Social Work Practice with Culturally Diverse People

Books

S. Surjit & Sharon E. Moore

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Preface

    Our social scene is rapidly changing. It is projected that by the middle of the 21st century, the non-Hispanic white share of the country's population will fall to 53%, down from 76% in 1990. Thus, almost half of the population will then be made up of today's minorities. Because of the demographic and various other social changes, human service organizations and practitioners will be increasingly dealing with people who are more diverse, better informed, politically more active, and aware of their rights. This will demand significant changes in the nature, quality, and structure of human service organizations and changes in the knowledge, sensitivity, and skills of service providers. There is thus a need for ongoing efforts to develop new approaches to preparing culturally competent social workers and other human service providers. Fortunately, we have much to build on. Social work philosophy and values have always emphasized the unique along with the universal aspects of the lives of people. The unique dimensions of people's realities are influenced by their culture, history, and experiences. Social workers have all along acknowledged the need for understanding and accommodating the cultural dictates of the individuals, groups, and communities that they worked with. However, at the same time, social forces of the larger society—its ambivalence and ambiguities—have conditioned and constrained the willingness, ability, and efforts of social workers to provide culturally competent services to those different from mainstream Americans. Efforts to create cultural diversity-related social work knowledge, principles, and models of practice are a recent phenomenon, and those efforts of the profession are praiseworthy. Nevertheless, there are gaps in our response to the needs and problems of many of our fellow Americans. This book will contribute to addressing those gaps.

    The following assumptions underlie the approach proposed in this book.

    • Human needs and problems are the result of the deficiencies of individuals as well as the faults of the world in which they live. Those needs and problems cannot be adequately dealt with through client-focused casework approaches alone. Therefore, your definition of social work with culturally diverse people should be inclusive of work with individuals, groups, and communities and at all levels—individual worker's activity; organizational programs and policies; and larger societal laws, rules, and regulations.
    • For effective work with disadvantaged populations, you need an understanding of the various client systems—individual, group, organization, community, social institution, and society at large—and basic skills in intervening at all different levels.
    • Self-awareness on your part is an absolute necessity. Self-awareness involves (a) learning about your own personal culture, that is, beliefs, values, perceptions, assumptions, and explanations of reality; (b) recognizing your own ethnicity and ethnocentricity; and (c) using this learning and recognition to treat others as culturally equal to you. This idea is beautifully expressed by Shimon (1976) in the poem “I Know Something About You”:

      Wouldn't this old world be better

      If the folks we meet would say—

      “I know something good about you!”

      And treat us just that way?

      Wouldn't life be lots more happy

      If we praised the good we see?

      For there's such a lot of goodness

      In the worst of you and me!

      Wouldn't it be nice to practice

      That fine way of thinking, too?

      You know something good about me,

      I know something good about you?

    • History is a significant teacher. Our past influences the present, and the future is never completely divorced from the present. We cannot undo our past, and we should not disown our history. Those who do not learn from their history are likely to repeat the mistakes of the past.
    • The problem-solving process that you master as a part of your social work education is universally applicable to all entities and settings.
    • The ecological-systems theoretical framework is rich enough to capture the gestalt of the problem, the person-system, the situation, and their interaction and to generate ideas for assessments and interventions at all levels from individual to group, organization, community, and society.

    Thus, our approach emphasizes that you (a) understand the history of the group to which the client belongs; its culture and ethnicity, major intragroup variations based on degree of acculturation, national or tribal origin, socioeconomic status, gender, and sexual orientation; and environmental forces affecting its well-being; (b) place the client system's problem in the larger context beyond the microsituation; (c) plan for a multipronged intervention; and (d) give equal importance to empowering the client and solving the problem. We have discussed the “what” and “how” of these in relation to five groups contributing most to the country's cultural diversity. These are Latino Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans, Native Americans, and biracial/mixed-race Americans.

    The text is divided into seven chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the role of social work in the changing social world, reviews the cultural competence-related ideas and accomplishments of the profession, and introduces another approach to culturally competent social work. Chapter 2 discusses the essentials of the proposed approach, which are grouped into the following five clusters: (a) social worker's awareness of self—own culture, ethnicity; and identity; (b) an overall understanding of the commonalities among groups culturally different from the majority community; (c) general considerations for intervention with these groups; (d) general principles of culturally competent practice; and (e) stages of intervention with culturally diverse clients. Chapters 3 through 7 deal with each of the major disadvantaged groups of the U.S. population—African American, Latino Americans, Asian Americans, Native Americans, and biracial/mixed-race Americans. Each of these chapters (a) introduces the group; (b) provides a historical overview of its experiences; (c) discusses commonality of cultures and worldviews among its subgroups; (d) identifies intragroup differences; (e) highlights the major needs and problems of the group; (f) suggests general considerations for intervention with the group; and (g) discusses intervention at the micro-, mezzo-, and macrolevels.

    Acknowledgments

    In working on this book, we have benefited from the ideas, insights, and understanding as well as the assistance, encouragement, and inspiration of many. For Surjit Dhooper, these include his wife Harpal and children Amrit, Devinder, Manjot, and Nimrat. He also thanks Dr. Zafar Hasan and Dr. Kay Hoffman, the former and the current dean of the University of Kentucky College of Social Work, respectively, and Mrs. Egly Narevic, a student from Israel in the college's doctoral program. For Sharon Moore, these include members of her family—her father John W. Moore II; her beloved deceased mother, LaVerne; her brothers John III, David, and Lloyd; her sister Cynthia; sister-in-law Darlene; her nephews, Justin and John IV, and niece Brittany. She also thanks Dr. Candice Henry of Seton Hill College; Drs. Charlotte Dunmore and Anne Jones, professors emeritus of the University of Pittsburgh School of Social Work; and members of her extended and church family. With deep appreciation for their help, we are most sincerely grateful to all of these.

