Social Work with Adults


Jim Rogers, Lucy Bright & Helen Davies

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    About the Authors

    Jim Rogers is a senior lecturer in health and social care at the University of Lincoln. He completed professional training as a mental health nurse and worked in that capacity for over twelve years in a range of hospital and community settings. He now co-ordinates the institution's training programmes for approved mental health professionals and best interests assessors. He has conducted research on the Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards with care homes in the region and has a strong interest in issues relating to mental health and mental capacity. Jim co-wrote a text for Learning Matters – Social Work in a Digital Society – and has also published academic work relating to complementary therapies, social work and gambling problems, and personal health budgets.

    Lucy Bright completed her Masters/Diploma in Social Work in 1993. Since then she has worked in a wide variety of social work settings with adults, as well as spending four years working for a solicitor and specialising in mental health law. Lucy currently works as a best interests assessor and has a particular interest in the Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards and how these have been working in practice since their implementation in 2009.

    Helen Davies qualified as a social worker in 1986 and has taught social work students since 1999, while continuing in practice in statutory and voluntary services with adults with learning disabilities. As one of four social work co-ordinators at the Independent Living Fund, she led its work in Wales and Northern Ireland. Helen's current role as senior lecturer at the University of Lincoln includes supporting students to make constructive links between theory and practice.


    Authorship is often perceived as a solitary endeavour, but it is rarely so. In the case of a co-authored book such as this, debates, discussions and critique of material throughout the gestation period have helped the three of us arrive at something we hope is greater than the sum of three individual parts.

    We are grateful to each other for the support during the challenges this process involved. We also wish to express gratitude to colleagues in the worlds of both education and practice who have discussed issues and cases, and stimulated our thinking in relation to the issues in the text. Equally, we are grateful to the many students, on both our undergraduate and post graduate courses, who have engaged with, discussed, and written about these issues.

    Helen would like to dedicate this book to Bill and Elsie Davies, appreciatively; Lucy to the service users who have informed and inspired her; and Jim to his family for support and wise guidance.

  • Appendix 1 Professional Capabilities Framework

    Professional Capabilities Framework Diagram Reproduced with Permission of the College of Social Work.

