Social Work Practice With Older Adults: An Actively Aging Framework for Practice

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Jill M. Chonody & Barbra Teater

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    Acknowledgments

    We would like to thank everyone who helped make this book possible. Social work practitioners took the time to be interviewed to create occupational profiles, colleagues wrote about their areas of expertise, reviewers helped make the book stronger, and friends and family supported us through the process of writing, editing, and finally compiling this book. We would also like to thank Nathan Davidson, Alissa Nance, and all those at SAGE who provided feedback and assistance along the way.

    We would also like to thank the following reviewers:

    • Gloria Duran Aguilar, Florida A & M University
    • Mejai B. M. Avoseh, University of South Dakota
    • Marla L. Berg-Weger, Saint Louis University
    • Karen Bullock, North Carolina State University
    • Ralph Cherry, Purdue University Calumet
    • Patricia K. Cianciolo, Northern Michigan University
    • Ronald Dolon, Ball State University
    • Brandi Jean Felderhoff, University of Texas at Arlington
    • J. Steven Fulks, Barton College
    • Bonne Joyce Hallisey, Curry College
    • Leslie K. Hasche, University of Denver
    • Elaine T. Jurkowski, Southern Illinois University Carbondale
    • Youseung Kim, Clark Atlanta University
    • Patricia J. Kolb, Lehman College, City University of New York
    • G. Victoria Jackson, Loma Linda University
    • Susan Larimer, Indiana University
    • Roseanna McCleary, California State University, Bakersfield
    • Martha L. Morgan, John Brown University
    • Susan A. Myllykangas, Northwest Missouri State University
    • Maria E. Painter, University of La Verne
    • Lori M. Paris, University of Louisville
    • LaTricia Rhynes-Hicks, DCCCD: Eastfield Community College
    • Anita Sharma, University of Louisiana at Monroe
    • Marcia Spira, Loyola University Chicago
    • April L. Stidham, East Tennessee State University
    • Fei Sun, Arizona State University
    • Daniel J. Van Dussen, Youngstown State University
    • Scott E. Wilks, Louisiana State University

    About the Authors

    Jill M. Chonody is an Associate Professor of Social Work at Boise State University and an Adjunct Research Fellow at the University of South Australia. She researches attitudes toward older adults among social work students, faculty, and practitioners and the ways that curriculum can address biases against vulnerable and oppressed populations, including older people. She is also interested in the way that creativity can be used in research, such as photographic techniques, and psychometrics. Dr. Chonody has presented her research both nationally and internationally and has over 40 published articles and book chapters. Her first book, Community Art: Creative Approaches to Practice, provides an overview of different arts-based interventions that can be used by social workers, community organizers, and nurses, among others, and includes chapters on photography, street art, storytelling, and evaluation.

    Barbra Teater, PhD, MSW, is a Professor of Social Work at the College of Staten Island, City University of New York, where she is director of the Master of Social Work (MSW) program and coordinator of the Disability Studies minor. She previously spent 8 years in social work education in the United Kingdom at the University of Bath and the University of Bristol. Barbra currently teaches research methods to MSW students. Her research interests include health and well-being among older adults, evaluating programs that promote the Actively Aging framework, and social work education. Barbra has published over 40 journal articles and book chapters, and authored or edited seven textbooks including the bestselling text, An Introduction to Applying Social Work Theories and Methods.

  • Glossary

    Ableism:

    discrimination or prejudice against people with disabilities and favoritism to able-bodied people.

    Active aging policy framework:

    “the process of optimizing opportunities for health, participation, and security in order to enhance quality of life as people age [. . .] The word ‘active’ refers to continuing participation in social, economic, cultural, spiritual and civic affairs, not just the ability to be physically active or to participate in the labor force. [. . .] Active aging aims to extend healthy life expectancy and quality of life for all people as they age, including those who are frail, disabled, and in need of care” (WHO, 2002, p. 12).

    Active travel:

    participating in physical transportation (e.g., walking, cycling).

    Active versus passive:

    “having a pleasurable sense of one’s own powers and of setting one’s own norms rather than, for example, being ‘normed’ by others” (Stenner et al., 2001, p. 471).

    Actively Aging:

    a positive, realistic, strengths-based approach to working with older adults that combines WHO’s active aging framework with social work theories, values, and ethical principles and the perspectives of older adults.

    Activity theory:

    as people age, they attempt to hold on to their social and work identities, their defined roles (e.g., mother, athlete, workaholic, community leader), and sense of self and well-being by maintaining their previous levels of activity or finding close substitutions in order to avoid change.

