Social Work Practice With Older Adults: An Actively Aging Framework for Practice


Jill M. Chonody & Barbra Teater

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright


    We would like to thank everyone who helped make this book possible. Social work practitioners took the time to be interviewed to create occupational profiles, colleagues wrote about their areas of expertise, reviewers helped make the book stronger, and friends and family supported us through the process of writing, editing, and finally compiling this book. We would also like to thank Nathan Davidson, Alissa Nance, and all those at SAGE who provided feedback and assistance along the way.

    We would also like to thank the following reviewers:

    • Gloria Duran Aguilar, Florida A & M University
    • Mejai B. M. Avoseh, University of South Dakota
    • Marla L. Berg-Weger, Saint Louis University
    • Karen Bullock, North Carolina State University
    • Ralph Cherry, Purdue University Calumet
    • Patricia K. Cianciolo, Northern Michigan University
    • Ronald Dolon, Ball State University
    • Brandi Jean Felderhoff, University of Texas at Arlington
    • J. Steven Fulks, Barton College
    • Bonne Joyce Hallisey, Curry College
    • Leslie K. Hasche, University of Denver
    • Elaine T. Jurkowski, Southern Illinois University Carbondale
    • Youseung Kim, Clark Atlanta University
    • Patricia J. Kolb, Lehman College, City University of New York
    • G. Victoria Jackson, Loma Linda University
    • Susan Larimer, Indiana University
    • Roseanna McCleary, California State University, Bakersfield
    • Martha L. Morgan, John Brown University
    • Susan A. Myllykangas, Northwest Missouri State University
    • Maria E. Painter, University of La Verne
    • Lori M. Paris, University of Louisville
    • LaTricia Rhynes-Hicks, DCCCD: Eastfield Community College
    • Anita Sharma, University of Louisiana at Monroe
    • Marcia Spira, Loyola University Chicago
    • April L. Stidham, East Tennessee State University
    • Fei Sun, Arizona State University
    • Daniel J. Van Dussen, Youngstown State University
    • Scott E. Wilks, Louisiana State University

    About the Authors

    Jill M. Chonody is an Associate Professor of Social Work at Boise State University and an Adjunct Research Fellow at the University of South Australia. She researches attitudes toward older adults among social work students, faculty, and practitioners and the ways that curriculum can address biases against vulnerable and oppressed populations, including older people. She is also interested in the way that creativity can be used in research, such as photographic techniques, and psychometrics. Dr. Chonody has presented her research both nationally and internationally and has over 40 published articles and book chapters. Her first book, Community Art: Creative Approaches to Practice, provides an overview of different arts-based interventions that can be used by social workers, community organizers, and nurses, among others, and includes chapters on photography, street art, storytelling, and evaluation.

    Barbra Teater, PhD, MSW, is a Professor of Social Work at the College of Staten Island, City University of New York, where she is director of the Master of Social Work (MSW) program and coordinator of the Disability Studies minor. She previously spent 8 years in social work education in the United Kingdom at the University of Bath and the University of Bristol. Barbra currently teaches research methods to MSW students. Her research interests include health and well-being among older adults, evaluating programs that promote the Actively Aging framework, and social work education. Barbra has published over 40 journal articles and book chapters, and authored or edited seven textbooks including the bestselling text, An Introduction to Applying Social Work Theories and Methods.

  • Glossary


    discrimination or prejudice against people with disabilities and favoritism to able-bodied people.

    Active aging policy framework:

    “the process of optimizing opportunities for health, participation, and security in order to enhance quality of life as people age [. . .] The word ‘active’ refers to continuing participation in social, economic, cultural, spiritual and civic affairs, not just the ability to be physically active or to participate in the labor force. [. . .] Active aging aims to extend healthy life expectancy and quality of life for all people as they age, including those who are frail, disabled, and in need of care” (WHO, 2002, p. 12).

    Active travel:

    participating in physical transportation (e.g., walking, cycling).

    Active versus passive:

    “having a pleasurable sense of one’s own powers and of setting one’s own norms rather than, for example, being ‘normed’ by others” (Stenner et al., 2001, p. 471).

    Actively Aging:

    a positive, realistic, strengths-based approach to working with older adults that combines WHO’s active aging framework with social work theories, values, and ethical principles and the perspectives of older adults.

    Activity theory:

    as people age, they attempt to hold on to their social and work identities, their defined roles (e.g., mother, athlete, workaholic, community leader), and sense of self and well-being by maintaining their previous levels of activity or finding close substitutions in order to avoid change.

    Adult Protective Services:

    a program that is established at the state or local level and provides help to older adults and adults with disabilities who are the victims or suspected victims of abuse and/or neglect.

    Advance care planning:

    the process of documenting in advance someone’s wishes and preferences in regard to possible situations in which she/he might lose her/his capacity to make a decision.

    Advance directive:

    (also called healthcare directives) is a document that provides written instructions for how healthcare should be managed if a person is unable to make decisions.

    Aerobic activities:

    also referred to as “cardio,” involves participating in activities that increase one’s heart rate and breathing.

    Affordable Care Act (ACA):

    (officially named the “Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010,” or commonly referred to as “Obamacare”), which came into effect in March 2010. The ACA implemented protections for older adults in terms of providing some preventative services at no cost, such as the Annual Wellness Visit (AWV) and giving discounts on prescription drugs.

    Age-friendly cities:

    “process of optimizing opportunities for health, participation, and security in order to enhance quality of life as people age” (WHO, 2007b, p. 1).

    Age passing:

    presenting yourself as younger than your true age.


    a difference in one’s feelings, beliefs, or behaviors based on another person’s chronological age.

    Age-related disability:

    a disability “related to the wear and tear of aging (e.g., arthritis) or the onset of a chronic disease, which could have been prevented in the first place (e.g., lung cancer, diabetes) or a degenerative illness (e.g., dementia)” (WHO, 2002, p. 34–35).

    Age-related macular degeneration:

    damage to the macula, which affects one’s central vision resulting in difficulty in reading, performing near-distance tasks, and recognizing faces.

    Age-related sensory loss:

    changes in hearing and vision due to the aging process.

    Agent versus patient:

    individuals actively engage in their aging and are supported in their decision-making with regard to the direction of their aging versus being forced to follow the “right” path as deemed by someone else.

    Aging in place:

    “the ability to live in one’s own home and community safely, independently, and comfortably, regardless of age, income, or ability level” (CDC, 2013d).

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD):

    A diagnosis indicating a person is using alcohol that is causing distress or harm. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) classifies AUD as mild, moderate, or severe.

    Animal-assisted therapy:

    the inclusion of an animal in the treatment plan to achieve specific aims.

    Annual Wellness Visit (AWV):

    developed as part of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), individuals are screened for cognitive impairment along with their height, weight, blood pressure, a review of medical and family history, a screening for depression (at the first AWV only), a review of current medical providers, medications, and a consideration of future preventative services (Cordell et al., 2013).

    Applications (apps):

    applications or programs for smartphones and tablets that range in their degree of entertainment, education, and services, including music, games, exercise, and medical managers.

    Artificial intelligence:

    computers that are able to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as speech recognition or decision-making.

    Assistive technology:

    any tool that can be used to perform a task that otherwise could not be performed or makes the performance of that task easier (McCreadie & Tinker, 2005).


    “the perceived ability to control, cope with and make personal decisions about how one lives on a day-to-day basis, according to one’s own rules and preferences” (WHO, 2002, p. 13).

    Big four:

    consists of tobacco use (i.e., smoking cigarettes), alcohol use, physical inactivity, and an unhealthy diet, and serve as risk factors that increase the chances of obtaining one or more of the noncommunicable diseases.

    Biomedical ethics:

    ethics consisting of four principles: (1) autonomy, (2) justice, (3) beneficence, and (4) nonmaleficence.


    a disease that results from uncontrolled and abnormal cell growth that often invades nearby tissues (ACS, 2016).


    an individual’s ability to make a decision, understand the facts around the decision, and understand how the decision is personally relevant (Cummings, 2014).

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD):

    diseases of the cardiovascular system, including coronary heart disease, ischemic attack in the brain (stroke), high blood pressure (hypertension), irregular heart beat (arrhythmia), and congestive heart failure (CHF).


    the clouding of the lens that affects vision by reducing the passage of light to the eye.

    Challenge and response:

    individuals acknowledge that aging comes with natural challenges, such as functional limitations, physical barriers, discrimination, and/or oppression, and in order to actively age, they need to be supported in acknowledging such challenges and participating in a response to that challenge.

    Chronic lung disease:

    includes diseases of the lung making it difficult to breathe, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) and asthma.

    Chronically homeless:

    an individual who (1) is homeless and lives in a place not meant for human habitation, a safe haven, or in an emergency shelter; and (2) has been homeless and living or residing in a place not meant for human habitation, a safe haven, or in an emergency shelter continuously for at least 1 year or on at least four separate occasions in the last 3 years; and (3) can be diagnosed with one or more of the following conditions: substance use disorder, serious mental illness, developmental disability, posttraumatic stress disorder, neurocognitive impairments (e.g., dementia) resulting from brain injury, or chronic physical illness or disability (HUD, 2014, p. 4).

    Code of Ethics:

    details the social work profession’s values, ethical principles, and ethical standards in terms of responsibilities to clients, colleagues, practice settings, as professionals, social work profession, and broader society.

    Cognitive capacity:

    the ability to solve problems, reason, carry out tasks, and adapt to change and loss.


    the time period when one was born.

    Cohort analysis:

    used to determine the impact of cultural shifts and changes and account for the way that this shapes the worldview and behaviors of a generation of people.


    a legal finding or status determined by a judge where a person is found to have the physical and mental capacity to make decisions.

    Conductive hearing loss:

    occurs when sound waves cannot reach the inner ear, often due to wax buildup, fluid, or a punctured eardrum.


    “refers to a large group of lung diseases characterized by obstruction of air flow that interferes with normal breathing” (ALA, 2013, p. 4) and often includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

    Coping skills:

    the behaviors or characteristics that people exhibit and employ to deal with stressful situations.


    not a specific disease but is an umbrella term used to describe a variety of diseases and conditions that involve the “deterioration in memory, thinking, behavior and the ability to perform everyday activities” (WHO, 2015b).

    Diabetes mellitus:

    “a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of various organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels” (ADA, 2009, p. S62).

    Diabetic retinopathy:

    affects people with diabetes whereby chronically high blood sugar damages the tiny blood vessels in the retina causing hazy, distorted, or splotchy vision (NEI, 2015b; Stuen, 2006).


    the dispersion of people away from their homeland while preserving their distinctive identity.


    having a sense of self-respect and worth and being valued by others.


    someone who has (a) a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities of the individual, (b) a record of such impairment, or (c) being regarded as having such an impairment (ADA, 1990).


    the differential treatment of an individual based on their status as an older person.

    Disengagement theory:

    older adults lead a more inactive life as they age and withdrawal or disengage from social interactions and activities.

    Divided attention:

    “requires the processing of two or more sources of information or the performance of two or more tasks at the same time” (Glisky, 2007, p. 6).

    Domestic violence:

    a perpetrator uses a variety of tactics, including isolation, manipulation, intimidation, and actual violence, to gain power and hence control over the victim.

    Do not resuscitate (DNR):

    a type of advance directive that specifies that the older adult does not want to have cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if the person’s heart stops or if the person stops breathing.

    Double standard of aging:

    proposes that the aging process impacts women and men differently. As women age, they are “much more heavily penalized than men” for the changes that occur on their faces (Sontag, 1997, p. 23).

    Dual sensory impairment (DSL):

    a coexisting hearing impairment and vision impairment.

    Durable power of attorney:

    is the same as a power of attorney, yet the agent retains power even if you become incapacitated; the relationship ends at your death.

    Eating healthy:

    involves eating plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables; fewer processed foods; food low in saturated fats, trans fat, and cholesterol; foods high in fiber; and limiting foods high in salt and sugar.

    Ecological footprint:

    the amount of natural resources one consumes.

    Ecological systems theory:

    explores the interaction of an individual within the environment.

    Elder abuse:

    abuse of older people.


    a childlike tone is used to communicate with older people.

    Emotional abuse:

    defined by the mental anguish that it creates and may take the form of name-calling or making threats (WHO, 2002b, 2015).

    Emotional regulation:

    the ability to gain emotional support from others.

    Emotional support:

    the ways that someone supports another person’s psychological well-being by doing such things as listening, checking in, and being available (Adams & Blieszner, 1995).

    Empowerment approach:

    focuses specifically on breaking down the barriers to clients’ ability to use their control and power to have choices, overcome difficulties, and foster positive growth and development.

    Environmental injustice:

    when unsafe environmental conditions impact those who have less social power and the greatest vulnerability (Olson & Fedinick, 2016).

    Ethical decision-making:

    “taking into account the various ethical issues arising from the conflicting values and interests of those involved in the process” and subsequently make decisions and take action that is driven by the Code of Ethics (Papouli, 2016, p. 158).

    Ethical dilemma:

    having to choose between two or more conflicting ethical principles.

    Ethical practice:

    “a general pattern of moral conduct within a domain or sphere of life (personal or professional)” (Papouli, 2016, p. 157).


    the moral principles or rules of conduct that direct a person’s behavior and help the person to differentiate between decisions that are good and those that are bad (Gabard & Martin, 2011).


    “lethal medicines administered by physicians at the patient’s request” (Gostin & Roberts, 2016, p. 249).


    a physical activity but is a planned activity to get the body moving, such as walking, running, swimming, or weight training, and is often incorporated into one’s schedule as part of a routine activity.

    Family Medical Leave Act:

    allows an eligible employee to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave during a 12-month time period to care for a spouse or parent who has a serious health condition.

    Financial abuse:

    the theft of money or property either directly or through coercive methods.

    Five wishes:

    is a type of living will that is legally recognized in 42 states and the District of Columbia and covers individuals’ wishes in regard to their medical wishes, as well as their personal, emotional, and spiritual needs.

    Food activities:

    shopping, preparing, and eating food, which tends to define people individually and in terms of their families, culture, and members of society.

    Food insecurity:

    the inability to access or secure food to meet nutritional needs at all times.

    Formal care:

    care provided in an assisted living or long-term care facility.

    Formal social activity:

    individuals interact with people through participation in formal groups and organizations.

    Formal support:

    include support from health and social services, which often occurs in the form of either (1) primary healthcare delivered through community-based services, such as primary care, home care, rehabilitation services, and palliative care; or (2) institutional care, such as in the hospital, long-term care facilities, and hospices (WHO, 2002).

    Formal volunteering:

    a type of civic engagement involving a structured role whereby activities are completed without monetary compensation within an organization.

    Functional limitations/functional disability:

    “any type of disorder that limits a person’s ability to perform normal daily routines described in terms of ADL [Activities of Daily Living] and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL)” (Lee & Kim, 2013, p. 100).


    the way in which society then attributes different characteristics to each sex.


    the units of heredity and are made up of DNA, which is the molecule that carries the genetic information used for growth and development.


    the reduction of the peripheral or side field of vision through damage of the eye’s optic nerve, which can result in vision loss and blindness (Stuen, 2016).

    Health promotion:

    “the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual behavior towards a wide range of social and environmental interventions” (WHO, 2016).

    Healthcare screening:

    clinical preventative services to prevent, detect, and treat any signs of ill health, particularly those medical diseases and/or conditions that are more prevalent among older adults (see Annual Wellness Visit).

    Healthy aging:

    “living a long, productive, meaningful life and enjoying a high quality of life” (WHCOA, 2015).

    Hearing impairment:

    deafness in one or both ears, or any other trouble hearing (Stuen, 2006).


    sets out policy, procedures, and guidelines for the collection, storage, and dissemination or transfer of medical information and records as well as other personal information.


    individuals and families who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence.

    Horizontal NORC:

    a small community that is defined by a specific geographic space and is likely to be located in a more suburban area (also see NORC and vertical NORC).


    a form of palliative care that is generally accessible when individuals have been diagnosed with a terminal illness and given 6 months or less to live. The care is not curative but rather focuses on supporting individuals and their families and providing physical comfort at the end of life to enable people to die pain free and with dignity (NASW, 2010).

    Housing Choice Voucher program:

    (often referred to as “Section 8 housing”) Section 8 of the Housing Act of 1937, which authorized a housing assistance program for low-income families and individuals via tenant-based assistance and project-based housing.

    Hubs of services:

    centers that contain both health and social services where people can make appointments with multiple professionals, can facilitate aging in place.


    the physical sensation that accompanies lack of food.


    the person we think we are.

    Income insecure:

    the inability to cover basic living expenses all the time (AoA, 2015).


    a person has been found to lack capacity to make decisions and would therefore need a guardian or conservator.


    an individual is able to participate in activities of normal daily life without help, support, or control.

    Informal care:

    (or informal volunteering) describes those caregiving activities that are provided by family members and friends and may include housekeeping, yard assistance, cooking, and personal care.

    Informal social activity:

    individuals interact with familiar people such as friends, family, or neighbors.

    Informal support:

    includes unpaid and voluntary support from family members, partners, friends, or neighbors.

    Informal volunteering:

    refers to those activities that may be done for neighbors or friends, such as driving someone to the doctor’s office, which we include as part of informal caregiving activities.


    the group (or groups) to which a person belongs (see out-group below).

    Institutional abuse:

    abuse by paid caregivers, such as within hospitals and assisted living or long-term care facilities.

    Instrumental support:

    those activities related to daily living, such as food shopping, housecleaning, or providing a ride to the doctor.

    Intentional co-op:

    an alternative to the NORC, intentional communities include individual housing but also shared space, such as laundry facilities, gardens, workshops, craft areas, and lounging spaces (Tinker et al., 2013).

