Social Identity Processes: Trends in Theory and Research

Books

Edited by: Dora Capozza & Rupert Brown

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Introduction: Social Identity Theory in Retrospect and Prospect

    RupertBrownDoraCapozza

    It is now 21 years since the first published statement of social identity theory (Tajfel, 1978a). Just as such an anniversary in a person's life would often be marked in some way, so it is appropriate to celebrate the coming of age of an intellectual tradition with a review of its achievements thus far and some reflection on its future prospects. This, in a nutshell, is the rationale for this book.

    There is no doubt that the field of intergroup relations has come to be dominated by the social identity approach. Such is clear from the most cursory glance at the theoretical basis of most of the empirical studies into different facets of intergroup behaviour now being published, a fact crudely indexed by a count of the references to the theory in abstracts included in PsychLit. After the usual post-publication lag, mentions of the theory are increasing in an approximately linear fashion and show no signs of abating: 2 (1978–82), 34 (1983–7), 64 (1988–92), 105 (1993–7). Moreover, it has proved enormously influential in stimulating new theory, not just in intergroup relations, but more widely in the whole domain of group processes. Most notable of these developments have been self-categorization theory (Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher and Wetherell, 1987), optimal distinctiveness theory (Brewer, 1991), and new approaches to the understanding of group cohesion and motivation (Hogg, 1992; Hogg and Abrams, 1993a), social influence (Turner, 1991), and stereotyping (Oakes, Haslam and Turner, 1994; Spears, Oakes, Ellemers and Haslam 1997a). The empirical work it has excited has not only been extensive in its. quantity but also catholic in its variety, encompassing conventional quantitative methodologies in the laboratory and the field, as well as alternative techniques (see Abrams and Hogg, 1990, 1999; Brown, 1984b; Robinson, 1996; and Tajfel, 1978a, 1982a, for useful collations of research and analysis inspired by social identity theory). Not surprisingly, given its comparative youth, the direct application of social identity theory to the resolution of social problems (as opposed to its testing in real-world settings) is as yet relatively unexploited terrain. Nevertheless, some examples do exist: for instance, for the reduction of prejudice (Hewstone and Brown, 1986; Vivian, Hewstone and Brown, 1997) and for predicting work performance (Ellemers, de Gilder and van den Heuvel, 1998).

    With the benefit of two decades of hindsight, it is worth considering why social identity theory has had this extraordinary impact. Part of the reason may be due to historical accident; it was a theory ‘waiting to happen’ as it were. Recall that the years immediately prior to its emergence were reverberating from the so called ‘crisis’ in social psychology (Elms, 1975). The discipline was having to respond to charges of social irrelevance, scientific triviality and epistemological confusion (Gergen, 1973; Harré and Secord, 1972; Ring, 1967). Social identity theory, promising as it did to address such important questions as the relationship of the individual to the group and the origins of intergroup conflict, while simultaneously keeping faith with orthodox methodology, provided an attractive political and scientific riposte to some of these critics. Also, the fact that it emerged in Europe as part of a burgeoning movement to establish an alternative to the then mainstream traditions in North America probably did much to aid its widespread adoption. Interestingly, its influence has been such that it is now routinely used as a point of departure by many prominent American scholars, some of whom are represented in this volume – perhaps another case study of successful minority influence to add to Moscovici's (1976) portfolio.

    However, there were (and are) more substantive and enduring reasons for the theory's popularity and it is worth just rehearsing three of the more important ones here. First, it provided a powerful complement to the other major theoretical orientation in intergroup relations, realistic group conflict theory (e.g., Sherif, 1966a). In this theory, the primary motivation underlying intergroup behaviour is instrumental. To put it simply, groups like each other (or not) because it serves their interests or goals to do so. Such an account, while it was a necessary antidote to the individualistic accounts prevailing after the Second World War (see Billig, 1976), nevertheless was exposed as incomplete with the discovery that intergroup discrimination could be reliably observed in minimal situations where the groups have no goals (Rabbie and Horwitz, 1969; Tajfel, Billig, Bundy and Flament, 1971). Even more problematic for such an instrumental explanation, this discrimination sometimes ran counter to group interests, such as when participants sought to achieve a relative advantage for the ingroup at the expense of absolute gain (Tajfel et al., 1971). As is well known, social identity theory seeks to explain such discrimination as attempts by group members to make sense of and derive some positivity from an otherwise novel and slightly bizarre situation (Turner, 1981). The social identity analysis was by no means confined to such minimal group situations however. From the beginning it also sought to understand the sometimes paradoxical responses of minority and other subordinate groups to their disadvantaged position (Tajfel and Turner, 1979). Thus, its first major contribution was to fill some important gaps left by the more singularly materialistic explanation of Sherif and others.

    A second reason for social identity theory's rapid endorsement by the social psychological research community stems from its clever combination of cognitive and motivational processes into a single explanatory account. The theory proposes that intergroup behaviour is always preceded by some social categorization activity (Tajfel and Turner, 1986). This is not only (and perhaps not even mainly – Spears, Oakes, Ellemers and Haslam, 1997b) for the well established reasons of cognitive simplification (Tajfel, 1969), but also because such categorization involves the allocation of the self to one of the available groups, with corresponding implications for the search for some social coherence and self-enhancement (Tajfel, 1981; Tajfel and Turner, 1979). Indeed, it was this process of self-categorization which provided the initial definition of social identity, and it was from such a conception that various hypotheses were derived concerning the consequences of identity abandonment, maintenance or improvement. These identity processes provide the motivational component of the theory and have been used to explain a wide variety of intergroup phenomena such as biases in social judgements, reward allocations, attributions and linguistic behaviour, as well as co-operation and helping behaviour (see, inter alia, Brown, 1996; Diehl, 1990; Dovidio, Gaertner, Validzic, Matoka, Johnson and Frazier, 1997; Giles, 1977; Hewstone, 1988; Maass, 1999; Turner, 1981). With such a broad scope, perhaps it was not surprising that the theory got so readily taken up. Ironically, though, the integration of cognition and motivation into a single model may have initially inhibited the theory's more widespread acceptance. Its first publication more or less coincided with the emergence of social cognition as a major force within the discipline which, at least in its early days, explicitly eschewed motivational accounts as it sought to explore the limits of the ‘information processing model’ of human judgement and behaviour (e.g., Fiske and Taylor, 1984; Hamilton, 1981). Only in this last decade has the social cognition perspective started to abandon this rather constrained view in favour of a broader conception which includes more self-related motives and strategies, and emotion (see, e.g., Brewer, 1988; Fiske and Neuberg, 1990; Mackie and Hamilton, 1993; Macrae, Stangor and Hewstone, 1996).

    A third factor behind social identity theory's success was that it offered the prospect of resolving one of the classic conundrums of group psychology, namely the relationship between the individual and the group. Since Allport (1924), social psychology had grappled with the question of how to theorize and study (inter) group behaviour (see Brown and Turner, 1981; see also Capozza and Volpato, 1994). Over the years the pendulum has swung back and forth from Allport's programmatic individualism, through Sherif's (1936) and Asch's (1952) group-oriented approaches, and back to the reductionism of Berkowitz (1962) and some social cognition proponents (e.g., Hamilton, 1979). Social identity theory provided an analysis of intergroup behaviour which was simultaneously individualistic (in that it proposed individual psychological mechanisms and hence used orthodox methodologies for the observation of individual perceptions, judgements and behaviour) and social (in that it showed how uniform behaviour could result from the internalization of the same group concept by members of an ingroup, and was concerned to explain widespread collective phenomena such as prejudice or social protest movements – see especially Turner, 1982).

    In this brief historical excursion we do not wish to imply that social identity theory has stayed static over these past 20 years, nor either that the research it has generated has identified no conceptual or empirical shortcomings (see Abrams and Hogg, 1990, 1999). Indeed, as we hinted earlier, one of its strengths is precisely that it has proved remarkably generative of new ideas and applications. It is in this spirit of theoretical and empirical development that we now present the three major issues addressed in this book.

    The first concerns the concept of social identity itself. Under this heading we can identify three themes. One is the relationship between personal and social identity. Within social identity theory, and latterly in self-categorization theory, these two levels of identification have usually been regarded as opposed, so that the more salient one form of identity is in a given context the less likely (and possible) is the other to emerge (Brown and Turner, 1981; Turner, 1987). However, from quite early on this conception was questioned by those who argued that these two self-systems might be orthogonal rather than bipolar, thus allowing the possibility that personal and social identities might be simultaneously significant (Stephenson, 1981). This issue is resurrected by Worchel and colleagues in Chapter 2, who argue that personal identity factors may impact intergroup behaviour directly by proposing that individual difference variables may affect group-related behaviour. Data from elsewhere which show that personal and social identity measures may be positively (and not negatively) correlated do at least raise some doubts about the often assumed psychological opposition of these two levels of identification (Greenland and Brown, 1999). Worchel et al. (Chapter 2) further articulate the analysis of identity by introducing two other concepts: the concept of intragroup identity, that is, the part of self-image which derives from the role or status that the individual has within the ingroup, and the concept of group identity, the image which a group has in the context of the other groups. An individual may decide to accept (or not) this collective image. According to Worchel et al., both intragroup identity and group identity can directly influence intergroup behaviour. Related to this first theme is a question raised by Deaux in Chapter 1 about the extent to which any given social identity necessarily entails a single set of consensually shared meanings for members of an ingroup or whether it might give rise to some idiosyncratic interpretations, albeit under the same categorical umbrella.

    A second theme within this theoretical section concerns the matter of group diversity, an issue first mooted some years ago (Brown and Williams, 1984). The issue here is whether, when we consider the welter of possible group identities, there is a single and generic identification process or, alternatively, whether there can be different kinds of identification with different psychological antecedents and implications. The classic formulation of social identity theory seems to assume the former in its well known definition of social identity (e.g., Tajfel, 1978b: 63). In this conception, although the analysis of any particular intergroup situation takes account of such structural variables as status, stability and permeability, still, ‘a group is a group is a group’ from the point of view of the hypothesized underlying identity processes. However, following the discovery that strength of group identification has a highly variable association with levels of ingroup bias (Hinkle and Brown, 1990), there has been increasing attention paid to the idea that different group identities may vary considerably in their psychological significance and social consequences. This theme is also pursued by Deaux in Chapter 1.

    If different group memberships can elicit a wider range of responses than originally envisaged by social identity theory, then it seems likely that social identification serves other functions than bolstering the self-esteem of ingroup members, and this is the third theme of this first part of the book. Some of these are discussed by Deaux in Chapter 1 and include such motives as self-insight, within-group cooperation, and socio-emotional gratification. A clear implication is that group members will not always, and perhaps not even mostly, be concerned to establish some kind of positive differentiation between their group and others.

    Notwithstanding this observation, it remains that the manifold varieties of ingroup bias continue to preoccupy researchers. In part, the very prevalence of such favouritism demands such attention (see Mullen, Brown and Smith, 1992); in addition, its centrality to the theory as the dependent measure of choice and necessity has naturally stimulated extensive investigation; and, finally, the seemingly (but misleadingly) easy step from the mild ingroup favouring biases that we typically observe in our laboratories to the full-blown outgroup derogation and hostility, so often seen in naturalistic contexts, adds an important practical motivation to fuel this line of research. It is thus appropriate that the second part of the book is devoted to various theoretical and methodological analyses of ingroup bias.