    Adult Protective Services:

    a program that is established at the state or local level and provides help to older adults and adults with disabilities who are the victims or suspected victims of abuse and/or neglect.

    Advance care planning:

    the process of documenting in advance someone’s wishes and preferences in regard to possible situations in which she/he might lose her/his capacity to make a decision.

    Advance directive:

    (also called healthcare directives) is a document that provides written instructions for how healthcare should be managed if a person is unable to make decisions.

    Aerobic activities:

    also referred to as “cardio,” involves participating in activities that increase one’s heart rate and breathing.

    Affordable Care Act (ACA):

    (officially named the “Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010,” or commonly referred to as “Obamacare”), which came into effect in March 2010. The ACA implemented protections for older adults in terms of providing some preventative services at no cost, such as the Annual Wellness Visit (AWV) and giving discounts on prescription drugs.

    Age-friendly cities:

    “process of optimizing opportunities for health, participation, and security in order to enhance quality of life as people age” (WHO, 2007b, p. 1).

    Age passing:

    presenting yourself as younger than your true age.

    Ageism:

    a difference in one’s feelings, beliefs, or behaviors based on another person’s chronological age.

    Age-related disability:

    a disability “related to the wear and tear of aging (e.g., arthritis) or the onset of a chronic disease, which could have been prevented in the first place (e.g., lung cancer, diabetes) or a degenerative illness (e.g., dementia)” (WHO, 2002, p. 34–35).

    Age-related macular degeneration:

    damage to the macula, which affects one’s central vision resulting in difficulty in reading, performing near-distance tasks, and recognizing faces.

    Age-related sensory loss:

    changes in hearing and vision due to the aging process.

    Agent versus patient:

    individuals actively engage in their aging and are supported in their decision-making with regard to the direction of their aging versus being forced to follow the “right” path as deemed by someone else.

    Aging in place:

    “the ability to live in one’s own home and community safely, independently, and comfortably, regardless of age, income, or ability level” (CDC, 2013d).

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD):

    A diagnosis indicating a person is using alcohol that is causing distress or harm. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) classifies AUD as mild, moderate, or severe.

    Animal-assisted therapy:

    the inclusion of an animal in the treatment plan to achieve specific aims.

    Annual Wellness Visit (AWV):

    developed as part of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), individuals are screened for cognitive impairment along with their height, weight, blood pressure, a review of medical and family history, a screening for depression (at the first AWV only), a review of current medical providers, medications, and a consideration of future preventative services (Cordell et al., 2013).

    Applications (apps):

    applications or programs for smartphones and tablets that range in their degree of entertainment, education, and services, including music, games, exercise, and medical managers.

    Artificial intelligence:

    computers that are able to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as speech recognition or decision-making.

    Assistive technology:

    any tool that can be used to perform a task that otherwise could not be performed or makes the performance of that task easier (McCreadie & Tinker, 2005).

    Autonomy:

    “the perceived ability to control, cope with and make personal decisions about how one lives on a day-to-day basis, according to one’s own rules and preferences” (WHO, 2002, p. 13).

    Big four:

    consists of tobacco use (i.e., smoking cigarettes), alcohol use, physical inactivity, and an unhealthy diet, and serve as risk factors that increase the chances of obtaining one or more of the noncommunicable diseases.

    Biomedical ethics:

    ethics consisting of four principles: (1) autonomy, (2) justice, (3) beneficence, and (4) nonmaleficence.

    Cancer:

    a disease that results from uncontrolled and abnormal cell growth that often invades nearby tissues (ACS, 2016).

    Capacity:

    an individual’s ability to make a decision, understand the facts around the decision, and understand how the decision is personally relevant (Cummings, 2014).

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD):

    diseases of the cardiovascular system, including coronary heart disease, ischemic attack in the brain (stroke), high blood pressure (hypertension), irregular heart beat (arrhythmia), and congestive heart failure (CHF).

    Cataract:

    the clouding of the lens that affects vision by reducing the passage of light to the eye.

    Challenge and response:

    individuals acknowledge that aging comes with natural challenges, such as functional limitations, physical barriers, discrimination, and/or oppression, and in order to actively age, they need to be supported in acknowledging such challenges and participating in a response to that challenge.

    Chronic lung disease:

    includes diseases of the lung making it difficult to breathe, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) and asthma.