    Intergroup contact theory:

    oftentimes referred to as the “contact hypothesis,” is used to structure interactions between two different groups in order to challenge biases.

    Internalized ageism:

    individuals actively trying to separate themselves from “other” older people.

    Investment schemes:

    a scam that typically involves receiving an e-mail from Nigeria in which the recipient is offered a unique opportunity to make some money simply by helping the Nigerian sender transfer money to the United States.

    Job lock:

    people who are eligible for retirement but cannot feasibly stop working due to financial constraints and/or the need for employer provided health insurance (Fisher et al., 2016).

    Leisure activity:

    an activity that brings joy or pleasure and is “done by choice.”

    Life review:

    the systematic processing of one’s life from birth to present time (Butler, 1963).

    Living will:

    a type of advance directive that describes how the person wants their healthcare managed at the end of their life.


    feeling sad and having an unmet need to be in the company of others.


    involves living a long life and is determined not only by the behaviors and choices we make, or our social and physical environments, but also our personal traits, such as biology and genes, self-concept, and coping skills and resilience.

    Long-term care:

    “the system of activities undertaken by informal caregivers (family, friends, and/or neighbors) and/or professionals (health and social services) to ensure that a person who is not fully capable of self-care can maintain the highest possible quality of life, according to his or her individual preferences, with the greatest possible degree of independence, autonomy, participation, personal fulfillment and human dignity” (WHO, 2002, p. 22).

    Long-term care ombudsman:

    an advocate who works to investigate reports that are received from long-term care facilities. They also serve as an educator for the community to raise awareness about residents’ rights and to prevent abuse and neglect.

    Long-term memory:

    “requires retrieval of information that is no longer present or being maintained in an active state. This information could have occurred a few minutes ago or been acquired many years ago” (Glisky, 2007, p. 9–10).

    Major depressive disorder:

    evidenced by either depressed mood or loss of interest/pleasure for nearly every day for the past 2 weeks plus at least four other criteria, as indicated in the DSM-5, nearly every day.


    a condition in which an individual does not have the correct balance of key nutrients and may be the result of food insecurity, inadequate healthcare, or poor environmental conditions (FAO, 2008).

    Mandatory reporters:

    individuals who are required by law to report suspected abuse and neglect.


    a program funded jointly by the federal government and the state governments to help provide medical costs to individuals and families with insufficient income or resources to pay for healthcare.


    a health insurance program signed into law in 1965 to provide healthcare coverage to people age 65 and above; this coverage was extended in 1972 to include those individuals under age 65 with long-term disabilities and individuals with end-stage renal disease.

    Medication adherence:

    “the extent to which a person’s behavior agrees with the agreed medication regimen from a health care provider” (Yap, Thirumoorthy, & Kwan, 2015, p. 1).

    Medication exploitation:

    a caregiver steals an older person’s prescription medications, typically narcotics, either to use recreationally or to sell.

    Mental health:

    “a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community” (WHO, 2005, p. 2).


    “the ability to move oneself (e.g., by walking, by using assistive devices, or by using transportation) within community environments that expand from one’s home, to the neighborhood, and to regions beyond” (Webber, Porter, & Menec, 2010, p. 443).

    Mural art:

    the creation of paintings in public spaces.


    the completion of repetitions involving the movement of the muscles, for example through lifting weights, using resistance bands, heavy housework or yardwork, and/or using body weight as resistance, such as doing sit-ups or push-ups.

    Naturally occurring retirement community (NORC):

    residential areas primarily located in urban areas that are concentrated with older people but were not planned as such (Hunt & Gunter-Hunt, 1986; also see horizontal NORC and vertical NORC).


    the act of omission or not providing care to an older person.


    the shift in government where the role and responsibility of the health, economic, and social aspects and well-being of individuals becomes the responsibility of the individual versus a state or collective responsibility.

    Neurocognitive disorders:

    the overarching term used by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorders, 5th Ed. (DSM-5) that refers to conditions where there is a neurocognitive impairment due to delirium, Alzheimer’s disease, Lewy bodies disease, Parkinson’s disease, traumatic brain injury, HIV infection, substance/medication-induced, Huntington’s disease, prion disease, or any other condition that results in a clinical deficit in cognitive function that is acquired and not present since birth or very early life.

    Nicotine addiction test:

    a test individuals can take to assess how smoking affects their lifestyle.

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs):

    also referred to as chronic diseases, are those medical conditions that are nontransferable and noninfectious.


    “having lived for many years: not young” (Merriam-Webster, 2015).

    Old age:

    when one has reached the final stages of the normal life span.

    Older adult:

    a specific chronological age that defines someone as old, which is often based on the life expectancy of the population within that geographical area. The U.S. Census uses the age of 65 years to classify someone as an “older” adult.

    Older Americans Act (OAA):

    established by the Administration on Aging (AoA), which holds primary responsibility for carrying out the provision of the Act and distributes grant funding to states to provide services to older adults through the local Area Agencies on Aging; funding is based on the percentage of the area’s population that is 60 years of age or older.

    Olmstead Decision:

    requires states to provide services and programs in the least restrictive setting appropriate.


    those who do not fit in the in-group (see in-group above).

    Palliative care:

    treatment and care that seeks to prevent or relieve pain associated with serious illness with an aim of promoting the quality of life—across physical, psychosocial, or spiritual aspects—of seriously ill individuals and their families.

    Palliative intervention:

    something that helps to soothe or reduce physical or emotional pain.

    Participatory research:

    the active involvement of members of the group that one seeks to understand.


    the act of keeping a group or member of a group in a subordinate position with the practice of doing something for or to a person for “their own good.”

    Permanent supportive housing:

    affordable housing that includes coordination of supportive services is one model that may address homelessness.

    Personal emergency response system (PERS):

    an easy and quick way for someone to reach help in the case of a fall, break-in, or medical situation. PERS use radio transmission, a landline telephone, and a call center to assist older people, typically by pushing a button on a small device worn around the neck.


    “individual differences in characteristic patterns, of thinking, feeling, and behaving” (APA, 2016b).

    Physical abuse:

    injury or harm caused to a person’s body, physical coercion, or physically or chemically restraining someone.

    Physically active:

    involves the movement of the body.

    Physician-assisted death:

    “medicines prescribed specifically for the purpose of being taken by patients to end their life” (Gostin & Roberts, 2016, p. 249).

    Physicians Orders for Life Sustaining Treatment (POLST):

    a form that is filled out between individuals and their doctors to indicate how much medical treatment an individual would like if an emergency happens.

    Political economy of aging:

    examines aging as it intersects with other sociodemographic characteristics, which creates differential aging experiences.


    the use of multiple medications.

    Postural hypotension:

    lowered blood pressure when standing or sitting up quickly.

    Power of attorney:

    a legal document that authorizes someone, referred to as an “agent,” to act on your behalf, referred to as the “principal,” only as specified in the document, usually in regard to financial and business purposes.


    a loss of high-pitched sounds, particularly for men, and low-frequency sounds, particularly for women; both result in sounds that are less clear and lower in volume, which leads to misunderstanding speech (Stuen, 2006).


    the loss of elasticity of the lens of the eye which can make near-vision more difficult and is often noticed in tasks such as reading; or (2) one pupil becoming smaller, which may require the need for more light and more reaction time to adjust to changing lighting levels (Stuen, 2006).

    Primary prevention:

    individuals make healthy choices, such as limiting alcohol use, avoiding tobacco use, and engaging in healthy diet and exercise.


    “the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors involved in relationships” (Adams & Blieszner, 1995, p. 210).

    Productive aging:

    focuses on the capacity of individuals to contribute (e.g., remain active) to the production of goods and services, which includes both paid and unpaid work, including volunteer activities (Bass, Caro, & Chen, 1993).

    Public housing program:

    constructs and operates housing developments where low-income individuals and families reside.


    “most often refers to commitment to a religious faith like Judaism and Islam, holding the personal beliefs (as in the Deity) that one’s faith advocates, and participating in the rituals and other activities associated with that faith” (Moberg, 2005, p. 14).


    people are asked to just recall a memory or story from any time period in their lives, which can facilitate adaptation in the present moment or help the individual achieve some resolution with the past.


    the capacity to adjust and accommodate to changing circumstances is important for older people who may be experiencing rapidly evolving personal, social, emotional, and physical changes.

    Respite care:

    services provided in conjunction with other community-based services with the aim of reducing caregiver stress, depression, and burden so that care can be provided in the home for as long as possible.


    a machine that can do the work of a person.

    Romance scams:

    someone creates a fake profile on social media, such as Facebook or on a dating website, and then begins to romance an older person by finding her/his emotional trigger points, such as widowhood or other personal loss.

    Sandwich generation:

    caregivers caring for both their aging parents and their growing children (FCA, 2009).

    Secondary prevention:

    individuals participate in screenings for early detection of disability and disease.

    Section 8:

    Section 8 of the Housing Act of 1937, which authorized a housing assistance program for low-income families and individuals via tenant-based assistance and project-based housing (see Housing Choice Voucher Program).


    being inactive and spending too much time sitting.

    Selective attention:

    “the ability to attend to some stimuli while disregarding others that are irrelevant to the task at hand” (Glisky, 2007, p. 5).


    “a set of references or perceptions that the individual has of himself or herself and includes judgments and values as to behavior, skills, and outward appearance” (de Gracia et al., 2004, p. 262).


    the belief or confidence in one’s ability to accomplish tasks and achieve desired outcomes.


    an evaluation of one’s own worth; having respect for oneself and confidence in one’s abilities.


    “self-care and/or living conditions that are potentially hazardous to health, safety, or well-being of adults” (National Adult Protective Services Association, 2016b).

    Sensorineural hearing loss:

    damage to the inner ear or the auditory nerve resulting in (usually) permanent hearing loss (NIH Senior Health, 2012a).


    one’s biological status as male or female.

    Sexual abuse:

    unwanted sexual touch or coerced sexual contact.

    Sexual dysfunction:

    difficulty in being sexually active, which can be due to fear, fatigue, grief, depression, medical disorders, or incapacitation or death/lack of a partner.


    comprised of how people view themselves in terms of gender (i.e., gender identity), how they behave or express their gender (i.e., gender role), and their sexual experiences, desires, thoughts, and expressions (e.g., holding hands, kissing, masturbating, touching, sexual intercourse).

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs):

    diseases transmitted through sex, such as syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital herpes, hepatitis B, genital warts, and trichomoniasis, and at risk of being infected with HIV, which causes AIDS.

    Short-term memory:

    “involves the simple maintenance of information over a short period of time” (Glisky, 2007, p. 7).

    Social categorization:

    we assign people to either the in-group or the out-group (e.g., females vs. males, Republicans vs. Democrats, young vs. old), which provides us with information about that person, such as their characteristics, beliefs, traits, abilities, or disabilities.

    Social comparison:

    individuals in the in-group compare their group membership to those in the out-group. They tend to view their in-groups in a positive light and hold stereotypes and negative attitudes toward those individuals in the out-group

    Social competition:

    individuals acknowledge their move from the in-group to the out-group and aim to tackle the stereotypes and negative attitudes associated with their new group in order to create a more positive image for their new group.

    Social creativity:

    individuals embrace their move from one group into another, focus on the more positive aspects of the new group, and creatively establish this as their identity.

    Social determinants of health:

    “conditions [e.g., social, economic, and physical] in the environments in which people are born, live, learn, work, play, worship, and age that affect a wide range of health, functioning, and quality-of-life outcomes and risks” (Healthy People 2020, 2017).

    Social identification:

    individuals identify with their in-group and actively seek membership to the group, as it is their identity and source of self-worth.

    Social identity theory:

    explains the ways in which people attach themselves to or identify with a social group, and the ways in which people view themselves and others within their social group (in-group) compared to others who are not in their social group (out-group).

    Social isolation:

    a person who has a limited access to or engagement with the broader social world.

    Social media:

    engaging in social interactions through media sources, such as Facebook, Twitter, or Instagram.

    Social mobility:

    individuals (literally or figuratively) attempt to remain a part of the young (in-group) for as long as possible; thus, choosing not to identify with the less-preferred out-group.

    Social protection:

    policies that help prevent or alleviate poverty are an important element of poverty reduction.

    Social Security:

    is a combination of the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and Disability Insurance (OASDI), which was enacted in 1935 by the Social Security Act.

    Socioemotional Selectivity Theory:

    a type of activity theory, which suggests that active aging includes adaptation to changing circumstances and needs. These adaptations include selection of individuals who can meet one’s emotional needs and social activities that are best suited to one’s life at that point in time (Adams, 2004).

    Solitary social activity:

    individuals participate in leisure activities alone, such as puzzles and games, reading, watching television, or other creative/stimulating activities.


    “has a more experiential and existential focus upon an individual’s internalized faith, values, and beliefs and their influence upon daily behavior, although the behavior is not its primary focus” (Moberg, 2005, p. 14).


    the expansion of defined areas plays a role in public health, which in part is related to the overreliance on cars to reach retail and services, in particular the effects of air pollution.

    Stage of change model:

    explains how people intentionally make a change and is comprised of five stages that people pass through when progressing toward making the change (Prochaska et al., 1992).


    preconceived ideas or picture of how to view people belonging to a specific group.

    Street art:

    the visual representation of self or society meant to provoke and serve as a way to create public works that will be viewed by others.

    Strengths perspective:

    an approach to social work practice that focuses on clients’ strengths, abilities, resources, and accomplishments versus their problems, deficits, and inabilities (Saleebey, 2013).


    “the form of ties linking an individual’s relationships such as the number of associates, the hierarchy among them, the similarity of their social positions, the proportion of associates who know one another, and the amount of solidarity among them” (Adams & Blieszner, 1995, p. 210).

    Successful aging:

    remaining active, healthy, and free of disease and disability were seen as the ideal to aging (Rowe & Kahn, 1997).

    Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program:

    (SNAP), which was previously called the Food Stamp Program, is a federal program administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) under the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), but it is administered by each state through the Division of Social Services or Children and Family Services. This program provides assistance to individuals and families who have low incomes (USDA, 2014).

    Supplemental Security Income:

    a federal, means-tested program that provides cash benefits to older adults for basic needs (i.e., food, clothing, and shelter).

    Sustained attention:

    “refers to the ability to maintain concentration on a task over an extended period of time,” (Glisky, 2007, p. 6), which has not been found to “naturally” decline with age.

    Systems theory:

    individuals should not be considered, or assessed, alone but rather within their wider environment.

    Tai Chi:

    a Chinese tradition that can be practiced as a gentle form of exercise to reduce stress and anxiety, but it can also help build leg strength and improve balance (Mayo Clinic, 2015).

    Telemarketing schemes:

    people are targeted to buy goods and services, such as vacations, free prizes, medicine, or healthcare products which may be on offer, and high pressure sales techniques makes one feel that the offer should not be passed up.

    Terror management theory:

    ageism acts as a protective mechanism against death anxiety associated with the knowledge of our own mortality by creating a barrier against reminders that we are going to die.

    Tertiary prevention:

    individuals participate in clinical management of disability and disease.

    Transnational lifestyle:

    people who sustain ties to both their homeland and the United States. That is, they may move between their birthplace, where they still have kin, and the homes of their adult American children (Treas & Mazumdar, 2014).


    a person “who is living in a place not meant for human habitation, such as the streets, abandoned buildings, vehicles, parks, and train stations” (HUD, 2011, p. 3).

    Vertical NORC:

    often a high-rise apartment building in an urban area (also see NORC and horizontal NORC).


    a type of civic engagement and may be described as a formal and structured role whereby activities are completed without monetary compensation.


    refers to how easy it is to walk around in a particular community, neighborhood, or defined area.

    Working memory:

    “a limited capacity system that involves the active manipulation of information that is currently being maintained in focal attention” (Glisky, 2007, p. 7).


