Sociology Today: Social Transformations in a Globalizing World
Publication Year: 2012
We are living in a turbulent world marked by fast, continuous social changes that affect the lives of individuals, families, communities, organizations, businesses, nation-states, and international networks. This fundamentally commits contemporary sociology to being a science of change.
This collection effectively mirrors this diversity and variety of transformations underway in today's societies and transnational spaces. Written by a group of internationally renowned sociologists, it offers a cutting edge understanding of what is happening in our life worlds, work lives and frames of social existence. Bringing up issues such as political turbulence, cultural and artistic dynamics, family changes, gender roles, migration flows and social movements, it is a timely contribution that discusses transformation and globalization and their consequences on diverse platforms.
Illuminating and comprehensive, this book will be ...
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Introduction
- Chapter 1: Transformations in the Multiple Domains of a Turbulent World
- Social Transformations and Social Fields: The General Approach of the Collection
- Social Fields and Research
- Social Fields and Theory
- About Chapter 1
- Section I – Social Change: Definitions and New Issues
- Defining Social Change and Social Transformations
- Social Change
- Social Transformation
- Speed of Change
- Social Structuration and Destructuration Processes
- Patterns of Change
- ‘Mechanisms’ of Institutional Transformation
- Spaces of Change: Societal Effects and Globalization Processes
- A Brief Return to Societal Analysis
- Transnational Processes and Sociological Analysis
- Section II – Social Transformations: Theory and Substance
- Understanding the Dynamics of Social Change
- Constitution Theories and Social Change
- Understanding the Dynamics between Societies and a Globalizing Human Society
- Knowledge, Science and Technology and Social Transformations
- Recomposition of the Political Domain and Challenges to Civil Society
- Political Turbulence: Processes and Dynamics
- Globalization and Transformation of Social Movements
- Transformation of Organizations and Work
- Organizational Restructuring: From Bureaucratic to Organic Forms
- Transformations of Work and Their Consequences
- South–North Dynamics in Redefining Organized Labor
- New Problematics in the Professions: Commercialization and Internationalization
- Transformations of Lifeworld and Culture
- Challenging Women's Domination
- Transformations on Intimate Frontiers and the Role of Families in Social Change
- Transformations in the Religious Realm: The Question of Secularization
- New Cultural and Artistic Dynamics
- Sport and Cultural Stakes in a Globalizing World
- Transformation of Frames and Conditions of Social Existence
- Dynamics of Change in Urban Systems
- Disease and Healthcare in a Globalizing World
- Migration Dynamics
Part II: Conceptual Perspectives for Understanding the Dynamics of Social Change
- Chapter 2: A Reappraisal of Agency–Structure Theories to Understand Social Change
- Section I – Constitution Theories
- A Brief Return to Structuralist Perspectives
- Alain Touraine and the Self-Production of Society
- Structuration Theory and Agency–Structure Relations According to Giddens
- Margaret Archer's Morphogenetic Approach
- The Theory of Social Becoming by Piotr Sztompka
- Contribution and Deficiencies of the Social Becoming Model
- Section II – the Question of Agents and Actors
- Agents and Actors
- Can Organizations be Considered Actors?
- Section III – Re-examination of the Concept of Structure
- Individual Structural Matrix: Memory Traces, Habitus and Patterns of Repetitive Micro-Interaction
- Structural Referents for Practices and Creativity: Works of Civilization, Dynamics of Knowledge, and Specialized Networks
- Structural Procedural Elements: Institutions and the Ambivalent Question of the Actor–Rules Relationship
- The Concept of the Active Reticular Structure
- The Active Reticular Structure of Automobilization
- The Active Reticular Structure of Fossil Energy
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 3: Global Society and Polyarchic Governance
- One World System, Multiple Societies
- How to Conceptualize a World Society?
- Cosmopolitan Ethics and the Institutions of a Democratic Transnational Civil Society
- Counter-Forces to Democratic World Society
- The Erosion of National Sovereignty and the Resilience of Nation States
- Polyarchic Global Governance
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 4: Social Transformations and Knowledge
- Social Transformations and Knowledge
- Knowledge in Competition
- Prophecies of a World Dominated by Science and Technology
- Knowledge about Knowledge
- Information and Knowledge
- Knowledge for Developments
- Practical Knowledge
- A World Made of Knowledge
- Vulnerability and Knowledge
- Concluding Remarks
- Discussion Questions
Part III: Recomposition of the Political Domain and Challenges to Civil Society
- Chapter 5: Political Sociology Responds to Change
- Change Prior to 1989
- The Communications Revolution
- Race, Ethnicity and Gender
- Trust in Political Institutions
- Post-1989 and Continuing Transformations
- Spread of Democracy
- Change Generates Change
- Political Parties
- Civil Society (and its Transformations?)
- Global Political Accountability
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 6: Global Social Movements: Politics, Subjectivity and Human Rights
- Looking at the Literature: Lessons and Shortcomings
- What Have We Learned over the Past Forty Years?
- The Experiential Nature of Collective Action
- Global Social Transformations: The Justice Motive and Human Rights
- Human Rights
- The Equal Right to be Human and Subjectivity
- Discussion Questions
Part IV: Transformation of Organizations and Work
- Chapter 7: Transforming Organizations
- Contingency Theory
- Defining a New Organizational Form
- New Organizational Forms after Bureaucracy
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 8: Transformations of Work in a Global Context: Employment Systems, Autonomy and Work–Life Articulation as Main Challenges
- A Multifaceted Approach to Work and Employment Transformations
- Firms’ Strategies
- Choices in Public Policies
- How is Work Changing?