    Chronically homeless:

    an individual who (1) is homeless and lives in a place not meant for human habitation, a safe haven, or in an emergency shelter; and (2) has been homeless and living or residing in a place not meant for human habitation, a safe haven, or in an emergency shelter continuously for at least 1 year or on at least four separate occasions in the last 3 years; and (3) can be diagnosed with one or more of the following conditions: substance use disorder, serious mental illness, developmental disability, posttraumatic stress disorder, neurocognitive impairments (e.g., dementia) resulting from brain injury, or chronic physical illness or disability (HUD, 2014, p. 4).

    Code of Ethics:

    details the social work profession’s values, ethical principles, and ethical standards in terms of responsibilities to clients, colleagues, practice settings, as professionals, social work profession, and broader society.

    Cognitive capacity:

    the ability to solve problems, reason, carry out tasks, and adapt to change and loss.

    Cohort:

    the time period when one was born.

    Cohort analysis:

    used to determine the impact of cultural shifts and changes and account for the way that this shapes the worldview and behaviors of a generation of people.

    Competency:

    a legal finding or status determined by a judge where a person is found to have the physical and mental capacity to make decisions.

    Conductive hearing loss:

    occurs when sound waves cannot reach the inner ear, often due to wax buildup, fluid, or a punctured eardrum.

    COPD:

    “refers to a large group of lung diseases characterized by obstruction of air flow that interferes with normal breathing” (ALA, 2013, p. 4) and often includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

    Coping skills:

    the behaviors or characteristics that people exhibit and employ to deal with stressful situations.

    Dementia:

    not a specific disease but is an umbrella term used to describe a variety of diseases and conditions that involve the “deterioration in memory, thinking, behavior and the ability to perform everyday activities” (WHO, 2015b).

    Diabetes mellitus:

    “a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels” (ADA, 2009, p. S62).

    Diabetic retinopathy:

    affects people with diabetes whereby chronically high blood sugar damages the tiny blood vessels in the retina causing hazy, distorted, or splotchy vision (NEI, 2015b; Stuen, 2006).

    Diaspora:

    the dispersion of people away from their homeland while preserving their distinctive identity.

    Dignity:

    having a sense of self-respect and worth and being valued by others.

    Disability:

    someone who has (a) a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities of the individual, (b) a record of such impairment, or (c) being regarded as having such an impairment (ADA, 1990).

    Discrimination:

    the differential treatment of an individual based on their status as an older person.

    Disengagement theory:

    older adults lead a more inactive life as they age and withdrawal or disengage from social interactions and activities.

    Divided attention:

    “requires the processing of two or more sources of information or the performance of two or more tasks at the same time” (Glisky, 2007, p. 6).

    Domestic violence:

    a perpetrator uses a variety of tactics, including isolation, manipulation, intimidation, and actual violence, to gain power and hence control over the victim.

    Do not resuscitate (DNR):

    a type of advance directive that specifies that the older adult does not want to have cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if the person’s heart stops or if the person stops breathing.

    Double standard of aging:

    proposes that the aging process impacts women and men differently. As women age, they are “much more heavily penalized than men” for the changes that occur on their faces (Sontag, 1997, p. 23).

    Dual sensory impairment (DSL):

    a coexisting hearing impairment and vision impairment.

    Durable power of attorney:

    is the same as a power of attorney, yet the agent retains power even if you become incapacitated; the relationship ends at your death.

    Eating healthy:

    involves eating plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables; fewer processed foods; food low in saturated fats, trans fat, and cholesterol; foods high in fiber; and limiting foods high in salt and sugar.

    Ecological footprint:

    the amount of natural resources one consumes.

    Ecological systems theory:

    explores the interaction of an individual within the environment.

    Elder abuse:

    abuse of older people.

    Elderspeak:

    a childlike tone is used to communicate with older people.

    Emotional abuse:

    defined by the mental anguish that it creates and may take the form of name-calling or making threats (WHO, 2002b, 2015).

    Emotional regulation:

    the ability to gain emotional support from others.

    Emotional support:

    the ways that someone supports another person’s psychological well-being by doing such things as listening, checking in, and being available (Adams & Blieszner, 1995).

    Empowerment approach:

    focuses specifically on breaking down the barriers to clients’ ability to use their control and power to have choices, overcome difficulties, and foster positive growth and development.

    Environmental injustice:

    when unsafe environmental conditions impact those who have less social power and the greatest vulnerability (Olson & Fedinick, 2016).