    AAA. ( 2011 ). Senior driving: Facts & research. Retrieved from
    AARP. ( 2010a ). Sex, romance, and relationships: AARP survey of midlife and older adults. Retrieved from
    AARP. ( 2010b ). Preventive health screenings among midlife and older adults. Retrieved from
    Abbit, L. ( 2015, August 5 ). Playground for seniors coming your way. Senior Planet. Retrieved from
    Abrams, R. C. , Lachs, M. , McAvay, G. , Keohane, D. J. , & Bruce, M. L. ( 2002 ). Predictors of self-neglect in community-dwelling elders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(10), 17241730.
    Abramson, T. A. ( 2015 ). Older adults: The “Panini sandwich” generation. Clinical Gerontologist, 38, 251267.
    Acierno, R. , Hernandez, M. A. , Amstadter, A. B. , Resnick, H. S. , Steve, K. , Muzzy, W. , Kilpatrick, D. G. ( 2010 ). Prevalence and correlates of emotional, physical, sexual, and financial abuse and potential neglect in the United States: The national elder mistreatment study. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 292297.
    ACOSA. (n.d.). Macro social work practice. Retrieved from
    Action on Elder Abuse. ( 1995, May-June ). Bulletin: No. 11. London, England: Astral House.
    Adams, K. B. ( 2004 ). Changing investment in activities and interest in elders’ lives: Theory and measurement. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 58, 87108.
    Adams, R. ( 2008 ). Empowerment, participation and social work (
    ed.). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Adams, R. G. , & Blieszner, R. ( 1995 ). Aging well with friends and family. Behavioral Scientist, 39, 209225.
    Adams, R. G. , Blieszner, R. , DeVries, B. ( 2000 ). Definitions of friendship in the third age: Age, gender, and study location effects. Journal of Aging Studies, 14, 117133.
    Administration for Community Living [ACL]. (n.d.) National family caregiver support program. Administration on Aging. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from
    Administration on Aging [AoA]. ( 2014a ). Aging statistics. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from
    Administration on Aging [AoA]. ( 2014b ). Minority aging. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Administration Community Living. Retrieved from
    Administration on Aging [AoA]. ( 2015 ). A profile of older Americans: 2015. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved fro
    Administration on Aging [AoA]. ( 2016 ). Older Americans Act. Retrieved from
    Administration on Aging [AoA]. (n.d.). Types of abuse. Retrieved from
    Adult Protective Services. (n.d.). Adult protective services. Retrieved from
    AgingCare. ( 2016 ). 3 strategies for boosting a senior’s self-esteem. Retrieved from
    Ahrentzen, S. ( 2010 ). On their own turf: Community design and active aging in a naturally occurring retirement community. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 24, 267290.
    Ai, A. L. , & Carrigan, L. ( 2006 ). Older adults with age-related cardiovascular disease. In B. Berkman (Ed.), Handbook of social work in health and aging (pp. 1927). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Aldrich, N. , & Benson, W. F. ( 2012 ). CDC focuses on need for older adults to receive clinical preventive services. Retrieved from
    Allan, L. J. , & Johnson, J. A. ( 2009 ). Undergraduate attitudes toward the elderly: The role of knowledge, contact and aging anxiety. Educational Gerontology, 35, 114.
    Allemand, M. , Zimprich, D. , & Hertzog, C. ( 2007 ). Cross-sectional age differences and longitudinal age change of personality in middle adulthood and old age. Journal of Personality, 75, 323358.
    Allen, J. O. ( 2016 ). Ageism as a risk factor for chronic disease. The Gerontologist, 56(4), 610614.
    Allport, G. ( 1954 ). The nature of prejudice. Boston, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Altschuler, J. , & Katz, A. ( 2015 ). “Of course it’s relevant!”: A focus group study of older adults’ perceived importance of HIV/AIDS prevention education. Qualitative Social Work, 14(5), 687701.
    Alzheimer’s Association. ( 2012 ). Alzheimer’s disease: Facts and figures. Retrieved from
    Alzheimer’s Association. ( 2015 ). 2015 Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures. Retrieved from
    Alzheimer’s Association. ( 2016 ). What is dementia? Retrieved from
    American Diabetes Association [ADA]. ( 2009 ). Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 32(S1), S62S67.
    American Diabetes Association [ADA]. ( 2016 ). Statistics about diabetes. Retrieved from
    American Geriatrics Society 2015 Beers Criteria Update Expert Panel. ( 2015 ). American Geriatrics Society 2015 updated Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 63(11), 22272246.
    American Lung Association [ALA]. ( 2013 ). Trends in COPD (Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema): Morbidity and mortality. Retrieved from
    American Psychiatric Association [APA]. ( 2013 ). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (
    ed.). Arlington, VA: APA.
    American Psychological Association [APA]. ( 2016a ). Mental and behavioral health and older Americans. Retrieved from
    American Psychological Association [APA]. ( 2016b ). Personality. Retrieved from
    American Psychological Association [APA]. (n.d.). Coping with stress and anxiety. Retrieved from
    Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990. ( 1990 ). Pub. L. No. 101–336, 104 Stat. 328.
    Anderson, K. A. , & Babcock, J. R. ( 2014 ). Horticultural therapy: The art of growth. In J. M. Chonody (Ed.), Community art: Creative approaches to practice (pp. 140155). Springfield, IL: Common Ground.
    Anderson, Z. J. , Bonnelykke, K. , Hvidberg, M. , Jensen, S. S. , Ketzel, M. , Loft, S. , . . . Raaschou-Nielsen, O. ( 2012 ). Long-term exposure to air pollution and asthma hospitalisations in older adults: A cohort study. Thorax, 67(6), 611.
    Arber, S. , Bowling, A. , Creech, A. , Duncan, M. , Goulding, A. , Gyi, D. , . . . Upton, J. ( 2014 ). Maintaining health and wellbeing: Overcoming barriers to healthy ageing. In A. Walker (Ed.), The new science of ageing (pp. 113154). Bristol, UK: Policy Press.
    Arber, S. , & Ginn, J. ( 2005 ). Gender dimensions of age shift. In M. L. Johnson (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of age and ageing (pp. 527537). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Ardelt, M. , & Koenig, C. S. ( 2006 ). The role of religion for hospice patients and relatively healthy older adults. Research on Aging, 28, 184215.
    Arean, P. A. , Raue, P. , Mackin, R. S. , Kanellopoulos, D. , McCulloch, C. , & Alexopoulos, G. ( 2010 ). Problem-solving therapy and supportive therapy in older adults with major depression and executive dysfunction. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 13911398.
    Baker, A. A. ( 1975 ). Granny battering. Modern Geriatrics, 8, 2024.
    Baker, T. A. , & Wang, C. C. ( 2006 ). Photovoice: Use of a participatory action research method to explore the chronic pain experience of older adults. Qualitative Health Research, 16(10), 14051413.
    Balderrama, F. E. , & Rodriguez, R. ( 2006 ). Decade of betrayal: Mexican repatriation in the 1930s. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.
    Balfour, J. L. , & Kaplan, G. A. ( 2002 ). Neighborhood and environment and loss of physical function in older adults: Evidence from Alameda county study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 155(6), 507515.
    Baltes, P. B. , & Lindenberger, U. ( 1997 ). Emergence of a powerful connection between sensory and cognitive functions across the adult lifespan: A new window to the study of cognitive aging? Psychology and Aging, 12(1), 1221.
    Bandura, A. ( 1982 ). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37(2), 122147.
    Bandura, A. ( 2001 ). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 126.
    Banks, M. R. , & Banks, W. A. ( 2002 ). The effects of animal-assisted therapy on loneliness in an elderly population in long-term care facilities. Journal of Gerontology, 57, M428M432.
    Banks, S. , & Williams, R. ( 2005 ). Accounting for ethical difficulties in social welfare work: Issues, problems, and dilemmas. British Journal of Social Work, 35(7), 10051022.
    Barnes, D. E. , & Yaffe, K. ( 2011 ). The projected effect of risk factor reduction on Alzheimer’s disease prevention. Lancet Neurology, 10, 819828.
    Barnett, A. , Smith, B. , Lord, S. R. , Williams, M. , & Baumand, A. ( 2003 ). Community-based group exercise improves balance and reduces falls in at-risk older people: A randomised controlled trial. Age and ageing, 32(4), 407414.
    Barnicle, T. , & Midden, K. S. ( 2003 ). The effects of a horticulture activity program on the psychological well-being of older people in a long-term care facility. HortTechnology, 13, 8185.
    Bartels, S. J. , Blow, F. C. , Brockmann, L. M. , & Van Clitters, A. D. ( 2005 ). Substance abuse and mental health care among older Americans: The state of the knowledge and future directions. Retrieved from
    Bass, S. A. , Caro, F. , & Chen, Y. (Eds.). ( 1993 ). Achieving a productive aging society. Westpoint, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.
    Bauchner, H. , & Fontanarosa, P. B. ( 2016 ). Death, dying, and end of life. Journal of the American Medical Association, 315(3), 270271.
    Baun, C. M. , & Edwards, D. ( 2008 ). Activity card sort (
    ed.). Bethesda, MD: AOTA Press.
    Bayer, K. ( 2005 ). Cosmetic surgery and cosmetics: Redefining the appearance of age. Ageism in the New Millennium, Fall, 1318.
    Beachamp, T. L. , & Childress, J. F. ( 2009 ). Principles of biomedical ethics (
    ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Becker, E. ( 1962 ). The birth and death of meaning. New York, NY: Free Press.
    Becker, E. ( 1973 ). The denial of death. New York, NY: Free Press.
    Becker, E. ( 1975 ). Escape from evil. New York, NY: Free Press.
    Bedney, B. J. , & Goldberg, R. ( 2009 ). NORC supportive service programs: An overview and literature review. Retrieved from
    Beth Johnson Foundation. ( 2001 ). Definition of intergenerational practice. Retrieved from
    Betts Adams, K. , Leibbrandt, S. , & Moon, H. ( 2011 ). A critical review of the literature on social and leisure activity and wellbeing in later life. Ageing & Society, 31, 683712.
    Blane, D. , Wiggins, R. D. , Montgomery, S. M. , Hildon, Z. , & Netuveli, G. ( 2011 ). Resilience at older ages: The importance of social relations and implications for policy. London, England: International Centre for Lifecourse Studies.
    Bleakley, C. M. , Charles, D. , Porter-Armstrong, A. , McNeill, M. D. J. , McDonough, S. M. , & McCormack, B. ( 2015 ). Gaming for health: A systematic review of the physical and cognitive effects of interactive computer games in older adults. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 34, 166189.
    Boerner, K. , Schultz, R. , & Horowitz, A. ( 2004 ). Positive aspects of caregiving and adaptation to bereavement. Psychology and Aging, 19(4), 668675.
    Bookman, A. ( 2008 ). Innovative models of aging in place: Transforming our communities for an aging population. Community, Work, & Family, 11(4), 419438.
    Boudiny, K. ( 2013 ). Active ageing: From empty rhetoric to effective policy tool. Ageing & Society, 33, 10771098.
    Bousfield, C. , & Hutchinson, P. ( 2010 ). Contact, anxiety, and young people’s attitudes and behavioral intentions towards the elderly. Educational Gerontology, 36, 451466.
    Bowden, M. ( 2016 ). Retirement living in theme-based communities. Bankrate. Retrieved from
    Bowling, A. ( 2008 ). Enhancing later life: How older people perceive active ageing? Aging & Mental Health, 12(3), 293301.
    Bradley, D. B. ( 1999 ). A reason to rise each morning: The meaning of volunteering in the lives of older adults. Generations, 23, 4550.
    Braithwaite, V. ( 2002 ). Reducing ageism. In T. D. Nelson (Ed.), Ageism: Stereotyping and prejudice against older persons (pp. 311337). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
    Branco, K. J. , & Williamson, J. B. ( 1982 ). Stereotyping and the life cycle: Views of aging and the aged. In A. G. Miller (Ed.), In the eye of the beholder: Contemporary issues in stereotyping (pp. 364410). New York, NY: Praeger.
    Brandon, E. ( 2012, May 21 ). Poverty increasing among retirees: The gap between the wealthiest and poorest retirees is growing. U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved from
    Braun, M. T. ( 2013 ). Obstacles to social networking website use among older adults. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 673680.
    Brennan, M. , Laditka, S. B. , & Cohen, A. ( 2005 ). Postcards to God. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 45(1/2), 203222.
    Brennan, M. , Su, Y. P. , & Horowitz, A. ( 2006 ). Longitudinal associations between dual sensory impairment and everyday competence among older adults. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 43, 777792.
    Bronfenbrenner, U. ( 1977 ). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32(7), 513531.
    Bronfenbrenner, U. ( 1979 ). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Bronstein, L. , Gellis, Z. D. , & Kenaley, B. L. ( 2011 ). A neighborhood naturally occurring retirement community: Views from providers and residents. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 30(1), 104112.
    Bronstein, L. , & Kenaley, B. ( 2010 ). Learning from vertical NORCs: Challenges and recommendations for horizontal NORCs. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 24, 237248.
    Brotman, S. , Ryan, B. , Collins, S. , Chamberland, L. , Cormier, R. , Julien, D. , . . . Richard, D. ( 2007 ). Coming out to care: Caregivers of gay and lesbian seniors in Canada. The Gerontologist, 47(4), 490503.
    Brown, C. , & Stoffel, V. C. ( 2010 ). Occupational therapy in mental health: A vision for participation. Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company.
    Brown, R. T. , Hemati, K. , Riley, E. D. , Lee, C. T. , Ponath, C. , Tieu, L. , . . . Kushel, M. B. ( 2016 ). Geriatric conditions in a population-based sample of older homeless adults. Gerontologist, published online first. doi:
    Brown, S. L. , Brown, R. M. , House, J. S. , & Smith, D. M. ( 2008 ). Coping with spousal loss: Potential buffering effects of self-reported helping behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 849861.
    Brubaker, R. ( 2005 ). The ‘diaspora’ diaspora. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 28(1), 119.
    Buchannan, D. , Moorhouse, A. , Cabico, L. , Krock, M. , Campbell, H. , & Spevakow, D. ( 2002 ). Synthesis of literature on reminiscing with older adults. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 34, 123139.
    Buchman, A. S. , Boyle, P. A. , Wilson, R. S. , Fleischman, D. A. , Leurgans, S. , & Bennett, D. A. ( 2009 ). Association between late-life social activity and motor decline in older adults. Archives of Internal Medicine, 169, 11391146.
    Buckley, W. ( 1967 ). Sociology and modern systems theory. New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
    Buehler, R. , Gotschi, T. , & Winters, M. ( 2016 ). Moving toward active transportation: How policies can encourage walking and biking. Active Living Research. Retrieved from
    Bunn, F. , Dickinson, A. , Barnett-Page, E. , McInnes, E. , & Horton, K. ( 2008 ). A systematic review of older people’s perception of facilitators and barriers to participation in falls-prevention interventions. Ageing & Society, 28, 449472.
    Bureau of Labor Statistics [BLS]. ( 2016 ). Economic news release. Volunteering in the United States, 2015. Retrieved from
    Burston, G. ( 1977 ). Do your elderly patients live in fear of being battered? Modern Geriatrics, 7, 5455.
    Butler, R. ( 1963 ). The life review: An interpretation of reminiscence in the aged. Psychiatry, 26, 6576.
    Butler, R. ( 1969 ). Age-ism: Another form of bigotry. The Gerontologist, 9, 243246.
    Butler, R. ( 1975 ). Why survive? Being old in America. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.
    Butler, R. N. ( 1987 ). Ageism. In G. L. Maddox (Ed.), The encyclopedia of aging (pp. 2223). New York, NY: Springer.
    Butler, R. N. , & Lewis, M. I. ( 2002 ). The new love and sex after 60 (
    ed.). New York, NY: Random House Publishing Group.
    Bytheway, B. ( 2005 ). Ageism. In M. L. Johnson (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of age and ageing (pp. 338345). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Cahill, S. , & Valadéz, R. ( 2013 ). Growing older with HIV/AIDS: New public health challenges. American Journal of Public Health, 103, e7e15.
    Calasanti, T. ( 2005 ). Ageism, gravity, and gender: Experiences of aging bodies. Generations, Fall, 812.
    Calasanti, T. , Slevin, K. F. , & King, N. ( 2006 ). Ageism and feminism: From “et cetera” to center. NWSA Journal, 18, 1330.
    Caldwell, R. L. ( 2005 ). At the confluence of memory and meaning—Life review with older adults and families: Using narrative therapy and the expressive arts to re-member and re-author stories of resilience. The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 13, 172175.
    Carstensen, L. L. ( 1992 ). Social and emotional patterns in adulthood: Support for socioemotional selectivity theory. Psychology and Aging, 7, 331338.
    Carstensen, L. L. ( 1995 ). Evidence for a life-span theory of socioemotional selectivity. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4, 151156.
    Carstensen, L. L. , Fung, H. H. , & Charles, S. T. ( 2003 ). Socioemotional selectivity theory and the regulation of emotion in the second half of life. Motivation and Emotion, 27, 103123.
    Carstensen, L. L. , & Mikels, J. A. ( 2005 ). At the intersection of emotion and cognition. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 117121.
    Carter-Black, J. ( 2007 ). Teaching cultural competence: An innovative strategy grounded in the universality of storytelling as depicted in African and African American storytelling traditions. Journal of Social Work Education, 43(1), 3150. doi:
    Cattan, M. , White, M. , Bond, J. , & Learnmouth, A. ( 2005 ). Preventing social isolation and loneliness among older people: A systematic review of health promotion interventions. Ageing & Society, 25, 4167.
    Cavanaugh, K. L. , Wingard, R. L. , Hakim, R. M. , Eden, S. , Ayumi, S. , Wallston, K. , . . . Ikizler, T. A. ( 2010 ). Low health literacy associates with increased mortality in ESRD. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 21, 19791985.
    Cawthorne, A. ( 2008, July ). Elderly poverty: The challenge before us. Center for American Progress. Retrieved from