    The first important theme in this section concerns the now well established asymmetry between ingroup favouritism based on the allocation of positive outcomes or ratings along socially valued dimensions, and that deriving from the distribution of negative outcomes or undesirable attributes (Mummendey and Otten, 1998). Broadly speaking, ‘positive’ ingroup favouritism seems much easier to elicit than that involving negative outcomes, and there appears to be no simple relation between the two forms. In Chapter 3, Otten and Mummendey remind us of the extensive evidence which supports this asymmetry and discuss various plausible explanations for it. One of these, which links directly to the third major issue addressed in this book (see below), concerns the likelihood that finding ourselves in the unusual or counter-normative context of discriminating negatively causes a diminution of the salience of the subgroup (and often experimentally imposed) categories and a corresponding recategorization of the situation into a single superordinate category.

    Whatever the explanation, the observation that ingroup bias involving negative outcomes is not straightforwardly related to other forms of favouritism invites the search for different ways to take the temperature of intergroup relationships, whether in the laboratory or the field. This enquiry, which represents a second theme of this section on ingroup bias, is given added impetus as social psychologists become more knowledgeable about self-presentation effects in the often sensitive arenas into which they venture (Crosby, Bromley and Saxe, 1980; Dovidio and Fazio, 1992). Two chapters in Part II address exactly this point. Scaillet and Leyens (Chapter 4) offer a new paradigm, developed from work in cognitive psychology, which looks to be a promising new avenue. The interesting feature of their approach is that it asks participants to make deductive inferences from knowledge of category memberships. This, of course, is a cognitive activity at the very heart of the stereotyping process. Maass and her colleagues (Chapter 7) explore the links between various implicit or automatic indicators of prejudice and those requiring a more explicit response. As they point out, these different measures are not always well correlated. The interest here is that research in the social identity theory perspective has usually employed very overt or controlled types of measures. Indeed, the whole theoretical emphasis in social identity theory, and even more in its close relation self-categorization theory, is on the deliberative use of judgements and behaviours to achieve certain social ends (e.g., positive distinctiveness, optimizing meta-contrast). That being so, we can ask questions about the implications of results gained from paradigms employing automatic measures of the operation of social identity processes (Lepore and Brown, 1999).

    A third theme is concerned with determinants of ingroup bias. Historically, the main emphasis within social identity theory has been to seek these in various situational variables associated with the particular intergroup relationship under study (e.g., status, stability, legitimacy, permeability – see Ellemers, 1993; Sachdev and Bourhis, 1991; Turner and Brown, 1978; van Knippenberg and Ellemers, 1990). Rather in this same vein, in Chapter 6 Ros, Huici and Gómez explore the role of category salience in determining levels of bias. Basing their work in the Spanish context where there is a complex of different levels of identity, they argue that the relative psychological significance of superordinate and subordinate categories – in their case ‘nation’ and ‘region’ – is an important factor in controlling the level of bias shown.

    An alternative approach is adopted in Chapter 5 by Capozza and her colleagues. They take up the issue of group diversity that we discussed earlier. In this line of research a key question has been to understand the role played by group identification. For some years it has been hypothesized, on the basis of social identity theory, that strength of group identification should be positively correlated with the magnitude of ingroup bias. This predicted correlation has proved to be rather elusive, forcing Hinkle and Brown (1990) to suggest some limiting conditions under which it might more reliably be observed. They proposed a two-dimensional typology of group situations, groups or group members defined by the constructs of individualism-collectivism and relational-autonomous. They hypothesized that it was particularly when collectivism and relational orientation coincided that one might expect a substantial correlation between group identification and bias. Although the initial empirical data were reasonably supportive of this model (Brown, Hinkle, Ely, Fox-Cardamone, Maras and Taylor, 1992; see also Aharpour, 1998), the work reported by Capozza and her colleagues in Chapter 5, confirming some earlier findings in the context of Italian regional identities (Brown, Capozza, Paladino and Volpato, 1996), shows that it is in need of modification. In fact, these Italian data have been directly contradictory to the Hinkle-Brown model since, by and large, they have revealed individualists (rather than collectivists) as manifesting the most robust association between identification and bias. The interesting new development in this chapter is to investigate the different functions underlying individualists’ and collectivists’ group identities, providing a preliminary empirical exploration of some of the identity motivations that Deaux discusses in Chapter 1.

    In Part III of the book the attention shifts to how bias can be reduced. It might be claimed, perhaps with some justification, that social identity theory has been overly concerned with the negative side of intergroup relations (Brown, 1996). However, the past 20 years have been marked by concerted efforts by social psychologists to develop effective strategies for the reduction of prejudice and discrimination. Central to these has been to harness the potential of categorization processes for positive ends. This, in itself, is not without some irony since, as we noted earlier, categorization can also be the stimulus for the appearance of intergroup discrimination as well as providing the mainspring for all social identity processes, many of which seem to the implicated in various kinds of ingroup favouring biases.

    The most obvious way categorization can contribute to the reduction of bias is by redrawing the group boundaries so that those who were once classified as outgroupers can be regarded as fellow ingroupers within a larger superordinate category. This strategy, first mooted within social identity theory by Turner (1981), has been the object of some investigation and refinement in recent years (see, e.g., Gaertner, Dovidio, Anastasio, Bachman and Rust, 1993), and provides the focus for Chapters 8 and 9. Brewer (Chapter 8) distinguishes between superordinate goals and superordinate identity. She develops the argument that the latter is a necessary condition for effective intergroup harmony, while the former may not even be a sufficient condition. Indeed, she suggests, working toward the achievement of superordinate goals without a strong super-ordinate identity may actually exacerbate rather than lessen intergroup tensions. Gaertner and his colleagues (Chapter 9) promote a similar idea, drawing on the benefits of recategorizing intergroup settings into intragroup ones. However, they note that a possible danger with this approach is that members of the erstwhile groups may actively resist the dissolution of their subgroup identities into the larger conglomerate. As a result, Gaertner and his colleagues end up advocating a delicate balancing act in which subgroup identities retain some salience within the super-ordinate whole.

    Another technique which can be useful when or if wholesale recategorizing is difficult, is to exploit the fact that many real-life categories cut across each other. For instance, one may simultaneously be a member of an ethnic group, a religion, a gender, a sport supporters’ club, and these memberships usually do not exactly coincide. Such criss-cross arrangements have been found to reduce ingroup favouritism, at least so long as there is some overlap and not a perfect disjuncture (Brown and Turner, 1979; Deschamps and Doise, 1978; Migdal, Hewstone and Mullen, 1998; Urban and Miller, 1998). This is the focus of Chapter 10 by Crisp and Hewstone where they analyse such cross-categorization effects from the perspective of social identity theory. They argue that a strong social identity interpretation of cross-categorization effects as being mediated mainly by self-esteem is not wholly consistent with the evidence. Instead, they propose that social identity processes can play a weaker moderating role, principally through variables which offer a threat to identity or alter people's moods.

    A risk with too whole-hearted a recategorization strategy is that it may inhibit the likelihood of attitude generalization – from the individual outgroup members actually met to those not yet encountered. This problem was noted quite early on (e.g., Brown and Turner, 1981; Hewstone and Brown, 1986). This adds further weight to the argument that a minimal level of subgroup salience is necessary if the benefits derived from cooperative contact are to extend more widely. However, in pursuing this ‘intergroup’ approach, Greenland and Brown (Chapter 11) note a further complication: that when categories become salient the participants’ level of intergroup anxiety often increases, with usually adverse consequences for intergroup attitudes. They conclude by urging a more concerted integration of affective variables into social identity theory, recalling Tajfel's (1978b) original definition of social identity which stressed the ‘value and emotional significance’ attached to group membership (p. 63).

    From this brief overview of the book we hope to have made at least two things clear. First, that the contributions are a further testimony to the fertility of social identity theory in stimulating new directions of enquiry to elucidate some of the more pressing intergroup problems around the world. Second, that this volume should not be regarded in any way as an apologia for social identity theory. As will become apparent in the chapters which follow, while all the contributors are more or less sympathetic to its general thrust, several are frankly critical of the extent to which it has survived the challenge of experimentation unscathed. But, in our view, this is exactly as it should be. It would be a poor theory indeed that was written in stone, immutable in the face of evidence and critical analysis.

    Acknowledgements

    The idea for this book was born during the Small Group Meeting ‘Intergroup Relations: Current Work and Future Perspective’, organized in Catania by the EAESP (26–29 September 1996). Many of the authors of this book were present at the meeting. We wish to thank the local organizers for their help in realizing the conference and, therefore, for having promoted the project of this book. We are deeply grateful to Henri Tajfel who has enlightened our scientific research and given meaning to our work as social psychologists.