  • References

    Abalos, D. T. (1986). Latinos in the United States: The sacred and the political. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
    Abbott, A. (1995). Boundaries of social work or social work of boundaries?Social Service Review, 69, 545–562. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/604148
    Abdullah, A. S. (1998). Mammy-ism: A diagnosis of psychological misorientation for women of African descent. Journal of Black Psychology, 24 (2), 196–206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00957984980242009
    Abramovitz, M. (1991). Putting an end to doublespeak about race, gender, and poverty: An annotated glossary for social workers. Social Work, 36, 380–384.
    Acosta-Belen, E. (1988). From settlers to newcomers: The Hispanic legacy in the United States. Newport, CT: Praeger.
    Acuna, R. (1981). Occupied America: A history of Chicanos. New York: Harper & Row. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/187656109793645670
    Aguilar, M. A., DiNitto, D. M., Franklin, C., & Lopez-Pilkinton, B. (1991). Mexican American families: A psychoeducational approach to addressing chemical dependency and codependency. Child and Adolescent Social Work, 8, 309–326.
    Ahmed, A. S. (1992). Postmodernism and Islam. New York: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203413593
    Allen, J. A. (1995). African Americans: Caribbean. In R. L.Edwards (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (
    19th ed.
    , pp. 121–129). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
    Allen, P. G. (1986). The sacred hoop: Recovering the feminine in American Indian traditions. Boston: Beacon.
    Allman, K. M. (1996). (Un)natural boundaries: Mixed race, gender, and sexuality. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier (pp. 277–290). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Almeida, D. A. (1996). Countering prejudice against American Indians and Alaska Natives through antibias curriculum and instruction. (Report No. EDO-RC-96-4). Charleston, WV: Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 400 146)
    Ambler, M. (1996). Cultural property rights: What's next after NAGPRA? Tribal College. Journal of American Indian Higher Education, 8 (2), 8–10.
    American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (
    4th ed.
    ). Washington, DC: Author.
    Amott, T., & Matthaei, J. (1991). Race, gender and work. Boston: South End.
    Anderson, D. L., Barrett, R. E., & Bogue, D. J. (1997). The populations of the United States (
    3rd ed.
    ). New York: Free Press.
    Anderson, J. D. (1992). Family-centered practice in the 1990s: A multicultural perspective. Journal of Multicultural Social Work, 1 (4), 17–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J285v01n04_02
    Andrews, J. (1989). Poverty and poor health among elderly Hispanic Americans. Baltimore: The Commonwealth Fund Commission on Elderly People Living Alone.
    Asante, M. K. (1995). African American history: A journey of liberation. Maywood, NJ: The Peoples Publishing Group. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jwh.2001.0001
    Aschenbrenner, J. (1973). Lifelines: Black families in Chicago. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
    Atherton, C. R., & Bolland, K. A. (1997). The multiculturalism debate and social work education: A response to Dorothy Van Soest. Journal of Social Work Education, 33, 143–150.
    Austin, D. M. (1986). A history of social work education. Austin: School of Social Work, University of Texas.
    Baird, B. N. (1996). The internship, practicum, and field placement handbook: A guide for the helping professions. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Baker, F. M. (1988). Afro-Americans. In L.Comas-Diaz & E. E. H.Griffith (Eds.), Clinical guidelines in cross-cultural mental health (pp. 151–181). New York: John Wiley.
    Balgopal, P. R. (1995a). Asian Americans overview. In R. L.Edwards (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (
    19th ed.
    , pp. 231–237). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
    Balgopal, P. R. (1995b). Asian Indians. In R. L.Edwards (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (
    19th ed.
    , pp. 256–260). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
    Banks, J. A. (1987). Teaching strategies for ethnic studies. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Barker, J. C., Morrow, J., & Mitteness, L. S. (1998). Gender, informal social support networks, and elderly urban African Americans. Journal of Aging Studies, 12, 199–223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0890-4065%2898%2990015-9
    Barker, R. L. (Ed.). (1991). Social work dictionary (
    2nd ed.
    ). Silver Spring, MD: NASW Press.
    Barker, R. L. (Ed.). (1999). Social work dictionary (
    4th ed.
    ). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
    Barn, R. (1999). White mothers, mixed parentage children and child welfare. British Journal of Social Work, 29, 269–284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.bjsw.a011446
    Bassett, J. S. (1901). The writings of Colonel William Byrd. New York: Doubleday.
    Bataille, G. M., & Sands, K. M. (1984). American Indian women: Telling their lives. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/25095025
    Bean, F. D., & Tienda, M. (1987). The Hispanic population in the United States. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Beckett, J. O., & Dungee-Anderson, D. (1992). Older minorities: Asian, Black, Hispanic, and Native Americans. In R. L.Achneider & N. P.Kroft (Eds.), Gerontological social work: Knowledge, service settings, and special populations. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
    Begun, A. M., Jacobs, N. R., & Quiram, J. F. (1998). Minorities—A changing role in American society. Wylie, TX: Information Plus.
    Bejar, H. (1998). Community development and the Latin American reality: A personal view. Community Development Journal, 30 (4), 285–291.
    Belitz, J., & Valdez, D. (1994). Clinical issues in the treatment of Chicano male gang youth. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 16, 57–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07399863940161005
    Benjamin, R. (1995). The man from South: Reconstructing Navajo students' stories. Youth & Society, 27, 194–229. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0044118X95027002005
    Berg, I. K., & Miller, S. D. (1992). Working with Asian American clients. Families in Society, 73, 356–363.
    Berger, R. M. (1982). The unseen minority: Older gays and lesbians. Social Work, 27, 236–242.
    Bernal, G., & Gutierrez, M. (1988). Cubans. In L.Comas-Diaz & E. E. H.Griffith (Eds.), Clinical guidelines in cross-cultural mental health (pp. 233–261). New York: John Wiley.
    Bernal, G., Martinez, A. C., Santisteban, D., Bernal, M. E., & Olmedo, E. E. (1983). Hispanic mental health curriculum for psychology. In J. C.Chunn, P. J.Dunston, & R.Ross-Sheriff (Eds.), Mental health and people of color (pp. 65–96). Washington, DC: Howard University Press.
    Bernal, M. E., & Knight, G. P. (1993). Ethnic identity: Formation and transmission among Hispanics and other minorities. Albany: State University of New York Series, United States Hispanic Studies. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/t09433-000
    Berry, G., & Blassingame, J. W. (1982). Long memory: The black experience in America. New York: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3968424
    Berzon, J. R. (1978). Neither white nor black: The mulatto character in American fiction. New York: New York University Press.
    Billingsley, A. (1992). Climbing Jacob's ladder: The enduring legacy of African American families. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Birchett, C. (Ed.). (1992). Biblical strategies for a community in crisis: What African Americans can do. Chicago: Urban Ministries.
    Birchfield, D. L. (1997a). Apaches. In R. J.Vecoli (Ed.), Gale encyclopedia of multicultural America (Vol. 1, pp. 71–80). Boston: Thomson.
    Birchfield, D. L. (1997b). Choctaws. In R. J.Vecoli (Ed.), Gale encyclopedia of multicultural America (Vol. 1, pp. 313–324). Boston: Thomson.
    Birchfield, D. L. (1997c). Navajos. In R. J.Vecoli (Ed.), Gale encyclopedia of multicultural America (Vol. 2, pp. 954–965). Boston: Thomson.
    Birchfield, D. L. (1997d). Sioux. In R. J.Vecoli (Ed.), Gale encyclopedia of multicultural America (Vol. 2, pp. 1230–1239). Boston: Thomson.
    Bisno, H., & Cox, F. (1997). Social work education: Catching up with the present and the future. Journal of Social Work Education, 33, 373–387.
    Blank, R., & Slipp, S. (1994). Voices of diversity. New York: AMACOM.
    Blumstein, P., & Schwartz, P. (1983). American couples: Money, work, sex. New York: Morrow.
    Bonilla-Santiago, G. (1989). Legislating progress for Hispanic women in New Jersey. Social Work, 34, 270–272.
    Boushel, M. (1996). Vulnerable multiracial families and early years services: Concerns, challenges and opportunities. Children & Society, 10, 305–316.
    Bowser, B. P. (1991). Black male adolescents: Parenting and education in community context. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
    Boyer, W. H. (1989). America's future, transition to the 21st century. Sisters, OR: Praeger.
    Bradshaw, C. K. (1992). Beauty and the beast: On racial ambiguity. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 77–90). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Brandon, G. (1997). Yoruba. In D.Levinson & M.Ember (Eds.), American immigrant cultures (Vol. 2, pp. 946–952). New York: Macmillan.
    Brille, N. I. (1998). Working with people: The helping process (
    6th ed.
    ). New York: Longman.
    Brislin, R., Cushner, K., Cherrie, C., & Yong, M. (1986). Intercultural interactions: A practical guide. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Brislin, R. W. (1981). Cross-cultural encounters: Face-to-face interaction. New York: Pergamon.
    Brown, N. G., & Douglass, R. E. (1996). Making the invisible visible: The growth of community network organizations. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier (pp. 323–340). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Browne, C., & Broderick, A. (1994). Asian and Pacific Island elders: Issues for social work practice and education. Social Work, 39, 252–259.
    Brueggemann, W. G. (1996). The practice of macro social work. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
    Bryce-Laporte, R. S. (1972). Black immigrants: The experience of invisibility and inequality. Journal of Black Studies, 3(1), 29–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002193477200300103
    Burden, D., & Gottlieb, N. (1987). The woman client. New York: Methuen.
    Buriel, R., & Vasquez, R. (1982). Stereotypes of Mexican descent persons: Attitudes of three generations of Mexican American and Anglo American adolescents. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 13, 59–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022182131006
    Burnam, M. A., Hough, R. L., Karno, M., Escobar, J. I., & Telles, C. A. (1987). Acculturation and lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders among Mexican Americans in Los Angeles. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 28, 89–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2137143
    Burston, B. W., Jones, D., & Saunders, P. R. (1995). Drug use and African Americans: Myth versus reality. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 40 (2), 19–39.
    Burtt, E. A. (1959). Buddhism. In J. E.Fairchild (Ed.), Basic beliefs (pp. 73–90). New York: Sheridan House.
    Caetano, R. (1998). Cultural and subgroup issues in measuring consumption. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 22 (2), 21 S. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.1998.tb04370.x
    Cafferty, S. J. P., & Chestang, L. (1976). The diverse society: Implications for social policy. Washington, DC: NASW Press.
    Campos, A. P. (1995). Hispanics: Puerto Ricans. In R. L.Edwards (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (
    19th ed.
    , pp. 1234–1252). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
    Carnegie Foundation. (1990). Native Americans and higher education: New mood of optimism. Change, 22 (1), 27–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00091383.1990.9937616
    Carrillo, D. F., Holzhalb, C. M., & Thyer, B. A. (1993). Assessing social work students' attitudes related to cultural diversity: A review of selected measures. Journal of Social Work Education, 29, 263–268.
    Carr-Ruffino, N. (1996). Managing diversity: People skills for a multicultural workplace. Cincinnati, OH: Thomson Executive Press.
    Carter, C., Coudrouglou, A., Figueria-McDonough, J., Lie, G. Y., MacEachron, A. E., Netting, F. E., Nichols-Casebolt, A., Nichols, A. W., & Risley-Curtiss, C. (1994). Integrating women's issues in the social work curriculum: A proposal. Journal of Social Work Education, 30, 200–216.
    Casal, L., & Hernandes, A. (1975). Cubans in the U.S.: A survey of the literature. Cuban Studies5 (2), 25–51.
    Casas, S., & Keefe, S. (1980). Family and mental health in Mexican American community. Los Angeles: Spanish Speaking Mental Health Research Center.
    Castex, G. M. (1994). Providing services to Hispanic? Latino populations: Profiles in diversity. Social Work, 39, 288–296.
    Castro, F. G., Cota, M. K., & Vega, S. C. (1999). Health promotion in Latino populations: A sociocultural model for program planning, development, and evaluation. In R. M.Huff & M. V.Klein (Eds.), Promoting health in multicultural populations: A handbook for practitioners (pp. 137–168). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Census will let Americans pick more than one race. (1997, October 30). Lexington Herald-Leader p. A3.
    Cervantes, R. C., Salgado de Snyder, V. N., & Padilla, A. M. (1989). Posttraumatic stress in immigrants from Central America and Mexico. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 40, 615–619.
    Champagne, D. (1993). Kinship and political change in Native American tribes. In H. P.McAdoo (Ed.), Family ethnicity: Strength in diversity (pp. 208–216). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Chan, S. (1991). Asian Americans: An interpretive history. New York: Twayne.
    Chan, S. Q. (1993). Ethnic identity in biracial Asian American. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.
    Chandrasekhar, S. (1982). A history of United States legislation with respect to immigration from India. In S.Chandrasekhar (Ed.), From India to America: A brief history of immigration: Problems of discrimination, admission and assimilation (pp. 11–28). La Jolla, CA: Population Review Publications.
    Chau, K. L. (1989). Sociocultural dissonance among ethnic minority populations. Social Casework, 70, 224–230.
    Chau, K. L. (1990). A model for teaching cross-cultural practice in social work. Journal of Social Work Education, 26, 124–133.
    Chau, K. L. (1991). Social work with ethnic minorities: Practice issues and potentials. Journal of Multicultural Social Work, 1 (1), 23–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J285v01n01_03
    Chauce, A., Hiraga, Y., Mason, C., Aguilar, T., Ordonez, N., & Gonzales, N. (1992). Between a hard rock and a hard place: Social adjustment of biracial youth. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 207–222). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Chavez, R., & Roney, C. E. (1990). Psychocultural factors affecting the mental health status of Mexican American adolescents. In A. R.Stiffman & L. E.Davis (Eds.), Ethnic issues in adolescent mental health (pp. 73–91). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Chen, M. S. (1993). Cardiovascular health among Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders: An examination of health status and intervention approaches. International Journal of Health Promotion, 7, 199–207. http://dx.doi.org/10.4278/0890-1171-7.3.199
    Chew, K., Eggebeen, D., & Uhlenberg, P. (1989). American children in multiracial households. Sociological Perspectives, 32, 65–85.
    Cho, P. J. (1997). Asian American experiences: A view from the other side. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 24 (1), 129–154.
    Chow, E. N. L. (1982). Acculturation of Asian American professional women. Washington, DC: National Institute of Mental Health, Department of Health and Human Services.
    Chow, J. (1999). Multiservice centers in Chinese immigrant communities: Practice principles and challenges. Social Work, 44, 70–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sw/44.1.70
    Chung, R. C., & Kagawa-Singer, M. (1993). Predictors of psychological distress among Southeast Asian refugees. Social Science and Medicine, 36, 631–639.
    Clark, J. M., Lasaga, L. I., & Reque, R. R. (1981). The 1980 Mariel exodus: An assessment and prospect. Washington, DC: Council on Inter-American Security.
    Clarke, C. (1983). The failure to transform: Homophobia in the black community. In B.Smith (Ed.), Home girls: A black feminist anthology (pp. 197–208). New York: Kitchen Table, Women of Color Press.
    Clifton, J. A. (1989). Being and becoming Indian: Biographical studies of North American frontier. Homewood, IL: Dorsey.
    Cnann, R. (1997). Social and community involvement of religious congregations housed in historic religious properties: Finding from a six-city study. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania School of Social Work.
    Coile, R. C., Jr. (1990). The new medicine: Reshaping medical practice and health care management. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen.
    Coll, B. D. (1984). Social welfare: History. In J. B.Turner (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (
    17th ed.
    , pp. 1503–1512). New York: NASW Press.
    Collins, J. F. (1996). Biracial Japanese-American identity: Hapa, double, or somewhere in between (Ethnicity). Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Fielding Institute, Santa Barbara, CA.