    Center for Policy on Ageing [CPA]. ( 2014 ). Resilience in older age. Retrieved from
    Center for Spirituality & Healing. ( 2016 ). What is spirituality? Retrieved from
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. ( 2004 ). Within 20 minutes of quitting. Retrieved from
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. ( 2010 ). Vision, hearing, balance, and sensory impairment in Americans aged 70 years and over: United States 1999–2006. Retrieved from
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. ( 2012 ). National vital statistics reports: United States life tables, 61, 164. Retrieved from
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. ( 2013a ). Long-term care services in the United States: 2013. Series 3, Number 37. Retrieved from
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. ( 2013b ). Death in the United States 2011: NCHS data brief (No. 115). Retrieved from
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. ( 2013c ). Oral health for older Americans. Retrieved from
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. ( 2013d ). Healthy places terminology. Retrieved from
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. ( 2014a ). National diabetes statistics report, 2014. Estimates of diabetes and its burden in the United States. Retrieved from
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. ( 2014b ). Facts about physical activity. Retrieved from
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. ( 2015a ). HIV among people aged 50 and older. Retrieved from
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. ( 2015b ). Underlying cause of death, 1999–2014. CDC WONDER Online Database. Retrieved from
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. ( 2015c ). Heart disease facts. Retrieved from
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. ( 2015d ). Depression is not a normal part of growing older. Retrieved from
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. ( 2015e ). Current cigarette smoking among adults – United States, 2005 – 2014. Retrieved from
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. ( 2015f ). How much physical activity do older adults need? Retrieved from
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. ( 2015g ). Preventing heart disease: Healthy living habits. Retrieved from
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. ( 2015h ). Postural hypotension: What it is and how to manage it. Retrieved from
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. ( 2015i ). Check for safety: A home fall prevention checklist for older adults. Retrieved from
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. ( 2015j ). What YOU can do to prevent falls. Retrieved from
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. ( 2016a ). Health, United States, 2015. Retrieved from
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. ( 2016b ). HIV among people aged 50 and over. Retrieved from
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] ( 2016c ). Tobacco-related disparities. Retrieved from
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. ( 2016d, May 6 ). Falls among persons aged ≥65 years with and without severe vision impairment—United States, 2014. Retrieved from
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. ( 2016e, January 20 ). Important facts about falls. Retrieved from
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. ( 2016f, July 6 . Injury prevention & control: Motor vehicle safety. Retrieved from
    Certner, D. ( 2015, July 30 . Celebrating Medicare: Strengthening the program for the next 50 years. Retrieved from
    Chand, S. P. , & Grossberg, G. T. ( 2013 ). How to adapt cognitive-behavioral therapy for older adults. Current Psychiatry, 12(3), 1015.
    Chandola, T. , Ferrie, J. E. , Perski, A. , Akbaraly, T. , & Marmot, M. G. ( 2010 ). The effect of short sleep duration on coronary heart disease risk is greatest among those with sleep disturbance: A prospective study from the Whitehall II cohort. Sleep, 33(6), 739744.
    Chang, J. T. , Morton, S. C. , Rubenstein, L. Z. , Mojica, W. A. , Maglione, M. , Suttorp, M. J. , . . . Shekelle, P. G. ( 2004 ). Interventions for the prevention of falls in older adults: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. BMJ, 328(7441), 680.
    Chapman, L. , Sargent-Cox, K. , Horswill, M. S. , & Anstey, K. J. ( 2014 ). The impact of age stereotypes on older adults’ hazard perception performance and driving confidence. Journal of Applied Gerontology. doi:
    Charles, S. T. , Reynolds, C. A. , & Gatz, M. ( 2001 ). Age-related differences and change in positive and negative affect over 23 years. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 136151.
    Cheadle, A. , Egger, R. , LoGerfo, J. P. , Walwick, J. , & Schwartz, S. ( 2010 ). A community-organizing approach to promoting physical activity in older adults: The southeast senior physical activity network. Health Promotion Practice, 11(2), 197204.
    Chen, L. M. ( 2013 ). Senior volunteerism in Japan: A policy perspective. Ageing International, 38, 97107.
    Cherry, K. E. , & Palmore, E. ( 2008 ). Relating to Older People Evaluation (ROPE): A measure of self-reported ageism. Educational Gerontology, 34, 849861.
    Chiland, E. ( 2016, April 16 . Coachella promoters planning old people Coachella. Curbed: Los Angeles. Retrieved from
    children transitioning from middle childhood into adolescence: Time matters. Gerontology & Geriatrics Education, 38(2), 204218. doi:
    Choi, N. G. , Burr, J. A. , Mutchler, J. E. , & Caro, F. G. ( 2007 ). Formal and informal volunteer activity and spousal caregiving among older adults. Research on Aging, 29, 99124.
    Chonody, J. M. ( 2014 ). Painted on the wall: How street and mural art can be transformative. In J. M. Chonody (Ed.), Community Art: Creative approaches to practice (pp. 2644). Springfield, IL: Common Ground.
    Chonody, J. M. ( 2016 ). Positive and negative ageism: The role of benevolent and hostile sexism. Affilia, 31(2), 207218.
    Chonody, J. M. , & Gabb, J. (under review). Unpublished manuscript.
    Chonody, J. M. , & Teater, B. ( 2016a ). Constructing gender: Feminist gerontology and social work practice. In S. Wendt & N. Moulding (Eds.), Contemporary feminisms in social work practice (pp. 263274). London, England: Routledge.
    Chonody, J. M. , & Teater, B. ( 2016b ). Why do I dread looking old? A test of social identity theory, terror management theory, and the double standard of aging. Journal of Women and Aging, 28, 112126.
    Chonody, J. M. , & Wang, D. ( 2013 ). Connecting older adults to the community through multimedia: An intergenerational reminiscence program. Activities, Adaptation, & Aging, 37, 7993.
    Chonody, J. M. , & Wang, D. ( 2014a ). Predicting social work student interest in gerontology: Results from an international sample. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 57, 773789.
    Chonody, J. M. , & Wang, D. ( 2014b ). Ageism among social work faculty: Impact of personal factors and other “isms.” Gerontology & Geriatrics Education, 35, 248263.
    Chonody, J. M. , & Wang, D. ( 2014c ). Realities, facts, and fiction: Lessons learned through storytelling. In J. M. Chonody (Ed.), Community art: Creative approaches to practice (pp. 90108). Champaign, IL: Common Ground.
    Chonody, J. M. , Webb, S. , Ranzijn, R. , & Bryan, J. ( 2014 ). Working with older adults: Predictors of attitudes to aging in social work and psychology students, faculty, and practitioners. Australian Psychologist, 49, 374383.
    Christiansen, C. H. ( 1999 ). Defining lives: Occupation as identity. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 53, 547558.
    Clark, C. ( 2006 ). Moral character in social work. British Journal of Social Work, 36(1), 7589.
    Clarke, A. , & Warren, L. ( 2007 ). Hopes, fears and expectations about the future: What do older people’s stories tell us about active aging? Ageing & Society, 27, 465488.
    Clift, S. , & Hancox, G. ( 2010 ). The significance of choral singing for sustaining psychological wellbeing: Findings from a survey of choristers in England, Australia, and Germany. Music Performance Research, 3, 7996.
    Clifton, K. , Bronstein, S. , & Morrisey, S. ( 2014, October . The path to complete streets in underserved communities: Lessons from U.S. case studies. Retrieved from
    Clodfelter, R. P. , & Adashi, E. Y. ( 2016 ). The liberty to die: California enacts physician aid-in-dying law. Journal of the American Medical Association, 315(3), 251252.
    Cohen, C. A. , Colantonio, A. , & Vernich, L. ( 2002 ). Positive aspects of caregiving: Rounding out the caregiver experience. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17, 184188.
    Coleman, P. G. ( 2005 ). Reminiscence: Developmental, social and clinical perspectives. In M. L. Johnson (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of age and ageing (pp. 301309). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Coleman, P. G. , Ivani-Chalian, C. , & Robinson, M. ( 1999 ). Self and identity in advanced old age: Validation of a theory through longitudinal case analysis. Journal of Personality, 67(5), 819849.
    Congressional Budget Office [CBO]. ( 2013 ). Rising demand for long-term services and supports for elderly people. Retrieved from
    Cooper, C. , Selwood, A. , & Livingston, G. ( 2008 ). The prevalence of elder abuse and neglect: A systematic review. Age & Ageing, 37, 151160.
    Cordell, C. B. , Borson, S. , Boustani, M. , Chodosh, J. , Reuben, D. , Verghese, J. , . . . Fried, L. B. ( 2013 ). Alzheimer’s Association recommendations for operationalizing the detection of cognitive impairment during the Medicare Annual Wellness Visit in a primary care setting. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 9, 141150.
    Corey, G. , Corey, M. S. , & Callanan, P. ( 2011 ). Issues and ethics in the helping professions (
    ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Corporation for National & Community Service [CNCS]. ( 2012 ). The health benefits of volunteering for older Americans: A review of recent research. Retrieved from
    Corporation for National & Community Service [CNCS]. ( 2015 ). Volunteering and civic life in America. Retrieved from
    Corporation for National & Community Service [CNCS]. ( 2016 ). Volunteering and civic engagement in the United States. Retrieved from
    Cotter, K. A. , & Sherman, A. M. ( 2008 ). Love hurts: The influence of social relations on exercise self-efficacy for older adults with osteoarthritis. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 16, 465483.
    Council on Social Work Education [CSWE]. ( 2016 ). Exercise for sexual behavior and older adults. Retrieved from
    Coupland, D. ( 1991 ). Generation X: Tales for an accelerated culture. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.
    Craig, J. ( 2014 ). Music therapy to reduce agitation in dementia. Nursing Times, 110, 1215.
    Crary, D. ( 2011 ). Boomers will be pumping billions into anti-aging industry. Retrieved from
    Crombie, I. K. , Irvine, L. , Williams, B. , McGinnis, A. R. , Slane, P. W. , Alder, E. M. , & McMurdo, M. E. T. ( 2004 ). Why older people do not participate in leisure time physical activity: A survey of activity levels, beliefs, and deterrents. Age & Ageing, 33, 287292.
    Cruikshank, M. ( 2009 ). Learning to be old: Gender, culture, and aging (
    ed.). United Kingdom: Rowman & Littlefield.
    Cubanski, J. , Casillas, G. , & Damico, A. ( 2015, June . Poverty among seniors: An updated analysis of national and state level poverty rates under the official and supplemental poverty measures. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved from
    Cullinane, J. ( 2015, August 7 . All aboard: Retire on a ship. U.S. News: Money. Retrieved from
    Cumming, E. , & Henry, W. ( 1961 ). Growing old: The process of disengagement. New York, NY: Basic Books.
    Cummings, S. M. ( 2014 ). Ethical practices with older adults. Retrieved from
    Daatland, S. O. ( 2005 ). Quality of life and ageing. In M. L. Johnson (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of age and ageing (pp. 371377). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Davies, S. , & Nolan, M. ( 2006 ). ‘Making it better’: Self-perceived roles of family caregivers of older people living in care homes: A qualitative study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 43, 281291.
    DeBeauvior, S. ( 1972 ). The coming of age. London, England: Norton.
    Deehr, R. C. , & Shumann, A. ( 2009 ). Active Seattle: Achieving walkability in diverse neighborhoods. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 37, S403S411.
    de Gracia Blanco, M. , Olmo, J. G. , Arbones, M. M. , & Bosch, P. M. ( 2004 ). Analysis of self-concept in older adults in different contexts: Validation of the subjective aging perspective scale (SAPS). European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 20(4), 262274.
    De Jong, P. , & Berg, I. K. ( 2008 ). Interviewing for solutions (
    ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson.
    DeNavas-Walt, Carmen and Bernadette D. Proctor . 2015 . Income Poverty in the United States: 2014. Washington, DC: United States Census Bureau. Retrieved from
    Denborough, D. , Koolmatrie, C. , Mununggirritj, D. , Marika, D. , Dhurrkay, W. , & Yunupingu, M. ( 2006 ). Linking stories and initiatives: A narrative approach to work with skills and knowledge in communities. The International Journal of Narrative Therapy and Community Work, 2, 1951.
    Diener, E. , & Suh, M. E. ( 1998 ). Subjective well-being and age: An international analysis. In K. W. Schaie & M. P. Lawton (Eds.), Annual review of gerontology and geriatrics: Vol. 17. Focus on emotion and adult development (pp. 304324). New York, NY: Springer.
    Dietz, T. L. ( 2009 ). Drug and alcohol use among homeless older adults: Predictors of reported current and lifetime substance misuse problems in a national sample. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 28(2), 235255.
    differences are widening, and many may not catch up. The MacArthur Foundation:
    Dillenburger, K. , & McKerr, L. ( 2010 ). “How long are we able to go?”: Issues faced by older family caregivers of adults with disabilities. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39, 2938.
    Dionigi, R. A. , Horton, S. , & Bellamy, J. ( 2011 ). Meanings of aging among older Canadian women in varying physical activity levels. Leisure Sciences, 33, 402419.
    Dong, X. , Chen, R. , & Simon, M. A. ( 2014 ). Experience of discrimination among U.S. Chinese older adults. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, S76S81.
    Dong, X. , Simon, M. A. , Fulmer, T. , Mendes deLeon, C. F. , Herbert, L. E. , Beck, T. , Scherr, P. A. , & Evans, D. A. ( 2011 ). A prospective population-based study of differences in elder self-neglect and mortality between black and white older adults. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 66A(6), 695704.
    Donovan, K. , & Regehr, C. ( 2010 ). Elder abuse: Clinical, ethical, and legal considerations in social work practice. Clinical Social Work Journal, 38, 174182.
    Dugan, A. ( 2015 ). In U.S., support up for doctor-assisted suicide. Retrieved from
    Duggan, M. , Ellison, N. B. , Lampe, C. , Lenhart, A. , & Madden, M. ( 2015, January 9 . Social media update 2014. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from
    Dyer, C. B. , Goodwin, J. S. , Pickens-Pace, S. , Burnett, J. , & Kelly, A. ( 2007 ). Self-neglect among the elderly: A model based on more than 500 patients seen by a geriatric medicine team. American Journal of Public Health, 97(9), 16711676.
    Elliott, S. , Painter, J. , & Hudson, S. ( 2009 ). Living alone and fall risk factors in community-dwelling middle age and older adults. Journal of Community Health, 34, 301310.
    Ellman, T. , Sexton, M. , Warshafsky, D. , Sobieszczyk, M. , & Morrison, E. ( 2014 ). A forgotten population: Older adults with newly diagnosed HIV. AIDS Care, 28, 530536.
    Emlet, C. ( 2006 ). You’re awfully old to have this disease: Experiences of stigma and ageism in adults 50 years and older living with HIV/AIDS. The Gerontologist, 46, 781790.
    Encore. ( 2014 ). Our history. Retrieved from
    Enguidanos, S. , Pynoos, J. , Denton, A. , Alexman, & Diepenbrock, L. ( 2010 ). Comparison of barriers and facilitators in developing NORC programs: A tale of two communities. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 24, 291303.
    Entwistle, V. A. , Carter, S. M. , Cribb, A. , & McCaffery, K. ( 2010 ). Supporting patient autonomy: The importance of clinician-patient relationships. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 25(7), 741745.
    Erikson, E. ( 1963 ). Childhood and society (
    ed.). New York, NY: Norton.
    Estes, C. L. ( 2005 ). Women, ageing and inequality: A feminist perspective. In M. L. Johnson (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of age and ageing (pp. 552559). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, 29 U.S.C. §§ 2601–2654 ( 2006 ).
    Family Caregiver Alliance [FCA]. ( 2006 ). Caregiver Assessment: Principles, Guidelines and Strategies for Change. Report from a National Consensus Development Conference (Vol. I). San Francisco: Author. Retrieved from
    Family Caregiver Alliance [FCA]. ( 2009 ). Caregiving. Retrieved from
    Family Caregiver Alliance [FCA]. ( 2015 ). Women and caregiving: Facts and figures. Retrieved from
    Family Caregiver Alliance [FCA]. ( 2016 ). Caregiving statistics: Demographics. National Center on Caregiving. Retrieved from
    Federal Bureau of Investigation. (n.d.a.). Fraud against seniors. Scams and Safety. Retrieved from
    Federal Bureau of Investigation. (n.d.b.). Fraud target: Senior citizens. Common Fraud Schemes. Retrieved from
    Federal Interagency Forum on Aging Related Statistics [FIFoARS]. ( 2012 ). Older Americans 2012: Key indicators of well-being. Retrieved from
    Federal Interagency Forum on Aging Related Statistics [FIFoARS]. ( 2016 ). Older Americans 2012: Key indicators of well-being. Retrieved from
    Ferrell, J. ( 1942 ). Washington, D.C. Soldier Inspecting a Couple of “‘Zoot Suits”’ at the Uline Arena During Woody Herman’s Orchestra Engagement There. Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Black-and-White Negatives Collection, LC-USF34-011543-D. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, DC Retrieved from
    Ferrie, J. E. , Shipley, M. J. , Akbaraly, T. N. , Marmot, M. G. , Kivimaki, M. , & Singh-Manoux, A. ( 2011 ). Change in sleep duration and cognitive function: Findings from the Whitehall II study. Sleep, 34(5), 565573.