  • References

    Abrams, D. and Hogg, M.A. (1988). Comments on the motivational status of self-esteem in social identity and intergroup discrimination. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18: 317–334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420180403
    Abrams, D. and Hogg, M.A. (eds) (1990). Social Identity Theory: Constructive and Critical Advances. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Abrams, D. and Hogg, M.A. (eds) (1999). Social Identity and Social Cognition. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Adorno, T., Frenkel-Brunswick, E., Levinson, D. and Sanford, R. (1950). The Authoritarian Personality. New York: Harper.
    Aharpour, S. (1997). Functions of identification: group differences and their implications for intergroup attitude. Paper presented at the annual conference of The British Psychological Society – Social Psychology Section, University of Sussex at Brighton (September).
    Aharpour, S. (1998). A meta-analytic review of the Hinkle and Brown model. Unpublished manuscript, University of Kent, Canterbury.
    Allen, B.P. (1975). Social distance and admiration reactions of ‘unprejudiced’ Whites. Journal of Personality, 43: 709–726. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1975.tb00731.x
    Allport, F.H. (1924). Social Psychology. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
    Allport, G.W. (1954). The Nature of Prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Allport, G.W. and Kramer, B.M. (1946). Some roots of prejudice. Journal of Psychology, 22: 9–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1946.9917293
    Amir, Y. (1969). Contact hypothesis in ethnic relations. Psychological Bulletin, 71: 319–342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0027352
    Arcuri, L. (1982). Three patterns of social categorization in attribution memory. European Journal of Social Psychology, 12: 271–282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420120303
    Arcuri, L. and Boca, S. (1996). Pregiudizio e affiliazione politica: destra e sinistra di fronte all'immigrazione dal terzo mondo [Prejudice and political affiliation: the Right and the Left faced with immigration from the Third World]. In P.Legrenzi and V.Girotto (eds), Psicologia e Politica (pp. 241–274). Milano: Raffaello Cortina.
    Argyle, M. and Dean, J. (1965). Eye-contact, distance and affiliation. Sociometry, 28: 289–304. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2786027
    Aronoff, J., Messe, L. and Wilson, J. (1983). Personality factors in small group functioning. In H.Blumberg, P.Hare, V.Kent and M.Daves (eds), Small Groups and Social Interaction (Vol. 1, pp. 79–88). New York: Wiley.
    Asch, S.E. (1946). Forming impressions of personality. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 41: 258–290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0055756
    Asch, S.E. (1952). Social Psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10025-000
    Ashburn, G. and Gordon, A. (1981). Features of a simplified register in speech to elderly conversationalists. International Journal of Psycholinguistics, 8: 7–31.
    Augoustinos, M. (1991). Consensual representations of social structure indifferent age groups. British Journal of Social Psychology, 30: 193–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1991.tb00938.x
    Bachman, B.A. (1993). An intergroup model of organizational mergers. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Delaware, Newark, DE.
    Bachman, B.A. and Gaertner, S.L. (1998). The intergroup merger model: Mergers in the banking industry. Unpublished manuscript, Sienna College.
    Banaji, M.R. and Greenwald, A.G. (1994). Implicit stereotyping and prejudice. InM.P.Zanna and J.M.Olson (eds), The Psychology of Prejudice: The Ontario Symposium (Vol. 7, pp. 55–76). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Banaji, M.R. and Hardin, C.D. (1996). Automatic stereotyping. Psychological Science, 7: 136–141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.1996.tb00346.x
    Banker, B.S. and Gaertner, S.L. (1998). Achieving stepfamily harmony: an intergroup relations approach. Journal of Family Psychology, 12: 310–325. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.12.3.310
    Bargh, J.A. (1997). The automaticity of everyday life. In R.S.Wyer (ed.), Advances in Social Cognition (Vol. 10, pp. 1–61). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Bargh, J.A. (1999). The cognitive monster: the case against the controllability of automatic stereotype effects. In S.Chaicken and Y.Trope (eds), Dual Process Theories in Social PsychologyNew York: Guilford.
    Baron, R.M. and Kenny, D.A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51: 1173–1182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173
    Baron, R.S., Inman, M.L., Kao, C.F. and Logan, H. (1992). Negative emotion and superficial social processing. Motivation and Emotion, 16: 323–346. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00992970
    Bar-Tal, D. (1990). Group Beliefs. New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-3298-8
    Baumeister, R.F. and Leary, M.R. (1995). The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117: 497–529. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497
    Bentler, P.M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107: 238–246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.107.2.238
    Berkowitz, L. (1962). Aggression: A Social Psychological Analysis. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Berman, P. (1994). The other and almost the same. The New Yorker, 28 February: 61–70.
    Berry, J.W. (1976). Human Ecology and Cognitive Style: Comparative Studies of Cultural and Psychological Adaptation. New York: Halsted-Sage.
    Berry, J.W. (1984). Cultural relations in plural societies: alternatives to segregation and their sociopsychological implications. In N.Miller and M.B.Brewer (eds), Groups in Contact: The Psychology of Desegregation (pp. 11–27). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
    Bettencourt, B.A., Charlton, K. and Kernahan, C. (1997). Numerical representation of groups in cooperative settings: social orientation effects on ingroup bias. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 33: 630–659. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jesp.1997.1334
    Bettencourt, B.A., Brewer, M.B., Croak, M.R. and Miller, N. (1992). Cooperation and the reduction of intergroup bias: the role of reward structure and social orientation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 28: 301–319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2892%2990048-O
    Billig, M. (1976). Social Psychology and Intergroup Relations. London: Academic Press.
    Billig, M. and Tajfel, H. (1973). Social categorization and similarity in intergroup behaviour. European Journal of Social Psychology, 3: 27–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420030103
    Blair, I.V. and Banaji, M.R. (1996). Automatic and controlled processes in stereotype priming. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70: 1142–1163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.70.6.1142
    Blanz, M., Mummendey, A and Otten, S. (1995a). Positive-negative asymmetry in social discrimination: the impact of stimulus valence and size and status differentials on intergroup evaluations. British Journal of Social Psychology, 34: 409–419. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1995.tb01074.x
    Blanz, M., Mummendey, A and Otten, S. (1995b). Wahrgenommene Motive für soziale Diskriminierung: Einflüsse von Stimulusvalenz und Beurteilerperspektive [Perceived motives for social discrimination: the impact of stimulus valence and perceivers’ perspective]. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie, 26: 135–147.
    Blanz, M., Mummendey, A. and Otten, S. (1997). Normative evaluations and frequency expectations regarding positive versus negative outcome allocations between groups. European Journal of Social Psychology, 27: 165–176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-0992%28199703%2927:2%3C165::AID-EJSP812%3E3.0.CO;2-3
    Blascovich, J., Wyer, N.A., Swart, L.A. and Kibler, J.L. (1997). Racism and racial categorization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72: 1364–1372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.72.6.1364
    Bless, H., Schwarz, N. and Wieland, R. (1996). Mood and the impact of category membership and individuating information. European Journal of Social Psychology, 26: 935–959. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-0992%28199611%2926:6%3C935::AID-EJSP798%3E3.0.CO;2-N
    Boca, S. and Arcuri, L. (1996). Differenze sistematiche nelle categorie di esemplari noti dell'ingroup e dell'outgroup: la rappresentazione reciproca di settentrionali e meridionali [Systematic differences relative to the categories of known exemplars of ingroup and outgroup: the mutual representation of Northerners and Southerners]. Report n. 84, Dipartimento di Psicologia dello Sviluppo e della Socializzazione, Università di Padova, Italy.
    Bodenhausen, G.V. (1990). Stereotypes as judgemental heuristics: evidence of circadian variations in discrimination. Psychological Science, 1: 319–322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.1990.tb00226.x
    Bodenhausen, G.V. (1993). Emotions, arousal, and stereotypic judgements: a heuristic model of affect and stereotyping. In D.M.Mackie and D.L.Hamilton (eds), Affect, Cognition, and Stereotyping: Interactive Processes in Group Perception (pp. 13–37). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Bodenhausen, G.V., Sheppard, L.A. and Kramer, G.P. (1994). Negative affect and social judgement: the differential impact of anger and sadness. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24: 45–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420240104
    Boucher, J. and Osgood, C.E. (1969). The Pollyanna hypothesis. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 8: 1–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5371%2869%2980002-2
    Bourhis, R.Y., Moise, L.C., Perrault, S. and Senecal, S. (1997). Towards an interactive acculturation model: a social psychological approach. International Journal of Psychology, 32: 369–386. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/002075997400629
    Bower, G.H. (1981). Mood and memory. American Psychologist, 36: 129–148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.36.2.129
    Branscombe, N. and Wann, D.L. (1994). Collective self-esteem consequences of outgroup derogation when a valued social identity is on trial. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24: 641–657. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420240603
    Breakwell, G.M. (1993). Integrating paradigms, methodological implications. In G.M.Breakwell and D.V.Canter (eds), Empirical Approaches to Social Representations (pp. 180–201). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
    Breckler, S.J. and Greenwald, A.G. (1986). Motivational facets of the self. In E.T.Higgins and R.M.Sorrentino (eds), Handbook of Motivation and Cognition (pp. 145–164). New York: Guilford.
    Brewer, M.B. (1979). In-group bias in the minimal intergroup situation: a cognitive-motivational analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 86: 307–324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.86.2.307
    Brewer, M.B. (1981). Ethnocentrism and its role in interpersonal trust. In M.B.Brewer and B.Collins (eds), Scientific Inquiry in the Social Sciences (pp. 214–231). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Brewer, M.B. (1988). A dual process model of impression formation. In T.K.Srull and R.S.Wyer (eds), Advances in Social Cognition (Vol. 1, pp. 1–36). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Brewer, M.B. (1991). The social self: on being the same and different at the same time. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17: 475–482. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167291175001
    Brewer, M.B. (1993). The role of distinctiveness in social identity and group behavior. In M.A.Hogg and D.Abrams (eds), Group Motivation (pp. 1–16). London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Brewer, M.B. (1996). When contact is not enough: social identity and intergroup cooperation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 20: 291–304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767%2896%2900020-X
    Brewer, M.B. (1997). The social psychology of intergroup relations: can research inform practice?Journal of Social Issues, 53: 197–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1997.tb02440.x
    Brewer, M.B. and Campbell, D.T. (1976). Ethnocentrism and Intergroup Attitudes: East African Evidence. New York: Halsted-Sage.
    Brewer, M.B. and Caporael, L.R. (1990). Selfish genes versus selfish people: sociobiology as origin myth. Motivation and Emotion, 14: 237–242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00996182
    Brewer, M.B. and Gardner, W.L. (1996). Who is this ‘we’? Levels of collective identity and self representations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71: 83–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.71.1.83
    Brewer, M.B. and Miller, N. (1984). Beyond the contact hypothesis: theoretical perspectives on desegregation. In N.Miller and M.B.Brewer (eds), Groups in Contact: The Psychology of Desegregation (pp. 281–302). London: Academic Press.
    Brewer, M.B. and Schneider, S.K. (1990). Social identity and social dilemmas: a double-edged sword. In D.Abrams and M.A.Hogg (eds), Social Identity Theory: Constructive and Critical Advances (pp. 169–184). London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Brewer, M.B. and Silver, Madelyn (1978). Ingroup bias as a function of task characteristics. European Journal of Social Psychology, 8: 393–400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420080312
    Brewer, M.B. and Silver, Michael (1997). Group distinctiveness, social identity, and collective mobilization. Paper presented at the conference on Self, Identity, and Social Movements, Indianapolis (April).
    Brewer, M.B., Manzi, K.J. and Shaw, J. (1993). In-group identification as a function of depersonalization, distinctiveness, and status. Psychological Science, 4: 88–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.1993.tb00466.x
    Brewer, M.B., Ho, H.-K., Lee, J.-Y. and Miller, N. (1987). Social identity and social distance among Hong Kong schoolchildren. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 13: 156–165. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167287132002
    Brigham, J.C. (1972). Racial stereotypes: measurement variables and the stereotype-attitude relationship. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 2: 63–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1972.tb01264.x
    Brockner, J. (1983). Low self-esteem and behavioral plasticity: some implications. In L.Wheeler and P.Shaver (eds), Review of Personality and Social Psychology (pp. 237–271). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Brown, C.E., Dovidio, J.F. and Ellyson, S.L. (1990). Reducing sex differences in visual displays of dominance: knowledge is power. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 16: 358–368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167290162015