    References: Publications

    Acker G. ( 1999 ) The impact of clients’ mental illness on social workers’ job satisfaction and burnout. Health and Social Work, 24: 11219.
    Allen J.A. ( 1993 ) The constructivist paradigm: values and ethics. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 8(1/2): 3154.
    Banks S. ( 2006 ) Ethics and Values in Social Work (3rd edn). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Banks S. ( 2012 ) Ethics and Values in Social Work (4th edn). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Beauchamp T.L. , and Childress J.F. ( 2008 ) Principles of Biomedical Ethics (6th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Beckett C. ( 2006 ) Essential Theory For Social Work Practice. London: SAGE.
    Beckett C. , and Maynard A. ( 2005 ) Values and Ethics in Social Work. London: SAGE.
    Berry Lound D. , and Rowe V. ( 2013 ) Evaluation of the Implementation of the Assessed and Supported Year in Employment (the ASYE) for Skills for Care Revised Final Report Horsham, HOST policy research.
    Birnbaum L. ( 2008 ) The use of mindfulness training to create an ‘accompanying place’ for social work students. Social Work Education, 27(8): 83752.
    Braye S. , Orr D. , and Preston-Shoot M. ( 2015 ) Learning lessons about self-neglect? An analysis of serious case reviews. Journal of Adult Protection, 17(1): 318.
    British Association of Social Workers (BASW) ( 2011 ) UK Supervision Policy. Birmingham: BASW.
    British Association of Social Workers (BASW) ( 2012 ) The Code of Ethics for Social Work. Birmingham: BASW.
    British Library ( 2014 ) 1215 Magna Carta. London: British Library.
    Britner P.A. , and Mossler D. ( 2002 ) Professionals’ decision-making about out-of-home placements following instances of child abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 26(4): 31732.
    Brown H. , and Marchant L. ( 2013 ) Using the Mental Capacity Act in complex cases. Tizard Learning Disability Review, 18(2): 609.
    Brown R. , and Barber P. ( 2008 ) The Social Worker's Guide to the Mental Capacity Act. Exeter: Learning Matters.
    Brown R.E. , Barber P. , and Martin D. ( 2009 ) The Mental Capacity Act 2005: A guide for practice. Exeter: Learning Matters.
    Care Act 2014. London: The Stationery Office.
    Care Quality Commission (CQC) ( 2014 ) Monitoring the Use of the Mental Capacity Act Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards in 2013/14. Newcastle Upon Tyne: Care Quality Commission.
    Carpenter J. , Patsios D. , Wood M. , Shardlow S. , Blewett J. , Platt D. , Scholar H. , Haines C. , Tunstill J. , and Wong C. ( 2011 ) Newly Qualified Social Worker Programme Evaluation Report on the Second Year (2009–10). Available at:
    Chang E.M. , and Hancock K. ( 2003 ) Role stress and role ambiguity in new nursing graduates in Australia. Nursing & Health Sciences, 5: 15563.
    Christopher J.C. , Chrisman J.A. , Trotter-Matthison M.J. , Schure M.B. , Dahlen P. , and Christopher S.B. ( 2006 ) Perceptions of the long-term influence of mindfulness training on counselors and psychotherapists: a qualitative inquiry. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 51(3): 31849.
    Clarke J. ( 1998 ) Doing the right thing? Managerialism and social welfare. In: Abbott P. , and Meerabeau L. (eds) The Sociology of the Caring Professions (2nd edition). London: UCL Press.
    The College of Social Work ( 2013a ) Practice Educator Professional Standards for Social Work. London: The College of Social Work.
    The College of Social Work ( 2013b ) Code of Ethics for Membership of the College of Social Work. London: The College of Social Work.
    The College of Social Work ( 2013c ) An open and honest culture is needed to make whistle-blowing work (press release 2 June). Available at:
    Coyle D. , Edwards D. , Hannigan B. , Fothergill A. , and Burnard P. ( 2005 ) A systematic review of stress among mental health social workers. International Social Work, 48(2): 20111.
    Curtis L. , Moriarty J. , and Netten A. ( 2009 ) The expected working life of a social worker. British Journal of Social Work, advanced access, published 1 April 2010, 10.1093/bjsw/bcp039.
    Data Protection Act 1998. London: The Stationery Office.
    Davis M. ( 1980 ) A Multidimensional Approach to Individual Differences in Empathy. JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10, 85.
    Department of Health ( 2000 ) No Secrets. London: The Stationery Office.
    Department of Health ( 2007 ) Mental Capacity Act: Code of Practice. London: The Stationery Office.
    Department of Health ( 2008a ) Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards: Code of Practice. London: The Stationery Office.
    Department of Health ( 2008b , revised 2015) Mental Health Act 1983: Code of Practice. London: The Stationery Office.
    Department of Health ( 2012a ) The Decision Support Tool for NHS Continuing Healthcare. London: The Stationery Office.
    Department of Health ( 2012b ) Transforming Care: A national response to Winterbourne Hospital. London: The Stationery Office.