    Fingerman, K. L. , & Charles, S. T. ( 2010 ). It takes two to tango: Why older people have the best relationships. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 172176.
    Fingerman, K. L. , Hay, E. L. , & Birditt, K. S. ( 2004 ). The best of ties, the worst of ties: Close, problematic, and ambivalent relationships across the lifespan. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66, 792808.
    Fisher, G. G. , Ryan, L. H. , Sonnega, A. , & Naude, M. N. ( 2016 ). Job lock, work, and psychological well-being in the United States. Work, Aging, and Retirement, 2(3), 345358.
    Fisher, J. D. , Johnson, D. S. , Marchand, J. T. , Smeeding, T. M. , & Torrey, B. B. ( 2007 ). No place like home: Older adults and their housing. Journal of Gerontology, 62B(2), S120S128.
    Fisher, K. J. , Li, F. , Michael, Y. , & Cleveland, M. ( 2004 ). Neighborhood-level influences on physical activity among older adults: A multilevel analysis. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 11, 4563.
    Fiske, A. , Wetherell, J. L. , & Gatz, M. ( 2009 ). Depression in older adults. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 5, 363389.
    Fiske, S. T. , & Taylor, S. E. ( 1991 ). Social encoding: Attention and consciousness. Social cognition (
    ed., pp. 245294). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
    Fletcher, T. S. , & Eckberg, J. D. ( 2014 ). The effects of creative reminiscing on individuals with dementia and their caregivers: A pilot study. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 32, 6884.
    Flood, M. , & Phillips, K. D. ( 2007 ). Creativity in older adults: A plethora of possibilities. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 28, 389411.
    Flood, P. , & Blair, S. ( 2013 ). Men’s sheds in Australia: Effects on physical health and mental well-being. Retrieved from
    Folstein, M. F. , Folstein, S. E. , McHugh, P. R. ( 1975 ). Mini-mental state: A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189198.
    Fonda, S. J. , Wallace, R. B. , & Herzog, R. ( 2001 ). Changes in driving patterns and worsening depressive symptoms among older adults. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 56B(6), S343S351.
    Food and Agricultural Organization [FAO]. ( 2008 ). An introduction to the basic concepts of food security. EC-FAO Food Security Programme. Retrieved from
    Food and Agricultural Organization [FAO]. ( 2009 ). An Introduction to the Basic Concepts of Food Security. 13. Retrieved from
    Foster, L. , & Walker, A. ( 2015 ). Active and successful aging: A European policy perspective. The Gerontologist, 55(1), 8390.
    Foster P. , & Gaskins, S. ( 2009 ). Older African Americans’ management of HIV/AIDS stigma. AIDS Care, 21, 13061312.
    Fox, M. ( 2016, June 28 . Water systems violate lead rules nationwide, advocacy group finds. NBC News. Retrieved from
    Francoeur, R. , & Elkins, J. ( 2006 ). Older adults with diabetes and complications. In B. Berkman (Ed.), Handbook of social work in health and aging (pp. 2939). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Fredrickson, B. , Collins, C. , & Carstensen, L. ( 1989 ). Affective interpretations of old and young neutral faces. Gerontologist, 29, 231A.
    Fredriksen-Goldsen, K. I. , Kim, H. Barkan, S. E. , Muraco, A. , & Hoy-Ellis, C. P. ( 2013 ). Health disparities among lesbian, gay, and bisexual older adults: Results from a population-based study. American Journal of Public Health, 103(10), 18021809.
    Fredriksen-Goldsen, K. I. , Kim, H. J. , Muraco, A. , & Mincer, S. ( 2009 ). Chronically ill midlife and older lesbians, gay men, and biseuxals and their informal caregivers: The impact of the social context. Sexuality Research and Social Policy Journal of NSRC, 6(4), 5264.
    Fredriksen-Goldsen, K. I. , & Muraco, A. ( 2010 ). Aging and sexual orientation: A 25-year review of the literature. Research in Aging, 32(3), 372413.
    Freeman, E. E. , Gange, S. J. , Munoz, B. , & West, S. K. ( 2006 ). Driving status and risk of entry into long-term care in older adults. American Journal of Public Health, 96(7), 12541259.
    Frongillo, E. A. ( 1999 ). Validation of measures of food insecurity and hunger. The Journal of Nutrition, 129(2), 506S509S.
    Frumkin, H. ( 2002 ). Urban sprawl and public health. Public Health Reports, 117, 201217.
    Fry, R. ( 2016, April 25 . Millennials overtake Baby Boomers as America’s largest generation. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from
    Fullagar, S. ( 2008 ). Leisure practices as counter-depressants: Emotion-work and emotion-play within women’s recovery from depression. Leisure Sciences, 30(1), 3552.
    Gabard, D. L. , & Martin, M. W. ( 2011 ). Physical therapy ethics (
    ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company.
    Gaggioli, A. , Scaratti, C. , Morganti, L. , Stramba-Badiale, M. , Agostoni, M. , Spatola, C. A. , . . . Riva, G. ( 2014 ). Effectiveness of group reminiscence for improving wellbeing of institutionalized elderly adults: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 15, 408414.
    Gallup. ( 2012 ). Special report: 3.4% of U.S. adults identify as LGBT. Retrieved from
    Gatto, N. M. , Henderson, V. W. , Hodis, H. N. , St. John, J. A. , Lurmann, F. , Chen, J-C. , & Mack, W. J. ( 2014 ). Components of air pollution and cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults in Los Angeles. Neurotoxicology, 40, 17.
    Gawande, A. ( 2016 ). Quantity and quality of life: Duties of care in life-limiting illness. Journal of the American Medical Association, 315(3), 267269.
    Gellad, W. F. , Grenard, J. L. , & Marcum, Z. A. ( 2011 ). A systematic review of barriers to medication adherence in the elderly: Looking beyond cost and regimen complexity. The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, 9(1), 1123.
    Giachello, A. L. , Arrom, J. O. , Davis, M. , Sayad, J. V. , Ramirez, D. , Nandi, C. , & Ramos, C. ( 2003 ). Reducing diabetes health disparities through community-based participatory action research: The Chicago Southeast Diabetes Community Action Coalition. Public Health Reports, 118(4), 309323.
    Gilbert, C. N. , & Ricketts, K. G. ( 2008 ). Children’s attitudes towards older adults and aging: A synthesis of research. Educational Gerontology, 34, 570586.
    Gilderbloom, J. I. , & Rosentraub, M. S. ( 2008 ). Invisible jail: Providing housing and transportation for the elderly and disabled. In Invisible city: Poverty, housing, and new urbanism (pp. 102114). Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
    Gill, Z. ( 2006 ). Older people and volunteering. Office of Volunteers: Government of South Australia. Retrieved from
    Gillespie, L. D. , Robertson, M. C. , Gillespie, W. J. , Sherrington, C. , Gates, S. , Climson, L. M. , & Lamb, S. E. ( 2012 ). Interventions for preventing falls in older people living in the community. Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews, 9(11), 1327. Retrieved from
    Glicken, M. D. ( 2004 ). Using the strengths perspective in social work practice: A positive approach for the helping professions. Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
    Glisky, E. L. ( 2007 ). Changes in cognitive function in human aging. In D. R. Riddle (Ed.), Brain aging: Models, methods, and mechanisms (pp. 320). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis.
    Godwin, B. ( 2014 ). Colour consultation with dementia home residents and staff. Quality in Ageing and Older Adults, 15(2), 102119.
    Goldberg, J. , Lang, K. , & Barrington, V. ( 2016 ). How to prevent and end homelessness among older adults. Justice in aging: Fight senior poverty through law. Retrieved from
    Goody, C. M. , & Drago, L. (Eds.). ( 2010 ). Cultural food practices. Alexandria, VA: American Diabetic Association.
    Gostin, L. O. , & Roberts, A. E. ( 2016 ). Physician-assisted dying: A turning point? Journal of the American Medical Association, 315(3), 249250.
    Goyer, A. ( 2010, December 10 . More grandparents raising grandkids: New census data shows an increase in children being raised by extended family. AARP. Retrieved from
    Greaves, C. J. , & Farbus, L. ( 2006 ). Effects of creative and social activity on the health and well-being of socially isolated older people: Outcomes from a multi-method observational study. Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health, 126(3), 134142.
    Greenberg, J. , Schimel, J. , & Martens, A. ( 2002 ). Ageism: Denying the face of the future. In T. D. Nelson (Ed.), Ageism: Stereotyping and prejudice against older persons (pp. 2748). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
    Greenberg, J. S. , Mailick Seltzer, M. , & Greenley, J. R. ( 1993 ). Aging parents of adults with disabilities: The gratifications and frustrations of later-life caregiving. The Gerontologist, 33(4), 542550.
    Greene, G. J. , Lee, M. Y. , & Hoffpauir, S. ( 2005 ). The language of empowerment and strengths in clinical social work: A constructivist perspective. Families in Society, 86(2), 267277.
    Greenfield, E. A. , & Marks, N. F. ( 2004 ). Formal volunteering as a protective factor for older adults’ psychological well-being. Journal of Gerontology, 59B, S258S264.
    Grieco, E. M. , Acosta, Y. D. , de la Cruz, G. P. , Gambino, C. , Gryn, T. , Larsen, L. J. , Trevelyan, E. N. , & Walters, N. P. ( 2012 ). Foreign-born population in the United States: 2010. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from
    Groarke, J. M. , & Hogan, M. J. ( 2015 ). Enhancing wellbeing: An emerging model of the adaptive functions of music listening. Psychology of Music, published online July 9, 2015 . doi:
    Grossman, A. H. , D’Augelli, A. R. , & Hershberger, S. L. ( 2000 ). Social support networks of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults 60 years of age and older. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 55B(3), 171179.
    Guo, K. L. , & Castillo, R. J. ( 2012 ). The U.S. long term care system: Development and expansion of naturally occurring retirement communities as an innovative model for aging in place. Ageing International, 37, 210227.
    Hagens, C. , Beaman, A. , & Bouchard Ryan, E. ( 2003 ). Reminiscing, poetry writing, and remembering boxes: Personhood-centered communication with cognitively impaired older adults. Activities, Adaptation, & Aging, 27(3/4), 97112.
    Halbert, R. J. , Natoli, J. L. , Gano, A. , Badamgarav, E. , Buist, A. S. , & Mannio, D. M. ( 2006 ). Global burden of COPD: Systematic review and meta-analysis. European Respiratory Journal, 28, 523532.
    Hamilton, M. T. , Healy, G. N. , Dunstan, D. W. , Zderic, T. W. , & Owen, N. ( 2008 ). Too little exercise and too much sitting: Inactivity physiology and the need for new recommendations on sedentary behavior. Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports, 2(4), 292298.
    Hanania, N. A. , Sharma, G. , & Sharafkhaneh, A. ( 2010 ). COPD in the elderly patient. Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 31(5), 596606.
    Hansen, A. Y. , & Hartley, D. ( 2015, September . Promoting active living in rural communities. Active Living Research. Retrieved from
    Harris & Ewing. ( 1920 ). Women of America! If You Want to Put a Vote in the 1920 Put a (.10, 1.00, 10.00) in now. National Ballot Box for 1920. Harris & Ewing, LC-DIG-hec-29677. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, DC. Retrieved from
    Harris-Kojetin, L. , Sengupta, M. , Park-Lee, E. , Valverde, R. ( 2013 ). Long-term care services in the United States: 2013 overview. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Statistics, 3(37), 1107.
    Harvard University. ( 2016 ). Chinese Exclusion Act. Aspiration, acculturation, and impact: Immigration to the United States, 17891930. Library Open Collections Program. Retrieved from
    Hash, K. ( 2006 ). Caregiving and post-caregiving experiences of midlife and older gay men and lesbians. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 47(3/4), 121138.
    Haven, B. , O’Brien, N. , Evans, E. H. , White, M. , Meyer, T. D. , Mathers, J. C. , & Moffatt, S. ( 2016 ). Mobilizing resources for well-being: Implications for developing interventions in the retirement transition. The Gerontologist, 56(4), 615-629.
    Havighurst, R. J. ( 1961 ). Successful aging. The Geronotologist, 1, 813.
    Hayslip, B. , & Kaminski, P. L. ( 2005 ). Grandparents raising their grandchildren: A review of the literature and suggestions for practice. The Gerontologist, 45(2), 262269. ( 2015 ). Medications & Older Adults. Retrieved from
    Healthy People 2020. ( 2017 ). Social determinants of health. Retrieved from
    Hearth. ( 2011, December ). Ending homelessness among older adults and elders through permanent supportive housing. Revised Policy Paper prepared for the National Leadership Initiative to End Elder Homelessness. Retrieved from
    Heine, C. , & Browning, C. ( 2015 ). Dual sensory loss in older adults: A systematic review. The Gerontologist, 55(5), 913928.
    HelpAge International. ( 2015 ). Global AgeWatch Index: Insight report. Retrieved from
    Herek, G. , Mitnick, L. , Burris, S. , Chesney, M. , Devine, P. , Fullilove, M. , . . . Sweeney, T. ( 1998 ). Workshop report: AIDS and stigma: A conceptual framework and research agenda. AIDS & Public Policy Journal, 13, 3647.
    Hernandez-Tejada, M. A. , Amstadter, A. , Muzzy, W. , & Acierno, R. ( 2013 ). The national elder mistreatment study: Race and ethnicity findings. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, 25(4), 281293.
    Hickson, J. , & Housley, W. ( 1997 ). Creativity in later life. Educational Gerontology, 23(6), 539547.
    Hilgeman, M. M. , Allen, R. S. , DeCoster, J. , & Burgio, L. D. ( 2007 ). Positive aspects of caregiving as a moderator of treatment outcome over 12 months. Psychology and Aging, 22(2), 361371.
    Hill, K. , Sutton, L. , & Hirsch, D. ( 2011 ). Living on a low income in later life: An overview. AgeUK: Improving later life. Retrieved from
    Hodge, D. R. ( 2005 ). The spiritual life map: A client-centered pictorial instrument for spiritual assessment, planning, and intervention. Social Work, 50, 7787.
    Hodge, D. R. , & Holtrop, C. R. ( 2002 ). Spiritual assessment: A review of complementary assessment models. In T. L. Scaled & B. Hugen (Eds.), Social work and Christianity: Readings on the integration of Christian faith and social work practice (
    ed., pp. 167192). Botsford, CT: National Association of Christians in Social Work.
    Hofer, S. , Lim, L. , Guyatt, G. , & Oldridge, N. ( 2004 ). The MacNew heart disease health-related quality of life instrument: A summary. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 2(3). Retrieved from
    Hoff, A. ( 2008 ). Tackling poverty and social exclusion of older people: Lessons from Europe. Working paper 308. The Oxford Institute of Ageing. Retrieved from
    Hogan, M. ( 2005 ). Physical and cognitive activity and exercise for older adults: A review. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 60, 95126.
    Holstein, M. B. ( 2006 ). On being an aging woman. In T. M. Calasanti & K. F. Slevin (Eds.), Age matters: Realigning feminist thinking (pp. 313334). New York, NY: Routledge.
    Holstein, M. B. , & Minkler, M. ( 2007 ). Critical gerontology: Reflections for the 21st century. In M. Bernard & T. Scharf (Eds.), Critical perspectives on ageing societies (pp. 1326). Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
    Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing [HEARTH]. ( 2011, December 5 ). Rules and Regulations. Federal Register, 76(233). Retrieved from
    Hooyman, N. R. ( 2014 ). Social work, direct care workers, and family care provider challenges: Crisis in care. In R. C. Talley & S. S. Travis (Eds.), Multidisciplinary coordinated caregiving (pp. 5168). New York, NY: Springer.
    Hopkins, T. J. ( 1980 ). A conceptual framework for understanding the three isms’: Racism, ageism, sexism. Journal of Education for Social Work, 16, 6370.
    Housing and Urban Development [HUD]. ( 2011 ). The 2010 annual homeless assessment report to Congress. Retrieved from
    Housing and Urban Development [HUD]. ( 2014, July 28 . Notice on prioritizing persons experiencing chronic homelessness and other vulnerable homeless persons in permanent supportive housing and recordkeeping requirements for documenting chronic homeless status. Office of Community Planning and Development. Retrieved from
    Housing and Urban Development [HUD]. (n.d.a.). Housing choice vouchers fact sheet. Retrieved from
    Housing and Urban Development [HUD]. (n.d.b.). HUD’s public housing program. Retrieved from
    Hsieh, H. F. , & Wang, J. J. ( 2003 ). Effect of reminiscence therapy on depression in older adults: A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 40, 335345.
    Hughes, D. ( 2015, May 5 ). Smooth sailing through retirement: Could living on a cruise ship be your utopia? Retrieved from
    Hunt, M. , & Gunter-Hunt, G. ( 1985 ). Naturally occurring retirement communities. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 3, 321.
    Hunt, M. E. , & Gunter-Hunt, G. ( 1986 ). Naturally occurring retirement communities. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 3(3/4), 321.
    Indian Health Service. ( 2016 ). Disparities. Retrieved from
    Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. ( 2009 ). Living in a food desert: How lack of access to healthy foods can affect public health. Retrieved from
    Isham, M. ( 2016, May 23 . Health, hunger, and older adults. Feeding America. Retrieved from
    Janke, M. , & Davey, A. ( 2006 ). Implications of selective optimization with compensation on the physical, formal, and informal leisure patterns of adults. Indian Journal of Gerontology, 20, 5166.
    Jayawardena, C. , Kuo, I. H. , Unger, U. , Igic, A. , Wong, R. , Watson, C. I. , . . . MacDonald, B. A. ( 2010 ). Deployment of a service robot to help older people. The 2010 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 59905995.
    Johannesen, M. , & LoGiudice, D. ( 2013 ). Elder abuse: A systematic review of risk factors in community-dwelling elders. Age and Ageing, 42, 292298.
    Johnson (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of age and ageing (pp. 552559). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Johnson, M. L. ( 2005 ). The social construction of old age as a problem. In M. L. Johnson (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of age and ageing (pp.563571). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
    Jones, A. L. , Moss, A. J. , & Harris-Kojetin, L. D. ( 2011 ). Use of advance directives in long-term care populations. Retrieved from
    Jones, E. , & Beck-Little, R. ( 2002 ). The use of reminiscence therapy for the treatment of depression in rural-dwelling older adults. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 23, 279290.