    Brown, R. (1984a). The effects of intergroup similarity and cooperative versus competitive orientation on intergroup discrimination. British Journal of Social Psychology, 23: 21–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1984.tb00605.x
    Brown, R. (ed.) (1984b). Intergroup processes. British Journal of Social Psychology, 23: whole number.
    Brown, R. (1988). Group Processes: Dynamics Within and Between Groups. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Brown, R. (1995). Prejudice: Its Social Psychology. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Brown, R. (1996). Tajfel's contribution to the reduction of intergroup conflict. In W.P.Robinson (ed.), Social Groups and Identities: Developing the Legacy of Henry Tajfel (pp. 169–189). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
    Brown, R. and Gardham, K. (in press). Two forms of intergroup discrimination with positive and negative outcomes: explaining the positive-negative asymmetry effect. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
    Brown, R. and Turner, J.C. (1979). The criss-cross categorization effect in intergroup discrimination. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 18: 371–383. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.1979.tb00907.x
    Brown, R. and Turner, J.C. (1981). Interpersonal and intergroup behaviour. In J.C.Turner and H.Giles (eds), Intergroup Behaviour (pp. 33–65). Oxford: Blackwell.
    Brown, R. and Wade, G. (1987). Superordinate goals and intergroup behaviour: the effects of role ambiguity and status on intergroup attitudes and task performance. European Journal of Social Psychology, 17: 131–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420170202
    Brown, R. and Williams, J.A. (1984). Group identification: the same thing to all people?Human Relations, 37: 547–564. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872678403700704
    Brown, R., Capozza, D., Paladino, M.P. and Volpato, C. (1996). Identificazione e favoritismo per il proprio gruppo: verifica del modello di Hinkle e Brown [Identification and ingroup bias: a test of Hinkle and Brown's model]. In P.Boscolo, F.Cristante, A.M.Dellantonio and S.Soresi (eds), Aspetti Qualitativi e Quantitativi nella Ricerca Psicologica (pp. 307–318). Padova: II Poligrafo.
    Brown, R., Condor, S., Mathews, A, Wade, G. and Williams, J.A (1986). Explaining intergroup differentiation in an industrial organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 59: 273–286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1986.tb00230.x
    Brown, R., Hinkle, S., Ely, P.G., Fox-Cardamone, L., Maras, P. and Taylor, L.A. (1992). Recognizing group diversity: individualist-collectivist and autonomous-relational social orientations and their implications for intergroup processes. British Journal of Social Psychology, 31: 327–342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1992.tb00976.x
    Browne, M.W. and Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K.A.Bollen and J.S.Long (eds), Testing Structural Equation Models (pp. 136–162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Bruins, J., Liebrand, W. and Wilke, H. (1989). About the saliency of fear and greed in social dilemmas. European Journal of Social Psychology, 19: 155–161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420190207
    Buhl, T. (1999). Positive-negative asymmetry in social discrimination: meta-analytical evidence. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 2: 51–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1368430299021004
    Buono, A.F. and Bowditch, J.L. (1989). The Human Side of Mergers and Acquisitions: Managing Collisions between People, Cultures, and Organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Byrne, A. and Eysenck, M.W. (1995). Trait anxiety, anxious mood and threat detection. Cognition and Emotion, 9: 549–562. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699939508408982
    Cacioppo, J.T., Gardner, W.L. and Berntson, G.G. (1997). Beyond bipolar conceptualizations and measures: the case of attitudes and evaluative space. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 1: 3–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr0101_2
    Caddick, B. (1982). Perceived illegitimacy and intergroup relations. In H.Tajfel (ed.), Social Identity and Intergroup Relations (pp. 137–154). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Cadinu, M.R. and Rothbart, M. (1996). Self-anchoring and differentiation processes in the minimal group setting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70: 661–677. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.70.4.661
    Campbell, D.T. (1958). Common fate, similarity and other indices of the status of aggregates of persons as social entities. Behavioral Science, 3: 14–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bs.3830030103
    Campbell, D.T., Kruskal, W.H. and Wallace, W. (1966). Seating aggregation as an index of attitude. Sociometry, 29: 1–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2786006
    Caporael, L.R. (1981). The paralanguage of caregiving: baby talk to the institutionalized aged. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40: 876–884. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.40.5.876
    Caporael, L.R. (1997). The evolution of truly social cognition: the core configurations model. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 1: 276–298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr0104_1
    Caporael, L.R., Lukaszewski, M.P. and Culbertson, G.H. (1983). Secondary babytalk: judgments by institutionalized elderly and their caregivers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44746–754. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.44.4.746
    Capozza, D. and Voci, A (1998). Implicit and explicit stereotypes. Paper presented at the Small Group Meeting on ‘Implicit and explicit processes in social cognition’, Mirano, Italy (June).
    Capozza, D. and Volpato, C. (1994). Relations intergroupes: approches classiques et contemporaines [Intergroup relationships: traditional and current approaches]. In R.Y.Bourhis and J.-P.Leyens (eds), Stereotypes, Discrimination et Relations Intergroupes (pp. 13–39). Liege: Mardaga.
    Capozza, D., Bonaldo, E. and Di Maggio, A (1982). Problems of identity and social conflict: research on ethnic groups in Italy. In H.Tajfel (ed.), Social Identity and Intergroup Relations (pp. 299–334). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Capozza, D., Dazzi, C. and Minto, B. (1996). Ingroup overexclusion: a confirmation of the effect. International Review of Social Psychology, 9: 7–18.
    Capozza, D., Voci, A., Comucci, A and Menossi, V. (1998). Workers in a paper-mill: a test of Hinkle and Brown's model. Unpublished manuscript, University of Padua and University of Verona, Italy.
    Carmines, E. and McIver, J. (1981). Analyzing models with unobserved variables: analysis of covariance structures. In G.W.Bohmstedt and E.F.Borgatta (eds), Social Measurement (pp. 65–115). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Carter, S.L. (1991). Reflections of an Affirmative Action Baby. New York: Basic Books.
    Cheng, P.W. and Holyoak, K.J. (1985). Pragmatic reasoning schemas. Cognitive Psychology, 17: 391–416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285%2885%2990014-3
    Cinnirella, M. (1997). Towards a European identity? Interactions between the national and European identities manifested by university students in Britain and Italy. British Journal of Social Psychology, 36: 19–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1997.tb01116.x
    Cinnirella, M. (1998). Exploring temporal aspects of social identity: the concept of possible social identities. European Journal of Social Psychology, 28: 227–248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-0992%28199803/04%2928:2%3C227::AID-EJSP866%3E3.0.CO;2-X
    Clark, M.S. and Isen, A.M. (1981). Toward understanding the relationship between feeling states and social behavior. In AH.Hastorf and AM.Isen (eds), Cognitive Social Psychology (pp. 73–108). New York: Elsevier.
    Clary, E.G., Snyder, M., Ridge, R.D., Copeland, J., Stukas, A.A., Haugen, J. and Miene, P. (1998). Understanding and assessing the motivations of volunteers: a functional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74: 1516–1530. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.74.6.1516
    Cooper, J.B. and Pollock, D. (1959). The identification of prejudicial attitudes by the galvanic skin response. Journal of Social Psychology, 50: 241–245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1959.9921998
    Cose, E. (1993). The Rage of a Privileged Class: Why are Middle-class Blacks Angry? Why Should America Care?New York: Harper.
    Cosmides, L. (1989). The logic of social exchange: has natural selection shaped how humans reason? Studies with the Wason selection task. Cognition, 31: 187–276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277%2889%2990023-1
    Crisp, R.J. and Hewstone, M. (1997). Response times to positive and negative eadjectives for crossed category targets: priming with ‘we’ or ‘they’. Unpublished data, University of Cardiff.
    Crisp, R.J. and Hewstone, M. (1999a). Differential evaluation of crossed category groups: patterns, processes, and reducing intergroup bias. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 2: 307–333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1368430299024001
    Crisp, R.J. and Hewstone, M. (1999b). Subcategorization of physical stimuli: category differentiation and decategorization processes. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29: 665–671. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-0992%28199908/09%2929:5/6%3C665::AID-EJSP954%3E3.0.CO;2-W
    Crisp, R.J., Hewstone, M. and Rubin, M. (1999). Does crossed categorization reduce ingroup bias? (It depends on your perspective): discrimination in simple versus multiple category situations. Manuscript submitted for publication.
    Crocker, J. and Luhtanen, R (1990). Collective self-esteem and ingroup bias. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58: 60–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.58.1.60
    Cronbach, L. (1987). Statistical tests for moderator variables: flaws in analysis recently proposed. Psychological Bulletin, 102: 414–417. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.102.3.414
    Crosby, F., Bromley, S. and Saxe, L. (1980). Recent unobtrusive studies of Black and White discrimination and prejudice: a literature review. Psychological Bulletin, 87: 546–563. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.87.3.546
    Cross, W. (1991). Shades of Black: Diversity in African-American Identity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Das, J.P. and Nanda, P.C. (1963). Mediated transfer of attitudes. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66: 12–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0044074
    Deaux, K. (1993). Reconstructing social identity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 19: 4–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167293191001
    Deaux, K. (1996). Social identification. In E.T.Higgins and A.W.Kruglanski (eds), Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles (pp. 777–798). New York: Guilford.
    Deaux, K. and Ethier, K.A. (1998). Negotiating social identity. In J.K.Swim and C.Stangor (eds), Prejudice: The Target's Perspective (pp. 301–323). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-012679130-3/50049-1
    Deaux, K. and Reid, A. (in press). Contemplating collectivism. In S.Stryker, T.J.Owens, and R.W.White (eds), Self, Identity, and Social Movements. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Deaux, K., Reid, A., Mizrahi, K. and Cotting, D. (1999). Connecting the person to the social: the functions of social identification. In T.RTyler, R.M.Kramer and O.P.John (eds), The Psychology of the Social Self (pp. 91–113). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Deaux, K., Reid, A., Mizrahi, K and Ethier, K.A. (1995). Parameters of social identity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68: 280–291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.68.2.280
    DeBoeck, P. and Rosenberg, S. (1988). Hierarchical classes: model and data analysis. Psychometrika, 53: 361–381. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02294218
    Deschamps, J.-C (1977). Effect of crossing category memberships on quantitative judgement. European Journal of Social Psychology, 7: 517–521. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420070410
    Deschamps, J.-C and Brown, R. (1983). Superordinate goals and intergroup conflict. British Journal of Social Psychology, 22: 189–195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1983.tb00583.x
    Deschamps, J.-C. and Doise, W. (1978). Crossed category memberships in intergroup relations. In H.Tajfel (ed.), Differentiation between Social Groups: Studies in the Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations (pp. 141–158). London: Academic Press.
    Desforges, D.M., Lord, C.G. and Pugh, M.A. (1997). Role of group representativeness in the generalization part of the contact hypothesis. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 19: 183–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15324834basp1902_3
    Desforges, D.M., Lord, C.G., Ramsey, S.L., Mason, J.A., Van Leeuwen, M.D., West, S.C. and Lepper, M.R. (1991). Effects of structured cooperative contact on changing negative attitudes toward stigmatized social groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60: 531–544. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.60.4.531
    Devine, P.G. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56: 5–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.56.1.5
    Devine, P.G. and Monteith, M.J. (1993). The role of discrepancy-associated affect in prejudice reduction. In D.M.Mackie and D.L.Hamilton (eds), Affect, Cognition, and Stereotyping: Interactive Processes in Group Perception (pp. 317–344). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Diehl, M. (1990). The minimal group paradigm: theoretical explanations and empirical findings. In W.Stroebe and M.Hewstone (eds), European Review of Social Psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 263–292). Chichester: Wiley.
    Doise, W. (1978). Groups and Individuals: Explanations in Social Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Doise, W., Csepeli, G., Dann, H.D., Gouge, C., LarsenK. and Ostell, A. (1972). An experimental investigation into the formation of intergroup representations. European Journal of Social Psychology, 2: 202–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420020208
    Donnerstein, E. and Donnerstein, M. (1972). White rewarding behavior as a function of the potential for black retaliation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 24: 327–333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0033710