    Coltrane, S., & Valdez, E. O. (1997). Work-family role allocation in dual-earner Chicano families. In M.Romero, P.Hondagneu-Sotelo, & V.Ortiz (Eds.), Challenging fronteras: Structuring Latina and Latino lives in the U.S. (pp. 229–246). New York: Routledge.
    Comas-Diaz, L. (1988). Cross-cultural mental health treatment. In L.Comas-Diaz & E. E. H.Griffith (Eds.), Clinical guidelines in cross-cultural mental health (pp. 337–361). New York: John Wiley.
    Comas-Diaz, L. (1996). LatiNegra: Mental health issues of African Latinas. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier (pp. 167–190). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Comas-Diaz, L., & Duncan, J. W. (1985). The cultural context: A factor in assertiveness training with mainland Puerto Rican women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 9, 463–476. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1985.tb00896.x
    Comas-Diaz, L., & Greene, B. (1994). Women of color with professional status. In L.Comas-Diaz & B.Greene (Eds.), Women of color: Integrating ethnic and gender identities in psychotherapy (pp. 347–388). New York: Guilford.
    Congress, E. P. (1994). The use of culturagrams to assess and empower culturally diverse families. Families in Society, 75, 531–540.
    Conley, R. J. (1997). Cherokees. In R. J.Vecoli (Ed.), Gale encyclopedia of multicultural America (Vol. 1, pp. 271–279). Boston: Thomson.
    Connor, J. W. (1974). Acculturation and family continuities in three generations of Japanese-Americans. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 36, 159–165. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/351005
    Cooper-Lewter, N., & Mitchell, H. (1992). Soul theology: The heart of American black culture. Nashville, TN: Abingdon.
    Cordova, C. B. (1998). Living in the U.S.A.: Central American immigrant communities in the United States. In F. G.Rivera & J. L.Erlich (Eds.), Community organizing in a diverse society (
    3rd ed.
    , pp. 180–200). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Cose, E. (1997). Census at the complex issue of race. Society, 34, 9–13.
    Council on Social Work Education. (1952). Curriculum policy. New York: Author.
    Council on Social Work Education. (1962). Official statement of curriculum policy for the master's degree program in graduate professional schools of social work. New York: Author.
    Council on Social Work Education. (1983). Curriculum policy for the master's degree and baccalaureate degree programs in social work education. New York: Author.
    Council on Social Work Education. (1994). Commission on accreditation handbook of accreditation standards and procedures. Alexandria, VA: Author.
    Cowger, C. D. (1994). Assessing client strengths: Clinical assessment for client empowerment. Social Work, 39, 262–268.
    Cress-Welsing, F. (1991). The ISIS papers: The keys to the colors. Chicago: Third World.
    Cruz, A. R. (1997). The Mexican-American community in the United States. In L. L.Naylor (Ed.), Cultural diversity in the United States (pp. 159–175). Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.
    Cuellar, I., Arnold, B., & Maldonado, R. (1995). Acculturation rating scale for Mexican Americans-II: A revision of the original ARSMA scale. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 17, 275–304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07399863950173001
    Cunningham, J. L. (1997). Color existence: Racial identity formation in light-skin Blacks. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 67, 375–400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00377319709517498
    Curiel, H. (1995). Hispanics: Mexican Americans. In R. L.Edwards (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (
    19th ed.
    , pp. 1233–1244). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
    Dana, R. H. (1998). Understanding cultural identity in intervention and assessment. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Daniel, G. R. (1992a). Beyond black and white: The new multiracial consciousness. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 333–341). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Daniel, G. R. (1992b). Passers and pluralists: Subverting the racial divide. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 91–107). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Daniel, G. R. (1996). Black and white identity in the new millennium: Unsevering the ties that bind. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier (pp. 121–139). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Daniels, L. A. (1998). The state of Black America 1998. Washington, DC: National Urban League.
    David, G., & Lin, J. (1997). Civil rights and Asian Americans. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 24 (1), 3–24.
    Davis, F. J. (1991). Who is black? One nation's definition. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press.
    Davis, L. E. (1995). The crisis of diversity. In M. D.Feit, J. H.Ramey, J. S.Wodarski, & A. A.Mann (Eds.), Capturing the power of diversity (pp. 47–57). New York: Haworth.
    Davis, R. (1980). Black suicide and the relational system: Theoretical and empirical implications of communal and family ties. Research in Race and Ethnic Relations, 2, 43–71.
    Davis, R. E. (1997). Trauma and addiction experiences of African American women. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 19, 442–460. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019394599701900403
    Day, J. C. (1993). Population projections of the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin: 1993–2050. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    deBary, W. T. (1959). Confucianism. In J. E.Fairchild (Ed.), Basic beliefs (pp. 92–113). New York: Sheridan House.
    de Haymes, M. V. (1997). The golden exile: The social construction of the Cuban-American success story. Journal of Poverty, 1 (1), 65–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J134v01n01_05
    De Hoyos, G., De Hoyos, A., & Anderson, C. B. (1986). Sociocultural dislocation: Beyond the dual perspective. Social Work, 31, 61–67.
    Delgado, M. (1997a). Interpretation of Puerto Rican elder research findings: A community forum of research respondents. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 16, 317–332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/073346489701600307
    Delgado, M. (1997b). Role of Latina-owned beauty parlors in a Latino community. Social Work, 42, 445–453. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sw/42.5.445
    Delgado, M. (2000). Community social work practice in an urban context. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Delgado, M., & Santiago, J. (1998). HIV/AIDS in Puerto Rican/Dominican community: A collaborative project with a botanical shop. Social Work, 43, 183–186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sw/43.2.183
    Delger, C. N. (1971). Neither black nor white: Slavery and race relations in Brazil and the United State. New York: Macmillan.
    Deters, K. A. (1997). Belonging nowhere and everywhere: Multiracial identity development. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 61, 368–384.
    Devore, W., & Schlesinger, E. G. (1981). Ethnic-sensitive social work practice. St. Louis, MO: C. V. Mosby.
    Dhooper, S. S. (1990). Identifying and mobilizing supports for the cardiac patient's family. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 5 (1), 65–73.
    Dhooper, S. S. (1991). Toward an effective response to the needs of Asian-Americans. Journal of Multicultural Social Work, 1 (2), 65–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J285v01n02_05
    Dhooper, S. S. (1994). Social work and transplantation of human organs. Westport, CT: Praeger.
    Dhooper, S. S. (1997a). Poverty among Asian Americans: Theories and approaches. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 24 (1), 25–40.
    Dhooper, S. S. (1997b). Social work in health care in the 21st century. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Dhooper, S. S., & Tran, T. V. (1987). Social work with Asian Americans. Journal of Independent Social Work, 1 (4), 51–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J283v01n04_06
    Dhooper, S. S., & Tran, V. T. (1998). Understanding and responding to the health and mental health needs of Asian American refugees. Social Work in Health Care, 27 (4), 65–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J010v27n04_05
    Dieppa, I. (1984). Trends in social work education for minorities. In B. W.White (Ed.), Color in a white society (pp. 10–21). Silver Spring, MD: NASW Press.
    DiNitto, D. M., & McNeece, C. A. (1990). Social work: Issues and opportunities in a challenging profession. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Dodoo, F. N. -A. (1997). Assimilation differences among Africans in America. Social Forces, 76, 527–547.
    Dominguez, V. R. (1975). From neighbor to stranger: The dilemma of Caribbean peoples in the United States. New Haven, CT: Antilles Research Program, Yale University.
    Douglass, B. C. (1993). Psychotherapy with troubled African American adolescent males: Stereotypes, treatment amenability, and critical issues. Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, 2–16.
    DuBrin, A. J. (1988). Human relations for career and personal success (
    2nd ed.
    ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Dunn, L. P. (1975). Asian Americans: A study guide and sourcebook. San Francisco: R. & E. Research Associates. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088840640602900302
    Dykeman, C., Nelson, J. R., & Appleton, V. (1996). Building strong working alliances with American Indian families. In P. L.Ewalt, E. R.Freeman, S. A.Kirk, & D. L.Poole (Eds.), Multicultural issues in social work (pp. 336–350). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
    East-West Population Institute. (1990). Recent Filipino immigration to the United States: A profile. Honolulu, HI: Author.
    Eitzen, D. S., & Zinn, M. B. (1997). Social problems (
    7th ed.
    ). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Eldridge, N. S., & Gilbert, L. A. (1990). Correlates of relationship satisfaction in lesbian couples. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 14, 43–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1990.tb00004.x
    Eliason, M., & Skinstad, A. (1995). Drug/alcohol addictions and mothering. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 12 (1), 83–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J020v12n01_07
    Enos, R. (1997). Social work practice with ethnic minority persons. In L. L.Naylor (Ed.), Cultural diversity in the United States (pp. 305–316). Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.
    Epstein, M., & Moreno, R. (1997). The underreporting of deaths of American Indian children in California, 1979 through 1993. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 1363–1367. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.87.8.1363
    Espiritu, Y. L. (1996). Asian American women and men: Labor, laws, and love. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Estrada, L. E., Garcia, C. E., Macias, R. F., & Maldonado, L. (1981). Chicanos in the United States: A history of exploitation and resistance. Daedalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 110 (2), 103–131.
    Evans, D. L. (1998, September 7). Lost behind prison bars. Newsweek, 132, 20–22.
    Evans, S. E. (1996). Women. In F. E.Hoxie (Ed.), The encyclopedia of North American Indians (pp. 665–689). New York: Houghton Mifflin.
    Face of America [Special issue]. (1993). Time, 142 (21).
    Falicov, C. (1982). Mexican families. In M.McGoldrick, J. K.Pearce, & J.Giordano (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (pp. 134–163). New York: Guilford.
    Farley, R. (1991). The new census question about ancestry: What did it tell us?Demography, 28, 411–429. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2061465
    Fassinger, R. E., & Richie, B. S. (1997). Sex matters: Gender and sexual orientation in training for multicultural counseling competency. In D. B.Pope-Davis & H. L. K.Coleman (Eds.), Multicultural counseling competencies: Assessment, education and training, and supervision (pp. 83–110). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452232072
    Fenster, A. (1996). Group therapy as an effective treatment modality for people of color. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 46, 399–416.
    Fernandez, C. A. (1992). La raza and the melting pot: A comparative look at multiethnicity. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 126–143). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Fernandez, C. A. (1996). Government classification of multiracial/multiethnic people. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier (pp. 15–36). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Fernandez-Kelly, M. P., & Garcia, A. M. (1997). Power surrendered, power restored: The politics of work and family among Hispanic garment workers in California and Florida. In M.Romero, P.Hondagneu-Sotelo, & V.Ortiz (Eds.), Challenging fronteras: Structuring Latina and Latino lives in the U.S. (pp. 215–227). New York: Routledge.
    Field, L. D. (1996). Piecing together the puzzle: Self-concept and group identity in biracial black/white youth. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier (pp. 211–226). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Fischer, D. (1995). Young, gay and ignored?Orana, 31(4), 220–232.
    Fitzpatrick, J. P. (1987). Puerto Rican Americans: The meaning of migration. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Fong, L. Y. S. (1997). Asian-American women: An understudied minority. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 24 (1), 91–111.
    Forbes, J. D. (1988). Black Africans and Native Americans: Color, race and caste in the evolution of Red-Black people. New York: Basil Blackwell.
    Fowers, B. J., & Richardson, F. C. (1994). Why is multiculturism good?American Psychologist, 51, 609–621. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.51.6.609
    Fox, P. G. (1991). Stress related to family change among Vietnamese refugees. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 8, 45–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327655jchn0801_5
    Franklin, A. J., (1992). Therapy with African American men. Families in Society, 73, 350–355.
    Franklin, C., Waukechon, J., & Larney, P. S. (1995). Culturally relevant school programs for American Indian children and families. Social Work in Education, 17, 183–194.
    Frazier, F. (1966). The Negro family in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3707281
    Frye, B. A. (1995). Use of cultural themes in promoting health among Southeast Asian refugees. American Journal of Health Promotion, 9, 269–280. http://dx.doi.org/10.4278/0890-1171-9.4.269
    Frye, B. A., & D'Avanzo, C. (1994). Themes in managing culturally defined illness in the Cambodian refugee family. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 11, 89–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327655jchn1102_4
    Fuchs, L. H. (1997). What we should count and why. Society, 34 (6), 24–27.
    Fullilove, M., Fullilove, R., Smith, M., Winkler, K., Micheal, C., Panzer, P., & Wallace, R. (1993). Violence, trauma, and post-traumatic stress disorder among women drug users. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 6, 533–543. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.2490060409
    Funderberg, L. (1994). Black, white, other: Biracial Americans talk about race and identity. New York: William Morrow.
    Gallegos, J. S. (1984). The ethnic competence model for social work education. In B. W.White (Ed.), Color in a white society (pp. 1–9). Silver Spring, MD: NASW Press.
    Gann, L. H., & Duignan, P. J. (1986). Hispanics in the United States: A history. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Garcia, M., & Lega, L. I. (1979). Development of a Cuban ethnic identity questionnaire. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 1, 247–261.
    Garrett, M. T. (1999). Understanding the “medicine” of Native American traditional values: An integrative review. Counseling & Values, 43(2), 84–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-007X.1999.tb00131.x
    Garrison, L. (1993). Professionals of the future: Will they be female? Will they be ethnically diverse?Roeper Review, 15(3), 161–165. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02783199309553493
    Garvin, C. D., & Seabury, B. A. (1997). Interpersonal practice in social work. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Gavagan, T., & Brodyaga, L. (1998). Medical care for immigrants and refugees. American Family Physician, 57, 1061–1066.
    Gellar, S. (1986). The colonial era. In Martin, P. M. & O'Mera, P. (Eds.), Africa (
    2nd ed.
    ) (pp. 122–140). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Germain, C. B., & Gitterman, A. (1995). Ecological perspective. In R. L.Edwards (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (
    19th ed.
    , pp. 816–824). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
    Gibbs, J. T. (1988). Young, black, male in America: Endangered, embittered and embattled. In J. T.Gibbs, A. F.Brunswick, M. E.Connor, R.Dembo, T. E.Larson, R. J.Reed, & B.Solomon (Eds.), Young, Black and male in America (pp. 1–36). Dover, MA: Auburn House.
    Gibbs, J. T. (1989). Biracial adolescents. In J. T.Gibbs & L. N.Huang (Eds.), Children of color: Psychological interventions with minority youth (pp. 322–350). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Gibbs, J. T., & Hines, A. (1992). Negotiating ethnic identity: Issues for black-white biracial adolescents. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 223–238). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Gibson, M. A., & Ogbu, J. U. (1991). Minority status and schooling: A comparative study of immigrant and involuntary minorities. New York: Garland.