    Kaira, G. , Subramanyam, A. , & Pinto, C. ( 2011 ). Sexuality: Desire, activity, and intimacy in the elderly. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 53(4), 300306.
    Kaiser Family Foundation. ( 2015 ). Medicaid moving forward. Retrieved from
    Kaiser Family Foundation. ( 2016 ). An overview of Medicare. Retrieved from
    Kamp, B. J. , Wellman, N. S. , & Russell, C. ( 2010 ). Position of the American Dietetic Association, American Society for Nutrition, and Society for Nutrition Education: Food and nutrition programs for community-residing older adults. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 42(2), 7282.
    Kane, R. L. , & Kane, R. A. ( 2001 ). What older people want from long-term care, and how they can get it. Health Affairs, 20, 114127.
    Karel, M. J. , Gatz, M. , Smyer, M. ( 2012 ). Aging and mental health in the decade ahead: What psychologists need to now. American Psychologist, 67, 184198.
    Katzmarzyk, P. T. , Church, T. S. , Craig, C. L. , & Bouchard, C. ( 2009 ). Sitting time and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 41(5), 9981005.
    Kemper, S. , Vandeputte, D. , Rice, K. , Cheung, H. , & Gubarchuk, J. ( 1995 ). Speech adjustments to aging during referential communication task. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 14, 4059.
    King, A. C. , Sallis, J. F. , Frank, L. D. , Saelens, B. E. , Cain, K. , Conway, T. L. , . . . Kerr, J. ( 2011 ). Aging in neighborhoods differing in walkability and income: Associations with physical activity and obesity in older adults. Social Science & Medicine, 73(10), 15251533.
    King, D. ( 2008 ). Neighborhood and individual factors in activity in older adults: Results from the neighborhood and senior health study. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 16, 144170.
    Kirschner, K. L. ( 2005 ). When written advance directives are not enough. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, 21(1), 193209.
    Kisthardt, W. E. ( 2013 ). Integrating the core competencies in strengths-based, person-centered practice: Clarifying purpose and reflecting principles. In D. Saleebey (Ed.), The strengths perspective in social work practice (
    ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
    Kite, M. E. , & Johnson, B. T. ( 1988 ). Attitudes toward older and younger adults: A meta analysis. Psychology and Aging, 3, 233244.
    Kite, M. E. , & Wagner, L. S. ( 2002 ). Attitudes towards older adults. In T. D. Nelson (Ed.), Ageism: Stereotyping and prejudice against older persons (pp. 129161). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Klein, R. , & Kelin, B. E. ( 2013 ). The prevalence of age-related eye diseases and visual impairment in aging: Current estimates. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 54(14), ORSF5-ORSF13.
    Klemmack, D. L. , Roff, L. L. , Parker, M. W. , Koenig, H. G. , Sawyer, P. , & Allman, R. M. ( 2007 ). A cluster analysis typology of religiousness/spirituality among older adults. Research on Aging, 29(2), 163183.
    Klever, S. ( 2013 ). Reminiscence therapy: Finding meaning in memories. Nursing, 43(4), 3637.
    Knowlton, K. ( 2015, October . Climate change threatens health. National Resources Defense Council. Retrieved from
    Kochanek, K. D. , Murphy, S. L. , Xu, J. , & Tejada-Vera, B. ( 2016, June 30 ). Deaths: Final data for 2014. National Vital Statistics Reports, 65(4). Retrieved from
    Komisar, H. , Cubanski, J. , Dawson, L. , & Neuman, T. ( 2012 ). Key issue in understanding the economic and health security of current and future generations of seniors. Medicare Policy. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved from
    Konrath, S. , Fuhrel-Forbis, A. , Lou, A. , & Brown, S. ( 2011 ). Motives for volunteering are associated with mortality risk in older adults. Healthy Psychology, 31, 8797.
    Kramer, B. J. ( 1997 ). Gain in the caregiving experience: Where are we? What next? The Gerontologist, 37, 218232.
    Krause, N. , & Wulff, K. M. ( 2004 ). Religious doubt and health: Exploring the potential dark side of religion. Sociology of Religion, 65(1), 3556.
    Krulewitch, H. , London, M. R. , Skakel, V. J. , Lundstedt, G. J. , Thomason, H. , & Brummel-Smith, K. ( 2000 ). Assessment of pain in cognitively impaired older adults: A comparison of pain assessment tools and their use by nonprofessional caregivers. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 48(2), 16071611.
    Kushel, M. ( 2012 ). Older homeless adults: Can we do more? Journal of General Medicine, 27(1), 56.
    Lai, J. M. , & Karlawish, J. ( 2008 ). Assessing the capacity to make everyday decisions: A guide for clinicians and an agenda for future research. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 15, 101111.
    Lancaster, L. C. , & Stillman, D. ( 2002 ). When generations collide: Who they are. Why they clash. How to solve the generational puzzle at work. New York, NY: Harper Business.
    Laughlin, L. ( 2013, April . Who’s minding the kids?: Child care arrangements, Spring 2011. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from
    Lee, E. , & Kim, J. ( 2013 ). Physical and social activities of older adults with functional limitations. Activities, Adaptation, & Aging, 37(2), 99120.
    Lee, J. A. B. , & Hudson, R. E. ( 2011 ). Empowerment approach to social work practice. In F. J. Turner (Ed.), Social work treatment: Interlocking theoretical approaches (
    ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Lee, J. S. , & Frongillo, E. A. ( 2001a ). Factors associated with food insecurity among U.S. elderly persons: Importance of functional impairments. Journal of Gerontology, 56B(2), S94S99.
    Lee, J. S. , & Frongillo, E. A. ( 2001b ). Nutritional and health consequences are associated with food insecurity among U.S. elderly persons. American Society for Nutritional Sciences, 131(5), 15031509.
    Leffler, Warren K. ( 1963 ). Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand, LC-DIG-ppmsca-03128. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, DC. Retrieved from
    Leist, A. K. ( 2013 ). Social media use of older adults: A mini-review. Gerontology, 59, 378384.
    Levy, B. R. , & Banaji, M. R. ( 2002 ). Implicit ageism. In T. D. Nelson (Ed.), Ageism: Stereotyping and prejudice against older persons (pp. 4975). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
    Levy, B. R. , & Leifheit-Limson, E. ( 2009 ). The stereotype-matching effect: Greater influence on functioning when age stereotypes correspond to outcomes. Psychology and Aging, 24, 230233.
    Levy, B. R. , Slade, M. D. , Kunkel, S. R. , & Kasl, S. V. ( 2002 ). Longevity increased by positive self-perceptions of aging. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 261270.
    Levy, B. R. , Zonderman, A. B. , Slade, M. D. , Ferrucci, L. ( 2011 ). Memory shaped by age stereotypes over time. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 432436.
    Leyva, V. L. , Breshears, E. M. , & Ringstad, R. ( 2013 ). Assessing the efficacy of LGBT cultural competency training for aging services providers in California’s central valley. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 57(2–4), 335-348. doi:
    Li, F. , Fisher, K. J. , Brownson, R. C. , & Bosworth, M. ( 2005 ). Multilevel modelling of built environment characteristics related to neighbourhood walking activity in older adults. Journal of Epidemiological Community Health, 59, 558564.
    Library of Congress. (n.d.). Great Depression and World War II, 1929-1945: Race relations in the 1930s and 1940s. Retrieved from
    Lindau, S. T. , Schumm, L. P. , Laumann, E. O. , Levinson, W. , O’Muircheartaigh, C. A. , & Waite, L. J. ( 2007 ). A study of sexuality and health among older adults in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine, 357(8), 762774.
    Lindquist, L. A. , & Golub, R. M. ( 2004 ). Cruise ship care: A proposed alternative to assisted living facilities. JAGS, 52, 19511954.
    Lockett, D. , Willis, A. , Edwards, N. ( 2005 ). Through seniors’ eyes: An exploratory qualitative study to identify environmental barriers to and facilitators of walking. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 37(3), 4865.
    Lord, S. R. , Menz, H. B. , & Sherrington, C. ( 2006 ). Home environment risk factors for falls in older people and the efficacy of home modifications. Age and Ageing, 33(S2), ii55ii59.
    Lord, S. R. , Smith, S. T. , & Menant, J. C. ( 2010 ). Vision and falls in older people: Risk factors and intervention strategies. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, 26(4), 569581.
    Lothian, K. , & Philp, I. ( 2001 ). Maintaining the dignity and autonomy of older people in the healthcare setting. British Medical Journal, 322, 668670.
    Lui, C-W. , Everingham, J-A. , Warburton, J. , Cuthill, M. , & Bartlett, H. ( 2009 ). What makes a community age-friendly: A review of international literature. Australasian Journal on Ageing, 28, 116121.
    Lum, T. Y. , & Lightfoot, E. ( 2005 ). The effects of volunteering on the physical and mental health of older people. Research on Aging, 27, 3155.
    Luo, Y. , Xu, J. , Granberg, E. , & Wentworth, W. M. ( 2012 ). A longitudinal study of social status, perceived discrimination, and physical and emotional health among older adults. Research on Aging, 34, 275301.
    Luszcynska, A. , Gutierrez-Dona, B. , & Schwarzer, R. ( 2005 ). General self-efficacy in various domains of human functioning: Evidence from five countries. International Journal of Psychology, 40, 8089.
    Madden, M. ( 2010, August 27 . Older adults and social media. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.or/2010/08/27/older-adults-and-social-media/
    Maglione, J. E. , Ancoli-Israel, S. , Peters, K. W. , Paudel, M. L. , Yaffe, K. , Ensurd, K. E. , & Stone, K. L. ( 2012 ). Depressive symptoms and subjective and objective sleep in community-dwelling older women. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 60(4), 635643.
    Mahmood, A. , Chaudhury, H. , Michael, Y. L. , Campo, M. , Hay, K. , & Sarte, A. ( 2012 ). A photovoice documentation of the role of neighborhood physical and social environments in older adults’ physical activity in two metropolitan areas in North America. Social Science & Medicine, 74, 11801192.
    Mann, M. , Hosman, C. M. H. , Schaalma, H. P. , & de Vries, N. K. ( 2004 ). Self-esteem in a broad-spectrum approach for mental health promotion. Health Education Research, 19(4), 357372.
    Maramaldi, P. , & Lee, J. ( 2006 ). Older adults with cancer. In B. Berkman (Ed.), Handbook of social work in health and aging (pp. 717). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Markoff, J. ( 2015, December 4 . As aging population grows, so do robotic health aides. New York Times. Retrieved from
    Marmot, M. ( 2005 ). Social determinants of health inequalities. The Lancet, 365, 10991104.
    Martens, A. , Goldenberg, J. L. , & Greenberg, J. ( 2005 ). A terror management perspective on ageism. Journal of Social Issues, 61, 223239.
    Martens, A. , Greenberg, J. , Schimel, J. , & Landau, M. J. ( 2004 ). Ageism and death: Effects of mortality salience and perceived similarity to elders on reactions to elderly people. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 15241536.
    Martinson, M. , & Berridge, C. ( 2015 ). Successful aging and its discontents: A systematic review of the social gerontology literature. The Gerontologist, 55(1), 5869.
    Mather, M. , Jacobsen, L. A. , & Pollard, K. M. ( 2015, December ). Population bulletin. Retrieved from
    Mathews, A. E. , Laditka, S. B. , Laditka, J. N. , Wilcox, S. , Corwin, S. J. , Liu, R. , . . . Logsdon, R. G. ( 2010 ). Older adults’ perceived physical activity enablers and barriers: A multicultural perspective. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 18, 119140.
    Mattison, M. ( 2000 ). Ethical decision making: The person in the process. Social Work, 45(3), 201212.
    Mayhew, L. ( 2005 ). Active ageing in the UK: Issues, barriers, policy direction. Innovation, 18(4), 455477.
    Mayo Clinic. ( 2015, June 25 ). Tai chi: A gentle way to fight stress. Retrieved from
    McCann, J. J. , Hebert, L. E. , Bienias, J. L. , Morris, M. C. , & Evans, D. A. ( 2004 ). Predictors of beginning and ending caregiving during a 3-year period in a biracial community population of older adults. Research and Practice, 94, 18001806.
    McCreadie, C. , & Tinker, A. ( 2005 ). The acceptability of assistive technology to older people. Ageing and Society, 25, 91110.
    McGuire, L. C. , Ahluwalia, I. B. , & Strine, T. W. ( 2006 ). Chronic disease-related behaviors in U.S. older women: Behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 2003. Journal of Women’s Health, 15(1), 37.
    Measure of American. ( 2016 ). Quick facts: Overall well-being. The Social Science Research Council. Retrieved from
    Mendes, F. R. ( 2013 ). Active ageing: A right or a duty? Health Sociology Review, 22(2), 174185.
    Meredith, G. E. , Schewe, C. D. , & Hiam, A. with Karlovich, J. ( 2002 ). Managing by defining moments. New York, NY: Hungry Minds.
    Merriam-Webster Dictionary. ( 2015 ). Definition of “old.” Retrieved from
    Meshel, D. S. , & McGlynn, R. P. ( 2004 ). Intergenerational contact, attitudes, and stereotypes of adolescents and older people. Educational Gerontology, 30, 457479.
    Milaszewski, D. , Greto, E. , Klochkov, T. , & Fuller-Thomson, E. ( 2012 ). A systematic review of education for the prevention of HIV/AIDS among older adults. Journal of Evidence Based Social Work, 9(3), 213230.
    Miller, G. , & Happell, B. ( 2006 ). Talking about hope: The use of participant photography. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 27, 10511065.
    Miller, W. R. , & Rollnick, S. ( 2002 ). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change (
    ed.). New York, NY: Guildford Press.
    Milligan, C. , Dowrick, C. , Payne, S. , Hanratty, B. , Irwin, P. , Neary, D. , & Richardson, D. ( 2013 ). Men’s sheds and other gendered interventions for older men: Improving health and wellbeing through social activity. A systematic review and scoping the evidence base. Retrieved from
    Milligan, C. , Gatrell, A. , & Bingley, A. ( 2004 ). “Cultivating health”: Therapeutic landscapes and older people in northern England. Social Science & Medicine, 58, 17811793.
    Minnes, P. , & Woodford, L. ( 2005 ). Well-being in aging parents caring for an adult with a developmental disability. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 11(1), 4766.
    Mitzner, T. L. , Boron, J. B. , Fausset, C. B. , Adams, A. E. , Charness, N. , Czaja, S. J. , . . . Sharit, J. ( 2010 ). Older adults talk technology: Technology usage and attitudes. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 17101721.
    Moberg, D. O. ( 2005 ). Research in spirituality, religion, and aging. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 45(1/2), 1140.
    Moberg, D. O. ( 2008 ). Spirituality and aging: Research and implications. Journal of Religion, Spirituality, & Aging, 20(1/2), 95134.
    Morell, C. M. ( 2003 ). Empowerment and long-living women: Return to the rejected body. Journal of Aging Studies, 17, 6985.
    Morgan, K. , Gregory, P. , Tomeny, M. , David, B. , & Gascoigne, C. ( 2012 ). Self-help treatment for insomnia symptoms associated with chronic conditions in older adults: A randomized control trial. Journal of American Geriatrics Society, 60(10), 18031810.
    Morrow-Howell, N. ( 2007 ). Civic service across the life course. Generations, 30, 3742.
    Morrow-Howell, N. ( 2010 ). Volunteering in later life: Research frontiers. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 65B, 461469.
    Morrow-Howell, N. , Hinterlong, J. , Rozario, P. A. , & Tang, F. ( 2003 ). Effects of volunteering on the well-being of older adults. Journal of Gerontology, 58B, S137S145.
    Muise, A. , & Desmarais, S. ( 2010 ). Women’s perception and use of “anti-aging” products. Sex Roles, 63, 125137.
    Mummery, W. K. , Kolt, G. , Schofield, G. , McLean, F. ( 2007 ). Associations between physical activity and other lifestyle behaviors in older New Zealanders. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 4, 411422.
    Muraco, A. , Fredriksen-Goldsen, K. ( 2011 ). “That’s what friends do”: Informal caregiving for chronically ill midlife and older lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 28(8), 10731092.
    Murrant, L. M. , Rykov, M. , Amonite, D. , & Loynd, M. ( 2000 ). Creativity and self-care for caregivers. Journal of Palliative Care, 16, 4449.
    Musick, M. , House, J. , & Williams, D. ( 2004 ). Attendance at religious services and mortality in a national sample. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 45, 198213.
    National Adult Protective Services Association [NAPSA]. ( 2016a ). About NAPSA. Retrieved from
    National Adult Protective Services Association [NAPSA]. ( 2016b ). Other safety concerns and self-neglect. Retrieved from
    National Alliance for Caregiving & AARP Public Policy Institute [NAC & AARP]. ( 2015 ). 2015 report: Caregiving in the U.S. Retrieved from
    National Alliance on Mental Health [NAMI]. ( 2009 ). Depression in older persons: Fact sheet. Retrieved from
    National Association for the Advancement of Colored People [NAACP]. ( 2016 ). Oldest and boldest. Retrieved from
    National Association of Area Agencies on Aging [NAAAA]. ( 2015 ). Annual report 2014–2015. Retrieved from
    National Association of Social Workers [NASW]. ( 2008 ). Code of Ethics of the National Association of Social Workers. Retrieved from
    National Association of Social Workers [NASW]. ( 2010 ). Social workers in hospice and palliative care: Occupational profile. Retrieved from
    National Cancer Institute [NCI]. ( 2013 ). Clear horizons: A quit-smoking guide for people 50 and older. Retrieved from
    National Cancer Institute [NCI]. ( 2015 ). What is cancer? Retrieved from
    National Center for Victims of Crime. ( 2014 ). Elder victimization. Retrieved from
    National Center on Elder Abuse. ( 2006 ). Late life domestic violence: What the aging network needs to know. Retrieved from
    National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. ( 1979 ). The Belmont Report. Retrieved from
    National Council on Aging [NCA]. ( 2015a ). Fact sheet: Economic security for seniors. Retrieved from
    National Council on Aging [NCA]. ( 2015b ). Fact sheet: Mature workers. Retrieved from
    National Dignity Council. (n.d.a.). The dignity in care champion. Retrieved from
    National Dignity Council. (n.d.b.). Becoming a dignity champion. Retrieved from
    National Dignity Council. (n.d.c.). The 10 dignity do’s. Retrieved from