    Ethical decision-making:

    “taking into account the various ethical issues arising from the conflicting values and interests of those involved in the process” and subsequently make decisions and take action that is driven by the Code of Ethics (Papouli, 2016, p. 158).

    Ethical dilemma:

    having to choose between two or more conflicting ethical principles.

    Ethical practice:

    “a general pattern of moral conduct within a domain or sphere of life (personal or professional)” (Papouli, 2016, p. 157).

    Ethics:

    the moral principles or rules of conduct that direct a person’s behavior and help the person to differentiate between decisions that are good and those that are bad (Gabard & Martin, 2011).

    Euthanasia:

    “lethal medicines administered by physicians at the patient’s request” (Gostin & Roberts, 2016, p. 249).

    Exercise:

    a physical activity but is a planned activity to get the body moving, such as walking, running, swimming, or weight training, and is often incorporated into one’s schedule as part of a routine activity.

    Family Medical Leave Act:

    allows an eligible employee to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave during a 12-month time period to care for a spouse or parent who has a serious health condition.

    Financial abuse:

    the theft of money or property either directly or through coercive methods.

    Five wishes:

    is a type of living will that is legally recognized in 42 states and the District of Columbia and covers individuals’ wishes in regard to their medical wishes, as well as their personal, emotional, and spiritual needs.

    Food activities:

    shopping, preparing, and eating food, which tends to define people individually and in terms of their families, culture, and members of society.

    Food insecurity:

    the inability to access or secure food to meet nutritional needs at all times.

    Formal care:

    care provided in an assisted living or long-term care facility.

    Formal social activity:

    individuals interact with people through participation in formal groups and organizations.

    Formal support:

    include support from health and social services, which often occurs in the form of either (1) primary healthcare delivered through community-based services, such as primary care, home care, rehabilitation services, and palliative care; or (2) institutional care, such as in the hospital, long-term care facilities, and hospices (WHO, 2002).

    Formal volunteering:

    a type of civic engagement involving a structured role whereby activities are completed without monetary compensation within an organization.

    Functional limitations/functional disability:

    “any type of disorder that limits a person’s ability to perform normal daily routines described in terms of ADL [Activities of Daily Living] and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL)” (Lee & Kim, 2013, p. 100).

    Gender:

    the way in which society then attributes different characteristics to each sex.

    Genes:

    the units of heredity and are made up of DNA, which is the molecule that carries the genetic information used for growth and development.

    Glaucoma:

    the reduction of the peripheral or side field of vision through damage of the eye’s optic nerve, which can result in vision loss and blindness (Stuen, 2016).

    Health promotion:

    “the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual behavior towards a wide range of social and environmental interventions” (WHO, 2016).

    Healthcare screening:

    clinical preventative services to prevent, detect, and treat any signs of ill health, particularly those medical diseases and/or conditions that are more prevalent among older adults (see Annual Wellness Visit).

    Healthy aging:

    “living a long, productive, meaningful life and enjoying a high quality of life” (WHCOA, 2015).

    Hearing impairment:

    deafness in one or both ears, or any other trouble hearing (Stuen, 2006).

    HIPAA:

    sets out policy, procedures, and guidelines for the collection, storage, and dissemination or transfer of medical information and records as well as other personal information.

    Homelessness:

    individuals and families who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence.

    Horizontal NORC:

    a small community that is defined by a specific geographic space and is likely to be located in a more suburban area (also see NORC and vertical NORC).

    Hospice:

    a form of palliative care that is generally accessible when individuals have been diagnosed with a terminal illness and given 6 months or less to live. The care is not curative but rather focuses on supporting individuals and their families and providing physical comfort at the end of life to enable people to die pain free and with dignity (NASW, 2010).

    Housing Choice Voucher program:

    (often referred to as “Section 8 housing”) Section 8 of the Housing Act of 1937, which authorized a housing assistance program for low-income families and individuals via tenant-based assistance and project-based housing.

    Hubs of services:

    centers that contain both health and social services where people can make appointments with multiple professionals, can facilitate aging in place.

    Hunger:

    the physical sensation that accompanies lack of food.

    Identity:

    the person we think we are.

    Income insecure:

    the inability to cover basic living expenses all the time (AoA, 2015).

    Incompetent:

    a person has been found to lack capacity to make decisions and would therefore need a guardian or conservator.

    Independence:

    an individual is able to participate in activities of normal daily life without help, support, or control.

    Informal care:

    (or informal volunteering) describes those caregiving activities that are provided by family members and friends and may include housekeeping, yard assistance, cooking, and personal care.