    Gilbertson, G. A., Fitzpatrick, J. P., & Yang, L. (1996). Hispanic intermarriage in New York City: New evidence from 1991. International Migration Review, 30, 445–459. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2547389
    Gilkes, C. T. (1980). The black church as a therapeutic community: Suggested areas for research into the Black religious experience. Journal of Interdenominational Theological Center, 8, 29–44.
    Gilliland, H. (1992). Teaching the Native American. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
    Glass, R. D., & Wallace, K. R. (1996). Challenging race and racism: A framework for educators. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier (pp. 341–358). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Glazer, N. (1976). Foreword. In P.Saran & E.Eames (Eds.), The new ethnics: Asian Indians in the United States (pp. vi–viii). New York: Praeger. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/780358
    Gonsalves, C. J. (1992). Psychological stages of the refugee process: A model for therapeutic interventions. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 23, 382–389. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.23.5.382
    Goodluck, C. T. (1993). Social services with Native Americans: Current status of the Indian Child Welfare Act. In H. P.McAdoo (Ed.), Family ethnicity: Strength in diversity (pp. 217–228). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Goodman, H., Getzel, G. S., & Ford, W. (1996). Group work with high-risk urban youths on probation. Social Work, 41, 375–381.
    Gottlieb, B. H. (1985). Assessing and strengthening the impact of social support on mental health. Social Work, 30, 293–300.
    Gould, J. (1994). Disobedience (in language) in texts by lesbian Native Americans. ARIEL, 5(1), 32–44.
    Gould, M. (1997). Statutory oppressions: An overview of legalized homophobia. In M. P.Levine (Ed.), Gay men: The sociology of male homosexuality (pp. 51–67). New York: Harper & Row.
    Graham, L. O. (1999). Our kind of people: Inside America's Black upper class. New York: HarperCollins.
    Graham, S. R. (1996). The real world. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier (pp. 37–48). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Grant, L. M., & Gutierrez, L. M. (1996). Effects of culturally sophisticated agencies on Latino social workers. Social Work, 41, 624–631.
    Green, H. (1994). Refugees in transition—Educational opportunity to promote the advancement of women. Convergence, 27(2/3), 175–184.
    Green, J. W. (1982). Cultural awareness in the human services. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Green, R. (1987). The “sissy boy syndrome” and the development of homosexuality. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Greenberg, D. F. (1988). The construction of homosexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Greene, B. (1994). Ethnic-minority lesbians and gay men: Mental health and treatment issues. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62, 243–252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.62.2.243
    Greif, G. L. (1986). The ecosystems perspective “meets the press.”Social Work, 31, 225–226.
    Grosfoguel, R. (1997). Migration and geopolitics in the Greater Antilles: From the Cold War to the Post-Cold War. Review, 20(1), 115–145.
    Grossman, R. G. (1990). A study of immigrant Hispanic alcoholics in a treatment program. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Yeshiva University, New York.
    Guarnizo, L. E. (1997). Los Dominicanyorks: The making of a binational society. In M.Romero, P.Hondagneu-Sotelo, & V.Ortiz (Eds.), Challenging fronteras: Structuring Latina and Latino lives in the U.S. (pp. 161–174). New York: Routledge.
    Gurak, D. T., & Kritz, M. M. (1985). Hispanic immigration to the Northeast in the 1970s. Migration Today, 13(2), 6–12.
    Gutierrez, L., Alvarez, A. R., Nemon, H., & Lewis, E. A. (1996). Multicultural community organizing: A strategy for change. Social Work, 41, 501–508.
    Gutierrez, L., & Nagda, B. A. (1996). The multicultural imperative in human services organizations: Issues for the twenty-first century. In P. R.Raffoul & C. A.McNeece (Eds.), Future issues for social work practice (pp. 203–213). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Gutierrez, L. M. (1990). Working with women of color: An empowerment perspective. Social Work, 35, 149–153.
    Gutierrez, L. M., & Lewis, E. A. (1998). A feminist perspective on organizing with women. In F. G.Rivera & J. L.Erlich (Eds.), Community organizing in a diverse society (
    3rd ed.
    , pp. 97–116). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Guzzetta, C. (1995). White ethnic groups. In R. L.Edwards (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (
    19th ed.
    , pp. 2508–2517). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
    Hacker, A. (1992). Two nations: Black and white, separate, hostile, unequal. New York: Scribner. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jaarel/lfm106
    Hagan, J. W., House, T., & Skenadore, A. H. (1995). Kanuhkwene: An empowering concept by and for Oneida women. Journal of Humanistic Education & Development, 33(3), 123–131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2164-4683.1995.tb00095.x
    Haizlip, S. T. (1994). The sweeter the juice: A family memoir in black and white. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Haizlip, S. T. (1995, February/March). Passing. American Heritage, 46(1), 46–53.
    Hall, C. C. I. (1980). The ethnic identity of racially mixed people: A study of Black-Japanese. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles.
    Hall, C. C. I. (1992). Coloring outside the lines. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 326–329). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Hall, C. C. I. (1996). A race odyssey. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier (pp. 395–410). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Hall, C. C. I. (1997). Best of both worlds: Body image and satisfaction of a sample of black-Japanese biracial individuals. Amerasia Journal, 23, 87–97.
    Hall, L. (1997a). Creeks. In R. J.Vecoli (Ed.), Gale encyclopedia of multicultural America (Vol. 1, pp. 347–358). Boston: Thomson.
    Hall, L. (1997b). Iroquois Confederacy. In R. J.Vecoli (Ed.), Gale encyclopedia of multicultural America (Vol. 2, pp. 750–763). Boston: Thomson.
    Haller, J. S., Jr. (1971). Outcastes from evolution: Scientific attitudes of racial inferiority, 1859–1900. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    Hamilton, N., & Chinchilla, N. S. (1997). Central American migration: A framework for analysis. In M.Romero, P.Hondagneu-Sotelo, & V.Ortiz (Eds.), Challenging fronteras: Structuring Latina and Latino lives in the U.S. (pp. 81–100). New York: Routledge.
    Hann, R. S. (1994). Tuberculosis. In N. W. S.Zane, D. T.Takeuchi, & K. N. J.Young (Eds.), Confronting critical health issues of Asian and Pacific Islander Americans (pp. 289–301). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Hardy-Fanta, C. (1991). Latina women, Latino men, and political participation in Boston: La Chispa que Prende. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA.
    Hare, B. (1988). Black youth at risk. In J.Dewart (Ed.), The state of Black America, 1988 (pp. 81–93). New York: National Urban League.
    Harel, Z., McKinney, E. A., & Williams, M. (1990). Black aged: Understanding diversity and service needs. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Haijo, S. S. (1993). The American Indian experience. In H. P.McAdoo (Ed.), Family ethnicity: Strength in diversity (pp. 199–207). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Harmon, A. (1990). When is an Indian not an Indian? The friends of the Indian and the problems of Indian identity. Journal of Ethnic Studies, 18, 95–123.
    Hartman, A., & Laird, J. (1983). Family-centered social work practice. New York: Free Press.
    Harvey, A. R. (1985). Traditional African culture as the basis for the Afro-American church in America. In A. R.Harvey (Ed.), The black family: An afrocentric perspective (pp. 1–22). New York: United Church of Christ Commission on Racial Justice.
    Hatchett, S. (1991). Family life. In J.Jackson (Ed.), Life in black America (pp. 46–83). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    The hate debate. (1998, November 23). The New Republic, 2/9(18), 7–9.
    Hayes-Bautista, D. E., & Chapa, J. (1987). Latino terminology: Conceptual bases for standardized terminology. American Journal of Public Health, 77, 61–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.77.1.61
    Haynes, A. W., & Singh, R. N. (1992). Ethnic-sensitive social work practice: An integrated, ecological, and psychodynamic approach. Journal of Multicultural Social Work, 2(2), 43–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J285v02n02_04
    Haynes, K. S., & Holmes, K. A. (1994). Invitation to social work. New York: Longman.
    Heaton, T. B., & Albrecht, S. L. (1996). The changing pattern of interracial marriage. Social Biology, 43, 203–217.
    Helms, J. E. (1990). Black and white racial identity: Theory, research and practice. New York: Greenwood.
    Hendricks, L. E. (1988). Outreach with teenage fathers: A preliminary report on three ethnic groups. Adolescence, 23, 711–720.
    Henriques, F. (1975). Children of conflict: A study of interracial sex and marriage. New York: E. P. Dutton.
    Hepworth, D. H., & Larsen, J. A. (1993). Direct social work practice: Theory and skills. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Hernandez, L., & Carlquist-Hernandez, K. (1997). Humanization of the counseling-teaching process for Latinos: Learning principles. Journal of Non-White Concerns, 7, 150–158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2164-4950.1979.tb00271.x
    Herring, R. D. (1990). Understanding Native-American values: Process and content concerns for Counselors. Counseling & Values, 34(2), 134–138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-007X.1990.tb00918.x
    Herring, R. D., & Meggert, S. S. (1994). The use of humor as a counselor strategy with Native American Indian children. Elementary School Guidance & Counseling, 29(1), 67–77.
    Hill, R. B. (1997). The strengths of African American families: Twenty-five years later. Washington, DC: R & B Publishers.
    Hilton, R. (1973). The Latin Americans: Their heritage and their destiny. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/40198502
    Hirschfelder, A., & Kreipe de Montano, M. (1993). The Native American almanac: A portrait of Native America today. New York: Prentice Hall.
    Ho, M. K. (1987). Family therapy with ethnic minorities. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452204567
    Ho, M. K. (1991). Use of Ethnic-Sensitive Inventory (ESI) to enhance practitioner skills with minorities. Journal of Multicultural Social Work, 1(1), 57–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J285v01n01_05
    Ho, M. K. (1992). Minority children and adolescents in therapy. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Hodes, M. (1998). Refugee children. British Medical Journal, 316(7134), 793–795. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.316.7134.793
    Hodge, W. H. (1981). The first Americans. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1184394
    Hodgkinson, H. (1992). The current condition of Native Americans. (Report No. EDO-RC-92-7). Charleston, WV: Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. RC 081 910)
    Hoffman, K. S., & Sallee, A. L. (1994). Social work practice: Bridges to change. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
    Hogan-Garcia, M. (1999). The four skills of cultural diversity competence: A process for understanding and practice. New York: Brooks/Cole, Wadsworth, International Thompson Publishing.
    Hoopes, D., & Ventura, P. (1979). Intercultural sourcebook cross-cultural training methodologies. Washington, DC: Sietar International.
    Hoopes, D. S. (1981). Intercultural communication concepts and the psychology of intercultural experience. In M. D.Pusch (Ed.), Multicultural education: A cross cultural training approach (pp. 17–22). Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
    Hornby, R. (1992). Training culturally appropriate interventions for Native Americans. Washington, DC: Comprehensive Program Fund for the Improvement of Secondary Education.
    Horton, H. D., Thomas, M. E., & Herring, C. (1995). Rural-urban differences in black family structure. Journal of Family Issues, 16, 298–313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019251395016003004
    Huggins, S. E. (1997). Pooling community dollars. Black Enterprise, 27(10), 32.
    Hughes, M. J. (1995). Breaking the cycle of destructive behaviors: Facilitating positive developmental change in African and Latino-American males, 18–28. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA.
    Hurtado, A. L. (1996). When strangers meet: Sex and gender on three frontiers. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, 17 (3), 52–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3346876
    Hutchinson, E. O. (1996). The assassination of the black male image. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Hutchison, R. (1988). The Hispanic community in Chicago: A study of population growth and acculturation. Research in Race and Ethnic Relations, 5, 193–229.
    Icard, L. D., Longres, J. F., & Spencer, M. (1999). Racial minority status and distress among children and adolescents. Journal of Social Service Research, 25(1/2), 19–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J079v25n01_02
    Ifill, D. (1989). Teaching minority practice for professional application. Journal of Social Work Education, 25, 29–35.
    Inclan, J., & Hernandez, M. (1992). Cross-cultural perspectives and codependence: The case of poor Hispanics. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 62, 245–255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079340
    Isaacs, H. R. (1972). Images of Asia: American views of China and India. New York: Harper & Row. http://dx.doi.org/10.5512/sea.1993.232
    Ishisaka, H. A., Nguyen, Q. T., & Okimoto, I. T. (1985). The role of culture in the mental health treatment of Indochinese refugees. In T. C.Owen (Ed.), Southeast Asian mental health: Treatment, prevention, services, training, and research (pp. 41–63). Washington, DC: National Institute of Mental Health.
    Ishisaka, H. A., & Takagi, C. Y. (1982). Social work with Asian- and Pacific-Americans. In J. W.Green (Ed.), Cultural awareness in the human services (pp. 122–156). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Ito, M. (1998). The status of the individual in Japanese religions: Implications for Japan's collectivistic social values. Social Compass, 45, 619–633. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/003776898045004007
    Jacobs, N. R., Siegal, M. A., & Quiram, J. (1996). Profile of the nation: An American portrait. Wylie, TX: Information Plus. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.394140
    Jimenez, M. A., & Jimenez, D. R. (1992). Latinos and HIV disease: Issues, practice and policy implications. Social Work in Health Care, 17(2), 41–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J010v17n02_04
    Jimenez-Vazquez, R. (1990). Social work research on mental health in the Cuban community in the United States: The state of the art. In I.Dieppa & D. F.Arguello (Eds.), Proceedings of the conference “Social Work Research in Mental Health and the Hispanic Community” (pp. 17–37). Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health.
    Jimenez-Vazquez, R. (1995). Hispanics: Cubans. In R. L.Edwards (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (
    19th ed.
    , pp. 1223–1232). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
    Jones, L., Agbayani-Siewert, P., & Friaz, G. (1998). Effects of economic stress on high school students' views of work and future. Social Work in Education, 20, 11–24.
    Jordan, W. D. (1968). White over black. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
    Jung, M. (1984). Structural family therapy: Its applications to Chinese families. Family Process, 23, 365–374. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1984.00365.x
    Kamya, H. A. (1997). African immigrants in the United States: The challenge for research and practice. Social Work, 42, 154–166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sw/42.2.154
    Kang, D. S., Kahler, L. R., & Tesar, C. M. (1998). Cultural aspects of caring for refugees. American Family Physician, 57, 1245–1252.
    Kanuha, V. (1990). Compounding the triple jeopardy: Battering in lesbian of color relationships. Women and Therapy, 9, 169–184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J015v09n01_10
    Kasee, C. R. (1995). Identity, recovery and religious imperialism: Native American women and the New Age. In J.Ochshorn & E.Cole (Eds.), Women's spirituality, women's lives (pp. 83–93). Binghamton, NY: Haworth.
    Kawagley, O. (1997). Yupait. In R. J.Vecoli (Ed.), Gale encyclopedia of multicultural America (Vol. 2, pp. 1420–1426). Boston: Thomson.
    Kemp, C. (1993). Health services for refugees in countries of second asylum. International Nursing Review, 40, 21–24.
    Kim, D. S. (1977). How they fared in American homes: A follow-up study of adopted Korean children. Children Today, 6, 2–6, 31.
    Kim, S. C. (1985). Family therapy for Asian Americans: A strategic-structural framework. Psychotherapy, 22, 342–348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0085513
    King, A. E. O. (1997). Understanding violence among young African American males: An Afrocentric perspective. Journal of Black Studies, 28(1), 79–96.
    King, R. C., & DaCosta, K. M. (1996). Changing face, changing race: The remaking of race in the Japanese American and African American communities. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier (pp. 227–244). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Kirst-Ashman, K. K., & Hull, G. H., Jr. (1993). Understanding generalist practice. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