- Choices among Management Models
- The Paradoxical Issue of ‘Autonomy’
- Job Fragmentation, Boundaryless Careers and Economic Insecurity
- Work–Family or Work–Life Articulation
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 9: Reconnections: Labor Sociologies in a Globalizing Era
- Keywords: The Three Labor Sociologies
- Deepening and Broadening the Study of Labor Movements
- Positioning Labor Studies
- Proposition One: The European World of Labor Studies Has Taken the Particular and Made it Universal
- Proposition Two: Southern Labor Movements Reveal a Range of Non-European Models for Organization and Action
- Proposition Three: There is Value in Knowledge Transfer and Cultural Interpenetration between Northern and Southern Labor Movements
- Proposition Four: The Forms of Labor Internationalism are Varied and Promising
- Recasting Labor Studies
- Conclusions and the Questions They Raise
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 10: Returning to Professions
- Returning to Professions
- Professions and States: Commercialization, Management and Accountability
- Internationalizing Processes and Professional Regulation
- Discussion Questions
Part V: Transformation of Lifeworld and Culture
- Chapter 11: Challenging Women's Domination and Striving for Equity and the Respect of Difference
- Social Transformation and Women
- Feminist Sociological Paradigms and Interpretations of Social Change
- Bringing Women in – Sex Roles and the Quest for Equality
- Developing a Feminist Approach – Avoiding Patriarchal Reproduction
- Exploring Differences among Women
- Towards a Feminist Epistemology: Challenging the Paradigmatic Assumptions of Knowledge and Proposing Alternatives
- Women's Experiences of Social Change: How Much? What Sort?
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 12: Family Change and Lifecourse Development: Social Transformations on Intimate Frontiers
- Why is Family Now So Sociologically Enticing?
- Family Changes on Intimate Frontiers
- Macro-Level Theorizing in Postmodernity
- Deepening Historicity about Families
- Systems Approaches
- Technologies of Interpretation/Understanding
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 13: The Waning of Religious Beliefs in Thirty European Countries: Empirical Evidence
- What is Meant by Decline?
- Meaning of the Bible
- Trust–Mistrust of the Church as an Institution
- Religious and Agnostic Socialization
- Prayer: How Often, if Ever?
- Belief in God as an Observable Social Fact
- Belief in Fundamental Dogmas
- Interdictions and Disobediences
- Generational Dynamic of Decline
- Three Final Remarks
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 14: The Culture Society: A Heuristic for Analyzing Cultural Change in the Global Age
- Contemporary Cultural Change and the Arts
- Culture and Post-Industrial Society: Facts and Theories
- The Modern Rules of Art Redefined
- The New Cultural Order
- The Spatial Dimension: Culture and Globalization
- Concluding Remarks: The Challenge of Diversity
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 15: Power and Global Sport: Zones of Prestige, Emulation and Resistance
- Globalization: Sport, Power and Established–Outsider Relations
- Civilizational Encounters and Global Processes
- Discussion Questions
Part VI: Transformation of Frames and Conditions of Social Existence
- Chapter 16: Comparative Social Transformations in Urban Regimes
- Main Trends of Economic Change and Local Political Responses
- Employment and Demographic Change
- Urban Regimes, Mobility and Social Segregation
- Urban Mobility and Social Segregation
- Cities in the North American Regime
- Cities in the European Regime
- Urban Unrest and Criminality: A Comparison of Two Regulation Systems
- Governance in the American and European Contexts
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 17: Globalization and the Transformation of Disease and Healthcare
- Globalization and Threats to Health
- Modern Risks
- Pandemic Influenza
- Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
- Medical Tourism
- Globalization, Health and Healthcare
- Discussion Questions
- Chapter 18: The Dynamics of Migration and Social Transformations
- Network Migration and Transnational Communities
- The Persistent Development Gap
- The Ambiguous Role of the State
- Discussion Questions
Sage Studies in International Sociology[Page ii]
Series Editor (2000–2010)
Julia Evetts, Emeritus Professor of Sociology at Nottingham University, UK
Series Editor (2010–ongoing)
Sujata Patel, Professor of Sociology at University of Hyderabad, India
Chapter 3 © Alberto Martinelli 2012
Chapter 4 © Nico Stehr and Bernd Weiler 2012
Chapter 5 © Kay Lawson, Mildred A. Schwartz and Eva Etzioni-Halevy 2012
Chapter 6 © Pierre Hamel, Henri Lustiger-Thaler and Louis Maheu 2012
Chapter 7 © Stewart Clegg 2012
Chapter 8 © Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay 2012
Chapter 9 © Carla Lipsig-Mummé and Edward Webster 2012
Chapter 10 © Julia Evetts 2012
Chapter 11 © Ann Denis 2012
Chapter 12 © Susan A. McDaniel 2012
Chapter 13 © Mattei Dogan 2012
Chapter 14 © Arturo Rodríguez Morató 2012
Chapter 15 © Joseph Maguire 2012
Chapter 16 © Sophie Body-Gendrot, Marisol García and Enzo Mingione 2012
Chapter 17 © William C. Cockerham and Geoffrey B. Cockerham 2012
Chapter 18 © Han Entzinger 2012
First published 2012
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Bodmin, Cornwall[Page v]
To our Children and Grandchildren
Valérie and Benjamin
Annabelle and Olivia
Antoine and Charlotte[Page vi]
List of Figures[Page xvi]