    Informal social activity:

    individuals interact with familiar people such as friends, family, or neighbors.

    Informal support:

    includes unpaid and voluntary support from family members, partners, friends, or neighbors.

    Informal volunteering:

    refers to those activities that may be done for neighbors or friends, such as driving someone to the doctor’s office, which we include as part of informal caregiving activities.

    In-group:

    the group (or groups) to which a person belongs (see out-group below).

    Institutional abuse:

    abuse by paid caregivers, such as within hospitals and assisted living or long-term care facilities.

    Instrumental support:

    those activities related to daily living, such as food shopping, housecleaning, or providing a ride to the doctor.

    Intentional co-op:

    an alternative to the NORC, intentional communities include individual housing but also shared space, such as laundry facilities, gardens, workshops, craft areas, and lounging spaces (Tinker et al., 2013).

    Intergroup contact theory:

    oftentimes referred to as the “contact hypothesis,” is used to structure interactions between two different groups in order to challenge biases.

    Internalized ageism:

    individuals actively trying to separate themselves from “other” older people.

    Investment schemes:

    a scam that typically involves receiving an e-mail from Nigeria in which the recipient is offered a unique opportunity to make some money simply by helping the Nigerian sender transfer money to the United States.

    Job lock:

    people who are eligible for retirement but cannot feasibly stop working due to financial constraints and/or the need for employer provided health insurance (Fisher et al., 2016).

    Leisure activity:

    an activity that brings joy or pleasure and is “done by choice.”

    Life review:

    the systematic processing of one’s life from birth to present time (Butler, 1963).

    Living will:

    a type of advance directive that describes how the person wants their healthcare managed at the end of their life.

    Loneliness:

    feeling sad and having an unmet need to be in the company of others.

    Longevity:

    involves living a long life and is determined not only by the behaviors and choices we make, or our social and physical environments, but also our personal traits, such as biology and genes, self-concept, and coping skills and resilience.

    Long-term care:

    “the system of activities undertaken by informal caregivers (family, friends, and/or neighbors) and/or professionals (health and social services) to ensure that a person who is not fully capable of self-care can maintain the highest possible quality of life, according to his or her individual preferences, with the greatest possible degree of independence, autonomy, participation, personal fulfillment and human dignity” (WHO, 2002, p. 22).

    Long-term care ombudsman:

    an advocate who works to investigate reports that are received from long-term care facilities. They also serve as an educator for the community to raise awareness about residents’ rights and to prevent abuse and neglect.

    Long-term memory:

    “requires retrieval of information that is no longer present or being maintained in an active state. This information could have occurred a few minutes ago or been acquired many years ago” (Glisky, 2007, p. 9–10).

    Major depressive disorder:

    evidenced by either depressed mood or loss of interest/pleasure for nearly every day for the past 2 weeks plus at least four other criteria, as indicated in the DSM-5, nearly every day.

    Malnutrition:

    a condition in which an individual does not have the correct balance of key nutrients and may be the result of food insecurity, inadequate healthcare, or poor environmental conditions (FAO, 2008).

    Mandatory reporters:

    individuals who are required by law to report suspected abuse and neglect.

    Medicaid:

    a program funded jointly by the federal government and the state governments to help provide medical costs to individuals and families with insufficient income or resources to pay for healthcare.

    Medicare:

    a health insurance program signed into law in 1965 to provide healthcare coverage to people age 65 and above; this coverage was extended in 1972 to include those individuals under age 65 with long-term disabilities and individuals with end-stage renal disease.

    Medication adherence:

    “the extent to which a person’s behavior agrees with the agreed medication regimen from a health care provider” (Yap, Thirumoorthy, & Kwan, 2015, p. 1).

    Medication exploitation:

    a caregiver steals an older person’s prescription medications, typically narcotics, either to use recreationally or to sell.

    Mental health:

    “a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community” (WHO, 2005, p. 2).

    Mobility:

    “the ability to move oneself (e.g., by walking, by using assistive devices, or by using transportation) within community environments that expand from one’s home, to the neighborhood, and to regions beyond” (Webber, Porter, & Menec, 2010, p. 443).

    Mural art:

    the creation of paintings in public spaces.

    Muscle-strengtheningactivities:

    the completion of repetitions involving the movement of the muscles, for example through lifting weights, using resistance bands, heavy housework or yardwork, and/or using body weight as resistance, such as doing sit-ups or push-ups.