    Kitano, H. H. L. (1990). Asian Americans. In A.Minahan (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (
    18th ed.
    , pp. 156–169). Silver Spring, MD: NASW Press.
    Kitano, H. L., & Daniels, R. (1988). Asian Americans: Emerging minorities. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Klein, P. (1968). From philanthropy to social welfare: An American cultural perspective. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Klor de Alva, J. J. (1988). Telling Hispanics apart: Latino sociocultural diversity. In E.Acosta-Belen & B. R.Sjostrom (Eds.), The Hispanic experience in the United States: Contemporary issues and perspectives (pp. 107–136). Westport, CT: Praeger.
    Kluckhohn, F. (1961). Variations in value orientations. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson.
    Kook, R. (1998). The shifting status of African Americans in the American collective identity. Journal of Black Studies, 29(2), 154–179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002193479802900202
    Kropf, N. P., & Isaac, A. R. (1992). Cultural diversity and social work practice: An overview. In D. F.Harrison, J. S.Wodarski, & B. A.Thyer (Eds.), Cultural diversity and social work practice (pp. 3–12). Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
    Kulig, J. C. (1994). “Those with unheard voices”: The plight of a Cambodian refugee woman. Journal of Community Health Nursing, U, 99–107.
    Kumagai, F. (1995). Families in Japan: Beliefs and realities. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 26, 135–163.
    Ladner, J. (1984). Providing a healthy environment for interracial children. Interracial Books for Children Bulletin, IS, 7–8.
    Land, H., & Hudson, S. (1997). Methodological considerations in surveying Latina AIDS caregivers: Issues in sampling and measurement. Social Work Research, 21, 233–246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/swr/21.4.233
    Landon, J. W. (1986). The development of social welfare. New York: Human Sciences Press.
    Larson, T. E. (1988). Employment and unemployment of young black males. In J. T.Gibbs, A. F.Brunswick, M. E.Connor, R.Dembo, T. E.Larson, R. J.Reed, & B.Solomon (Eds.), Young, black and male in America. Dover, MA: Auburn House.
    Leashore, B. R. (1995). African Americans overview. In R. L.Edwards (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (
    19th ed.
    , pp. 101–114). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
    Lee, I. C. (1992). The Chinese-American's community organizing strategies and tactics. In F. G.Rivera & J. L.Erlich (Eds.), Community organizing in a diverse society (pp. 133–158). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Leiby, J. (1971). Social welfare: History of basic ideas. In R.Morris (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (
    16th ed.
    , pp. 1461–1476). New York: NASW Press.
    Leiby, J. (1984). Social welfare: History of basic ideas. In J. B.Turner (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (
    17th ed.
    , pp. 1512–1529). New York: NASW Press.
    Leonard, K. I. (1992). Making ethnic choices: California's Punjabi Mexican Americans. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Lewis, R. G. (1995). American Indians. In R. L.Edwards (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (
    19th ed.
    , pp. 216–225). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
    Lex, B. W. (1987). Review of alcohol programs in ethnic community groups. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 293–300. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.55.3.293
    Lightfoot-Klein, H., & Shaw, E. (1990). Special needs of ritually circumcised women patients. JOGNN, 20(2), 102–107.
    Lincoln, C. E., & Mamiya, L. H. (1990). The black church in the African American experience. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Lindsey, L. L. (1990). Gender roles: A sociological perspective. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Lipson, J. G., Omidian, P. A., & Paul, S. M. (1995). Afgan health education project: A community survey. Public Health Nursing, 12(3), 143–150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1446.1995.tb00002.x
    Lister, L. (1987). Curriculum building in social work education: The example of ethnocultural content. Journal of Social Work Education, 23, 31–39.
    Littlefield, D. F., Jr. (1979). Africans and Creeks: From the colonial period to the civil war. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
    Locke, D. C. (1998). Increasing multicultural understanding: A comprehensive model (
    2nd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452224701
    Logan, S. M., Freeman, E. M., & McRoy, R. G. (1990). Social work with black families: A cultural specific perspective. White Plains, NY: Longman. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/585729
    Longres, J. F. (1982). Minority groups: An inter-group perspective. Social Work, 26, 7–14.
    Longres, J. F. (1995a). Hispanic overview. In R. L.Edwards (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (
    19th ed.
    , pp. 1214–1222). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
    Longres, J. F. (1995b). Richmond, Mary Ellen (1861–1928). In R. L.Edwards (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (
    19th ed.
    , p. 2605). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
    Longres, J. F., & Seltzer, G. B. (1994). Racism: Its implications for the education of minority social work students. Binghamton, NY: Haworth. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J285v03n01_06
    Lord, N. (1996). Native tongues. Sierra, 81(6), 46–52.
    Lord, S., & Kennedy, E. (1992). Intervening in urban poverty at the grassroots level: A school-community partnership in the United States. International Social Work, 35, 255–266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002087289203500213
    Lott, J. T. (1997). Demographic changes transforming the Filipino American community. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), Filipino Americans: Transformation and identity (pp. 11–20). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243177
    Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. (1968).
    Lum, D. (1986). Social work practice and people of color: A process-stage approach. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Lum, D. (1992). Social work practice and people of color: A process-stage approach (
    2nd ed.
    ). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Lum, D. (1996). Social work practice and people of color: A process-stage approach (
    3rd ed.
    ). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Lum, D. (1999). Culturally competent practice: A framework for growth and action. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1043659606296465
    Luu, V. (1989). The hardship of escape for Vietnamese women. In Asian Woman United of California (Ed.), Making waves: An anthology by and about Asian American women (pp. 60–72). Boston: Beacon.
    Lyman, S. M. (1977). The Asians in North America. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
    Mahmoud, V. (1996). African American Muslim families. In M.McGoldric, J.Giordano, & J. K.Pearce (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 112–128). New York: Guilford.
    Mangiafico, L. (1988). Contemporary American immigrants: Patterns of Filipino, Korean, and Chinese settlement in the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger.
    Marcos, L. R. (1994). The psychiatric examination of Hispanics: Across the language barrier. In R. G.Malgady & O.Rodriquez (Eds.), The theoretical and conceptual issues in Hispanic mental health (pp. 144–153). Malabar, FL: Krieger.
    Marin, G., & Marin, B. V. (1991). Research with Hispanic populations. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Martinez, C. (1988). Mexican-Americans. In L.Comas-Diaz & E. E. H.Griffith (Eds.), Clinical guidelines in cross-cultural mental health (pp. 182–203). New York: John Wiley.
    Martinez, D. (1996). First people, firsthand knowledge. Sierra, 81(6), 50–54.
    Mary, N. L., & Morris, T. (1994). The future and social work: A global perspective. Journal of Multicultural Social Work, 3(4), 89–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J285v03n04_07
    Mass, A. I. (1992). Interracial Japanese Americans: The best of both worlds or the end of the Japanese American community? In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 265–279). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Matsuoka, J. K., Breaux, C., & Ryujin, D. H. (1997). National utilization of mental health services by Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. Journal of Community Psychology, 25, 141–145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291520-6629%28199703%2925:2%3C141::AID-JCOP3%3E3.0.CO;2-0
    Mattson, S. (1993). Mental health of Southeast Asian refugee women: An overview. Health Care for Women International, 14, 155–165. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07399339309516037
    Matute-Bianchi, M. E. (1986). Ethnic identities and patterns of school success and future among Mexican-descent and Japanese American students in a California high school: An ethnographic analysis. American Journal of Education, 95, 233–255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/444298
    Mayadas, N., & Elliot, D. (1989). Traditions and innovation in the ethics of social group work. Proceedings of the 11th Annual Symposium of the Association for the Advancement of Social Work With Groups, 2, 1274–1289.
    Mayeno, L., & Hirota, S. M. (1994). Access to health care. In N. W. S.Zane, D. T.Takeuchi, & K. N. J.Young (Eds.), Confronting critical health issues of Asian and Pacific Islander Americans (pp. 347–376). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Mazumdar, S. (1984). Punjabi agricultural workers in California, 1905–1945. In L.Cheng & E.Bonacich (Eds.), Labor immigration under capitalism: Asian workers in the United States before World War II (pp. 549–578). Berkeley: University of California Press.
    McAdoo, H. P. (1987). Blacks. In A.Minahan (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (
    18th ed.
    , Vol. 1, pp. 194–204). Silver Spring, MD: NASW Press.
    McCarthy, C. (1993). After the canon: Knowledge and ideological representation in the multicultural discourse on curriculum reform. In C.McCarthy & W.Crichlow (Eds.), Race, identity, and representation in education (pp. 289–305). New York: Routledge.
    McCollurn, E., & Trepper, T. (1995). “Little by little, pulling me through”—Women's perceptions of successful drug treatment: A qualitative inquiry. Journal of Family Psychotherapy, 6(1), 63–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/j085V06N01_06
    McGill, D. W. (1992). The cultural story in multicultural family therapy. Families in Society, 73, 339–349.
    McInnis, K. (1991). Ethnic-sensitive work with Hmong refugee children. Child Welfare, 70, 571–580.
    McIntosh, P. (1998). White privilege: Unpacking the invisible knapsack. In P. S.Rothenberg (Ed.), Race, class, and gender in the United States (pp. 165–169). New York: St. Martin's.
    McMahon, M. O. (1994). Advanced generalist practice with an international perspective. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    McPhatter, A. R. (1991). Assessment revisited: A comprehensive approach to understanding family dynamics. Families in Society, 8(1), 11–22.
    McRae, M. B., Carey, P. M., & Anderson-Scott, R. (1998). Black churches as therapeutic systems: A group process perspective. Health Education & Behavior, 25, 778–790. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819802500607
    McRoy, R. G., & Freeman, E. (1986). Racial identity issues among mixed-race children. Social Work in Education, 8, 164–174.
    McWilliams, C. (Ed.). (1990). North from Mexico. Westport, CT: Greenwood. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1183874
    Meier, M. S. (1990). Politics, education and culture. In C.McWilliams (Ed.), North from Mexico (pp. 285–308). Westport, CT: Greenwood.
    Meier, M. S., & Rivera, F. (1972). The Chicanos: A history of Mexican Americans. New York: Hill & Wang.
    Melendy, H. B. (1977). Asians in America: Filipinos, Koreans, and East Indians. Boston: Twayne. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/25158659
    Melwani, L. (1994, January 31). Dark side of the moon. India Today, pp. 60C–60F.
    Mencke, J. G. (1979). Mulattoes and race mixture: American attitudes and images, 1865–1918. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press.
    Mendoza, R. H. (1989). An empirical scale to measure type and degree of acculturation in Mexican-American adolescents and adults. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 20, 372–385. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022189204003
    Merida, K. (1999, December/January). Decriminalizing “Driving While Black.”Emerge, 10(3), 26.
    Miah, M. R., & Kahler, D. R. (1997). Asian-American elderly: A review of the quality of life and social service needs. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 24(1), 79–89.
    Mihesuah, D. A. (1996). Commonality of differences: American Indian women and history. American Indian Quarterly, 20(1), 15–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1184938
    Mirande, A. (1988). Que gacho es ser macho: It's a drag to be a macho man. Aztlan, 17, 63–89.
    Mohan, B. (1997). Notes toward a theory of secondary integration: Aporias of a lost paradigm. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 24(1), 113–127.
    Mohr, R. D. (1998). Anti-gay stereotypes. In P. S.Rothenberg (Ed.), Race, class and gender in the United States (pp. 452–457). New York: St. Martin's.
    Montiel, M., & Ortego y Gasca, F. (1998). Chicanos, communities and change. In F. G.Rivera & J. L.Erlich (Eds.), Community organizing in a diverse society (
    3rd ed.
    , pp. 43–61). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Montserrat, J. (1994). The year 2000. In K.Wagenheim & O. J.de Wagenheim (Eds.), The Puerto Ricans: A documentary history (pp. 315–322). Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener.
    Moore, S. E. (1998). [Review of E. O. Hutchinson's book The assassination of the Black male image]. Black Issues in Higher Education, 15(1), 41.
    Morales, J., & Reyes, M. (1998). Cultural and political realities for community social work practice with Puerto Ricans in the United States. In F. G.Rivera & J. L.Erlich (Eds.), Community organizing in a diverse society (pp. 75–96). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Morokvasic, M. (1984). Birds of passage are also women. International Migration Review, 18, 886–907. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2546066
    Motoyoshi, M. M. (1990). The experience of mixed-race people: Some thoughts and theories. Journal of Ethnic Studies, 18, 77–94.
    Mukoyama, T. H. J. (1998). Effects of heritage combination on ethnic identity, self-esteem, and adjustment among American biethnic adults. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Los Angeles.
    Munoz, A. N. (1971). The Filipinos in America. Los Angeles: Mountainview.
    Murase, K. (1995). Asian American: Japanese. In R. L.Edwards (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (
    19th ed.
    , pp. 241–248). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
    Murrell, A. J., & Jones, R. (1996). Assessing affirmative action: Past, present, and future. Journal of Social Issues, 52(4), 77–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1996.tb01849.x
    Nah, K. H. (1993). Perceived problems and service delivery for Korean immigrants. Social Work, 38, 289–296.
    Nakanishi, M., & Rittner, B. (1992). The inclusionary cultural model. Journal of Social Work Education, 28, 27–35.
    Nakashima, C. L. (1992). An invisible monster: The creation and denial of mixed-race people in America. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 162–178). Newbury Park: Sage.
    Nakashima, C. L. (1996). Voices from the movement: Approaches to multiraciality. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier (pp. 79–97). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Nash, G. B. (1974). Red, white and black: The peoples of early America. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1923879
    Nash, P. T. (1992). Multicultural identity. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 24–36). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    National Association of Social Workers. (1996). Code of ethics. Washington, DC: Author.
    Neff, J. A., & Hoppe, S. K. (1993). Race/ethnicity, acculturation, and psychological distress: Fatalism and religiosity as cultural resources. Journal of Community Psychology, 21, 3–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1520-6629%28199301%2921:1%3C3::AID-JCOP2290210102%3E3.0.CO;2-9
    Neighbors, H. W., Musick, M. A., & Wiliams, D. R. (1998). The African American minister as a source of help for serious personal crisis: Bridge or barrier to mental health care?Health Education & Behavior, 25, 759–778. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109019819802500606
    Nelson, C., & Tienda, M. (1997). The structuring of Hispanic ethnicity: Historical and contemporary perspectives. In M.Romero, P.Hondagneu-Sotelo, & V.Ortiz (Eds.), Challenging fronteras: Structuring Latina and Latino lives in the U.S. (pp. 7–29). New York: Routledge.
    Newman, B. S. (1989). Including curriculum content on lesbian and gay issues. Journal of Social Work Education, 25, 202–211.
    Ngwainmbi, E. K. (1999). Exporting communication technology to developing countries: Sociocultural, economic and educational factors. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
    Nichols-Casebolt, A., Krysik, J., & Hamilton, B. (1994). Coverage of women's issues in social work journals: Are we building an adequate knowledge base?Journal of Social Work Education, 30, 348–362.
    Nolte, W. W., & Wilcox, D. L. (1984). Effective publicity: How to reach people. New York: John Wiley.
    Norman, J., & Wheeler, B. (1996). Gender-sensitive social work practice: A model for education. Journal of Social Work Education, 32, 203–213.