- Figure 2.1 The basic morphogenetic/static cycle with its three phases 57
- Figure 2.2 Agency and praxis in operation in the theory of social becoming 59
- Figure 2.3 Various timespans of social self-transformation 60
- Figure 2.4 The growth of the U.S. Highway Trust and the formation of the active reticular structure of automobilization 81
- Figure 2.5 The enlargement of the reticular structure of automobilization through the growth of the Highway Users Conference and the Interstate System 82
List of Tables[Page xvii]
- Table 2.1 Structural components of social life 70
- Table 4.1 The knowledge-based economy, 1995/1996 128
- Table 7.1 How organization contingencies shape organization structure 199
- Table 13.1 Religiousness and religious practice 300
- Table 13.2 Prayer: how often, if ever? 305
- Table 13.3 Belief in God: gradation of replies 307
- Table 13.4 Extreme conception of God 308
About the Contributors[Page xviii]The Editor
Arnaud Sales holds a Doctorat d’État ès Lettres et Sciences Humaines, from Université Paris-Diderot. He is Emeritus Professor of Sociology at the Université de Montréal, Canada. A specialist in economic sociology, his research interests center on the relations between the public and private spheres; economic and administrative elites and knowledge workers; and the role of knowledge in social transformations. His publications include: La Bourgeoisie industrielle au Québec (PUM, 1979); Décideurs et gestionnaires (Éditeur officiel du Québec, 1985) (with N. Bélanger). He has edited or co-edited the following volumes: Développement national et économie mondialisée (Sociologie et Sociétés, 1979); La recomposition du politique (PUM/L'Harmattan, 1991) (with L. Maheu); Québec, fin de siècle (Sociologie et Sociétés, 1994) (with N. Laurin); The International Handbook of Sociology (Sage, 2000) (with S. Quah); New Directions in the Study of Knowledge, Economy and Society (SSIS, Current Sociology, Sage, 2001) (with K. Adhikari); Knowledge, Communication and Creativity (Sage, 2007) (with M. Fournier). He was Vice-Dean of the Université de Montréal's Faculty of Graduate Studies (1987–1992) and has chaired the Department of Sociology (2000–2007). He is a former Vice-President International of the Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics (1995–1998). After chairing the Research Committee 02 on Economy and Society of the International Sociological Association, he was elected Vice-President for Research (1998–2002) of the association and chaired its Research Council. In 2006, he was named Chevalier de l'Ordre des Palmes Académiques of France.The Contributors
Sophie Body-Gendrot is Emeritus Professor of Political Science and of American Studies at Université Paris-Sorbonne, France, and former Director of the Center for Urban Studies (CEUMA). She is also a researcher at CNRS-CESDIP-Ministry of Justice, and an expert adviser on safety and public spaces for the program Urban Age, at the London School of [Page xix]Economics. She has been involved with international journals and research groups and is a consultant for the European Commision on criminological and urban issues. Her main fields of interest are urban unrest, ethnic and racial issues, citizen participation and comparative public policy. She has written or co-edited more than fifteen books and over a hundred articles. Her most recent work in English is: Globalization, Fear and Insecurity. The Challenges for Cities North and South (Palgrave Macmillan, 2012); The Handbook of European Criminology (Routledge, 2012); ‘Uneven Landscapes’ in R. Burdett and D. Sudjic (eds), Living in the Endless City (Phaidon, 2011); Violence in Europe (Springer, 2008) (with P. Spierenburg); ‘Confronting Fear’, in R. Burdett and D. Sudjic (eds), The Endless City (Phaidon, 2008); ‘Violence in French Banlieues: Anything New?’ in L. Cachet, (ed.), Governance of Security in the Netherlands and Belgium (Boom Legal Publishers, 2008); Social Citizenship and Social Capital (Lexington Press, 2003) (with M. Gittell); The Social Control of Cities? (Blackwell, 2000); and The Urban Moment (Sage, 1999) (with R. Beauregard). She was President of the European Society of Criminology (ESC). In 2012, she was awarded the French Légion d’ Honneur.
Stewart Clegg is Professor at the School of Management of University of Technology Sydney (UTS), Australia. He is Research Director of UTS Centre for Management and Organization Studies (CMOS). He holds a small number of visiting professorships at prestigious European universities and research centers. Recent books edited or co-edited by Stewart Clegg include Managing and Organizations: An Introduction to Theory and Practice (Sage, 2012, 3rd edn.) (with M. Kornberger and T.S. Pitsis); Power in Organizations (Volumes I–IV) (Sage, 2012); Power in Politics (Volumes I–IV) (Sage, 2012); The Virtues Of Leadership: Contemporary Challenge for Global Managers (Oxford University Press, 2012); Strategy: Theory & Practice (Sage, 2012); SAGE Directions in Organization Studies (Volumes I–IV) (Sage, 2010); Managing Modernity: Beyond Bureaucracy (Oxford University Press, 2011); Handbook of Power (Sage, 2009); Handbook of Macro Organizational Behaviour (Sage, 2009); Time in Organizational Research: Approaches and Methods (Routledge, 2008); and International Encyclopaedia of Organization Studies (in four volumes) (Sage, 2008). He has also recently co-authored A Very Short, Fairly Interesting and Reasonably Cheap Book about Studying Strategy (Sage, 2008) (with C. Carter and M. Kornberger).