    Naturally occurring retirement community (NORC):

    residential areas primarily located in urban areas that are concentrated with older people but were not planned as such (Hunt & Gunter-Hunt, 1986; also see horizontal NORC and vertical NORC).

    Neglect:

    the act of omission or not providing care to an older person.

    Neoliberalism:

    the shift in government where the role and responsibility of the health, economic, and social aspects and well-being of individuals becomes the responsibility of the individual versus a state or collective responsibility.

    Neurocognitive disorders:

    the overarching term used by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorders, 5th Ed. (DSM-5) that refers to conditions where there is a neurocognitive impairment due to delirium, Alzheimer’s disease, Lewy bodies disease, Parkinson’s disease, traumatic brain injury, HIV infection, substance/medication-induced, Huntington’s disease, prion disease, or any other condition that results in a clinical deficit in cognitive function that is acquired and not present since birth or very early life.

    Nicotine addiction test:

    a test individuals can take to assess how smoking affects their lifestyle.

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs):

    also referred to as chronic diseases, are those medical conditions that are nontransferable and noninfectious.

    Old:

    “having lived for many years: not young” (Merriam-Webster, 2015).

    Old age:

    when one has reached the final stages of the normal life span.

    Older adult:

    a specific chronological age that defines someone as old, which is often based on the life expectancy of the population within that geographical area. The U.S. Census uses the age of 65 years to classify someone as an “older” adult.

    Older Americans Act (OAA):

    established by the Administration on Aging (AoA), which holds primary responsibility for carrying out the provision of the Act and distributes grant funding to states to provide services to older adults through the local Area Agencies on Aging; funding is based on the percentage of the area’s population that is 60 years of age or older.

    Olmstead Decision:

    requires states to provide services and programs in the least restrictive setting appropriate.

    Out-group:

    those who do not fit in the in-group (see in-group above).

    Palliative care:

    treatment and care that seeks to prevent or relieve pain associated with serious illness with an aim of promoting the quality of life—across physical, psychosocial, or spiritual aspects—of seriously ill individuals and their families.

    Palliative intervention:

    something that helps to soothe or reduce physical or emotional pain.

    Participatory research:

    the active involvement of members of the group that one seeks to understand.

    Paternalism:

    the act of keeping a group or member of a group in a subordinate position with the practice of doing something for or to a person for “their own good.”

    Permanent supportive housing:

    affordable housing that includes coordination of supportive services is one model that may address homelessness.

    Personal emergency response system (PERS):

    an easy and quick way for someone to reach help in the case of a fall, break-in, or medical situation. PERS use radio transmission, a landline telephone, and a call center to assist older people, typically by pushing a button on a small device worn around the neck.

    Personality:

    “individual differences in characteristic patterns, of thinking, feeling, and behaving” (APA, 2016b).

    Physical abuse:

    injury or harm caused to a person’s body, physical coercion, or physically or chemically restraining someone.

    Physically active:

    involves the movement of the body.

    Physician-assisted death:

    “medicines prescribed specifically for the purpose of being taken by patients to end their life” (Gostin & Roberts, 2016, p. 249).

    Physicians Orders for Life Sustaining Treatment (POLST):

    a form that is filled out between individuals and their doctors to indicate how much medical treatment an individual would like if an emergency happens.

    Political economy of aging:

    examines aging as it intersects with other sociodemographic characteristics, which creates differential aging experiences.

    Polypharmacy:

    the use of multiple medications.

    Postural hypotension:

    lowered blood pressure when standing or sitting up quickly.

    Power of attorney:

    a legal document that authorizes someone, referred to as an “agent,” to act on your behalf, referred to as the “principal,” only as specified in the document, usually in regard to financial and business purposes.

    Presbycusis:

    a loss of high-pitched sounds, particularly for men, and low-frequency sounds, particularly for women; both result in sounds that are less clear and lower in volume, which leads to misunderstanding speech (Stuen, 2006).

    Presbyopia:

    the loss of elasticity of the lens of the eye which can make near-vision more difficult and is often noticed in tasks such as reading; or (2) one pupil becoming smaller, which may require the need for more light and more reaction time to adjust to changing lighting levels (Stuen, 2006).

    Primary prevention:

    individuals make healthy choices, such as limiting alcohol use, avoiding tobacco use, and engaging in healthy diet and exercise.

    Processes:

    “the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors involved in relationships” (Adams & Blieszner, 1995, p. 210).