    National Eye Institute [NEI]. ( 2009 ). Facts about cataract. Retrieved from
    National Eye Institute [NEI]. ( 2015a ). Facts about age-related macular degeneration. Retrieved from
    National Eye Institute [NEI]. ( 2015b ). Facts about diabetic eye disease. Retrieved from
    National Institute of Health [NIH]. ( 2015 ). NIH FY 2016–2020 Strategic plan to advance research on the health and well-being of sexual and gender minorities. NIH Sexual and Gender Minority Research Coordinating Committee. Retrieved from
    National Institute of Health [NIH]. ( 2016 ). What is a gene? Retrieved from
    National Institute of Health [NIH] Senior Health. ( 2012a ). What is hearing loss? Retrieved from
    National Institute of Health [NIH] Senior Health. ( 2012b ). Sleep and aging. Retrieved from
    National Institute of Health [NIH] Senior Health. ( 2014a ). How smoking affects your health. Retrieved from
    National Institute of Health [NIH] Senior Health. ( 2014b ). Quitting when you’re older. Retrieved from
    National Institute of Health [NIH] Senior Health. ( 2015a ). Alcohol and aging. Retrieved from
    National Institute of Health [NIH] Senior Health. ( 2015b ). If you drink. Retrieved from
    National Institute of Health [NIH] Senior Health. ( 2015c ). Exercise: Benefits of exercise. Retrieved from
    National Institute of Health [NIH] Senior Health. ( 2016 ). Eating well as you get older. Retrieved from
    National Institute on Aging [NIA]. ( 2011a ). Older adults and alcohol: You can get help. Retrieved from
    National Institute on Aging [NIA]. ( 2011b ). Biology of aging: Research today for a healthier tomorrow. Retrieved from
    National Institute on Aging [NIA]. ( 2012 ). Smart food choices for healthy aging. Retrieved from
    National Institute on Aging [NIA]. ( 2015a ). Sexuality in later life. Retrieved from
    National Institute on Aging [NIA]. ( 2015b ). Smart food choices for healthy aging. Retrieved from
    National Institute on Aging [NIA]. (n.d.). Vitamins and minerals. Retrieved from
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism [NIAAA]. ( 1999 ). Are women more vulnerable to alcohol’s effects? Retrieved from
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism [NIAAA]. ( 2004 ). NIAAA council approves definition of binge drinking. Retrieved from
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism [NIAAA]. ( 2016 ). Alcohol facts and statistics. Retrieved from
    National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism [NIAAA]. (n.d.). Older adults. Retrieved from
    National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA]. ( 2012 ). Principles of drug addiction treatment: A research-based guide. Retrieved from
    National Women’s History Museum. ( 2007 ). A history of women in industry. Retrieved from
    Natural Resources Defense Council [NRDC]. ( 2016 ). Water pollution. Retrieved from
    Nelson, T. D. ( 2002 ). Ageism: Stereotyping and prejudice against older persons. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
    Nelson, T. D. ( 2005 ). Ageism: Prejudice against our feared future selves. Journal of Social Issues, 61, 207221.
    Nelson, T. D. ( 2011 ). Ageism: The strange case of prejudice against the older you. In R. L. Wiener & S. L. Willborn (Eds.), Disability and aging discrimination (pp. 3747). New York, NY: Springer.
    Newall, N. E. G. , & Menec, V. H. ( 2015 ). Targeting socially isolated older adults: A process evaluation of the senior centre without walls social and educational program. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 34, 958976.
    Newman, S. , & Hatton-Yeo, A. ( 2008 ). Intergenerational learning and the contributions of older people. Ageing Horizons, 8, 3139.
    Nimer, J. , & Lundahl, B. ( 2007 ). Animal-assisted therapy: A meta-analysis. Anthrozoos, 20, 225238.
    Norcross, J. C. , Krebs, P. M. , & Prochaska, J. O. ( 2011 ). Stages of change. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67(2), 143154.
    NORCs. ( 2016 ). What is NORC SSP? An Aging in Place Initiative. Retrieved from
    Noronha, K. J. ( 2015 ). Impact of religion and spirituality on older adulthood. Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging, 27(1), 1633.
    North, M. S. , & Fiske, S. T. ( 2012 ). An inconvenienced youth?: Ageism and its potential intergenerational roots. Psychological Bulletin, 138(5), 982.
    North, M. S. , & Fiske, S. T. ( 2015 ). Modern attitudes toward older adults in the aging world: A cross-cultural meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 141, 9931021.
    Nowell, B. L. , Berkowtiz, S. L. , Deacon, Z. , & Foster-Fishman, P. ( 2006 ). Revealing the cues within community places: Stories of identity, history, and possibility. American Journal of Community Psychology, 37, 2946.
    O’Connell, J. J. ( 2005 ). Premature mortality in homeless populations: A review of the literature. Nashville, TN: National Health Care for the Homeless Council. Retrieved from
    Odejide, O. O. ( 2016 ). A policy prescription for hospice care. Journal of the American Medical Association, 315(3), 257258.
    Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion [ODPHP]. ( 2016 ). Older adults. Retrieved from
    Olmstead Rights. (n.d.). Olmstead v. LC: History and current status. Retrieved from
    Olson, E. D. , & Fedinick, K. P. ( 2016, June 28 . What’s in your water? Flint and beyond. Natural Resources Defense Council. Retrieved from
    Orsega-Smith, E. , Payne, L. , Mowen, A. , Ho, C. , & Godbey, G. ( 2007 ). The role of social support and self-efficacy in shaping leisure time physical activity in older adults. Journal of Leisure Research, 39, 705727.
    Orth, U. , Robins, R. W. , Trzesniewski, K. H. , Maes, J. , & Schmitt, M. ( 2009 ). Low self-esteem is a risk factor for depressive symptoms from young adulthood to old age. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 188, 472278.
    Orth, U. , Trzesniewski, K. H. , & Robins, R. W. ( 2010 ). Self-esteem development from young adulthood to old age: A cohort-sequential longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98(4), 645658.
    Ortman, J. M. , Velkoff, V. A. , & Hogan, H. ( 2014 ). An aging nation: The older population in the United States. Retrieved from
    Oswald, F. , Wahl, H. W. , Schilling, O. , Nygren, C. , Fange, A. , Sixsmith, A. , . . . Iwarsson, S. ( 2007 ). Relationship between housing and healthy aging in very old age. The Gerontologist, 47(1), 96107.
    Palmore, E. B. ( 1998 ). The facts on aging quiz (
    ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
    Palmore, E. B. ( 2001 ). The ageism survey: First findings. The Gerontologist, 41, 572575.
    Paloutzian, R. F. , & Ellison, C. W. ( 1982 ). Loneliness, spiritual well-being and quality of life. In L. A. Peplau & D. Perlman (Ed.), Loneliness: A sourcebook of current theory, research and therapy (pp. 224237). New York, NY: Wiley Interscience.
    Papouli, E. ( 2016 ). Teaching and learning for ethical practice in social work education. In I. Taylor , M. Bogo , M. Lefevre , & B. Teater (Eds.), Routledge international handbook of social work education (pp. 157170). London, England: Routledge.
    Parisi, J. M. , Xia, J. , Spira, A. P. , Xue, Q. , Rieger, M. L. , Rebok, G. W. , & Carlson, M. C. ( 2014 ). The association between lifestyle activities and late-life depressive symptoms. Activities, Adaptation, & Aging, 38, 110.
    Patterson, R. ( 1893–1933 ). Where There’s Smoke There’s Fire. Cartoon Drawings: Swann Collection of Caricature & Cartoon, LC-DIG-ppmsca-01589. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, DC. Retrieved from
    PBS. (n.d.a.). People & events: The Zoot Suit Riots of 1943. American Experience. Retrieved from
    PBS. (n.d.b.). The story of Chinatown. Chinatown: Resource Guide. Retrieved from
    Pelts, M. ( 2016 ). A study of intergroup contact theory: Using storytelling to increase awareness of lesbian and gay older adults in long-term care settings (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Missouri, Columbia, MO.
    Perkins, J. , Bartlett, H. , Travers, C. , & Rand, J. ( 2008 ). Dog-assisted therapy for older people with dementia: A review. Australasian Journal of Ageing, 27, 177182.
    Perkins, J. M. , Multhaup, K. S. , Perkins, H. W. , & Barton, C. ( 2008 ). Self-efficacy and participation in physical and social activity among older adults in Spain and the United States. The Gerontologist, 48(1), 5158.
    Pew Research Center. ( 2013 ). A survey of LGBT Americans. Retrieved from
    Pew Research Center. ( 2014a ). Population change in the U.S. and the world from 1950–2050 (Ch. 4). Attitudes about aging: A global perspective. Retrieved from
    Pew Research Center. ( 2014b ). Older adults and technology use. Retrieved from
    Pew Research Center. ( 2015a ). The whys and hows of generations research. Retrieved from
    Pew Research Center. ( 2015b ). Lesbian, gay and bisexual Americans differ from general public in their religious affiliations. Retrieved from
    Pew Research Center. ( 2016 ). Religious landscape study: Age distribution. Retrieved from
    Phillipson, C. ( 2005 ). The political economy of old age. In M. L. Johnson (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of age and ageing, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Pinquart, M. , & Sorensen, S. ( 2003 ). Differences between caregivers and noncaregivers in psychological health and physical health: A meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging, 18, 250267.
    Pinquart, M. , & Sorensen, S. ( 2011 ). Spouses, adult children, and children-in-law as caregivers of older adults: A meta-analytic comparison. Psychology and Aging, 26, 114.
    Plastow, N. A. , Atwal, A. , & Gilhooly, M. ( 2015 ). Food activities and identity maintenance in old age: A systematic review and meta-synthesis. Aging & Mental Health, 19(8), 667678.
    Ponnuswami, I. , Francis, A. P. , & Udhayakumar, P. ( 2012 ). Solution-based approach to social work practice with older persons. In V. Pulla , L. Chenoweth , A. Francis , & S. Bakaj (Eds.), Papers in strengths-based practice (pp. 150161). New Delhi, India: Allied Publishers.
    Population Reference Bureau. ( 2013 ). Elderly immigrants in the United States. Retrieved from
    Porter, E. ( 2016, September 8 . One man turned nursing home design on its head when he created this stunning facility. Upworthy. Retrieved from
    Porter, K. E. , Ronneberg, C. R. , & Witten, T. M. ( 2013 ). Religious affiliation and successful aging among transgender older adults: Findings from the Trans MetLife Survey. Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging, 25(2), 112138.
    PR Newswire. ( 2016 ). Pet owners dominate in Latin America, Russia, and USA. Retrieved from
    Price, C. A. , & Nesteruk, O. ( 2015 ). What to expect when you retire: By women for women. Marriage & Family Review, 51, 418440.
    Prochaska, J. O. , & DiClemente, C. C. ( 1983 ). Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: Toward an integrative model of change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 390395.
    Prochaska, J. O. , & DiClemente, C. C. ( 1992 ). Stages of change in the modification of problem behaviors. Progress in Behavior Modification, 28, 183218.
    Proulx, C. M. , Helms, H. M. , & Buehler, C. ( 2007 ). Marital quality and personal well-being: A meta-analysis. Journal of Marriage and Family, 69, 576593.
    Putnam, M. , & Stark, S. ( 2006 ). Aging and functional disability. In B. Berkman (Ed.), Handbook of social work in health and aging (pp. 7990). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Quill, T. E. , Back, A. L. , & Block, S. D. ( 2016 ). Responding to patients requesting physician-assisted death: Physician involvement at the very end of life. Journal of the American Medical Association, 315(3), 245246.
    Rabins, P. V. , & Black, B. S. ( 2010 ). Ethical issues in geriatric psychiatry. International Review of Psychiatry, 22(3), 267273.
    Raina, P. , Waltner-Toews , Bonnett, B. , Woodward, C. , & Abernathy, T. ( 1999 ). Influence of companion animals on the physical and psychological health of older people: An analysis of a one-year longitudinal study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 47(3), 323329.
    Rantanen, T. ( 2013 ). Promoting mobility in older people. Journal of Preventative Medicine and Public Health, 46, S50S54.
    Raphelson, S. ( 2014, October, 6 ). From GIs to GenZ (or is it igen?): How generations get nicknames. NPR: Special series, new boom. Retrieved from
    Reardon, C. ( 2012 ). The changing face of older adult substance abuse. Social Work Today, 12(1), 8.
    Reed, C. ( 2015, April 5 . Dutch nursing home offers rent-free housing to students. PBS Newshour. Retrieved from
    Richeson, N. , & Thorson, J. A. ( 2002 ). The effect of autobiographical writing on the subjective well-being of older adults. North American Journal of Psychology, 4, 395404.
    Rippon, I. , Kneale, D. , de Oliveira, C. , Demakakos, P. , & Steptoe, A. ( 2014 ). Perceived age discrimination in older adults. Age and Ageing, 43, 379386.
    Roberson, D. , & Pelclova, J. ( 2014 ). Social dancing and older adults: Playground for physical activity. Ageing International, 39, 124143.
    Robinson, H. , MacDonald, B , & Broadbent, E. ( 2014 ). The role of healthcare robots for older people at home: A review. International Journal of Social Robotics, 6, 575591.
    Robinson, L. , Smith, M. , & Segal, J. ( 2017 ). Senior exercise and fitness tips. Retrieved from
    Rodiek, S. ( 2002 ). Influence of an outdoor garden on mood and stress in older persons. Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture, 13, 1321.
    Rodriguez-Rodero, S. , Fernandez-Morera, J. L. , Menendez-Torre, E. , Calvanese, V. , Fernandez, A. F. , & Fraga, M. F. ( 2011 ). Aging genetics and aging. Aging and Disease, 2(3), 186195.
    Roth, D. L. , Mittelman, M. S. , Clay, O. J. , Madan, A. , & Haley, W.E. ( 2005 ). Changes in social support as mediators of the impact of a psychosocial intervention for spouse caregivers of persons with Alzheimer’s disease. Psychology and Aging, 20, 634644.
    Roth, D. L. , Perkins, M. , Wadley, V. G. , Temple, E. M. , & Haley, W. E. ( 2009 ). Family caregiving and emotional strain: Associations with quality of life in a large national sample of middle-aged and older adults. Quality of Life Research, 18, 679688.
    Rowe, J. W. , & Kahn, R. L. ( 1997 ). Successful aging. The Gerontologist, 37(4), 433440.
    Rubenstein, L. Z. ( 2006 ). Falls in older people: Epidemiology, risk factors, and strategies for prevention. Age and Ageing, 35(S2), ii37ii41.
    Russell, D. , & Taylor, J. ( 2009 ). Living alone and depressive symptoms: The influence of gender, physical disability, and social support among Hispanic and non-Hispanic older adults. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 64B(1), 95104.
    Ryan, C. L. , & Bauman, K. ( 2016, March . Educational attainment in the United States: 2015. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from
    Saleebey, D. (Ed.). ( 2013 ). The strengths perspective in social work practice (
    ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
    Sands, R. G. , & Goldberg-Glen, R. S. ( 2000 ). Factors associated with stress among grandparents raising their grandchildren. Family Relations, 49(1), 97105.
    Schulz, R. , & Sherwood, P. R. ( 2008 ). Physical and mental health effects of family caregiving. American Journal of Nursing, 108, 2327.
    Schuster, E. ( 1998 ). A community bound by words: Reflections on a nursing home writing group. Journal of Aging Studies, 12, 137147.
    Serdarevic, M. , & Lemke, S. ( 2013 ). Motivational interviewing with the older adult. International Journal of Mental Health Promotion, 15(4), 240249.
    Sermons, M. W. , & Henry, M. ( 2010, April . Demographics of homelessness series: The rising elderly population. Homelessness Research Institute. Retrieved from
    Shelton, A. ( 2015, August . Social security: Who’s counting on it? AARP. Retrieved from
    Sherrington, C. , Tiedemann, A. , Fairhall, N. , Close, J. C. T. , & Lord, S. R. ( 2011 ). Exercise to prevent falls in older adults: An update meta-analysis and best practice recommendations. NSW Public Health Bulletin, 22(3-4), 7883.
    Shoval, N. , Auslander, G. , Cohen-Shalom, K. , Isaacson, M. , Landau, R. , & Heinik, J. ( 2010 ). What we can learn about mobility of the elderly in the GPS era? Journal of Transport Geography, 18(5), 603612.
    Smith, A. ( 2014 ). Older adults and technology use. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from
    Sneed, J. R. , & Whitbourne, S. K. ( 2003 ). Identity processing and self-consciousness in middle and later adulthood. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 58B(6), P313P319.
    Social Security. ( 2015 ). Retirement planner: Benefits by year of birth. Retrieved from
    Sollitto, M. ( 2016 ). Making home safer for seniors: A room-by-room assessment. Retrieved from
    Soltys, F. , & Kunz, J. ( 2007 ). Reminiscence and older adults. In J. Kunz & F. Soltys (Eds.), Transformational reminiscence: Life story work (pp. 4166). New York, NY: Springer.
    Sontag, S. ( 1972 ). The double standard of aging. Saturday Review of the Society, 55, 2938.
    Sontag, S. ( 1997 ). The double standard of aging. In M. Pearsall (Ed.), The other within us: Feminist explorations of women and aging (pp. 1924). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Sorensen, S. , Pinquart, M. , & Duberstein, P. ( 2002 ). How effective are interventions with caregivers?: An updated meta-analysis. The Gerontologist, 42, 356372.
    Sorrell, J. M. ( 2015 ). Meditation for older adults: A new look at an ancient intervention for mental health. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 53(5), 1519.
    Souza, P. ( 2009 ). Official Portrait of President-Elect Barack Obama/Pete Seuza. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand, LC-DIG-ppbd-00358. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, DC. Retrieved from
    Spoon, Chad. ( 2016 ). Infographic: Run Errands on Foot or Bike: A Remedy for Adult Inactivity. Active Living Research. Accessed on May 1, 2017 . Retrieved from
    Stanley, M. A. , Bush, A. L. , Camp, M. E. , Jameson, J. P. , Phillips, L. , Barber, C. R. , . . . Cully, J. A. ( 2011 ). Older adults’ preferences for religion/spirituality in treatment for anxiety and depression. Aging & Mental Health, 15(3), 334343.
    Stanley, M. A. , Wilson, N. L. , Novy, D. M. , Rhoades, H. M. , Wagener, P. D. , Greisinger, A. J. , Cully, J. A. , & Kunik, M. E. ( 2009 ). Cognitive behavior therapy for generalized anxiety disorder among older adults in primary care: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA, 301(14), 14601467.