Geoffrey B. Cockerham is Assistant Professor in the Department of History and Political Science at Utah Valley University, USA. He received his Ph.D. in political science from the University of Arizona and his J.D. from [Page xx]Louisiana State University. He is co-author (with William Cockerham) of Health and Globalization (Polity, 2010) and has previously published papers in Social Science and Medicine, International Politics and East Asia.
William C. Cockerham is Distinguished Professor of Sociology and Co-Director of the Center for Social Medicine at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA. He also holds secondary appointments in medicine and public health. His Ph.D. is from the University of California at Berkeley. Among his recent publications are a co-authored chapter in Quantifying Theory: Pierre Bourdieu (Springer, 2009) and chapters in The Handbook of the Sociology of Medical Education (Routledge, 2009) and The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Sociology (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012). Recent books, in addition to Health and Globalization (Polity, 2010), include Medical Sociology, 12th edn. (Pearson Prentice-Hall, 2012) and the New Blackwell Companion to Medical Sociology (Wiley-Blackwell, 2010). He is past President of the Research Committee 15 on Sociology of Health of the International Sociological Association.
Ann Denis is an Emerita Professor of Sociology at Université d'Ottawa, Canada, and has had visiting appointments at the University of the West Indies in Barbados and Trinidad. Her research interests focus on the effects of gender relations, ethnic relations and social class on power relations. Current and recent research examines the effect of state policies on women (and their work) in the Commonwealth Caribbean and among immigrants in Canada, the use of the Internet by minority young people in Barbados and francophone Ontario, and the effects of society-centered educational practices on women studying engineering. Her publications include: The ISA Handbook in Contemporary Sociology: Conflict, Competition, Cooperation (Sage, 2009) and The Shape of Sociology for the 21st Century: Tradition and Renewal (Sage, 2012) (both co-edited with D. Kalekin-Fishman); Femmes de carrière. Carrières de femmes (Presses de l'Université d'Ottawa, 1999) (with C. Coderre and C. Andrew), and numerous articles. Presently the President (2010–2014) of RC05, Research Committee on Racism, Nationalism and Ethnic Relations of the International Sociological Association (ISA), she was the Vice-president, Research (2001–2006) of the ISA and a member of its Executive Committee (2006–2010). She remains an active member of its research committee on women.
Mattei Dogan was Directeur de recherche émérite at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in Paris, France, and Emeritus Professor of Political Science at UCLA. He passed away in October 2010. [Page xxi]He was the author or co-author of thirty-five books and over a hundred articles in academic journals. Among his books are: The Mandarins of Western Europe (Halsted Press, 1975); Pathways to Power (Westview Press, 1988); Elites, Crises and the Origins of Regimes (Rowan & Littlefield, 1998); and Elite Configurations at the Apex of Power (Brill, 2003). He is known for his work in the area of political behaviors and electoral studies, specifically women's voting patterns and the sociology of values (nationalism, religion and political legitimacy). His research encompassed France, Germany, Italy, Great Britain and the USA. This helped forge his vocation as a comparative sociologist. He promoted this comparative approach to sociology notably in How to Compare Nations (Chatham House, 1990) (with D. Pelassy). His analysis of the fragmentation of disciplines, interdisciplinarity and the hybridization of branches of disciplines in the social sciences is also of particular note; see Creative Marginality: Innovation at the Intersections of Social Sciences (Westview Press, 1990) (with R. Pahre). In 2001, he took the initiative of creating a non-profit foundation devoted exclusively to the social sciences. This foundation, which bears his name, offers twenty-one prizes for excellence in academic research and oversees three online anthologies.
Han Entzinger is Professor of Migration and Integration Studies at Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Netherlands, where he was previously Chair of the Sociology Department. He is also Past President of Research Committee 31 on Sociology of Migration of the International Sociological Association. He received his doctorate at Leiden University and previously held a chair in social sciences at Utrecht University, where he was co-founder of the European Research Centre on Migration and Ethnic Relations (ERCOMER). At present he chairs the Board of Directors of the IMISCOE network, in which some twenty-five prominent European research centers in the field of migration and integration work together. His research interests include international migration, multiculturalism, citizenship and social policy. His publications have appeared in twelve different languages. His most recent book in English is Migration Between States and Markets (Ashgate, 2004).
Eva Etzioni-Halevy is Professor Emerita at Bar-Ilan University, Israel. She has written or edited fourteen books, including: The Elite Connection (Polity Press, 1993) and Classes and Elites in Democracy and Democratization (ed.) (Garland Publishing, 1997). She has also written numerous articles in professional journals. She is Fellow of the Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia. She has also written several novels published by Plume/Penguin.[Page xxii]
Julia Evetts is Emeritus Professor of Sociology in the School of Sociology and Social Policy at the University of Nottingham, UK. For a number of years she has been researching and writing about professions and occupations including women's and men's careers in teaching, banking, and science and engineering in industrial organizations. She has worked on projects to do with the armed forces, journalism, foster care and social work. She is currently working on the increased use of the concept of professionalism as a mechanism of occupational change and social control in work organizations, and the role of the scientific and engineering institutes in the UK.
