the selection and review of chapters. We are particularly grateful for their suggestions about international data and perspectives.
We also want to acknowledge the wonderfully smooth and substantively helpful working relationship we have experienced with Sage Publications and Jim Brace-Thompson, Sage's senior editor. Jim, thank you for the amazingly useful suggestions you have offered us throughout this Sourcebook project. You are the rare editor who demands academic quality as well as reader accessibility, and who balances these along with guidance about the readership, marketability, and sales for a volume. In addition, we thank Karen Ehrmann, Jim's assistant and Sage's editorial assistant for our volume. Karen, you have nagged us and [Page xxii]you have encouraged us and you have helped us meet the unreasonably ambitious production schedule for this volume—which is being published a full year ahead of the original projection. Our thanks also to Claudia Hoffman, Sage's project editor for this Sourcebook, and to Margaret O'Connor, Sage's marketing editor. Finally, special thanks are due to Judy Selhorst, the superb copy editor Sage selected for this volume. Judy, your editing has been wonderful. Thank you for your ability to recast sentences to convey more clearly what authors wanted to say, as well as your meticulous attention to details of graphics and references that the editors—as well as the authors—had missed.
From start to finish, we thank Linda Hall at the University of Southern California for coordinating all activities related to the organization, processing, and production of this Sourcebook. This is the 13th volume she has shepherded to press from manuscript to finished book in conjunction with Vern Bengtson, the senior editor. Linda's persuasive skills are legendary, particularly with authors (or editors) who fall behind schedule with their contributions. Special thanks also are due to Tanaya Burnham. While a USC undergraduate majoring in sociology and part-time student worker, she handled the responsibility of monitoring the progress of the 97 separate contributions and the 198 individual authors involved in this volume. She devoted countless hours and enormous effort to updating the Sourcebook's table of contents as authors sent in their revised contributions.
A huge thank-you is due to Alan Acock, the editor who took on the responsibility of developing the Sourcebook's companion Web site. The addition of a Web site is one of the most important innovations of this Sourcebook, allowing readers to access additional materials posted by the authors to supplement and expand their printed contributions. Thanks to the work of Dr. Acock, these materials will be continually updated over the next 5 years.
Oregon State University provided valuable support for the Sourcebook project by allowing us to use the university's conference call facilities. Almost every week over the past 2 years or so, we were all able to talk with one another about the goals and progress of the Sourcebook thanks to OSU's teleconference arrangements. The charges for these teleconferences each week were minimal, and we thank the administration of OSU for enabling these transcontinental exchanges among scholars working on a complex project.
Additional acknowledgment is due to the National Institute on Aging, which provided support for this project through training grant 5-T32AG00037 and research grant 2R01-AG007977. These grants enabled pre-doctoral and postdoctoral students to participate in this project.
We also want to recognize the contributions of students and colleagues who were instrumental in various aspects of this Sourcebook project. Special thanks are due to Dr. Norella Putney of the University of Southern California, who assisted with the preparation of chapters 1 and 25. Our thanks also to Allyson Banas and Mayra Alvarez of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Jana Meinhold and Patricia Meierdiercks of Oregon State University; and Brian Conway, Carl Neblett, Rui Gao, Jonathan Hill, Georagian Schiopu, Maureen Wynne, and Min Zhang of the University of Notre Dame.
Finally, all of us thank our respective universities, as well as our students and colleagues, for supporting the production of this Sourcebook. This has truly been a collaborative process, and we recognize that we could not have completed it without your assistance.The EditorsVern L.BengtsonAlan C.AcockKatherine R.AllenPeggyeDilworth-AndersonDavid M.Klein
About the Editors[Page 665]
Vern L. Bengtson (Ph.D., University of Chicago) is the AARP/University Chair in Gerontology and Professor of Sociology at the University of Southern California. He has published 15 books and more than 220 articles in gerontology, the sociology of the life course, family sociology, social psychology, and ethnicity and aging. The honors he has received include the Reuben Hill Award from the National Council on Family Relations (1980 and 1986), the Distinguished Scholar Award from the American Sociological Association's Section on Aging (1995), the Robert W. Kleemeier Award from the Gerontological Society of America (1996), and the Ernest W. Burgess Award from the NCFR (1998). He was elected President of the Gerontological Society of America and has been granted a MERIT Award from the National Institute on Aging for his 35-year Longitudinal Study of Generations. In addition, he has received several awards for teaching, which has provided his greatest satisfaction throughout his career.
Alan C. Acock (Ph.D., Washington State University) is Professor and former Chair of Human Development and Family Sciences at Oregon State University. He has also taught at Louisiana State University, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, and the University of Southern California. He has published 4 books, 20 book chapters, and 120 articles. He is a Fellow of the National Council on Family Relations and has held elected offices in the American Sociological Association and the National Council on Family Relations. He has been the recipient of the NCFR's Reuben Hill Award as well as several awards for teaching. His book Family Diversity and Well-Being (coauthored with David H. Demo) received the 1995 Choice Award for Outstanding Academic Book. He has served on the editorial boards of several substantive journals, including the Journal of Marriage and Family. Currently, he is a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Structural Equation Modeling. His substantive research has examined the effects of family structure on the well-being of family members and on intergenerational relations. He is currently investigating the effects on families of fathers' return after incarceration. His methodological research has focused on structural equation modeling and missing values. He is currently writing a book on Stata, a statistical software package.
Katherine R. Allen (Ph.D., Syracuse University) is Professor of Family Studies in the Department of Human Development at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. She coordinates the Human Development Master's Program and also serves as an affiliate of the Center for Gerontology and as Adjunct Professor in Women's Studies. With an interest in family diversity over the life course, qualitative research methods, feminist pedagogy, and social justice work in the family field, she currently studies adult sibling ties, life histories of older gay men and lesbians, and the retention of women and people of color in educational environments. Her books include Handbook of Family Diversity, coedited with David H. Demo and Mark A. Fine (2000); Women and Families: Feminist Reconstructions, coauthored with Kristine M. Baber (1992); and Single[Page 666]Women/Family Ties: Life Histories of Older Women (1989). A charter Fellow of the National Council on Family Relations, she serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Marriage and Family, Family Relations, Journal of Family Issues, and Journal of Aging Studies.
Peggye Dilworth-Anderson is Director of the Center for Aging and Diversity in the Institute on Aging and Professor of Health Policy and Administration in the School of Public Health at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. After earning her Ph.D. from Northwestern University in 1975, she received training in family therapy from the Family Institute of Chicago, Institute of Psychiatry, Northwestern University. In 1989 she received additional training in family issues and Alzheimer's disease from the Harvard Geriatric Education Center. Her research and publications have included both theoretically and empirically based topics on ethnic minority families, with emphasis on older African Americans. In addition to being cited in professional journals, her work has been cited in the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, USA Today, the Christian Science Monitor, and numerous local and regional newspapers. She serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, Psychology and Aging, and Aging and Mental Health. Her research has been funded by the National Institute on Aging, the Administration on Aging, the March of Dimes Birth Defect Foundation, the Alzheimer's Association, and GlaxoSmithKline.
David M. Klein is Associate Professor and Director of Graduate Studies in the Department of Sociology, University of Notre Dame. He has been Department Chair at Notre Dame and has served the National Council on Family Relations as Treasurer, as Chair of the Theory Construction and Research Methodology Workshop, and as Chair of the Research and Theory Section. His recent scholarship has emphasized family theories, methods of studying intergenerational ambivalences, dating and mate selection measurement, and the philosophies of family scientists.