    Statista. ( 2017 ). Number of apps available in leading app stores as of March 2017. The Statistics Portal. Retrieved from
    Staudinger, U. M. ( 2015 ). Images of aging: Outside and inside perspectives. Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 35(1), 187209.
    Stenner, P. , McFarquhar, T. , & Bowling, A. ( 2011 ). Older people and ‘active ageing’: Subjective aspects of ageing actively. Journal of Health Psychology, 16(3), 467477.
    Stephens, M. (n.d.) The history of television. Grolier Encyclopedia. Retrieved from
    Stepheson, R. C. ( 2006 ). Promoting self-expression through art therapy. Generations, spring, 2426.
    Steptoe, A. , Shankar, A. , Demakakos, P. , & Wardle, J. ( 2013 ). Social isolation, loneliness, and all-cause mortality in older men and women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(15), 57975801.
    Stergiopoulos, V. , & Hermann, N. ( 2003 ). Old and homeless: A review and survey of older adults who use shelters in an urban setting. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 48(6), 374380.
    Stoddard, S. ( 2014 ). 2014 Disability statistics annual report. Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire.
    Strawbridge, W. J. ( 2005 ). Spirituality and healthy behaviors. Spiritual and Pastoral Care Research Information Newsletter, 2(16), 18.
    Stuen, C. ( 2006 ). Older adults with age-related sensory loss. In B. Berkman (Ed.), Handbook of social work in health and aging (pp. 6577). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration [SAMHSA]. ( 2010 ). The TEDS report: Changing substance abuse patterns among older admissions: 1992 and 2008. Retrieved from
    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration [SAMHSA]. ( 2011 ). The NSUDUH report: Illicit drug use among older adults. Retrieved from
    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Service Administration [SAMHSA]. ( 2016 ). Binge drinking: Terminology and patterns of use. Retrieved from
    Sum, S. , Mathews, R. M. , Hughes, I. , & Campbell, A. ( 2008 ). Internet use and loneliness in older adults. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11, 208211.
    Sun, F. , Norman, I. J. , & While, A. E. ( 2013 ). Physical activity in older people: A systematic review. BMC Public Health, 13, 449466.
    Syme, M. L. , Klonoff, E. A. , Macera, C. A. , & Brodine, S. K. ( 2013 ). Predicting sexual decline and dissatisfaction among older adults: The role of partnered and individual physical and mental health factors. The Journals of Gerontology, 68(3), 323332.
    Synder, B. A. ( 1997 ). Expressive art therapy techniques: Healing the soul through creativity. Journal of Humanistic Education & Development, 36, 7482.
    Tajfel, H. , & Turner, J. C. ( 1979 ). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin & S. Worchel (Ed.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 3347). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks Cole Publishing.
    Tajfel, H. , & Turner, J. C. ( 1986 ). The social identity theory of intergroup behaviour. In. S. Worchel & W. G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 724). Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall.
    Tamura, T. , Yonemitsu, S. , Itoh, A. , Oikawa, D. , Kawakami, A. , Higashi, Y. , . . . Nakajima, K. ( 2004 ). Is an entertainment robot useful in the care of elderly people with severe dementia? Journal of Geronotology, 59A, 8385.
    Tarbell, J. H. ( 1907 ). The Beginnings of Shaker apple sauce. Miscellaneous Items in High Demand, LC-USZ62-133127. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, DC. Retrieved from
    Teaster, P. B. ( 2003 ). A response to the abuse of vulnerable adults: The 2000 survey of state adult protective services. The National Center on Elder Abuse. Retrieved from
    Teaster, P. B. , Dugar, T. A. , Mendiondo, M. S. , Abner, E. L. , Cecil, K. A. , Otto, J. M. ( 2006 ). The 2004 survey of state adult protective services: Abuse of adults 60 years of age and older. The National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse and The National Adult Protective Services Association. Retrieved from
    Teater, B. ( 2014 ). An introduction to applying social work theories and methods (
    ed.). Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press.
    Teater, B. ( 2016 ). How stereotypes and attitudes towards older adults are challenged through intergenerational contact: Young people explain the process. Gerontology & Geriatrics Education. Published online February 17, 2016 . doi:
    Teater, B. , & Baldwin, M. ( 2014 ). Singing for successful ageing: The perceived benefits of participating in the Golden Oldies community-arts programme. British Journal of Social Work, 44(1), 8199.
    Teater, B. , & Chonody, J. ( 2017a ). Stereotypes and attitudes toward older people among children transitioning from middle childhood into adolescence: Time matters. Gerontology & Geriatrics Education, 38(2), 204218. doi:
    Teater, B. , & Chonody, J. ( 2017b ). Promoting Actively Aging: Advancing a framework for social work practice with older adults. Families in Society, 98(2), 137145.
    Teater, B. , & Hammond, G. C. ( 2010 ). Exploring smoking prevalence, quit attempts, and readiness to quit cigarette use among women in substance abuse treatment. Social Work in Health Care, 49, 176192.
    The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. ( 2013 ). Cosmetic procedures increase in 2012. Statistics, Surveys & Trends: Press Center. Retrieved from
    The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery. ( 2014 ). Cosmetic surgery national data bank. Retrieved from
    The American Society of Plastic Surgeons. ( 2015 ). 2014 Plastic surgery statistics. Retrieved from
    The MacArthur Foundation. ( 2008 ). Differences in life expectancy due to race and educational
    Thomas, J. ( 2011 ). Trajectories of social engagement and limitations in late life. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 52, 430443.
    Thomas, P. A. ( 2011 ). Trajectories of social engagement and limitations in late life. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 52, 430443.
    Tinker, A. , Ginn, J. , & Ribe, E. ( 2013, September . Assisted living platform—the long term care revolution: A study of innovatory models to support older people with disabilities in the Netherlands. Retrieved from
    Townsend, P. ( 2007 ). Using human rights to defeat ageism: Dealing with policy induced structured dependency. In M. Bernard & T. Scharf (Eds.), Critical perspectives on ageing societies (pp. 2744). Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
    Treas, J. , & Mazumdar, S. ( 2004 ). Kinkeeping and caregiving: Contributions of older people in immigrant families. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 35, 105122.
    Tremoulet, A. ( 2010 ). Manufactured home parks: NORCs awaiting discovery. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 24, 335355.
    Turner, M. A. , Popkin, S. , & Cunningham, M. ( 1999 ). Section 8 mobility and neighborhood health: Emerging issues and policy challenges. Retrieved from
    Umberson, D. , Crosnoe, R. , & Reczek, C. ( 2010 ). Social relationships and health behavior across life course. Annual Review of Sociology, 36, 139157.
    Umberson, D. , Williams, K. , Powers, D. A. , Liu, H. , & Needham, B. ( 2006 ). You make me sick: Marital quality and health over the life course. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 47, 116.
    United Nations [UN]. ( 2013 ). World population on ageing. Retrieved from
    United Nations [UN]. ( 2015 ). World population prospects: The 2015 revision. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. New York, NY: United Nations.
    United Nations [UN]. (n.d.). International day of older persons. Retrieved from
    United States Department of Agriculture [USDA]. ( 2012, April . Building a healthy America: A profile of the supplemental nutrition assistance program. United States Department of Agriculture. Food and Nutrition Service. Retrieved from
    United States Department of Agriculture [USDA]. ( 2014, March . SNAP participation, food security, and geographic access to food. Nutrition assistance program report: Food and nutrition service. Office of Policy Support. Retrieved from
    United States Department of Agriculture [USDA]. ( 2015, December . Characteristics of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program households: Fiscal year 2014 (summary). Retrieved from
    United States Department of Agriculture [USDA]. ( 2016 ). Supplemental nutrition assistance (SNAP). Food and Nutrition Service. Retrieved from
    U.S. Census Bureau. ( 2012a ). The foreign-born population in the United States: 2010. American Community Survey Reports. Retrieved from
    U.S. Census Bureau. ( 2012b ). Nearly 1 in 5 people have a disability in the U.S. Retrieved from
    U.S. Census Bureau. ( 2014 ). 10 percent of grandparents live with a grandchild. Retrieved from
    U.S. Census Bureau. ( 2015 ). Income and poverty in the United States: 2014. Current population reports. Retrieved from
    U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. ( 2014 ). INS records for 1930s Mexican Repatriations.
    U.S. Department of Education ( 2015 ). The condition of education 2015 (NCES 2015–144). National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [DHHS]. ( 2003 ). The future supply of long-term care workers in relation to the aging baby boom generation. Retrieved from
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [DHHS]. ( 2008 ). 2008 physical activity guidelines for Americans. Retrieved from
    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services [DHHS]. ( 2013 ). A profile of older Americans: 2013. Administration on Aging. Retrieved from
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [DHHS]. ( 2014 ). The health consequences of smoking – 50 years of progress: A report of the Surgeon General. Retrieved from
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [DHHS]. ( 2015 ). Key features of the Affordable Care Act by year. Retrieved from
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Service and U.S. Department of Agriculture. ( 2015 ). 2015-2020 dietary guidelines for Americans. Retrieved from
    U.S. Department of Labor. ( 2014 ). Volunteering in the United States 2015. Retrieved from
    U.S. Department of Labor. ( 2016 ). Women of working age: Latest annual data. Retrieved from
    U.S. Department of Labor Statistics. ( 2015, December ). BLS labor reports. Retrieved from
    U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness. (2016, February). Fulfilling the dream: Aligning state efforts to implement Olmstead and end chronic homeless. Retrieved from
    VanHoutven, C. H. , & Norton, E. C. ( 2004 ). Informal care and health care use of older adults. Journal of Health Economics, 23, 11591180.
    Victor, C. , Scambler, S. , Bond, J. , & Bowling, A. ( 2000 ). Being alone in later life: Loneliness, social isolation, and living alone. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology, 10(4), 407417.
    Vitman, A. , Iecovich, E. , & Alfasi, N. ( 2014 ). Ageism and social integration of older adults in their neighborhoods in Israel. The Gerontologist, 54, 177189.
    von Humboldt, S. , & Leal, I. , ( 2012 ). Person-centered therapy and older adults’ self-esteem: A pilot study with follow-up. Studies in Sociology of Science, 3(4), 110.
    Wahrendorf, M. , Ribet, C. , Zins, M. , & Siegrist, J. ( 2008 ). Social productivity and depressive symptoms in early old age—results from the GAZEL study. Aging and Mental Health, 12, 310316.
    Wakefield, M. A. , Durkin, S. , Spittal, M. J. , Siahpush, M. , Scollo, M. , Simpson, J. A. , . . . Hill, D. ( 2008 ). Impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on monthly adult smoking prevalence. American Journal of Public Health, 98(8), 14431450.
    Walker, A. ( 2006 ). Active aging in employment: Its meaning and potential. Asia-Pacific Review, 13(1), 7893.
    Walker, A. ( 2009 ). Commentary: The emergence and application of active aging in Europe. Journal of Aging & Social Policy, 21, 7593.
    Wallace, K. A. , & Bergeman, C. S. ( 2002 ). Spirituality and religiosity in a sample of African American elders: A life story approach. Journal of Adult Development, 9(2), 141154.
    Walsh, S. M. , Radcliffe, S. , Castillo, L. C. , Kumar, A. M. , & Broschard, D. M. ( 2007 ). A pilot study to test the effects of art-making classes for family caregivers of patients with cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 34, 18.
    Ward, B. W. , Clarke, T. C. , Freeman, G. , & Schiller, J. S. ( 2015 ). Early release of selected estimates based on data from the 2014 National Health Interview Survey. Retrieved from
    Webb, S. , Chonody, J. M. , Ranzijn, R. , Owen, M. , & Bryan, J. ( 2015 ). A qualitative investigation of gerontological practice: The views of social work and psychology students, faculty, and practitioners. Gerontology & Geriatrics Education. Published online first. doi:
    Webber, S. C. , Porter, M. M. , & Menec, V. H. ( 2010 ). Mobility in older adults: A comprehensive framework. The Gerontologist, 50(4), 443450.
    Weinberger, M. I. , & Whitbourne, S. K. ( 2010 ). Depressive symptoms, self-reported physical functioning, and identity in community-dwelling older adults. Ageing International, 35(4), 276285.
    Weinfield, Nancy S. , Gregory Mills, Christine Borger, Maeve Gearing, Theodore Macaluso, Jill Montaquila, Sheila Zedlewski. 2014. Hunger in America 2014: National Report Prepared for Feeding America. Rockville, MA: Westat and Urban Institute, (7), 1176. Retrieved from
    Wells, M. ( 2010 ). Resilience in older adults living in rural, suburban, and urban areas. Online Journal of Rural Nursing and Health Care, 10(2), 4554.
    Wen, C. P. , Wai, J. P. , Tasi, M. K. , Yang, Y. C. , Cheng, T. Y. , Lee, M. C. , . . . Wu, X. ( 2011 ). Minimum amount of physical activity for reduced mortality and extended life expectancy: A prospective cohort study. Lancet, 378, 12441253.
    WHCOA. ( 2015 ). Healthy aging policy brief. Retrieved from
    Wheeler, J. A. , Gorey, K. M. , & Greenblatt, B. ( 1998 ). The beneficial effects of volunteering for older volunteers and the people they serve: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 47, 6979.
    Wiles, J. L. , Leibing, A. , Guberman, N. , Reeve, J. , & Allen, R. E. S. ( 2012 ). The meaning of “Ageing in Place” to older people. The Gerontologist, 52(3), 357366.
    Williams, D. R. , & Wilson, C. M. ( 2001 ). Race, ethnicity, and aging. In R. H. Binstock & L. K. George (Eds.), Handbook of aging and the social sciences (
    ed., pp. 160178). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Williams, K. , & Kemper, S. ( 2010 ). Exploring interventions to reduce cognitive decline in aging. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 48(5), 4251.
    World Health Organization [WHO]. ( 2000 ). Towards an international consensus on policy for long-term care of the ageing. Retrieved from
    World Health Organization [WHO]. ( 2002 ). Active ageing: A policy framework. Retrieved from
    World Health Organization [WHO]. ( 2002b ). Missing voices: Views of older persons. Retrieved from
    World Health Organization [WHO]. ( 2005 ). Promoting mental health: Concepts, emerging evidence, practice. Retrieved from
    World Health Organization [WHO]. ( 2007a ). Global age-friendly cities project. Retrieved from
    World Health Organization [WHO]. ( 2007b ). Global age-friendly cities: A guide. Retrieved from
    World Health Organization [WHO]. ( 2008 ). A global response to elder abuse and neglect: Building primary health care capacity to deal with the problem worldwide: Main report. Retrieved from
    World Health Organization [WHO]. ( 2014 ). Noncommunicable diseases (NCD) country profiles. United States of America. Retrieved from
    World Health Organization [WHO]. ( 2015 ). Elder abuse: Fact sheet no. 357. Retrieved from
    World Health Organization [WHO]. ( 2015a ). Noncommunicable diseases. Retrieved from
    World Health Organization [WHO]. ( 2015b ). Mental health and older adults. Retrieved from
    World Health Organization [WHO]. ( 2016 ). Health promotion. Retrieved from
    World Health Organization [WHO]. ( 2017 ). Global health observatory (GHO) data: Life expectancy. Retrieved from
    Wrzus, C. , Hanel, M. , Wagner, J. , & Neyer, F. J. ( 2013 ). Social network changes and life events across the life span: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 5380.
    Wu, J. , Holmes, G. M. , DeWalt, D. A. , Macabasso-O’Connell, A. , Bibbins-Domingo, K. , Ruo, B. , . . . Pignone, M. ( 2013 ). Low literacy is associated with increased risk of hospitalization and death among individuals with heart failure. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 28, 11741180.
    Xu, J. , Murphy, S. L. , Kochanek, K. D. , & Basitan, B. A. ( 2016, February 16 ). Deaths: Final data for 2013. National Vital Statistics Reports, 65(4). Retrieved from
    Yang, Y. T. , & Curlin, F. A. ( 2016 ). Why physicians should oppose assisted suicide. Journal of the American Medical Association, 315(3), 24.
    Yap, A. F. , Thirumoorthy, T. , & Kwan, Y. H. ( 2015 ). Medication adherence in the elderly. Journal of Clinical Gerontology & Geriatrics. doi:
    Yoon, D. P. , & Lee, E. ( 2006 ). The impact of religiousness, spirituality, and social support on psychological well-being among older adults in rural areas. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 48(3/4), 281298.
    Yun, R. J. , & Lachman, M. E. ( 2006 ). Perceptions of aging in two cultures: Korean and American views on old age. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 21, 5570.
    Zarit, S. H. , Stephens, M. A. , Townsend, A. , & Greene, R. ( 1998 ). Stress reduction for family caregivers: Effects of day care use. Journals of Gerontology series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 53B, S267S277.
    Zebrowitz, L. A. , & Montepare, J. M. ( 2000 ). Too young, too old: Stigmatizing adolescents and elders. In T. F. Heatherson , R. E. Kleck , M. R. Hebl , & J. G. Hull (Eds.), The social psychology of stigma (pp. 334373). New York, NY: Guildford Press.
    Zettel, L. A. , & Rook, K. S. ( 2004 ). Substitution and compensation in the social networks of older widowed women. Psychology and Aging, 19, 433443.
    Zijstra, G. A. R. , Van Haastregt, J. C. M. , Van Ejik, J. Th. M. , Rossum, E. , Stalenhoef, P. A. , & Kempen, G. I. J. M. ( 2007 ). Prevalence and correlates of fear of falling and associated avoidance of activity in the general population of community-living older people. Age and Ageing, 36, 304309.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website