    Doosje, B., Ellemers, N. and Spears, R. (1995). Perceived intragroup variability as a function of group status and identification. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 31: 410–436. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jesp.1995.1018
    Doosje, B., Branscombe, N., Spears, R. and Manstead, A.S.R. (1998). Guilty by association: when one's group has a negative history. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75: 872–886. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.75.4.872
    Dovidio, J.F. and Fazio, R.H. (1992). New technologies for the direct and indirect assessment of attitudes. In J.M.Tanur (ed.), Questions about Questions: Inquiries into the Cognitive Bases of Surveys (pp. 204–237). New York: Russell Sage.
    Dovidio, J.F. and Gaertner, S.L. (1983). Race, normative structure, and help-seeking. In B.M.DePaulo, A.Nadler and J.D.Fisher (eds), New Directions in Helping (Vol. 2, pp. 285–302). New York: Academic Press.
    Dovidio, J.F. and Gaertner, S.L. (1986). Prejudice, discrimination, and racism: historical trends and contemporary approaches. In J.F.Dovidio and S.L.Gaertner (eds), Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism (pp. 1–34). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
    Dovidio, J.F. and Gaertner, S.L. (1991). Changes in the expression and assessment of racial prejudice. In H.J.Knopke, R.J.Norrell and R.W.Rogers (eds), Opening Doors: Perspective on Race Relations in Contemporary America (pp. 119–148). Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.
    Dovidio, J.F., Evans, N. and Tyler, R.B. (1986). Racial stereotypes: the contents of their cognitive representations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 22: 22–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2886%2990039-9
    Dovidio, J.F., Gaertner, S.L. and Validzic, A. (1998). Intergroup bias: status, differentiation, and a common ingroup identity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75: 109–120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.75.1.109
    Dovidio, J.F., Brigham, J.C., Johnson, B.T. and Gaertner, S.L. (1996). Stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination: another look. In C.N.Macrae, C.Stangor and M.Hewstone (eds), Stereotypes and Stereotyping (pp. 276–319). New York: Guilford.
    Dovidio, J.F., Gaertner, S.L., Isen, A.M. and Lowrance, R. (1995). Group representations and intergroup bias: positive affect, similarity and group size. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21: 856–865. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167295218009
    Dovidio, J.F., Smith, J.K., Donnella, A.G. and Gaertner, S.L. (1997). Racial attitudes and the death penalty. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27: 1468–1487. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1997.tb01609.x
    Dovidio, J.F., Gaertner, S.L., Isen, A.M., Rust, M.C and Guerra, P. (1998). Positive affect, cognition, and the reduction of intergroup bias. In C.Sedikides, J.Schopler and C.A.Insko (eds), Intergroup Cognition and Intergroup Behavior (pp. 337–366). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Dovidio, J.F., Kawakami, K., Johnson, C., Johnson, B. and Howard, A. (1997). On the nature of prejudice: automatic and controlled processes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 33: 510–540. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jesp.1997.1331
    Dovidio, J.F., Gaertner, S.L., Validzic, A., Matoka, K., Johnson, B. and Frazier, S. (1997). Extending the benefits of recategorization: evaluations, self-disclosure, and helping. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 33: 401–420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jesp.1997.1327
    Duncan, B.L. (1976). Differential social perception and attribution of intergroup violence: testing the lower limits of stereotyping of Blacks. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34: 590–598. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.34.4.590
    Dunton, B.C. and Fazio, R.H. (1997). An individual difference measure of motivation to control prejudiced reactions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23: 316–326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167297233009
    Ellemers, N. (1993). The influence of socio-structural variables on identity management strategies. In W.Stroebe and M.Hewstone (eds), European Review of Social Psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 27–57). Chichester: Wiley.
    Ellemers, N. and van Knippenberg, A. (1997). Stereotyping in social context. In R.Spears, P.J.Oakes, N.Ellemers and S.A.Haslam (eds), The Social Psychology of Stereotyping and Group Life (pp. 208–235). Oxford: Blackwell.
    Ellemers, N., de Gilder, D. and van den Heuvel, H. (1998). Career-oriented versus team-oriented commitment and behavior at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83: 717–730. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.83.5.717
    Ellemers, N., Kortekaas, P. and Ouwerkerk, J.W. (1999). Self-categorization, commitment to the group and group self-esteem as related but distinct aspects of social identity. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29: 371–389. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-0992%28199903/05%2929:2/3%3C371::AID-EJSP932%3E3.0.CO;2-U
    Ellemers, N., Spears, R and Doosje, B. (1997). Sticking together or falling apart: ingroup identification as a psychological determinant of group commitment versus individual mobility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72: 617–626. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.72.3.617
    Ellemers, N., van Knippenberg, A. and Wilke, H. (1990). The influence of permeability of group boundaries and stability of group status on strategies of individual mobility and social change. British Journal of Social Psychology, 29: 233–246. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1990.tb00902.x
    Ellemers, N., Wilke, H. and van Knippenberg, A. (1993). Effects of the legitimacy of low group or individual status on individual and collective status enhancement strategies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64: 766–778. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.64.5.766
    Elms, A. (1975). The crisis of confidence in social psychology. American Psychologist, 30: 967–976. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.30.10.967
    Ensari, N. and Miller, N. (1998). Effect of affective reactions by an outgroup on preferences for crossed categorization discussion partners. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75: 1503–1527. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.75.6.1503
    Esses, V.M. and Zanna, M.P. (1995). Mood and the expression of ethnic stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69: 1052–1068. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.69.6.1052
    Ethier, K.A. (1995). Becoming a mother: identity acquisition during the transition to parenthood. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, City University of New York.
    Ethier, K.A. and Deaux, K. (1990). Hispanics in ivy: assessing identity and perceived threat. Sex Roles, 22: 427–440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00288162
    Ethier, K.A. and Deaux, K. (1994). Negotiating social identity when contexts change: maintaining identification and responding to threat. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67: 243–251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.67.2.243
    Eurich-Fulcer, R. and Schofield, J.W. (1995). Correlated versus uncorrelated social categorizations: the effect on intergroup bias. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21: 149–159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167295212005
    Evans, J.St.B.T. (1984). Heuristic and analytic processes in reasoning. British Journal of Psychology, 75: 451–468. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1984.tb01915.x
    Evans, J.St.B.T. (1996). Deciding before you think: Relevance and reasoning in the selection task. British Journal of Psychology, 87: 223–240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1996.tb02587.x
    Evans, J.St.B.T. and Lynch, J.S. (1973). Matching bias in the selection task. British Journal of Psychology, 64: 391–397. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1973.tb01365.x
    Evans, J.St.B.T. and Newstead, S.E. (1995). Creating a psychology of reasoning: the contribution of Peter Wason. In S.E.Newstead and J.St.B.T.Evans, Perspectives on Thinking and Reasoning: Essays in Honor of Peter Wason (pp. 1–16). Hove: Erlbaum.
    Evans, J.St.B.T. and Wason, P.C. (1976). Rationalization in a reasoning task. British Journal of Psychology, 67: 479–486. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1976.tb01536.x
    Eysenck, M.W. and Calvo, M.G. (1992). Anxiety and performance: the processing efficiency theory. Cognition and Emotion, 6: 409–434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699939208409696
    Fazio, R.H. (1990). Multiple processes by which attitudes guide behavior: the MODE model as an integrative framework. InM.P.Zanna (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 23, pp. 75–109). New York: Academic Press.
    Fazio, R.H. and Dunton, B.C., (1997). Categorization by race: the impact of automatic and controlled components of racial prejudice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology:33, 451–470. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jesp.1997.1330
    Fazio, R.H., Jackson, J.R., Dunton, B.C. and Williams, C.J. (1995). Variability in automatic activation as an unobtrusive measure of racial attitudes: a bona fide pipeline?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69: 1013–1027. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.69.6.1013
    Fazio, R.H., Sanbonmatsu, D.M., Powell, M.C. and Kardes, F.R. (1986). On the automatic activation of attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50: 229–238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.50.2.229
    Feather, N.T. and McKee, I.R. (1993). Global self-esteem and attitudes toward the high achiever for Australian and Japanese students. Social Psychology Quarterly, 56: 67–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2786646
    Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7: 117–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872675400700202
    Fiedler, K. and Hertel, G. (1994). Content-related schemata versus verbal-framing effects in deductive reasoning. Social Cognition, 12: 129–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/soco.1994.12.2.129
    Fishman, J. (1977). Language and ethnicity. In H.Giles (ed.), Language, Ethnicity and Intergroup Relations. London: Academic Press.
    Fiske, S.T. (1980). Attention and weight in person perception: the impact of negative and extreme behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38: 889–906. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.38.6.889
    Fiske, S.T. (1992). Thinking is for doing: portraits of social cognition from daguerreotype to laserphoto. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63: 877–889. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.63.6.877
    Fiske, S.T. and Neuberg, S.L. (1990). A continuum of impression formation from category based to individuating processes: influences of information and motivation on attention and interpretation. In M.P.Zanna (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 23, pp. 1–74). New York: Academic Press.
    Fiske, S.T. and Ruscher, J.B. (1993). Negative interdependence and prejudice: whence the affect? In D.M.Mackie and D.L.Hamilton (eds), Affect, Cognition, and Stereotyping: Interactive Processes in Group Perception (pp. 239–268). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Fiske, S.T. and Taylor, S.E. (1984). Social Cognition. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Forgas, J.P. (1994). The role of emotion in social judgments: an introductory review and an Affect Infusion Model (AIM). European Journal of Social Psychology, 24: 1–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420240102
    Forgas, J.P. (1998). Implicit and explicit processes, and the role of affect in social judgments and stereotyping. Paper presented at the Small Group Meeting on ‘Implicit and explicit processes in social cognition’, Mirano, Italy (June).
    Franco, F.M. and Maass, A. (1996a). The linguistic intergroup bias: is it under intentional control? Paper presented at the Eleventh General Meeting of EAESP, Gmunden, Austria.
    Franco, F.M. and Maass, A. (1996b). Implicit vs explicit strategies of outgroup discrimination: the role of intentional control in biased language use and reward allocation. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 15: 335–359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0261927X960153007
    Franco, F.M. and Maass, A. (1999). Intentional control over prejudice: when the choice of the measure matters. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29: 469–477. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-0992%28199906%2929:4%3C469::AID-EJSP938%3E3.0.CO;2-S
    Frey, D.L. and Gaertner, S.L. (1986). Helping and the avoidance of inappropriate interracial behavior: a strategy that perpetuates a non-prejudiced self-image. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50: 1083–1090. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.50.6.1083
    Gaertner, S.L. (1973). Helping behavior and racial discrimination among liberals and conservatives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 25: 335–341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0034221
    Gaertner, S.L. and Dovidio, J.F. (1977). The subtlety of white racism, arousal, and helping behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35: 691–707. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.35.10.691
    Gaertner, S.L. and Dovidio, J.F. (1986a). The aversive form of racism. In J.F.Dovidio and S.L.Gaertner (eds), Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism (pp. 61–89). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
    Gaertner, S.L. and Dovidio, J.F. (1986b). Prejudice, discrimination, and racism: problems, progress and promise. In J.F.Dovidio and S.L.Gaertner (eds), Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism (pp. 315–332). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
    Gaertner, S.L. and McLaughlin, J.P. (1983). Racial stereotypes: associations and ascriptions of positive and negative characteristics. Social Psychology Quarterly, 46: 23–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3033657
    Gaertner, S.L., Dovidio, J.F. and Bachman, B.A. (1996). Revisiting the contact hypothesis: the induction of a common ingroup identity. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 20 (3 and 4): 271–290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767%2896%2900019-3
    Gaertner, S.L., Rust, M.C. and Dovidio, J.F. (1998). The value of a superordinate identity for reducing intergroup bias. Unpublished manuscript, University of Delaware, Newark, DE.