    Department of Health ( 2014 ) Annual Report by the Chief Social Worker for Adults. London: The Stationery Office.
    Department of Health ( 2015 ) Knowledge and Skills Statement for Social Workers in Adult Services. London: Department of Health. Available at:
    Dreyfus H. , and Dreyfus S. ( 1986 ) Mind over Machine: The power of human intuition and expertise in the age of the computer. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Dunn I. , Clare H. , Holland A. , and Gunn M. ( 2007 ) Constructing and reconstructing ‘best interests’: an interpretative examination of substitute decision-making under the Mental Capacity Act 2005. Journal of Social Welfare & Family Law, 29(2): 11733.
    Dwyer S.M. ( 2007 ) The emotional impact of social work practice. Journal of Social Work Practice: Psychotherapeutic Approaches in Health, Welfare and the Community, 21(1): 4960.
    Equality and Human Rights Commission (ECHR) ( 2010 ) The United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities: What does it mean for you? London: ECHR.
    Essex Street, 39 Essex Street Mental Capacity Law Newsletter, April 2014.
    Essex Street, 39 Essex Street Mental Capacity Law Newsletter, May 2014.
    Evans S. , Huxley P. , Webber M. , Katona C. , Gately C. , Mears A. , Medina J. , Pajak S. , and Kendall T. ( 2005 ) The impact of ‘statutory duties’ on mental health social workers in the UK. Health and Social Care in the Community, 13(2): 14554.
    Flynn M. ( 2007 ) The Murder of Steven Hoskin: A serious case review – executive summary. Truro: Cornwall Adult Protection Committee.
    Fook J. , Ryan M. , and Hawkins L. ( 2000 ) Professional Expertise: Practice, theory and education for working in uncertainty. London: Whiting & Birch.
    Forster D. ( 2009 ) Rethinking compassion fatigue as moral stress. Journal of Ethics in Mental Health, 4(1): 14.
    Galpin D. , Bigmore J. , and Parker J. ( 2012 ) The Survival Guide for Newly Qualified Social Workers in Adult and Mental Health Services. Hitting the ground running. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Gawande A. ( 2010 ) The Checklist Manifesto: How to get things right. New York: Metropolitan Books.
    Gelsema T. , van der Doef M. , Maes S. , Janssen M. , Akerboom S. , and Verhoeven C. ( 2006 ) A longitudinal study of job stress in the nursing profession: causes and consequences. Journal of Nursing Management, 14(4): 28999.
    Gilligan C. ( 1982 ) In a Different Voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Gillingham P. ( 2011 ) Decision making tools and the development of expertise in child protection practitioners. Are we ‘just breeding workers who are good at ticking boxes’? Child and Family Social Work, 16(4): 41221.
    Gorman H. ( 2000 ) Winning hearts and minds? Emotional labour and learning for care management work. Journal of Social Work Practice, 14(2): 14959.
    Grant L. , and Kinman G. ( 2013 ) The Importance of Emotional Resilience for Staff and Students in the ‘Helping Professions’: Developing an emotional curriculum. York: The Higher Education Academy.
    Grant L. , and Kinman G. ( 2014 ) Developing Resilience for Social Work Practice. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Gregor C. ( 2010 ) Unconscious aspects of statutory mental health social work: emotional labour and the approved mental health professional. Journal of Social Work Practice: Psychotherapeutic Approaches in Health, Welfare and the Community, 24(4): 42943.
    Gregory R. , Roked F. , Jines L. , and Patel A. ( 2007 ) Is the degree of cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease related to their capacity to appoint an enduring power of attorney? Age and Ageing, 36(5): 52731.
    Harmon L. ( 1990 ) Falling off the vine: legal fictions and the doctrine of substituted judgment. Yale Law Journal, 100(1): 171.
    Health and Social Care Information Centre (HSCIC) ( 2014 ) Safeguarding Adults Return. Exeter: HSCIC.
    Health & Care Professions Council ( 2012 ) Standards of Conduct, Performance and Ethics. London: HCPC.
    HM Government ( 2014 ) Valuing Every Voice, Respecting Every Right: Making the case for the Mental Capacity Act. The Government's response to the House of Lords Select Committee Report on the Mental Capacity Act 2005. London: The Stationery Office.
    Holder A. , and Jolley D. ( 2012 ) Forced relocation between nursing homes: residents’ health outcomes and potential moderators. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology, 22(4): 30119.
    Home Office ( 2013 , updated 2015) Domestic Violence and Abuse. Available at:
    Hotopf M. ( 2013 ) The Assessment of Mental Capacity. In Jacob R. , Gunn M. , and Holland, A. Mental Capacity Legislation. Principles and Practice. London, Royal College of Psychiatrists.
    House of Lords Select Committee on the Mental Capacity Act 2005 ( 2013a ) Oral and Written Evidence – Volume 1 (A–K). London: The Stationery Office. Available at:
    House of Lords Select Committee on the Mental Capacity Act 2005 ( 2013b ) Oral and Written Evidence – Volume 2 (L–W). London: The Stationery Office. Available at:
    House of Lords Select Committee on the Mental Capacity Act 2005 ( 2014 ) Mental Capacity Act 2005: Post-legislative scrutiny. London: The Stationery Office.
    Hugman R. ( 2005 ) New Approaches in Ethics for the Caring Professions. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Human Rights Act 1998 (c42). London: The Stationery Office.
    Jackson P. ( 2011 ) in London Borough of Hillingdon v Steven Neary and Ors [2011] EWHC 1377 (COP).
    Jackson P. ( 2013 ) in Re M (Best Interests: Deprivation of Liberty) [2013] EWHC 3456 (COP).
    Joint Committee of the House of Lords and House of Commons ( 2003 ) Draft Mental Incapacity Bill. London: The Stationery Office.
    Jones R. ( 2008 ) Mental Capacity Act Manual (3rd edn). Andover: Sweet & Maxwell.
    Jones R. ( 2012 ) Mental Capacity Act Manual (5th edn). Andover: Sweet & Maxwell.
    Kabat-Zinn J. ( 1994 ) Wherever You Go, There You Are: Mindfulness meditation in everyday life. New York: Hyperion Books.
    Kahneman D. ( 2012 ) Thinking Fast and Slow. London: Penguin.
    Kinman G. , and Grant L. ( 2010 ) Exploring stress resilience in trainee social workers: the role of emotional and social competencies. British Journal of Social Work, 41: 26175.
    Kirkman E. , and Melrose K. ( 2014 ) Clinical Judgement and Decision-Making in Children's Social Work: An analysis of the ‘front door’ system. London: UK Government Department for Education.
    Laming H. ( 2009 ) The Protection of Children in England: A progress report. London: House of Commons.
    Law Commission ( 1991 ) Mentally Incapacitated Adults and Decision-making: An overview. Consultation Paper No. 119. London: HMSO.
    Law Society ( 1989 ) Decision Making and Mental Incapacity: A discussion document. London: The Law Society's Mental Health Sub-Committee.
    Leeson C. ( 2010 ) The emotional labour of caring about looked-after children. Child and Family Social Work, 15(4): 48391.
    Lloyd C. , King R. , and Chenoweth L. ( 2002 ) Social work, stress and burnout: a review. Journal of Mental Health, 11(3): 25565.
    Local Government Association and the Association of Directors of Adult Social Services ( 2014 ) Making Safeguarding Personal. London: LGA and ADASS.
    Lueke A. , and Gibson B. ( 2014 ) Mindfulness meditation reduces implicit age and race bias: the role of reduced automaticity of responding. Social Psychological & Personality Science, 6: 28491.
    Lyons D. ( 2010 ) Different laws, same principles: mental health and incapacity legislation across the UK. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 16: 15860.
    Mantell A. , and Scragg T. ( 2009 ) Safeguarding Adults in Social Work. Exeter: Learning Matters.
    Maslach C. ( 2003 ) Burnout: The Cost of Caring. Los Altos, CA: Malor Books.
    Mather M. , and Lighthall N. ( 2012 ) Both risk and reward are processed differently in decisions made under stress. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(2): 3641.
    McGarrigle T. , and Walsh C. ( 2011 ) Mindfulness, self-care, and wellness in social work: effects of contemplative training. Journal of Religion and Spirituality in Social Work, 30(3): 21233.
    McNicoll A. ( 2014 ) Six ways councils are trying to combat a shortage of best interests assessors. Community Care, 1 October.
    Mental Capacity Act 2005 (c9). London: The Stationery Office.
    Mental Health Act 1983 (c20). London: The Stationery Office.
    Mental Health Act 2007 (c12). London: The Stationery Office.
    Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust ( 2013 ) Report of the Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust Public Inquiry. London: The Stationery Office.
    Mill J.S. ( 1909 ) On Liberty. New York: Collier & Son.
    Miller J.G. ( 1984 ) Culture and the development of everyday social explanation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46(5): 96178.
    Mishna F. , and Bogo M. ( 2007 ) Reflective practice in contemporary social work classrooms. Journal of Social Work Education, 43(3): 52941.
    Morrison T. , Hathaway J. , and Fairley G. ( 2005 ) Staff Supervision in Social Care: Making a real difference for staff and service users. Brighton: Pavilion Publishing.
    Munro E. ( 1999 ) Common errors of reasoning in child protection work. Child Abuse and Neglect, 23(8): 74558.
    Munro E. ( 2008 ) Lessons from research on decision-making. In: Lindsey D. , and Shlonsky A. (eds) Child Welfare Research: Advances for practice and policy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Munro E. ( 2011 ) The Munro Review of Child Protection: Final report – a child-centred system. Available at:
    National Health Service and Community Care Act 1990 (c19). London: The Stationery Office.
    Official Secrets Act 1989. London: The Stationery Office.
    Okai D. , Owen G. , McGuire H. , Singh S. , Churchill R. , and Hotopf M. ( 2007 ) Mental capacity in psychiatric patients: a systematic review. British Journal of Psychiatry, 191: 29197.
    O'Sullivan T. ( 2010 ) Decision Making and Social Work (2nd edition). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Parton N. ( 2001 ) Risk and professional judgement. In: Cull, L-A , and Roche J. (eds) The Law and Social Work. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Pearcey P. , and Elliott B. ( 2004 ) Student impressions of clinical nursing. Nurse Education Today, 24(5): 3827.