Marisol García is a Professor of Sociology at the Universidad de Barcelona, Spain. Her scientific work centers on cities, citizenship issues, governance and social innovation. She has been President of the Research Committee 21 on Urban and Regional Research (1998–2002). Among her academic publications are: La Metaciudad: Barcelona. Transformación de una metropolis (Anthropos Editors, 2008) (with M. Degen); ‘Citizenship Practices and Urban Governance in European Cities’, in Urban Studies (Sage, 2006); ‘Social Policy, Democracy and Citizenship in Southern Europe’, in R. Gunther, N. Diamandouros et al. (eds), Democracy and the State in Southern Europe (Oxford University Press, 2006) (with N. Karakatsanis); ‘Barcelona: Governing Coalitions, Visitors, and the Changing City Center’, in L. Hoffman, S. Fainstein and D. Judd (eds), Cities and Visitors: Regulating People, Markets and City Space (Blackwell, 2003) (with N. Claver); and Ciudadanía: Justicia Social, Identidad y Participación (Siglo XXI, 1999) (with S. Lukes). She is Editor of the special issue on cities and citizenship of the International Journal of Urban and Regional Research (1996) and has also published in the International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, ‘The Breakdown of the Spanish Urban Growth Model’ (2010) and ‘The Transformation of the Barcelona Model: An Analysis of Culture, Urban Regeneration and Governance’ (2012).
Pierre Hamel is Professor of Sociology at the Université de Montréal, Canada, and Editor of the journal Sociologie et sociétés. He is also in charge of an interdisciplinary research team working on institutions and social movements created in the 1990s. He is a former Vice-President of the Research Committee 47 on Social Movements and Social Classes of the International Sociological Association. He has written extensively on social movements, urban politics and deliberative democracy. Currently his research focuses on issues of metropolitan governance and public debates. His publications include: Ville et débat public. Agir en démocratie (Presses [Page xxiii]de l'Université Laval, 2008); Un modèle québécois? Gouvernance et participation dans la gestion publique (Presses de l'Université de Montréal, 2006) (with B. Jouve); Urban Movements in a Globalizing World (Routledge, 2000) (edited with H. Lustiger-Thaler and M. Mayer); and Action collective et démocratie locale (Presses de l'Université de Montréal, 1991). He is currently working with L. Guay on Cities and Urban Sociology (to be published by Oxford University Press).
Kay Lawson is Professor Emerita of Political Science at San Francisco State University, USA. She was Visiting Professor at the University of Paris, Sorbonne (1992–2000), and Co-Editor of the International Political Science Review (2000–2009). She is General Editor of two series: Political Parties in Context (Praeger) and Perspectives in Comparative Politics (Palgrave). She is the author of numerous books and articles on political parties including The Comparative Study of Political Parties (Palgrave Macmillan, 1976) and editor of many others including: Political Parties and Linkage (Yale University Press, 1980), When Parties Fail (1988) and When Parties Prosper (Princeton University Press, 2007), the last two with P. Merkl. She has recently completed editing Political Parties and Democracy (Praeger, 2010), a five-volume set of studies from forty-six nations.
Carla Lipsig-Mummé is Professor of Work and Labour Studies at York University, Canada, and Honorary Professor of Political and Social Inquiry at Monash University, Australia. She is also Founding Director of York's Centre for Research on Work and Society and writes on work, labor and global political economy, climate change and employment, and the renewed marginalization of working youth. A trade union activist, she was a union organizer in the USA, a negotiator in Quebec and now works with trade unions in Australia and Canada. She heads the new five-year ‘Work in a Warming World’ research program, which explores the impact and implications of climate change for employment and work. Work in a Warming World is funded by the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada and thirty organizational partners. Its research team includes ten universities in Canada, Australia and New Zealand, as well as trade unions, sectoral skills training councils, private sector umbrella organizations, environmental advocacy groups, professional bodies, and a national round table on the environment and the economy. She is the recipient of the Edward P. Morgan Prize in Labor Economics (USA) and the Neil Reimer Award for Social Justice (Canada) and her work has been published in French and English, in Canada, Australia, Russia, South Africa, the USA, New Zealand and [Page xxiv]France. She is a frequent commentator in the international media and was named in Canadian Who's Who in 1990.
Henri Lustiger-Thaler is Professor of Cultural Sociology at the School of Social Sciences and Human Services, Ramapo College of New Jersey, USA, and Associate Researcher at Centre d'analyse et d'intervention sociologique (CADIS) of the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Paris, France. He is the author and editor of six books and many scholarly articles on issues and topics ranging from memory studies to, globalization and human rights studies. He is an associate editor on the online journal Sociopedia and former President of the Research Committee 47 on Social Movements and Social Classes of the International Sociological Association. His most recent and select publications are: ‘Holocaust Lists and the Memorial Museum’ in Museum and Society (2009); ‘When Empty is Full’ in A. Kapoor (ed.); Memory (Guggenheim Publications, 2010); ‘Memories’ in Sociopedia (2011); ‘Hauntings and Sitings in Germany’, in Kirchenblatt-Gimblett, B. and Schandler, J. (eds); Anne Frank Unbound, (Indiana University Press, 2012) (with W. Wiedemann) and ‘History, Memory and the Orthodox Experience in the Displaced Persons Camps of Occupied Germany’, forthcoming in Holocaust and Genocide Studies (Oxford Journals forthcoming, 2013).