    Productive aging:

    focuses on the capacity of individuals to contribute (e.g., remain active) to the production of goods and services, which includes both paid and unpaid work, including volunteer activities (Bass, Caro, & Chen, 1993).

    Public housing program:

    constructs and operates housing developments where low-income individuals and families reside.

    Religiosity:

    “most often refers to commitment to a religious faith like Judaism and Islam, holding the personal beliefs (as in the Deity) that one’s faith advocates, and participating in the rituals and other activities associated with that faith” (Moberg, 2005, p. 14).

    Reminiscence:

    people are asked to just recall a memory or story from any time period in their lives, which can facilitate adaptation in the present moment or help the individual achieve some resolution with the past.

    Resilience:

    the capacity to adjust and accommodate to changing circumstances is important for older people who may be experiencing rapidly evolving personal, social, emotional, and physical changes.

    Respite care:

    services provided in conjunction with other community-based services with the aim of reducing caregiver stress, depression, and burden so that care can be provided in the home for as long as possible.

    Robot:

    a machine that can do the work of a person.

    Romance scams:

    someone creates a fake profile on social media, such as Facebook or on a dating website, and then begins to romance an older person by finding her/his emotional trigger points, such as widowhood or other personal loss.

    Sandwich generation:

    caregivers caring for both their aging parents and their growing children (FCA, 2009).

    Secondary prevention:

    individuals participate in screenings for early detection of disability and disease.

    Section 8:

    Section 8 of the Housing Act of 1937, which authorized a housing assistance program for low-income families and individuals via tenant-based assistance and project-based housing (see Housing Choice Voucher Program).

    Sedentary:

    being inactive and spending too much time sitting.

    Selective attention:

    “the ability to attend to some stimuli while disregarding others that are irrelevant to the task at hand” (Glisky, 2007, p. 5).

    Self-concept:

    “a set of references or perceptions that the individual has of himself or herself and includes judgments and values as to behavior, skills, and outward appearance” (de Gracia et al., 2004, p. 262).

    Self-efficacy:

    the belief or confidence in one’s ability to accomplish tasks and achieve desired outcomes.

    Self-esteem:

    an evaluation of one’s own worth; having respect for oneself and confidence in one’s abilities.

    Self-neglect:

    “self-care and/or living conditions that are potentially hazardous to health, safety, or well-being of adults” (National Adult Protective Services Association, 2016b).

    Sensorineural hearing loss:

    damage to the inner ear or the auditory nerve resulting in (usually) permanent hearing loss (NIH Senior Health, 2012a).

    Sex:

    one’s biological status as male or female.

    Sexual abuse:

    unwanted sexual touch or coerced sexual contact.

    Sexual dysfunction:

    difficulty in being sexually active, which can be due to fear, fatigue, grief, depression, medical disorders, or incapacitation or death/lack of a partner.

    Sexuality:

    comprised of how people view themselves in terms of gender (i.e., gender identity), how they behave or express their gender (i.e., gender role), and their sexual experiences, desires, thoughts, and expressions (e.g., holding hands, kissing, masturbating, touching, sexual intercourse).

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs):

    diseases transmitted through sex, such as syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital herpes, hepatitis B, genital warts, and trichomoniasis, and at risk of being infected with HIV, which causes AIDS.

    Short-term memory:

    “involves the simple maintenance of information over a short period of time” (Glisky, 2007, p. 7).

    Social categorization:

    we assign people to either the in-group or the out-group (e.g., females vs. males, Republicans vs. Democrats, young vs. old), which provides us with information about that person, such as their characteristics, beliefs, traits, abilities, or disabilities.

    Social comparison:

    individuals in the in-group compare their group membership to those in the out-group. They tend to view their in-groups in a positive light and hold stereotypes and negative attitudes toward those individuals in the out-group

    Social competition:

    individuals acknowledge their move from the in-group to the out-group and aim to tackle the stereotypes and negative attitudes associated with their new group in order to create a more positive image for their new group.

    Social creativity:

    individuals embrace their move from one group into another, focus on the more positive aspects of the new group, and creatively establish this as their identity.

    Social determinants of health:

    “conditions [e.g., social, economic, and physical] in the environments in which people are born, live, learn, work, play, worship, and age that affect a wide range of health, functioning, and quality-of-life outcomes and risks” (Healthy People 2020, 2017).

    Social identification:

    individuals identify with their in-group and actively seek membership to the group, as it is their identity and source of self-worth.