    Gaertner, S.L., Mann, J.A., Murrell, A.J. and Dovidio, J.F. (1989). Reducing intergroup bias: the benefits of recategorization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57: 239–249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.57.2.239
    Gaertner, S.L., Dovidio, J.F., Anastasio, P.A., Bachman, B.A. and Rust, M.C. (1993). The common ingroup identity model: recategorization and the reduction of intergroup bias. In W.Stroebe and M.Hewstone (eds), European Review of Social Psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 1–26). Chichester: Wiley.
    Gaertner, S.L., Mann, J.A., Dovidio, J.F., Murrell, A.J. and Pomare, M. (1990). How does cooperation reduce intergroup bias?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59: 692–704. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.59.4.692
    Gaertner, S.L., Rust, M.C., Dovidio, J.F., Bachman, B.A. and Anastasio, P.A. (1994). The contact hypothesis: the role of a common ingroup identity on reducing intergroup bias. Small Group Research, 25: 224–249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1046496494252005
    Gaertner, S.L., Rust, M.C., Dovidio, J.F., Bachman, B.A. and Anastasio, P.A. (1996). The contact hypothesis: the role of a common ingroup identity on reducing intergroup bias among majority and minority group members. In J.L.Nye and A.M.Brower (eds), What's Social about Social Cognition? (pp. 230–260). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Gelfand, M.J., Triandis, H.C and Chan, D.K.-S. (1996). Individualism versus collectivism or versus authoritarianism?European Journal of Social Psychology, 26: 397–410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-0992%28199605%2926:3%3C397::AID-EJSP763%3E3.0.CO;2-J
    Gergen, K. (1973). Social psychology as history. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 26: 309–320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0034436
    Gigerenzer, G. and Hug, K. (1992). Domain-specific reasoning: social contracts, cheating, and perspective change. Cognition, 43: 127–171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277%2892%2990060-U
    Gilbert, D.T. and Hixon, J.G. (1991). The trouble of thinking: activation and application of stereotypic beliefs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60: 509–517. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.60.4.509
    Gilbert, G.M. (1951). Stereotype persistence and change among college students. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 46: 245–254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0053696
    Giles, H. (ed.) (1977). Language, Ethnicity, and Intergroup Relations. London: Academic Press.
    Glick, P. and Fiske, S.T. (1996). The ambivalent sexism inventory: differentiating hostile and benevolent sexism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70: 491–512. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.70.3.491
    Gollwitzer, P.M. and Moskowitz, G.B. (1996). Goal effects on action and cognition. In E.T.Higgins and A.W.Kruglanski (eds), Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles (pp. 361–399). New York: Guilford.
    Gonzales, R. and Brown, R. (1998). The role of subgroup and superordinate group categorization in the reduction of intergroup bias. Paper presented at the British Psychological Society conference, London (December).
    Graumann, C.F. and Wintermantel, M. (1989). Discriminatory speech acts: a functional approach. In D.Bar-Tal, CF.Graumann, A.W.Kruglanski and W.Stroebe (eds), Stereotyping and Prejudice (pp. 183–204). New York: Springer-Verlag.
    Green, C.A. (1995). The mere solo effect: the psychological consequences of excessive distinctiveness. Unpublished Master's thesis, Ohio State University.
    Greenland, K. (1999). The causes and consequences of intergroup anxiety: some evidence from the field. Manuscript in preparation, University of Cardiff.
    Greenland, K. and Brown, R. (1999). Categorization and intergroup anxiety in contact between British and Japanese nationals. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29: 503–521. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-0992%28199906%2929:4%3C503::AID-EJSP941%3E3.0.CO;2-Y
    Greenland, K. and Hewstone, M. (1998). Contrasting the effects of integral and incidental anxiety in stereotyping. Unpublished manuscript, University of Cardiff.
    Greenwald, A.G. and Banaji, M.R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological Review, 102: 4–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.102.1.4
    Greenwald, A.G., McGhee, D.E. and Schwartz, J.L.K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: the Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74: 1464–1480. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.74.6.1464
    Griggs, R.A. and Cox, J.R. (1982). The elusive thematic-materials effect in Wason's selection task. British Journal of Psychology, 73: 407–420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1982.tb01823.x
    Hagendoorn, L. and Henke, R. (1991). The effect of multiple category membership on intergroup evaluations in a North Indian context: class, caste and religion. British Journal of Social Psychology, 30: 247–260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1991.tb00942.x
    Halvari, H. and Gjesme, T. (1995). Trait and state anxiety before and after competitive performance. Perceptual Motor Skills, 81: 1059–1074. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pms.1995.81.3f.1059
    Hamilton, D.L. (1979). A cognitive-attributional analysis of stereotyping. In L.Berkowitz (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 12, pp. 53–84). New York: Academic Press.
    Hamilton, D.L. (ed.) (1981). Cognitive Processes in Stereotyping and Intergroup Behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Hamilton, D.L. and Rose, T.L. (1980). Illusory correlation and the maintenance of stereotypic beliefs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39: 832–845. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.39.5.832
    Harré, R. and Secord, P.F. (1972). The Explanation of Social Behaviour. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Hartstone, M. and Augoustinos, M. (1995). The minimal group paradigm: categorization into two versus three groups. European Journal of Social Psychology, 25: 179–193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420250205
    Harvey, O.J., Hunt, D. and Schroder, H. (1961). Conceptual Systems and Personality Organization. New York: Wiley.
    Haslam, S.A., Turner, J.C., Oakes, P.J., McGarty, C. and Hayes, B.K. (1992). Context-dependent variation in social stereotyping 1: The effects of intergroup relations as mediated by social change and frame of reference. European Journal of Social Psychology, 22: 3–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420220104
    Haunschild, P.R., Moreland, R.L. and Murrell, A.J. (1994). Sources of resistance to mergers between groups. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24: 1150–1178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1994.tb01549.x
    Heatherton, T.F. and Polivy, J. (1991). Development and validation of a scale for measuring state self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60: 895–910. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.60.6.895
    Heine, S.J. and Lehman, D.R. (1997). The cultural construction of self-enhancement: an examination of group-serving biases. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72: 1268–1283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.72.6.1268
    Henderson-King, E.I. and Nisbett, R.E. (1996). Anti-Black prejudice as a function of exposure to the negative behavior of a single Black person. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71: 654–664. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.71.4.654
    Hendricks, M. and Bootzin, R. (1976). Race and sex as stimuli for negative affect and physical avoidance. Journal of Social Psychology, 98: 111–120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1976.9923372
    Hess, E.H. (1965). Attitude and pupil size. Scientific American, 212: 46–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0465-46
    Hewstone, M. (1988). Attributional bases of intergroup conflict. In W.Stroebe, A.W.Kruglanski, D.Bar-Tal and M.Hewstone (eds), The Social Psychology of Intergroup Conflict: Theory, Research and Applications (pp. 47–71). New York: Springer-Verlag.
    Hewstone, M. (1990). The ‘ultimate attribution error’: a review of the literature on intergroup causal attribution. European Journal of Social Psychology, 20: 311–335.
    Hewstone, M. (1996). Contact and categorization: social psychological interventions to change intergroup relations. In C.N.Macrae, C.Stangor and M.Hewstone (eds), Stereotypes and Stereotyping (pp. 323–368). New York: Guilford.
    Hewstone, M. (1997). Three lessons from social psychology: multiple levels of analysis, methodological pluralism, and statistical sophistication. In C.McGarty and S.A.Haslam (eds), The Message of Social Psychology (pp. 166–181). Oxford: Blackwell.
    Hewstone, M. and Brown, R. (1986). Contact is not enough: an intergroup perspective on the ‘contact hypothesis’. In M.Hewstone and R.Brown (eds), Contact and Conflict in Intergroup Encounters (pp. 1–44). Oxford: Blackwell.
    Hewstone, M., Fincham, F. and Jaspars, J. (1981). Social categorization and similarity in intergroup behaviour: a replication with ‘penalties’. European Journal of Social Psychology, 11: 101–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420110107
    Hewstone, M., Islam, M.R. and Judd, C.M. (1993). Models of crossed categorization and intergroup relations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64: 779–793. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.64.5.779
    Hilton, J.L. and Darley, J.M. (1991). The effects of interaction goals on person perception. In M.P.Zanna (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 24, pp. 235–267). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Hinkle, S. and Brown, R. (1990). Intergroup comparisons and social identity: some links and lacunae. In D.Abrams and M.A.Hogg (eds), Social Identity Theory: Constructive and Critical Advances (pp. 48–70). London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Hinkle, S., Taylor, L.A., Fox-Cardamone, L. and Crook, K.F. (1989). Intragroup identification and intergroup differentiation: a multicomponent approach. British Journal of Social Psychology, 28: 305–317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1989.tb00874.x
    Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture's Consequences. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Hogg, M.A. (1992). The Social Psychology of Group Cohesiveness: From Attraction to Social Identity. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Hogg, M.A. (1996). Intragroup processes, group structure and social identity. In W.P.Robinson (ed.), Social Groups and Identities: Developing the Legacy of Henri Tajfel (pp. 65–93). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
    Hogg, M.A. and Abrams, D. (1988). Social Identifications: A Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations and Group Processes. London: Routledge.
    Hogg, M.A. and Abrams, D. (1990). Social motivation, self-esteem and social identity. In D.Abrams and M.A.Hogg (eds), Social Identity Theory: Constructive and Critical Advances (pp. 28–47). London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Hogg, M.A. and Abrams, D. (eds) (1993a). Group Motivation. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Hogg, M.A. and Abrams, D. (1993b). Towards a single-process uncertainty-reduction model of social motivation in groups. In M.A.Hogg and D.Abrams (eds), Group Motivation (pp. 173–190). London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Hogg, M.A. and Hains, S.C. (1996). Intergroup relations and group solidarity: effects of group identification and social beliefs on depersonalized attraction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70: 295–309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.70.2.295
    Hogg, M.A., Terry, D.J. and White, K.M. (1995). A tale of two theories: a critical comparison of identity theory with social identity theory. Social Psychology Quarterly, 58: 255–269. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2787127
    Homsey, M. and Hogg, M.A. (1996). Structural differentiation within groups: a test of three models of the effects of category salience on subgroup relations. Unpublished manuscript, University of Queensland, Australia.
    Huddy, L. and Virtanen, S. (1995). Subgroup differentiation and subgroup bias among Latinos as a function of familiarity and positive distinctiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68: 97–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.68.1.97
    Huici, C. (1989). Procesos cognitivos y mantenimiento de estereotipos sociales: el papel de las correlaciones ilusorias [Cognitive processes and the maintenance of social stereotypes: the role of the illusory correlations]. Paper presented at the Seminario sobre Cognicion Social en la Psicología Social Europea, Madrid, ICE-UNED.
    Huici, C. and Ros, M. (1993). Identidad comparativa y diferenciacion intergrupal [Comparative identity and intergroup differentiation]. Psicothema, 5: 225–236.
    Huici, C. and Ros, M. (1995). Social categorisation at different levels: the concept of comparative identity. In S.Hinkle (Chair), European perspectives on intergroup relations: Looking forward and back after twenty-five years. Symposium conducted at the Forth European Congress of Psychology, Athens, Greece (July).
    Huici, C., Ros, M., Cano, J.I., Hopkins, N., Emler, N. and Carmona, M. (1997). Comparative identity and evaluation of socio-political change: perceptions of the European Community as a function of the salience of regional identities. European Journal of Social Psychology, 27: 97–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-0992%28199701%2927:1%3C97::AID-EJSP810%3E3.0.CO;2-0
    Huo, Y.J., Smith, H.J., Tyler, T.R. and Lind, A.E. (1996). Superordinate identification, subgroup identification, and justice concerns: is separatism the problem? Is assimilation the answer?Psychological Science, 7: 40–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.1996.tb00664.x
    Hurtado, A., Gurin, P. and Peng, T. (1994). Social identities: a framework for studying the adaptations of immigrants and ethnics: the adaptations of Mexicans in the United States. Social Problems, 41: 129–151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/sp.1994.41.1.03x0429m
    Insko, C.A. and Schopler, J. (1987). Categorization, competition, and collectivity. In C.Hendrick (ed.), Group Processes (pp. 213–251). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Insko, C.A. and Schopler, J. (1998). Differential distrust of groups and individuals. In C.Sedikides, J.Schopler and C.A.Insko (eds), Intergroup Cognition and Intergroup Behavior (pp. 75–107). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Insko, C.A., Schopler, J., Hoyle, R.H., Dardis, G.J. and Graetz, K.A. (1990). Individual-group discontinuity as a function of fear and greed. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58: 68–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.58.1.68