Joseph Maguire is Professor of Sociology of Sport at Loughborough University, UK. He completed his Ph.D. in Sociology at the University of Leicester and is a past President of the International Sociology of Sport Association and Research Committee 27 on Sociology of Sport of the International Sociology Association. Currently his work focuses on the area of sport and social theory, and sport and globalization. His book publications include: The Sports Process: Essays in Comparative and Developmental Sociology (Human Kinetics, 1993) (edited with E. Dunning and R. Pearton); Sport and Leisure in Social Thought (Routledge, 1994) (with G. Jarvie); Global Sport: Identities, Societies and Civilizations (Polity Press, 1999); Sport Worlds: A Sociological Perspective (Human Kinetics, 2002) (with G. Jarvie, L. Mansfield and J. Bradley); Theory, Sport & Society (Emerald, 2002) (edited with K. Young); The Global Sports Arena: Athletic Talent Migration in an Interdependent World (Frank Cass, 1994 and 2003) (edited with J. Bale); Power and Global Sport: Zones of Prestige, Emulation and Resistance (Routledge, 2005); Japan, Sport and Society: Tradition and Change in a Globalizing World (Routledge, 2006) (edited with M. Nakayama). His latest work includes: Reflections on Process Sociology and Sport: ‘Walking the Line’ (Routledge, 2012) Sport Across Asia (Routledge, 2012) (edited with K. Bromber and B. Krawietz) and Handbook for the Social Sciences of Sport (Human Kinetics, in press).[Page xxv]
Louis Maheu is Emeritus Professor of the Department of Sociology and former Dean and Vice-Principal for Graduate Studies (1998–2005) at the Université de Montréal, Canada. Founding President (1992–1998) of the Research Committee 47 on Social Movements and Social Classes of the International Sociological Association, he still serves on its Executive Committee. Dr Maheu has been Editor of Sociologie et sociétés (1987–1992) and is co-author, author and editor of more than a hundred books and articles on social movements, social classes, scientific organizations and communities, as well as on universities. He co-authored Le CHUM: une tragédie québécoise (Boréal, 2010) (with R. Lacroix), and Classes sociales et mouvements sociaux au Québec et au Canada: essai-synthèse et bibliographie (Éditions Albert Saint-Martin, 1989) (with D. Descent, M. Robitaille and G. Simard). He is the editor of Social Movements and Social Classes: The Future of Collective Action (Sage, 1995); and the co-editor of Challenging Genetic Determinism; New Perspectives on the Gene in Its Multiple Environments (Queens University Press, 2010) (with R.A. Mcdonald); La gestion écologique des déchets (Presses de l'Université de Montréal, 1999) (with J.-G. Vaillancourt, M. Séguin and L. Cotnoir); and La recomposition du politique (Les Presses de l'Université de Montréal/L'Harmattan, 1991) (with A. Sales). Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, he is a former President of its Social Sciences Academy (2005–2007).
Alberto Martinelli is Emeritus Professor of Sociology and Political Science, Vice-President for scientific activities of the International Social Science Council and former Dean of the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at the Università degli Studi di Milano (1987–1999), Italy. He was President of the International Sociological Association from 1998 to 2002. He is the author of well-known studies in economic sociology, modernization and development, comparative social and political systems, complex organizations, global governance. He is a member of the Executive Committee of the International Social Sciences Council and was a member of Italy's National Council of Science and Technology for the whole of its duration. His works in English include Transatlantic Divide. Comparing American and European Society (Oxford University Press, 2007); Global Modernization: Rethinking the Project of Modernity (Sage, 2005); Recent Social Trends in Italy (McGill-Queens University Press, 1999) (with A. M. Chiesi and S. Stefanizzi); International Markets and Global Firms (Sage, 1991); Overviews in Economic Sociology (Sage, 1990) (with N.J. Smelser); and The New International Economy (Sage, 1982) (with H.M. Makler and N.J. Smelser). He was Section Editor for Organization and Management Studies of the New International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (Elsevier, 2002).[Page xxvi]
Susan A. McDaniel is a Canadian sociologist whose research interests are in ageing, family and social policy. She is the Canada Research Chair (Tier 1) in Global Population and Life Course, founding Director of the Prentice Institute for Global Population and Economy, and the Prentice Research Chair, as well as Professor of Sociology at the University of Lethbridge, Canada. She relocated there in 2009. From 2007–2009 she was Professor of Family Studies and Senior Investigator, Institute for Public and International Affairs, University of Utah. She has been on the faculty at the universities of Alberta and Waterloo, and is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada and recipient of many research and teaching awards. She is widely published and a frequent adviser to governments on social policy. Her 2008 book (in four volumes) is Ageing: Challenges for the 21st Century (Sage).
Enzo Mingione is Professor of Sociology and President of the Graduate School of International Studies in Social Sciences (SCISS) at the Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Italy. He is among the founder editors of the International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, President of the Fondazione Bignaschi, Milano (Foundation for the assistance and study of the aged), and a trustee of the Foundation of Urban and Regional Studies (FURS). He is Coordinator of the Ph.D. program in sociology jointly sponsored by the University Institute for Humanistic Studies in Florence (SUM) and the University of Milano-Bicocca and of the Italian Team of the European Research Project on Creative Cities (ACRE). He has been involved with international and Italian scientific journals and research groups and is a consultant to the European Commission on informal economy, transformation of work and the struggle against urban poverty. His main fields of interest are poverty, social exclusion, the informal sector, unemployment, and economic and urban sociology. Among his books published in English: Social Conflict and the City (Blackwell, 1981); Fragmented Societies (Blackwell, 1991); (ed.), Urban Poverty and the Underclass (Blackwell, 1996).