    Social identity theory:

    explains the ways in which people attach themselves to or identify with a social group, and the ways in which people view themselves and others within their social group (in-group) compared to others who are not in their social group (out-group).

    Social isolation:

    a person who has a limited access to or engagement with the broader social world.

    Social media:

    engaging in social interactions through media sources, such as Facebook, Twitter, or Instagram.

    Social mobility:

    individuals (literally or figuratively) attempt to remain a part of the young (in-group) for as long as possible; thus, choosing not to identify with the less-preferred out-group.

    Social protection:

    policies that help prevent or alleviate poverty are an important element of poverty reduction.

    Social Security:

    is a combination of the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and Disability Insurance (OASDI), which was enacted in 1935 by the Social Security Act.

    Socioemotional Selectivity Theory:

    a type of activity theory, which suggests that active aging includes adaptation to changing circumstances and needs. These adaptations include selection of individuals who can meet one’s emotional needs and social activities that are best suited to one’s life at that point in time (Adams, 2004).

    Solitary social activity:

    individuals participate in leisure activities alone, such as puzzles and games, reading, watching television, or other creative/stimulating activities.

    Spirituality:

    “has a more experiential and existential focus upon an individual’s internalized faith, values, and beliefs and their influence upon daily behavior, although the behavior is not its primary focus” (Moberg, 2005, p. 14).

    Sprawl:

    the expansion of defined areas plays a role in public health, which in part is related to the overreliance on cars to reach retail and services, in particular the effects of air pollution.

    Stage of change model:

    explains how people intentionally make a change and is comprised of five stages that people pass through when progressing toward making the change (Prochaska et al., 1992).

    Stereotypes:

    preconceived ideas or picture of how to view people belonging to a specific group.

    Street art:

    the visual representation of self or society meant to provoke and serve as a way to create public works that will be viewed by others.

    Strengths perspective:

    an approach to social work practice that focuses on clients’ strengths, abilities, resources, and accomplishments versus their problems, deficits, and inabilities (Saleebey, 2013).

    Structure:

    “the form of ties linking an individual’s relationships such as the number of associates, the hierarchy among them, the similarity of their social positions, the proportion of associates who know one another, and the amount of solidarity among them” (Adams & Blieszner, 1995, p. 210).

    Successful aging:

    remaining active, healthy, and free of disease and disability were seen as the ideal to aging (Rowe & Kahn, 1997).

    Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program:

    (SNAP), which was previously called the Food Stamp Program, is a federal program administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) under the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), but it is administered by each state through the Division of Social Services or Children and Family Services. This program provides assistance to individuals and families who have low incomes (USDA, 2014).

    Supplemental Security Income:

    a federal, means-tested program that provides cash benefits to older adults for basic needs (i.e., food, clothing, and shelter).

    Sustained attention:

    “refers to the ability to maintain concentration on a task over an extended period of time,” (Glisky, 2007, p. 6), which has not been found to “naturally” decline with age.

    Systems theory:

    individuals should not be considered, or assessed, alone but rather within their wider environment.

    Tai Chi:

    a Chinese tradition that can be practiced as a gentle form of exercise to reduce stress and anxiety, but it can also help build leg strength and improve balance (Mayo Clinic, 2015).

    Telemarketing schemes:

    people are targeted to buy goods and services, such as vacations, free prizes, medicine, or healthcare products which may be on offer, and high pressure sales techniques makes one feel that the offer should not be passed up.

    Terror management theory:

    ageism acts as a protective mechanism against death anxiety associated with the knowledge of our own mortality by creating a barrier against reminders that we are going to die.

    Tertiary prevention:

    individuals participate in clinical management of disability and disease.

    Transnational lifestyle:

    people who sustain ties to both their homeland and the United States. That is, they may move between their birthplace, where they still have kin, and the homes of their adult American children (Treas & Mazumdar, 2014).

    Unsheltered:

    a person “who is living in a place not meant for human habitation, such as the streets, abandoned buildings, vehicles, parks, and train stations” (HUD, 2011, p. 3).

    Vertical NORC:

    often a high-rise apartment building in an urban area (also see NORC and horizontal NORC).

    Volunteering:

    a type of civic engagement and may be described as a formal and structured role whereby activities are completed without monetary compensation.

    Walkability:

    refers to how easy it is to walk around in a particular community, neighborhood, or defined area.

    Working memory:

    “a limited capacity system that involves the active manipulation of information that is currently being maintained in focal attention” (Glisky, 2007, p. 7).

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