    Norris, A. E., Ford, K., & Bova, C. A. (1996). Psychometrics of a brief acculturation scale for Hispanics in a probability sample of urban Hispanic adolescents and young adults. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 18, 29–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07399863960181004
    Norton, D. (1978). The dual perspective: Inclusion of ethnic minority content in social work curriculum. New York: Council on Social Work Education.
    Nwadiora, E., & McAdoo, H. (1996). Acculturative stress among Amerasian refugees: Gender and racial differences. Adolescence, 31, 477–487.
    O'Hare, W., & Felt, J. C. (1991). Asian Americans: America's fastest-growing minority group. Washington, DC: Population Reference Bureau. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3595252
    O'Hare, W. P. (1992). America's minorities—The demographics of diversity. Population Bulletin, 47(4), S2(44).
    Okamura, J. Y., & Agbayani, A. R. (1997). Parmantsan: Filipino American higher education. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), Filipino Americans: Transformation and identity (pp. 183–197). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243177
    Olson, D. H. (1986). Circumplex model VII: Validation studies and FACES. Family Process, 25, 337–351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1986.00337.x
    Olson, D. H., Portner, J., & Lavee, Y. (1985). FACES III. St. Paul: Family Social Science, University of Minnesota. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1986.00337.x
    Ong, P. (1984). Chinatown unemployment and the ethnic labor market. Amerasia Journal, 11, 35–54.
    Ong, P., & Hee, S. (1994). Economic diversity. In P.Ong (Ed.), The state of Asian Pacific America: Economic diversity, issues, and policies (pp. 31–56). Los Angeles: LEAP Asian Pacific American Public Policy Institute and University of California at Los Angeles Asian American Studies Center.
    Ortiz, V. (1997). Demographic overview of Latinos. In M.Romero, P.Hondagneu-Sotelo, & V.Ortiz (Eds.), Challenging fronteras: Structuring Latina and Latino lives in the U.S. (pp. xvi–xix). New York: Routledge.
    Padilla, A. M., Alvarez, M., & Lindholm, K. J. (1986). Generational status and personality factors as predictors of stress in students. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 8, 257–288.
    Padilla, A. M., Carlos, M., & Keefe, S. (1976). Mental health service utilization by Mexican Americans. In M. R.Miranda (Ed.), Psychotherapy with the Spanish-speaking: Issues in research and service delivery. Los Angeles: Spanish Speaking Mental Health Research Center, University of California.
    Padilla, A. M., Lindholm, K. J., Chen, A., Duran, R., Hakuta, K., Lambert, W., & Tucker, G. R. (1991). The English-only movement: Myths, reality, and implications for psychology. American Psychologist, 46, 120–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.46.2.120
    Padilla, A. M., & Ruiz, R. A. (1976). Latino mental health: A review of literature. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare.
    Palacios, M., & Franco, J. N. (1986). Counseling Mexican American women. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 14, 124–131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-1912.1986.tb00176.x
    Paniagua, F. A. (1994). Assessing and treating culturally diverse clients: A practical guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Pantoja, A., & Perry, W. (1998). Community development and restoration: A perspective and case study. In F. G.Rivera & J. L.Erlich (Eds.), Community organizing in a diverse society (
    3rd ed.
    , pp. 220–243). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Parsons, R. D. (1995). The skills of helping. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00219266.1994.9655358
    Parsons, S., Simmons, W., Shinhoster, F., & Kilburn, J. (1999). A test of the grapevine: An empirical examination of conspiracy theories among African Americans. Sociological Spectrum, 19(2), 201–223.
    Payne, R. J. (1998). Getting beyond race: The changing American culture. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Pederson, P. B. (1988). A handbook for developing multicultural awareness. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
    Peplau, L. A., Cochran, S. D., & Mays, V. M. (1997). A national survey of the intimate relationships of African American lesbians and gay men: A look at commitment, satisfaction, sexual behavior, and HIV disease. In B.Greene (Ed.), Ethnic and cultural diversity among lesbians and gay men (pp. 11–38). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Perdue, T. (1979). Slavery and the evolution of Cherokee society, 1540–1866. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.
    Pido, A. J. A. (1997). Macro/micro dimension of immigration to the United States. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), Filipino Americans: Transformation and identity (pp. 21–38). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243177
    Pinderhughes, E. (1979). Teaching empathy in cross-cultural social work. Social Work, 24, 312–316.
    Plous, S. (1996). Ten myths about affirmative action. Journal of Social Issues, 52 (4), 25–31.
    Ponchillia, S. V. (1993). The effect of cultural beliefs on the treatment of Native peoples with diabetes and visual impairment. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 87, 333–336.
    Popple, P. R. (1983). Contexts of practice. In A.Rosenblatt & D.Waldfogel (Eds.), Handbook of clinical social work (pp. 70–96). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Popple, P. R. (1995). Social work profession: History. In R. L.Edwards (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (
    19th ed.
    , pp. 2282–2292). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
    Porterfield, E. (1978). Black and white mixed marriages. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
    Portes, A. (1982). Illegal immigration and the international systems: Lessons from recent legal immigrants to the United States. In N. R.Yetman (Ed.), Majority and minority (pp. 509–520). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Portes, A., & Truelove, C. (1987). Making sense of diversity: Recent research on Hispanic minorities in the United States. Annual Review of Sociology, 13, 359–385. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.13.080187.002043
    Potocky, M. (1996). Refugee children: How are they faring economically as adults?Social Work, 41, 364–373.
    Poussaint, A. F. (1984). Study of interracial children presents positive picture. Interracial Books for Children Bulletin, 15, 9–10.
    Poyo, G. E. (1984). Cuban communities in the United States: Toward an overview of the 19th century experience. In M.Uriarte-Gaston & J. C.Martinez (Eds.), Cubans in the United States (pp. 44–64). Boston: Center for the Study of the Cuban Community.
    Publisher's note. (1994). In S.Auerbach (Ed.), Encyclopedia of multiculturalism (pp. v–vi). New York: Marshall Cavendish.
    Purdy, J. K., & Arguello, D. (1992). Hispanic familism in caretaking of older adults: Is it functional?Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 19(2), 29–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J083v19n02_03
    Queralt, M. (1984). Understanding Cuban immigrants: A cultural perspective. Social Work, 29, 115–121.
    Ramirez, D. A. (1996). Multiracial identity in a color-conscious world. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier (pp. 49–62). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Ramirez, M. (1984). Assessing and understanding biculturalism-multiculturalism in Mexican-American adults. In J. L.Martinez & R. H.Mendoza (Eds.), Chicano psychology (pp. 77–94). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
    Ramirez, M. (1999). Multicultural psychotherapy: An approach to individual and cultural differences. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
    Ramirez, R. (1985). Hispanic spirituality. Social Thought, 11(2), 6–13.
    Randall, D. (1971). The black poets. New York: Bantam.
    Rarick, C. A. (1994). The philosophical impact of Shintoism, Buddhism, and Confucianism on Japanese management practices. International Journal of Value-Based Management, 7, 2, 19–226.
    Raveis, V. H., & Siegel, K. (1998). Factors associated with HIV-infected women's delay in seeking medical care. AIDS Care, 10, 549–562. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540129848415
    Rees, S. (1991). Achieving power: Practice and policy in social welfare. North Sydney, Australia: Allyn & Bacon. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01900690701261114
    Reese, D. J., & Ahern, R. E. (1999). Hospice access and use by African Americans: Addressing cultural and institutional barriers through participatory action research. Social Work, 44, 549–560. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sw/44.6.549
    Reid, M. (1993). Native Americans: Leaders in the 21st century: A comprehensive statewide plan for Indian Education. Tulsa, OK: State Department of Education Printing Services. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diacare.25.2.279
    Reid, W. C. (1978). The task-centered system. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Reid, W. C. (1985). Family problem solving. New York: Columbia University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15374410701662741
    Repack, T. A. (1997). New roles in a new landscape. In M.Romero, P.Hondagneu-Sotelo, & V.Ortiz (Eds.), Challenging fronteras: Structuring Latina and Latino lives in the U.S. (pp. 247–263). New York: Routledge.
    Reuter, E. B. (1918). The mulatto in the United States. Boston: Richard G. Badger, The Gorham Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2713713
    Rhee, S. (1997). Domestic violence in the Korean immigrant family. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 24(1), 63–77.
    Richmond, M. E. (1897). The need of a training school in applied philanthropy. In Proceedings of the National Conference of Charities and Correction (pp. 181–189). Boston: George H. Ellis.
    Richmond, M. E. (1917). Social diagnosis. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
    Rivera, F. G., & Erlich, J. L. (1992). Prospectives and challenges. In F. G.Rivera & J. L.Erlich (Eds.), Community organizing in a diverse society (pp. 1–26). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Rivera, F. G., & Erlich, J. L. (Eds.). (1995). Community organizing in a diverse society (
    2nd ed.
    ). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Rivera, F. G., & Erlich, J. L. (1998). A time of fear, a time of hope. In F. G.Rivera & J. L.Erlich (Eds.), Community organizing in a diverse society (
    3rd ed.
    , pp. 1–24). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Rodriquez, C. E. (1989). Puerto Ricans born in the U.S.A. Boston: Unwin Hyman.
    Rodriguez, C. E. (1996). Puerto Ricans: Between black and white. In C. E.Rodriguez & V. S.Korrol (Eds.), Historical perspectives on Puerto Rican survival in the United States (pp. 25–35). Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener.
    Romero, J. T. (1983). The therapist as a social change agent. In G.Gibson (Ed.), Our kingdom stands on brittle glass (pp. 86–95). Silver Spring, MD: NASW Press.
    Romero, M. (1997). Introduction. In M.Romero, P.Hondagneu-Sotelo, & V.Ortiz (Eds.), Challenging fronteras: Structuring Latina and Latino lives in the U.S. (pp. xiii–xix). New York: Routledge.
    Root, M. P. P. (1985). Guidelines for facilitating therapy with Asian-American clients. Psychotherapy, 22, 349–356. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0085514
    Root, M. P. P. (1990). Resolving “other” status: Identity development of biracial individuals. In L.Brown & M. P. P.Root (Eds.), Complexity and diversity in feminist theory and therapy (pp. 185–205). New York: Haworth.
    Root, M. P. P. (Ed.). (1992). Racially mixed people in America. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Root, M. P. P. (1994). Mixed-race women. In L.Comas-Diaz & B.Greene (Eds.), Women of color: Integrating ethnic and gender identities in psychotherapy (pp. 455–478). New York: Guilford.
    Root, M. P. P. (1996). Introduction. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier (pp. xiii–xxviii). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Root, M. P. P. (1997). Mixed-race women. In N.Zack (Ed.), Race/sex: Their sameness, difference, and interplay (pp. 157–172). New York: Routledge.
    Rosaldo, R., & Flores, W. V. (1997). Identity, conflict, and evolving Latino communities: Cultural citizenship in San Jose, California. In W. V.Flores & R.Benmayor (Eds.), Latino cultural citizenship: Claiming identity, space, and rights (pp. 57–96). Boston: Beacon.
    Rose, I. G. (1984). An Hispanic perspective on biracial, bicultural families. Interracial Books for Children Bulletin, 15, 12.
    Ross-Sheriff, F. (1995). African Americans: Immigrants. In R. L.Edwards (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (
    19th ed.
    , pp. 130–136). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
    Rothman, J. (1995). Approaches to community interventions. In J.Rothman, J. L.Erlich, & J. E.Tropman (Eds.), Strategies of community intervention: Macro practice (
    5th ed.
    , pp. 26–64). Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock.
    Rounds, K. A., Weil, M., & Bishop, K. K. (1994). Practice with culturally diverse families of young children with disabilities. Families in Society, 75, 3–15.
    Ruffins, P. (1998). The Tuskegee experiment's long shadow. Black Issues in Higher Education, 15(18), 26–32.
    Rumbaut, R. G., Chavez, L. R., Moser, R. J., Pickwell, S. M., & Wishnik, S. M. (1988). The politics of migrant health care: A comparative study of Mexican immigrants and Indochinese refugees. Research in the Sociology of Health Care, 7, 143–202.
    Ryan, A. S. (1985). Cultural factors in casework with Chinese-Americans. Social Casework, 66, 333–340.
    Safa, H. I. (1988). Migration identity: A comparison of Puerto Rican and Cuban migrants in the United States. In E.Acosta-Belen & B. R.Sjostrom (Eds.), The Hispanic experience in the United States: Contemporary issues and perspectives (pp. 137–150). Westport, CT: Praeger.
    Saleebey, D. (1992). Introduction: Power in the people. In D.Saleebey (Ed.), The strength perspective in social work practice (pp. 3–17). New York: Longman.
    Sanchez, G. I. (1977). Pachucos in the making. In R.Rosaldo, R.Calvert, & G.Seligman (Eds.), Chicano: The evolution of a people (p. 210). Huntington, NY: Robert E. Krieger.
    Sanchez Korrol, V. E. (1993). From colonia to community: The history of Puerto Ricans in New York City, 1917–1948. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
    Sandoval, C. (1990). Feminism and racism: A report on the 1981 National Women's Studies Association Conference. In G.Anzáldua (Ed.), Making face, making soul (haciendo caras): Creative and critical perspectives by women of color (pp. 55–71). San Francisco: Aunt Lute Foundation.
    Sarkodie-Mensah, K. (1995). Nigerian Americans. In R. J.Vecoli, J.Galens, A.Sheets, & R. V.Young (Eds.), Gale encyclopedia of multicultural America (Vol. 2, pp. 987–1003). (Irish Americans-Yupiat Index). Detroit: International Thomas.
    Schafer, J. R., & McIlwaine, B. D. (1992). Investigating child sexual abuse in the American Indian Community. American Indian Quarterly, 16(2), 157–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1185427
    Schinke, S. (1996). Behavior approaches to illness prevention for Native Americans. In P. M.Kato & T.Mann (Eds.), Handbook of diversity issues in health psychology (pp. 367–388). New York: Plenum.
    Sears, J. (1991). Growing up gay in the south: Race, gender, and journeys of the spirit. London: Hawthorn Press.
    Shackford, K. (1984). Interracial children: Growing up healthy in an unhealthy society. Interracial Books for Children Bulletin, 15, 4–6.
    Shimon, L. C. (1976). I know something good about you. In H.Felleman (Ed.), The best loved poems of the American people (p. 116). New York: Doubleday.
    Shon, S., & Ja, D. (1982). Asian families. In M.McGoldrick, J. K.Pearce, & J.Giordano (Eds.), Ethnicity and family therapy (pp. 208–228). New York: Guilford.
    Shulman, L. (1999). The skills of helping individuals, families, groups, and communities (
    4th ed.
    ). Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock.
    Siefert, K. (1983). An exemplar of primary prevention in social work: The Sheppard-Towner Act of 1921. Social Work in Health Care, 9(1), 87–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J010v09n01_08
    Simon, B. L. (1994). The empowerment tradition in American social work: A history. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Simon, H. (1976). Administrative behavior (
    3rd ed.
    ). New York: Free Press.
    Singleton-Bowie, S. M. (1995). The effects of mental health practitioners' racial sensitivity on African Americans' perceptions of service. Social Work Research, 19, 238–244.
    Sinha, L. (1996). A patchwork of ethnicity. Latino Studies Journal, 7, 80–89.
    Siporin, M. (1975). Introduction to social work practice. New York: Macmillan.
    Siporin, M. (1989). The social work ethic. Social Thought, 15(3/4), 42–52.
    Skabelund, G. P. (1995). Culturgrams: The nations around us: Vol. 1. The Americas and Europe. Garrett Park, MD: Garrett Park Press.
    Slucher, M. P., Mayer, C. J., & Dunkle, R. (1996). Gays and lesbians older and wiser (GLOW): A support group for older gay people. Gerontologist, 36(1), 118–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/36.1.118
    Smart, J. F., & Smart, D. W. (1995). Acculturation stress: The experience of the Hispanic immigrant. Counseling Psychology, 23, 25–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011000095231003
    Smith, E. J. (1981). Cultural and historical perspectives in counseling blacks. In D. W.Sue (Ed.), Counseling the culturally different: Theory and practice (pp. 141–185). New York: John Wiley.