Arturo Rodríguez Morató is Professor of Sociology of Culture and Director of the Center for the Study of Culture, Politics and Society at the Universidad de Barcelona, Spain. He was Vice-president for Research (2006–2010) of the International Sociological Association and former President of its Research Committee on Sociology of the Arts (1998–2002). In recent years, his work has focused on cultural policy systems, culture and the city, and the theory of cultural change. His publications include: The Culture Society (in Spanish) (Ariel, 2007); A New Place for the Arts in the Twenty-First Century (monograph issue of The Journal of Arts, Management, Law and Society, vol. 32, 2003) (edited with Vera L. Zolberg); [Page xxvii]The Professional World of Writers and Translators. A Sociological View (in Spanish) (ACEC, 1997); Spanish Contemporary Composers. A Sociological Analysis (in Spanish) (CIS, 1996); Art, Culture, and Society (in Spanish) (Bilbao, AESCA, 1992) (edited with I. Domínguez); The Sociology of Music (in Spanish) (monograph issue of Papers, vol. 29, 1988). He is Associate Editor of Sociopedia (Sage).
Mildred A. Schwartz is Professor Emerita of Sociology at the University of Illinois at Chicago and Visiting Scholar in the Department of Sociology at New York University. Her interests in the society and politics of Canada and the USA currently focus on political organizations and parties. She co-edited The Handbook of Political Sociology (Cambridge University Press, 2005) (with T. Janoski, R.R. Alford and A.M. Hicks) and published Party Movements in the United States and Canada: Strategies of Persistence (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006). In 2009, she co-authored ‘Cultural and Institutional Factors Affecting Political Contention over Moral Issues’ published in Comparative Sociology. She published ‘Interactions Between Social Movements and US Political Parties’, 2010 in Party Politics, and, in 2012, ‘Continuity and Change in the Organization of Political Parties’ in Canadian American Public Policy.
Nico Stehr is Karl Mannheim Professor of Cultural Studies at the Zeppelin University, Friedrichshafen, Germany. His research interests center on the transformation of modern societies into knowledge societies and developments associated with this transformation in different major social institutions of modern society (e.g. science, politics, governance, the economy, inequality and globalization); in addition, his research interests concern the societal consequences of climate change. He is one of the authors of the Hartwell Paper on climate policy. Among his recent book publications are: Biotechnology: Between Commerce and Civil Society (Transaction Books, 2004); Knowledge (with R. Grundmann) (Routledge, 2005); Moral Markets (Paradigm Publishers, 2008); Who Owns Knowledge: Knowledge and the Law (with B. Weiler) (Transaction Books, 2008); Knowledge and Democracy (Transaction Publishers, 2008); Society (with R. Grundmann) (Routledge, 2009); Climate and Society (with H. von Stroch) (World Scientific Publishers, 2010); Experts: The Knowledge and Power of Expertise (with R. Grundmann) (Routledge, 2011) and The Power of Scientific Knowledge, (with R. Grundmann) (Cambridge University Press, 2012).
Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay is the Canada Research Chair on the Socio-Organizational Challenges of the Knowledge Economy. She is Professor in Economics and Management at the Télé-université (Open distance [Page xxviii]university) of the Université du Québec (CUT à Montréal). She is President of the Research Committee 30 on Sociology of Work of the International Sociological Association, coordinator of the Gender, Work and Family Network of the Society for the Advancement of Socio-Economics, as well as co-chair of the Social Times and Working Times committee of the Association Internationale des Sociologues de Langue Française. She is also President of the Political Economy Association of Québec and editor of its electronic journal Interventions économiques (http://www.teluq.uqam.ca/interventionseconomiques). She also has been an invited professor in many universities (Sorbonne, Lille I, Paris I, Lyon III, in France, as well as Hanoi-Vietnam, Louvain-Belgium), and she has published many articles and books on employment.
Edward Webster was the Ela Bhatt Professor of Development and Decent Work at Kassel Universität in Germany and is currently a Professor Emeritus in the Society, Work and Development Institute (SWOP) at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg. He is the past president of the Research Committee on Labour Movements of the International Sociological Association. He has written widely on the world of work and labor. He has served on the international advisory boards of prominent journals in the field of labor studies, and recently launched a new journal, the Global Labour Journal, in collaboration with McMaster University in Canada. His latest book, co-authored, titled Grounding Globalisation: Labour in the Age of Insecurity (Blackwell, 2008) (with R. Lambert and A. Bezuidenhout) was chosen as the best scholarly book on labor by the Labour Movements section of the American Sociological Association.
Bernd Weiler graduated from United World College of the Adriatic (Duino/Triest). He studied sociology at the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada, and at the University of Graz, Austria. He obtained his doctorate in sociology in 2004. Bernd Weiler died suddenly on 31 March 2006. At the time of his death, he was a Fellow at the Karl-Mannheim-Chair for Cultural Sciences at Zeppelin Universität, Friedrichshafen, Germany. His research interests centered on the intellectual history of the cultural sciences, the sociology of knowledge and the sociology of migration. His dissertation, ‘Die Ordnung des Fortschritts’ (‘The Order of Progress’), was published in the autumn of 2006 by Transcript Publishers. An English translation will be published by Bardwell Press.