    Pitblado A. ( 2013 ) The decision of the Court of Appeal in (1) PC and (2) NC v City of York [2013] EWCA.
    Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984. London: The Stationery Office.
    Preston-Shoot M. , and Wrigley V. ( 2002 ) Closing the circle: social workers’ responses to multi agency procedures on older age abuse. British Journal of Social Work, 32: 299320.
    Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998. London: The Stationery Office.
    Ruch G. ( 2008 ) Post Qualifying Child Care Social Work: Developing reflective practice. London: SAGE.
    Rushton A. ( 1987 ) Stress amongst social workers., In Payne R. , and Firth-Cozens J. , (Eds.), Stress in Health Professionals, 167188. Chichester, John Wiley & Sons.
    Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006. London: The Stationery Office.
    Series L. ( 2012 ) DOLS v Guardianship – Summary and discussion [blog entry] 4 January. Available at:
    Sexual Offences Act 2003. London: The Stationery Office.
    Shalock R. , Baker P. , and Croser M. ( 2002 ) Embarking on a New Century: Mental retardation at the end of the 20th century. Washington, DC: American Association on Mental Retardation.
    Shapiro S. , Brown K.W. , and Biegel G.M. ( 2007 ) Teaching self-care to caregivers: effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on the mental health of therapists in training. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 1(2): 10515.
    Shapiro S. , Jazaleri H. , and Goldin P. ( 2012 ) Mindfulness-based stress reduction effects on moral reasoning and decision making. Journal of Positive Psychology, 7(6): 50415.
    Shier M.L. , and Graham J.R. ( 2011 ) Mindfulness, subjective well-being, and social work: insight into their interconnection from social work practitioners. Social Work Education, 30(1): 2944.
    Siebert D.C. ( 2005 ) Personal and occupational factors in burnout among practicing social workers. Journal of Social Service Research, 32(2): 2544.
    Skills for Care ( 2011 ) Getting a Good Start: Evaluation of the first year of the Newly Qualified Social Worker framework for adult services, 2009/10. Leeds: Skills for Care. Available at:
    Skills for Care ( 2013a ) Code of Conduct for Healthcare Support Workers and Adult Social Care Workers in England. Leeds: Skills for Care.
    Skills for Care ( 2013b ) National Minimum Training Standards for Healthcare Support Workers and Adult Social Care Workers in England. Leeds: Skills for Care.
    Social Work Taskforce ( 2009 ) Building a Safe, Confident Future: Final report of the Social Work Taskforce. London: The Stationery Office.
    Starcke K. , and Brand M. ( 2012 ) Decision making under stress: a selective review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Review, 36(1): 122848.
    Sutherland N.S. ( 1992 ) Irrationality: Why we don't think straight. New York: Rutgers University Press.
    Szerletics A. ( 2012 ) Best Interests Decision Making under the Mental Capacity Act. Essex Autonomy Project. Available at:
    Taleb N. ( 2001 ) Fooled by Randomness. New York: Random House.
    Tessman L. ( 2005 ) Burdened Virtues: Virtue ethics for liberatory struggles. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Texeira C. , Ribeiro O. , Fonseca A. , and Carvalho A. ( 2014 ) Ethical decision making in intensive care units: a burnout risk factor? Results from a multicentre study conducted with physicians and nurses. Journal of Medical Ethics, 40(2): 97103.
    Tham P. , and Meagher G. ( 2009 ) Working in human services: how do experiences and working conditions in child welfare social work compare? British Journal of Social Work, 39(5): 80727.
    Torke A.M. , Alexander G.C. , and Lantos J. ( 2008 ) Substituted judgment: the limitations of autonomy in surrogate decision making. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23(9): 151417.
    Tversky A. , and Kahneman D. ( 1982 ) Judgement under uncertainty: heuristics and biases. In: Kahneman D. , Stovic P. , and Tversky A. (eds) Judgement Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    United Nations ( 2006 ) Social Justice in an Open World: The role of the United Nations. New York: United Nations.
    Wendt S. , and Seymour S. ( 2010 ) Applying post-structural ideas to empowerment: implications for social work education. Social Work Education, 29(6): 67082.
    Wendt S. , Tuckey M. , and Prosser B. ( 2011 ) Thriving, not just surviving in emotionally demanding fields of practice. Health and Social Care in the Community, 19, 3, 317325
    Williams J. , and Netten A. ( 2003 ) Guidelines for the Closure of Care Homes for Older People: Prevalence and content of local government protocols. Canterbury: Personal Social Services Research Unit.
    Wilson G. , and Kelly B. ( 2012 ) Enhancing Social Work Students’ Learning Experience and Readiness to Undertake Practice Learning. York: The Higher Education Academy Subject Centre for Social Policy and Social Work.