    Insko, C.A., Pinkley, R.L., Harring, K., Holton, B., Hong, G., Krams, D.S., Hoyle, R.H. and Thibaut, J. (1987). Minimal conditions for real groups: mere categorization or expectations of competitive between category behavior. Representative Research in Social Psychology, 17: 5–36.
    Isen, AM. (1993). Positive affect and decision making. In M.Lewis and J.M.Haviland (eds), Handbook of Emotion (pp. 261–277). New York: Guilford.
    Isen, AM. and Daubman, K.A. (1984). The influence of affect on categorization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47: 1206–1217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.47.6.1206
    Isen, A.M. and Gorgoglione, J.M. (1983). Some specific effects of four affect-induction procedures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 9: 136–143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167283091019
    Isen, A.M., Niedenthal, P.M. and Cantor, N. (1992). An influence of positive affect on social categorization. Motivation and Emotion, 16: 65–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00996487
    Isen, A.M., Shalker, T.E., Clark, M.S. and Karp, L. (1978). Positive affect, accessibility of material in memory, and behavior: a cognitive loop?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36: 1–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.36.1.1
    Islam, M.R. and Hewstone, M. (1993). Dimensions of contact as predictors of intergroup anxiety, perceived outgroup variability, and outgroup attitude: an integrative model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 19: 700–710. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167293196005
    Jaccard, J., Turrisi, R. and Wan, C.K. (1990). Interaction Effects in Multiple Regression. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    James, K. and Cropanzano, R. (1994). Dispositional group loyalty and individual action for the benefit of an ingroup: experimental and correlational evidence. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Making, 60: 179–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/obhd.1994.1080
    James, K. and Greenberg, J. (1989). In-group salience, intergroup comparison, and individual performance and self-esteem. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 15: 604–616. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167289154013
    Jasso, G. (1996). Exploring the reciprocal relations between theoretical and empirical work. Sociological Methods and Research, 24: 253–303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0049124196024003002
    Jemison, D.B. and Sitkin, S.B. (1986). Corporate acquisitions: a process perspective. Academy of Management Review, 11: 145–163.
    Johnson, D.W. and Johnson, F.P. (1975). Joining Together: Group Theory and Group Skills. Engelwood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall.
    Johnson-Laird, P.N. and Wason, P.C. (1970). A theoretical analysis of insight into a reasoning task. Cognitive Psychology, 1: 134–148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285%2870%2990009-5
    Johnson-Laird, P.N., Legrenzi, P. and Legrenzi, M.S. (1972). Reasoning and a sense of reality. British Journal of Psychology, 63: 395–400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1972.tb01287.x
    Jones, E.E. and Berglas, S. (1978). Control of attributions about the self through self-handicapping strategies: the appeal of alcohol and the role of underachievement. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 4: 200–206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014616727800400205
    Jones, E.E. and Sigall, H. (1971). The bogus pipeline: a new paradigm for measuring affect and attitudes. Psychological Bulletin, 76: 349–364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0031617
    Jöreskog, K.G. and Sörbom, D. (1993). LISREL8 User's Reference Guide. Chicago: Scientific Software International.
    Judd, C.M., McClelland, G.H. and Culhane, S.E. (1995). Data analysis: continuing issues in the everyday analysis of psychological data. Annual Review of Psychology, 46: 433–465. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.46.020195.002245
    Judd, C.M., Vescio, T.K. and Kwann, V. (1998). Searching for the benefits of crossed categorizations. Paper presented at the Small Group Meeting on ‘Implicit and explicit processes in social cognition’, Mirano, Italy (June).
    Judd, C.M., Park, B., Ryan, C.S., Brauer, M. and Kraus, S. (1995). Stereotypes and ethnocentrism: diverging interethnic perceptions of African American and White American Youth. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69: 460–481. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.69.3.460
    Julian, J.W., Bishop, D.W. and Fiedler, F.E. (1966). Quasi therapeutic effects of intergroup competition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3: 321–327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0023037
    Kahn, A and Ryen, A.H. (1972). Factors influencing the bias towards one's own group. International Journal of Group Tensions, 2: 33–50.
    Karasawa, M. (1991). Toward an assessment of social identity: the structure of group identification and its effects on in-group evaluations. British Journal of Social Psychology, 30: 293–307. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1991.tb00947.x
    Katz, D. and Braly, K.W. (1933). Racial stereotypes of 100 college students. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 28: 280–290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0074049
    Katz, I. and Hass, R.G. (1988). Racial ambivalence and American value conflict: correlational and priming studies of dual cognitive structures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55: 893–905. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.55.6.893
    Katz, I., Wackenhut, J. and Hass, R.G. (1986). Racial ambivalence, value duality, and behavior. In J.F.Dovidio and S.L.Gaertner (eds), Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism (pp. 35–59). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
    Kawakami, K., Dion, K.L. and Dovidio, J.F. (1998). Racial prejudice and stereotype activation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24: 407–416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167298244007
    Kim, H.S. and Baron, R.S. (1988). Exercise and the illusory correlation: does arousal heighten stereotypic processing?Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 24: 366–380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2888%2990026-1
    Kirschenman, J. and Neckerman, K.M. (1994). ‘We'd like to hire them, but …’: the meaning of race for employers. In F.L.Pincus and H.J.Ehrlich (eds), Race and Ethnic Conflict: Contending Views on Prejudice, Discrimination, and Ethnoviolence (pp. 115–123). Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Kitayama, S. (1993). Culture, self, and emotion: The nature and functions of ‘good moods/feelings’ in Japan and the United States. Unpublished manuscript.
    Kitayama, S., Markus, H.R., Matsumoto, H. and Norasakkunkit, V. (1997). Individual and collective processes in the construction of the self: self-enhancement in the United States and self-criticism in Japan. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72: 1245–1267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.72.6.1245
    Klandermans, B. (1997). The Social Psychology of Protest. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Klink, A., Mummendey, A, Mielke, R. and Blanz, M. (1997). A multicomponent approach to group identification: results from a field study in East Germany. Unpublished manuscript.
    Kramer, R.M. and Brewer, M.B. (1984). Effects of group identity on resource use in a simulated commons dilemma. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46: 1044–1057. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.46.5.1044
    Kramer, R.M., Brewer, M.B. and Hanna, B.A. (1996). Collective trust and collective action: the decision to trust as a social decision. In R.M.Kramer and T.R.Tyler (eds), Trust in Organizations (pp. 357–389). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243610
    Kruglanski, A.W. and Webster, D.M. (1996). Motivated closing of the mind: ‘seizing’ and ‘freezing’. Psychological Review, 103: 263–283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.103.2.263
    Lambert, A.J., Cronen, S., Chasteen, A.L. and Lickel, B. (1996). Private vs public expressions of racial prejudice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 32: 437–459. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jesp.1996.0020
    La Piere, R.T. (1934). Attitudes vs actions. Social Forces, 13: 230–237. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2570339
    Larson, D.W. (1997). Trust and missed opportunities in international relations. Political Psychology, 18: 701–734. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0162-895X.00075
    Lemyre, L. and Smith, P.M. (1985). Intergroup discrimination and self-esteem in the minimal group paradigm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49: 660–670. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.49.3.660
    Lepore, L. and Brown, R. (1997). Category and stereotype activation: is prejudice inevitable?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72: 275–287. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.72.2.275
    Lepore, L. and Brown, R (1999). Exploring automatic stereotype activation: a challenge to the inevitability of prejudice. In D.Abrams and M.A.Hogg (eds), Social Identity and Social Cognition (pp. 141–163). Oxford: Blackwell.
    Levine, J.M. and Moreland, R.L. (1994). Group socialization: theory and research. In W.Stroebe and M.Hewstone (eds), European Review of Social Psychology (Vol. 5, pp. 305–336). Chichester: Wiley.
    LeVine, R.A. and Campbell, D.T. (1972). Ethnocentrism: Theories of Conflict, Ethnic Attitudes and Group Behavior. New York: Wiley.
    Lewicka, M. (1988). On objective and subjective anchoring of cognitive acts: how behavioral valence modifies reasoning schemata. In W.J.Baker, L.P.Mos, H.V.Rappard and H.J.Starn (eds), Recent Trends in Theoretical Psychology (pp. 285–301). New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-3902-4_27
    Lewicka, M. (1992). Pragmatic reasoning schemata with differing affective value of a consequent of logical implication. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 23: 237–252.
    Leyens, J.-Ph. and Scaillet, N. (1999). The Wason selection task as an opportunity to improve social identity. Manuscript in preparation.
    Leyens, J.-Ph. and Yzerbyt, V.Y. (1992). The ingroup overexclusion effect: impact of valence and confirmation on stereotypical information search. European Journal of Social Psychology, 22: 549–569. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420220604
    Leyens, J.-Ph., Dardenne, B., Yzerbyt, V.Y., Scaillet, N. and Snyder, M. (1999). Confirmation and disconfirmation: their social advantages. In W.Stroebe and M.Hewstone (eds), European Review of Social Psychology (Vol. 10, pp. 199–230). Chichester: Wiley.
    Liberman, N. and Klar, Y. (1996). Hypothesis testing in Wason's selection task: social exchange cheating detection or task understanding. Cognition, 58: 127–156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277%2895%2900677-X
    Long, K. and Spears, R. (1997). The self-esteem hypothesis revisited: differentiation and the disaffected. In R.Spears, P.J.Oakes, N.Ellemers and S.A.Haslam (eds), The Social Psychology of Stereotyping and Group Life (pp. 296–317). Oxford: Blackwell.
    Luhtanen, R. and Crocker, J. (1992). A collective self-esteem scale: self-evaluation of one's social identity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18: 302–318. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167292183006
    Maass, A. (1999). Linguistic intergroup bias: stereotype-perpetration through language. In M.P.Zanna (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 31, pp. 79–190). New York: Academic Press.
    Maass, A. and Schaller, M. (1991). Intergroup bias and the cognitive dynamics of stereotype formation. In W.Stroebe and M.Hewstone (eds), European Review of Social Psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 189–209). Chichester: Wiley.
    Maass, A., Ceccarelli, R. and Rudin, S. (1996). Linguistic intergroup bias: evidence for in-group-protective motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71: 512–526. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.71.3.512
    Maass, A., Conti, S. and Venturini, S. (1994). Suppressing prejudiced thought: paradoxical effects on implicit and explicit measures. Unpublished manuscript, University of Padua, Italy.
    Maass, A., Salvi, D., Arcuri, L. and Semin, G. (1989). Language use in intergroup contexts: the linguistic intergroup bias. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57: 981–993. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.57.6.981
    Mackie, D.M. and Hamilton, D.L. (eds) (1993). Affect, Cognition, and Stereotyping: Interactive Processes in Group Perception. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Mackie, D.M., Hamilton, D.L., Schroth, H.A., Carlisle, C.J., Gersho, B.F., Meneses, L.M., Nedler, B.F. and Reichel, L.D. (1989). The effects of induced mood on expectancy-based illusory correlations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 25: 524–544. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2889%2990004-8
    Macrae, C.N., Bodenhausen, G.V. and Milne, A.B. (1995). The dissection of selection in person perception: inhibitory processes in social stereotyping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69: 397–407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.69.3.397
    Macrae, C.N., Stangor, C. and Hewstone, M. (eds) (1996). Stereotypes and Stereotyping. New York: Guilford.
    Macrae, C.N., Bodenhausen, G.V., Milne, A.B. and Jetten, J. (1994). Out of mind but back in sight: stereotypes on the rebound. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67: 808–817. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.67.5.808
    Mahdi, N. and Dreznick, M. (1998). In-group favoritism and out-group derogation: a meta-analytic comparison. Unpublished manuscript, University of Albany.
    Mannix, E.A., Neale, M.A. and Northcraft, G.B. (1995). Equity, equality, or need? The effects of organizational culture on the allocation of benefits and burdens. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 63: 276–286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/obhd.1995.1079
    Marcus-Newhall, A., Miller, N., Holtz, R. and Brewer, M.B. (1993). Cross-cutting category membership with role assignment: a means of reducing intergroup bias. British Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 125–146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1993.tb00991.x
    Markovsky, B. (1991). Prospects for a cognitive-structural justice theory. In R.Vermunt and H.Steensma (eds), Social Justice in Human Relations: Vol. 1. Societal and Psychological Origins of Justice (pp. 33–58). New York: Plenum Press.