Contemporary societies are facing transformations, the scale, force and sometimes brutality of which are comparable to those experienced in the passage from agrarian to industrial society, still in progress in several countries today. Humanity has in fact rarely known a world as turbulent and as quickly changing as ours. Never have as many social actors, processes, forces been involved in such a variety of transformational processes in a large number of domains. Sociology and the other social sciences are thus confronted with major challenges in attempting to understand and interpret this disorganized race towards advanced modernity.
Sociology Today: Social Transformations in a Globalizing World presents a theoretical and substantive analysis of the social transformations that occurred at the turn of the twenty-first century in a meaningful and selective collection of essays exploring the transformational dynamics specific to various domains of social life. The goal of this collection is not to cover every single domain ever surveyed in an encyclopedic exposé, but to mirror the diversity and variety of transformations underway in today's societies and transnational spaces, and enhance our understanding of what is happening in our life worlds, work lives and frames of social existence.
The general idea is to use specialized research to show the contingent paths taken by social actors to resolve problems – in various fields and at different levels of interrelationships – with which they are confronted in our complex, shifting social world. The contributors to the collection have examined specific dynamics of social fields rather than social totalities. The essays reflect not only the contribution of sociological research today but also the diversity of sociological traditions, and how sociology is more than ever in step with one of the founding projects of the discipline: understanding the permanent transformation of social life as triggered by human action.
This book is a collaborative effort on the part of a group of internationally renowned sociologists, all of whom enthusiastically embraced the opportunity to contribute to the collection. Without their input, steadfast cooperation and unwavering patience, this work would not have been possible. I extend my very special thanks to them. It was a true pleasure working with them. One common characteristic among them was that they have [Page xxx]all made a significant contribution to their respective fields of research, while expanding knowledge of their research within the International Sociological Association (ISA). Many of them have in fact assumed various responsibilities within their respective research committees or on the ISA Executive. Most are or have been members of the ISA Research Council or have participated in its academic activities. The diversity of their professional connections in Africa, Australia, Europe and North America further enhances the international scope of the collection. In this sense, the book is a natural fit with the SAGE Series in International Sociology, which ‘encourages debates of international significance and charts out future trends of sociological importance’. To ensure the contents of the book are suitable for use as a teaching tool, each chapter includes a glossary along with discussion questions set by the author.
This book would not have seen the light of day without the confidence expressed by Julia Evetts, Editor of the SSIS Series (CS Monograph Issues and SSIS Books), and Chris Rojek, Senior Editor for Sociology, Cultural Studies and Sport Studies at SAGE Publications, in the book proposal I submitted in 2008. Julia Evetts has provided unwavering support for the project, which admittedly has taken some time to emerge from limbo. Her encouragement, advice and editorial recommendations were essential at critical moments in the development of this collection. With publishing approval received from Chris Rojek and his committee in the spring of 2009, the process of building the collection was launched and it proceeded on a stable footing. Jai Seaman, Commissioning Editor for Sociology at SAGE tracked the development of the manuscript, while Martine Jonsrud, Editorial Assistant for Sociology was in charge of publishing the book. In 2010, Sujata Patel assumed the responsibilities of Editor of the SSIS Series and has extended her unflinching support. Along with the contributors to this book, I would like to extend our sincere gratitude to the above individuals for their support over the years.
Special thanks are also due to Yan Sénéchal, doctoral student and lecturer at the University of Montreal's Department of Sociology, for his invaluable contribution to this collection. His ever-accurate comments, which emerged from a careful reading of the texts, were immensely helpful. He also formatted the manuscript in keeping with publishing standards and tracked the consistency of the references, biographies, discussion questions, glossaries and keywords.
Lottie White, my long-standing translator, skillfully translated the texts that needed to be translated for the project, while paying singular attention to the accuracy required by theoretical texts. I am especially grateful to her.
I also extend special thanks to Valérie Amiraux, Steven Brint, Mona-Josée Gagnon, Nilüfer Gole, Solange Lefebvre, John McCarthy, Anthony M. Orum, Melvin Seeman, Theresa Scheid, and Neil J. Smelser who, as part of an anonymous peer review process, agreed to devote their time to reviewing several papers. In addition, I would like to warmly thank Michael Lester, who carefully read through and commented on most of [Page xxxii]the chapters. Everyone of the reviewers has our deepest gratitude for contributing to this labor of scholarship.
At the Center for Corporate Governance of the University of Technology in Sydney, Australia (UTS), I was able to work peacefully on preparing the formal project proposal at the invitation of Thomas Clarke, the Director of the Center. I would like to extend my heartfelt thanks to him and his wife Elizabeth Clarke for their welcoming reception in the five months I spent in that magnificent city. In addition to being a warm and friendly city, Sydney boasts an intellectual climate that propelled my work forward on various levels. I would also like to thank Andrée Demers, Director of the Department of Sociology at the University of Montreal, who arranged appropriate working conditions for me throughout this process.
I am particularly indebted to the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada as well as to the University of Montreal's Faculty of Arts and Sciences and its Dean, Joseph Hubert, for their financial assistance in the preliminary stages of this project.
Finally, I owe a huge debt of gratitude to my wife Dominique Sales for the conversations we have had about this project, for the time she has spent reading through and reviewing my work, and most importantly for the life we share together.
Upon completing this work on social transformations, which proved far more complex than I had first imagined, I would simply like to say how much I have learned in the area of sociological reflection. On the strength of this experience, I know full well that more could be done with such a collection. I can only hope that the opportunity will present itself in future, for the topic is endlessly fascinating., October 2011