    Smith, J. C., & Johns, R. L. (1995). Statistical record of Black America (
    3rd ed.
    ). Detroit: Gale Research.
    Smith, R. F. (1995). Settlements and neighborhood centers. In R. L.Edwards (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (
    19th ed.
    , pp. 2129–2135). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
    Smith, W. C. (1985). The church in the life of the Black family. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press.
    Smither, R., & Rodriguez-Geigling, M. (1982). Personality, demographics, and acculturation of Vietnamese and Nicaraguan refugees to the United States. International Journal of Psychology, 17, 19–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207598208247429
    Snipp, C. M. (1997). Some observations about racial boundaries and the experiences of American Indians. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 20, 667–689. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01419870.1997.9993984
    Sodowsky, G. R., Kuo-Jackson, P. Y., & Loya, G. J. (1997). Outcome of training in the philosophy of assessment: Multicultural counseling competencies. In D. B.Pope-Davis & H. L. K.Coleman (Eds.), Multicultural counseling competencies: Assessment, education and training, and supervision (pp. 3–42). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452232072
    Solomon, B. (1976). Black empowerment: Social work in oppressed communities. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Specht, H., & Courtney, M. E. (1994). Unfaithful angels: How social work has abandoned its mission. New York: Free Press.
    Spencer, J. M. (1997). The new colored people: The mixed-raced movement in America. New York: New York University Press.
    Spickard, P. R. (1989). Mixed blood: Intermarriage and ethnic identity in twentieth-century America. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Spickard, P. R. (1997). What must I be? Asian Americans and the question of multiethnic identity. Amerasia Journal, 23, 43–60.
    Spickard, P. R., Fong, R., & Ewalt, P. L. (1995). Undermining the very basis of racism—Its categories. Social Work, 40, 581–584.
    Spring, J. (1997). Deculturalization and the struggle for equality (
    2nd ed.
    ). San Francisco: McGraw-Hill.
    Stack, S., & Wasserman, I. (1995). The effects of marriage, family, and religious ties on African American suicide ideology. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 57, 215–223. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353829
    Standen, B. C. S. (1996). Without a template: The biracial Korean/white experience. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier (pp. 245–259). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Staples, L. (1984). Roots to power: A manual for grassroots organizing. New York: Praeger.
    Steiner, S. (1971). The new Indians. In J.David (Ed.), The American Indian: The first victim (pp. 175–192). New York: William Morrow.
    Suarez, L., & Ramirez, A. G. (1999). Hispanic/Latino health and disease: An overview. In R. M.Huff & M. V.Klein (Eds.), Promoting health in multicultural populations: A handbook for practitioners (pp. 115–136). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Sue, D. W. (1997). Foreword. In D. B.Pope-Davis & H. L. K.Coleman (Eds.), Multicultural counseling competencies: Assessment, education and training, and supervision (pp. ix–xi). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452232072
    Sue, D. W., & Morishima, J. K. (1982). The mental health of Asian Americans. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Suinn, R., Rikard-Figueroa, K., Lew, S., & Vigil, P. (1987). The Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale: An initial report. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 47, 401–407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013164487472012
    Sullivan, P. (1998). “What are you?” Multiracial families in America. Our Children, 23(5), 34–35.
    Swanson, W., & Breed, W. (1976). Black suicide in New Orleans. In E.Shneidan (Ed.), Sociology: Contemporary developments (pp. 103–128), New York: Grune & Stratton.
    Swerdlow, M. (1992). “Chronicity,” “nervios,” and community care: A case of Puerto Rican psychiatric patients in New York City. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry, 16, 217–235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00117019
    Szapocznik, J., & Hernandez, R. (1990). The Cuban family. In C.Mindel, R. W.Haberstein, & R.Wright, Jr. (Eds.), Ethnic families in America: Patterns and variations (pp. 160–172). New York: Elsevier.
    Takaki, R. (1989). Strangers from a different shore: A history of Asian Americans. New York: Little, Brown.
    Takaki, R. (1990). Iron cages: Race and culture in 19th century America. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Taylor, R. L. (1994). Minority families in America: A multicultural perspective. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Thangavelu, V. (1980). The Samsar model of social work practice. Mangalore, India: Preeti.
    Thom, L. (1992). Becoming brave: The path to Native American manhood. San Francisco: Chronicle.
    Thornton, M. C. (1983). A social history of a multiethnic identity: The case of black Japanese Americans. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Thornton, M. C. (1992). The quiet immigration: Foreign spouses of U.S. citizens, 1945–1985. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 64–76). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Tienda, M. (1989). Puerto Ricans and the underclass debate. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 501, 105–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002716289501001007
    Torres, A. (1995). Between melting pot and mosaic: African Americans and Puerto Ricans in the New York political economy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Torres, J. B. (1998). Masculinity and gender roles among Puerto Rican men: Machismo on the U.S. mainland. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68, 16–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0080266
    Tran, T. V., & Dhooper, S. S. (1996). Ethnic and gender differences in perceived needs for social services among elderly Hispanic groups. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 25(3/4), 121–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J083V25N03_09
    Tran, T. V., & Dhooper, S. S. (1997). Poverty, chronic stress, ethnicity and psychological distress among elderly Hispanics. Journal of Gerontological Social Work27(4), 3–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J083V27N04_02
    Trattner, W. (1989). From poor law to welfare state: A history of social welfare. New York: Free Press.
    Trattner, W. I. (1994). From poor law to welfare state: A history of social welfare in America (
    5th ed.
    ). New York: Free Press.
    Trimble, J. E., Fleming, C. M., Beauvais, F., & Jumper-Thurman, P. (1996). Essential cultural and social strategies for counseling Native American Indians. In P. B.Pedersen, J. G.Draguns, W. J.Lonner, & J.Trimble (Eds.), Counseling across cultures (pp. 177–209). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Trolander, J. A. (1975). Settlement houses and the great depression. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.
    Tucker, M. (1990). Director's foreword. In R.Ferguson, M.Gever, M. H.Trinh, & C.West (Eds.), Marginalization and contemporary cultures (pp. 7–9). New York: MIT Press.
    Tucker, M. B., & Mitchell-Kernan, C. (1995). The decline in marriage among African Americans: Causes, consequences, and policy implications. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
    Turner, J. B. (1971). Racial and other minority groups. In R.Morris (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (
    16th ed.
    , pp. 1068–1077). New York: NASW Press.
    Turner, J. B. (1995). Group work and ethnic diversity. In M. D.Feit, J. H.Ramey, J. S.Wodarski, & A. A.Mann (Eds.), Capturing the power of diversity (pp. 7–17). New York: Haworth.
    Turner, R. J. (1991). Affirming consciousness: The Africentric perspective. In J. R.Everett, S.Chipungu, & B. R.Leashore (Eds.), Child welfare: An Africentric perspective (pp. 36–57). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Twine, F. W. (1996). Heterosexual alliances: The romantic management of racial identity. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier (pp. 291–304). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Uchida, Y. (1982). Desert exile: The uprooting of a Japanese American family. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
    Uehara, E. D., Sohng, S. L. S., Bending, R. L., Seyfried, S., Richey, C. A., Morelli, P., Spencer, M., Ortega, D., Keenan, L., & Kanuha, V. (1996). Toward a value-based approach to multicultural social work research. Social Work, 41, 613–621.
    Ulincy, L. D., Hu, F., Lock, A., Liu, R., Lin-Fu, J. S., & Alexander, G. A. (1995). Asian/Pacific Islander American health: Current bibliographies in medicine. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Health.
    U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1990). The Hispanic population in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1991). Race and Hispanic origin. In U.S. Bureau of the Census (Ed.), 1990 census profile, No. 2. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1992a). Current population reports, population characteristics. P. 20-459. The Asian and Pacific Islander Population in the United States, March 1991 and 1990. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1992b). Marital status and living arrangements: March 1992 (Current Population Reports, Population Characteristics, Series P20-468). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1992c). Populations projections of the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin: 1992 to 2050. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1993a). Census of the population: Socioeconomic characteristics (Series CP-2-1-M). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1993b). Hispanic Americans today (Current Population Reports, Population Characteristics, Series P-23, No. 183). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1994). Current population reports: Marital status and living arrangements. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. (1986). Recent activities against citizens and residents of Asian descent. Washington, DC: Author.
    U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. (1992). Civil rights issues facing Asian Americans in the 1990s. Washington, DC: Author.
    U.S. Department of Commerce. (1993a). We the American … foreign born. Washington, DC: Bureau of the Census.
    U.S. Department of Commerce. (1993b). We the American … Hispanics. Washington, DC: Bureau of the Census.
    U.S. Department of Commerce. (1997). Statistical abstract of the United States (
    117th ed.
    ). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    Valle, R. (1980). Social mapping techniques: A preliminary guide for locating and linking to natural networks. In R.Valle & W.Vega (Eds.), Hispanic natural support systems (pp. 113–121). Sacramento: State of California Department of Mental Health.
    Valverde, K. C. (1992). From dust to gold: The Vietnamese Amerasian experience. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 144–161). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Van Soest, D. (1995). Multiculturalism and social work education: The non-debate about competing perspectives. Journal of Social Work Education, 31, 55–66.
    Van Soest, D. (1996). The influence of competing ideologies about homosexuality on nondiscrimination policy: Implications for social work education. Journal of Social Work Education, 32, 53–64.
    Vargas, L. A. (1992). Diversity of aging experience in Latin America and the Caribbean. Clinical Gerontologist, 11(3/4), 5–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J018v11n03_02
    Vasquez, M. J. T. (1994). Latinas. In L.Comas-Diaz & B.Greene (Eds.), Women of color: Integrating ethnic and gender identities in psychotherapy (pp. 114–138). New York: Guilford.
    Vecoli, R. J. (1995). Ghanians. In R. J.Vecoli, J.Galens, A.Sheets, & R. V.Young (Eds.), Gale encyclopedia of multicultural America (Vol. 2, pp. 331–335). (Irish Americans-Yupiat Index). Detroit: International Thomas.
    Vega, W. A. (1990). Hispanic families in the 1980s: A decade of research. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52, 1015–1024. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353316
    Walker, L., & Wilson, B. C. (1997). African Americans. In D.Levison & M.Ember (Eds.), American immigrant cultures (Vol. 1, pp. 10–20). New York: Macmillan.
    Wardle, F. (1992). Biracial identity: An ecological and developmental model. Denver, CO: Center for the Study of Biracial Children.
    Wardle, F. (1993). Interracial families and biracial children. Child Care Information Exchange, 90, 45–48.
    Warheit, G. J., Vega, W. A., Khourey, E. L., Gil, A. A., & Elfenbein, P. H. (1996). A comparative analysis of cigarette, alcohol, and illicit drug use among an ethnically diverse sample of Hispanic, African American, and non-Hispanic white adolescents. Journal of Drug Issues, 26, 901–922.
    Warren, R. C. (1993). The morbidity/mortality gap: What is the problem?Annals of Epidemiology, 3, 127–129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1047-2797%2893%2990124-M
    Washington, H. A. (1994, October). Human guinea pigs. Emerge, 5(1), 24–35.
    Wax, M. L. (1971). Indian Americans. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Weaver, H. N. (1999a). Indigenous people and the social work profession: Defining culturally competent services. Social Work, 44, 217–226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sw/44.3.217
    Weaver, H. N. (1999b). Through indigenous eyes: Native Americans and the HIV epidemic. Health & Social Work, 24(1), 27–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hsw/24.1.27
    Wehrly, B. (1996). Counseling interracial individuals and families. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
    Weil, M. O., & Gamble, D. N. (1995). Community practice models. In R. L.Edwards (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social work (
    19th ed.
    , pp. 577–593). Washington, DC: NASW Press.
    Weisman, J. R. (1996). An “other” way of life: The empowerment of alterity in the interracial individual. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier (pp. 152–166). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Weyr, T. (1988). Hispanic U.S.A.: Breaking the melting pot. New York: Harper & Row.
    White, E. (Ed.). (1990). The black women's health book. Seattle, WA: Seal Press.
    Whitler, T. E., & Calantone, R. J. (1991). Strength of ethnic affiliation: Examining Black identification with Black culture. Journal of Social Psychology, 131, 461–468. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1991.9713876
    Williams, E., & Ellison, F. (1996). Culturally informed social work practice with American Indian clients: Guidelines for non-Indian social workers. Social Work, 41, 147–151.
    Williams, T. K. (1992). Prism lives: Identity of binational Americans. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), Racially mixed people in America (pp. 280–303). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Williams, T. K. (1996). Race as a process: Reassessing the “What are you?” encounters of biracial individuals. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), The multiracial experience: Racial borders as the new frontier (pp. 191–210). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Williamson, J. (1984). New people: Miscegenation and mulattoes in the United States. New York: New York University Press.
    Wilson, A. (1987). Mixed race children: A study of identity. Boston: Allen and Unwin. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.1981.9975658
    Wilson, T. P. (1992). Blood quantum: Native American mixed bloods. In M. P. P.Root (Ed.), Mixed race people in America (pp. 108–125). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Wingfield, H. L. (1988). The church and Blacks in America. Western Journal of Black Studies, 12(3), 127–133.
    Winkelman, M. (1999). Ethnic sensitivity in social work. Dubuque, IA: Eddie Bowens.
    Winn, N. N., & Priest, R. (1993). Counseling biracial children: A forgotten component of multicultural counseling. Family Therapy, 20, 29–36.
    Winter, G. (1966). Elements of a social issue: The role of social science in public policy. New York: Macmillan.
    Wodarski, J. S. (1992a). Social work practice with Asian-Americans. In D. F.Harrison, J. S.Wodarski, & B. A.Thyer (Eds.), Cultural diversity and social work practice (pp. 45–69). Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
    Wodarski, J. S. (1992b). Social work practice with Hispanic Americans. In D. F.Harrison, J. S.Wodarski, & B. A.Thyer (Eds.), Cultural diversity and social work practice (pp. 71–105). Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
    Wohl, B. J. (1995). Group work for what? Group work linkage of micro- and macro-social policy issues. In M. D.Feit, J. H.Ramey, J. S.Wodarski, & A. A.Mann (Eds.), Capturing the power of diversity (pp. 77–88). New York: Haworth.
    Wong-Rieger, D., & Quintana, D. (1987). Compartive acculturation of Southeast Asians and Hispanic immigrants and sojourners. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 18, 145–162.
    Wood, P. H. (1974). Black majority: Negroes in colonial South Carolina from 1670 through the Stono rebellion. New York: Knopf.
    Wright, L. (1994, July 25). One drop of blood. The New Yorker, 70(22), 46–49.
    Wright, M. A. (1998). I'm chocolate, you're vanilla: Raising healthy black biracial children in a race-conscious world. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Yamashiro, G., & Matsuoka, J. K. (1997). Help-seeking among Asian and Pacific Americans: A multiperspective analysis. Social Work, 42, 176–186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sw/42.2.176
    Zastrow, C. (1985). The practice of social work. Homewood, IL: Dorsey.