    References: Case law

    Aintree University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust v James [2013] UKSC 67 (AC)
    AM v South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and others [2013] UKUT 0365 (AAC)
    Austin v UK [2012] 55 EHRR 14 (ECtHR)
    Bolam v Friern Hospital Management Committee [1957] 1 W.L.R. 582
    County Durham and Darlington NHSFT v PP & Ors [2014] EWCOP 9.
    D v R (the Deputy of S) and S [2010] EWHC 2405 (COP)
    Frenchay Healthcare NHS Trust v S [1994] 2 All ER 403
    HL v UK [2004] ECHR 471 (EctHR)
    London Borough of Hillingdon v Steven Neary and Ors [2011] EWHC 1377 (COP)
    Norfolk CC v PB [2014] EWCOP 14.
    Northamptonshire Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust & Anor v ML (Rev 1) [2014] EWCOP 2
    P (by his litigation friend the Official Solicitor) v Cheshire West and Chester Council & Anor [2014] UKSC 19
    Portsmouth NHS Trust v Wyatt & Ors [2004] EWHC 2247 (Fam)
    R v Bournewood Community and Mental Health NHS Trust ex parte L [1998] 3 ALL ER 289
    Re F (Mental Patient: Sterilisation) [1990] 2 A.C.1
    Re SL (Adult Patient) (Medical Treatment) [2001] (Fam)
    Re Y [1996] 2 FLR 791
    Wyatt v Portsmouth NHS Trust (No 3) [2005] EWHC 693 (Fam)

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website