    Author Index

    About the Authors

    Surjit Singh Dhooper is Professor of Social Work at the University of Kentucky, Lexington. His professional experience, spread over 36 years, includes both practice and teaching. He has done direct practice as well as administrative and community organizational work in health care settings for 18 years and has taught at both graduate and undergraduate levels for over 18 years. He is Codirector of the Joint University of Kentucky-University of Louisville Ph.D. in Social Work Program. He has authored or coauthored five books, more than 40 journal articles, and over 20 book reviews, and he has presented papers at many national and international conferences. His books include Social Work and Transplantation of Human Organs (1994) and Social Work in Health Care in the 21st Century (1997). He was included among the 250 nationally prominent and most published social work scholars in the 1980s in a study by the Virginia Commonwealth University School of Social Work. He is the consulting editor or book reviewer for many professional journals, including Journal of Social Work Education, Social Work, Health and Social Work, and Journal of Gerontological Social Work. He has been a member of several university-, community-, and national-level committees and boards, such as the National Committee on Racial and Ethnic Diversity and the Legal Defense Service of the National Association of Social Workers.

    Sharon E. Moore is Associate Professor at the Raymond A. Kent School of Social Work at the University of Louisville in Louisville, Kentucky. She has several years of direct practice experience in the fields of medical social work and substance abuse counseling. She is the author of journal articles on substance abuse treatment for adolescent African American males, on the role of the African American church in community empowerment, and on tenure and publication issues for African American faculty. Her articles include The ABCs of Tenure: What All African American Faculty Should Know (1998), Adolescent Black Males, Drug Trafficking, and Addiction: Three Theoretical Perspectives (1995) and The Role of the Black Church in Changing Times: Empowering the Community for Survival (1995). She has also worked extensively with African American youth outreach initiatives and received an Outstanding Citizens Award from the Pittsburgh Federal Executive Board.


    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website