    Marks, M.L. and Mirvis, P. (1985). Merger syndrome: stress and uncertainty. Mergers and Acquisitions, Summer, 50–55.
    Markus, H.R and Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and self: implications for cognition, emotion and motivation. Psychological Review, 98: 224–253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.98.2.224
    Marsh, H.W., Balla, J.R. and Hau, K.-T. (1996). An evaluation of incremental fit indices: a clarification of mathematical and empirical properties. In G.A.Marcoulides and R.E.Schumacker (eds), Advanced Structural Equation Modeling (pp. 315–353). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Matlin, M.W. and Stang, D.J. (1978). The Pollyanna Principle. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman.
    McCallum, D.M., Harring, K., Gilmore, R., Drenan, S., Chase, J.P., Insko, C.A. and Thibaut, J. (1985). Competition and cooperation between groups and between individuals. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 21: 301–320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2885%2990032-0
    McConahay, J.B. (1983). Modern racism and modern discrimination: the effects of race, racial attitudes, and context on simulated hiring decision. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 9: 551–558. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167283094004
    McConahay, J.B. (1986). Modern racism, ambivalence, and the Modern Racism Scale. In J.F.Dovidio and S.L.Gaertner (eds), Prejudice, Discrimination, and Racism (pp. 91–125). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
    McConahay, J.B., Hardee, B.B. and Batts, V. (1981). Has racism declined in America? It depends on who is asking and what is asked. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 25: 563–579.
    Meertens, R.W. and Pettigrew, T.F. (1997). Is subtle prejudice really prejudice?Public Opinion Quarterly, 61: 54–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/297786
    Meindl, J.R. and Lerner, M.Y. (1984). Exacerbation of extreme responses to an outgroup. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47: 71–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.47.1.71
    Migdal, M.J., Hewstone, M. and Mullen, B. (1998). The effects of crossed categorization on intergroup evaluations: a meta-analysis. British Journal of Social Psychology, 37: 303–324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1998.tb01174.x
    Mikula, G., Freudenthaler, H.H., Brennacher-Kröll, S. and Schiller-Brandl, R. (1997). Arrangements and rules of distribution of burdens and duties: the case of household chores. European Journal of Social Psychology, 27: 189–208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-0992%28199703%2927:2%3C189::AID-EJSP814%3E3.0.CO;2-O
    Miller, N. (1992). Affective and cognitive processes in intergroup relations. Unpublished manuscript, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
    Miller, N. and Davidson-Podgorny, G. (1987). Theoretical models of intergroup relations and the use of cooperative teams as an intervention for desegregated settings. In C.Hendrick (ed.), Group Processes and Intergroup Relations: Review of Personality and Social Psychology (Vol. 9, pp. 41–67). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Miller, N., Brewer, M.B. and Edwards, K. (1985). Cooperative interaction in desegregated settings: a laboratory analogue. Journal of Social Issues, 41: 63–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1985.tb01129.x
    Miller, N., Urban, L.M. and Vanman, E.J. (1998). A theoretical analysis of crossed social categorization effects. In C.Sedikides, J.Schopler and C.A.Insko (eds), Intergroup Cognition and Intergroup Behaviour (pp. 393–420). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Mizrahi, K. and Deaux, K. (1997). Social identification and ingroup favoritism: The case of gender. Unpublished manuscript, City University of New York Graduate Center.
    Mlicki, P.P. and Ellemers, N. (1996). Being different or being better? National stereotypes and identification of Polish and Dutch students. European Journal of Social Psychology, 26: 97–114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-0992%28199601%2926:1%3C97::AID-EJSP739%3E3.0.CO;2-F
    Monteith, M.J. (1993). Self-regulation of prejudiced responses: implications for progress in prejudice-reduction efforts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65: 469–485. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.65.3.469
    Monteith, M.J., Sherman, J.W. and Devine, P.G. (1998). Suppression as a stereotype control strategy. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2: 63–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr0201_4
    Moreno, L. (1997). La Federalización de España: Poder politico y territorio [The Spanish federalisation: political power and territory]. Madrid: Siglo XXI.
    Morris, W.N., Worchel, S., Bois, J.L., Pearson, J.A., Rountree, A.C., Samaha, G.M., Wachtler, J. and Wright, S.L. (1976). Collective coping with stress: group reactions to fear, anxiety, and ambiguity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33: 674–679. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.33.6.674
    Moscovici, S. (1976). Social Influence and Social Change. London: Academic Press.
    Moscovici, S. (1988). Notes toward a description of social representations. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18: 211–250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420180303
    Mottola, G.R. (1996). The effects of relative group status on expectations of merger success. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Delaware, Newark, DE.
    Mottola, G.R., Bachman, B.A., Gaertner, S.L. and Dovidio, J.F. (1997). How groups merge: the effects of merger integration patterns on anticipated commitment to the merged organization. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27: 1335–1358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1997.tb01809.x
    Mulder, M., Veen, P., Hartsuiker, D. and Westerduin, T. (1971). Cognitive processes in power equalization. European Journal of Social Psychology, 1: 107–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420010109
    Mullen, B. and Hu, L.T. (1989). Perceptions of ingroup and outgroup variability: a meta-analytic integration. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 10: 233–252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15324834basp1003_3
    Mullen, B., Brown, R. and Smith, C. (1992). Ingroup bias as a function of salience, relevance, and status: an integration. European Journal of Social Psychology, 22: 103–122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420220202
    Mullin, B.-A. and Hogg, M.A. (1998). Dimensions of subjective uncertainty in social identification and minimal intergroup discrimination. British Journal of Social Psychology, 37: 345–365. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1998.tb01176.x
    Mummendey, A (1995). Positive distinctiveness and social discrimination: an old couple living in divorce?European Journal of Social Psychology, 25: 657–670. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420250605
    Mummendey, A and Otten, S. (1998). Positive-negative asymmetry in social discrimination. In W.Stroebe and M.Hewstone (eds), European Review of Social Psychology (Vol. 9, pp. 107–143). Chichester: Wiley.
    Mummendey, A and Simon, B. (1991). Diskriminierung von Fremdgruppen: zur Asymmetrie im Umgang mit positiven und negativen Bewertungen und Ressourcen [Discrimination of outgroups: about the asymmetry in dealing with positive versus negative evaluations and resources]. In D.Frey (ed.), Berichte über den 37. Kongreß der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Psychologie in Kiel 1990 (Vol. 2, pp. 359–365). Göttingen: Hogrefe.
    Mummendey, A, Linneweber, V. and Löschper, G. (1984). Aggression: from act to interaction. In A.Mummendey (ed.), Social Psychology of Aggression: From Individual Behavior to Social Interaction (pp. 69–106). New York: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-48919-8_6
    Mummendey, A., Otten, S. and Blanz, M. (1994a). Social categorization and intergroup discrimination. The asymmetry in positive versus negative outcome allocations. Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale, 7: 15–30.
    Mummendey, A, Otten, S. and Blanz, M. (1994b). Positiv-negativ-Asymmetrien sozialer Diskriminierung: zum Einfluß von Stimulus-Valenz auf intergruppale Bewertungen und Aufteilungsentscheidungen [Positive-negative asymmetries in social discrimination: the impact of stimulus valence on intergroup evaluations and allocations]. Paper presented at the 39th congress of the German Society for Psychology, Hamburg (FRG) (September).
    Mummendey, A., Otten, S., Berger, U. and Kessler, T. (in press). Positive-negative asymmetry in intergroup discrimination: valence of evaluation and salience of categorization. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
    Mummendey, A., Simon, B., Dietze, C., Grünert, M., Haeger, G., Kessler, S., Lettgen, S. and Schäferhoff, S. (1992). Categorization is not enough: intergroup discrimination in negative outcome allocation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 28: 125–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2892%2990035-I
    Murphy, R.F. (1957). Intergroup hostility and social cohesion. American Anthropologist, 59: 1018–1035. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/aa.1957.59.6.02a00070
    Murray, N., Sujan, H., Hirt, E.R. and Sujan, M. (1990). The influence of mood on categorization: a cognitive flexibility interpretation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59: 411–425. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.59.3.411
    Nelson, T.E., Acker, M. and Manis, M. (1996). Irrepressible stereotypes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 32: 13–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jesp.1996.0002
    Neuberg, S.L. and Newson, J.T. (1993). Personal need for structure: individual differences in the desire for simpler structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65: 113–131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.65.1.113
    Neumann, R. (1998). Explicit and implicit bases of stereotyping within Germany. Paper presented at the Small Group Meeting on ‘Implicit and explicit processes in social cognition’, Mirano, Italy (June).
    Nier, J., Rust, M.C., Ward, C.M. and Gaertner, S.L. (1996). Changing interracial attitudes and behavior: the effects of a common ingroup identity. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association Convention, Philadelphia, PA (March).
    Oakes, P.J. (1987). The salience of social categories. In J.C.Turner, M.A.Hogg, P.J.Oakes, S.D.Reicher and M.S.Wetherell (eds), Rediscovering the Social Group: A Self-Categorization Theory (pp. 117–141). Oxford: Blackwell.
    Oakes, P.J., Haslam, S.A. and Turner, J.C. (1994). Stereotyping and Social Reality. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Oakes, P.J., Turner, J.C. and Haslam, S.A. (1991). Perceiving people as group members: the role of fit in the salience of social categorizations. British Journal of Social Psychology, 30: 125–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1991.tb00930.x
    Ottati, V., Terkildsen, N. and Hubbard, C. (1997). Happy faces elicit heuristic processing in a televised impression formation task: a cognitive tuning account. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23: 1144–1156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01461672972311003
    Otten, S. (1997). Wer nachdenkt diskriminiert nicht? – Diskriminierung zwischen kuenstlichen Gruppen in Abhaengigkeit von Reflexionsgrad und Valenz der Bewertungsdimension [Do those who reflect, not discriminate? – Degree of reflection and valence of evaluation dimension as determinants of discrimination between laboratory groups]. Forschungsberichte des Lehrstuhls Sozialp-sychologie, Friedrick-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (June).
    Otten, S. and Mummendey, A. (1999). Our benefits or your expenses? Perceiving inappropriateness in intergroup allocations of positive and negative resources. Social Justice Research, 12: 14–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023274223181
    Otten, S. and Mummendey, A. (in press). Social discrimination and aggression: a matter of perspective-specific divergence? In W.Kallmeyer and C.F.Graumann (eds), Perspectivity and Perspectivation in Discourse. Wilrijk: John Benjamin Publ. Co.
    Otten, S. and Wentura, D. (in press). About the impact of automaticity in the Minimal Group Paradigm: evidence from affective priming rasks. European Journal of Social Psychology.
    Otten, S., Mummendey, A. and Blanz, M. (1996). Intergroup discrimination in positive and negative outcome allocations: impact of stimulus valence, relative group status and relative group size. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22: 568–581. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167296226003
    Otten, S., Mummendey, A. and Buhl, T. (1998). Accuracy in information processing and the positive-negative asymmetry in social discrimination. Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale, 11: 69–96.
    Ouellette, S.C., Bochnak, E. and McKinley, P.S. (1997). Representing identities of women with lupus. Unpublished manuscript, Graduate School and University Center, City University of New York.
    Park, B. and Rothbart, M. (1982). Perception of out-group homogeneity and levels of social categorization: memory for the subordinate attributes of in-group and out-group members. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42: 1051–1068. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.42.6.1051
    Peeters, G. (1971). The positive-negative asymmetry: on cognitive consistency and positivity bias. European Journal of Social Psychology, 1: 455–474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420010405
    Peeters, G. (1998). From good and bad to can and must: Subjective necessity and acts associated with positively and negatively valued nouns. Unpublished manuscript, University of Leuven.
    Peeters, G. and Czapinski, J. (1990). Positive-negative asymmetry in evaluations: the distinction between affective and informational negativity effects. In W.Stroebe and M.Hewstone (eds), European Review of Social Psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 33–60). Chichester: Wiley.
    Pendry, L.F. and Macrae, C.N. (1994). Stereotypes and mental life: the case of the motivated but thwarted tactician. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 30: 303–325. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jesp.1994.1015
    Pendry, L.F. and Macrae, C.N. (1996). What the disinterested perceiver overlooks: goal-directed social categorization. Personality and Social Psychological Bulletin, 22: 249–256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167296223003
    Perdue, C.W. and Gurtman, M.B. (1990). Evidence for the automaticity of ageism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 26: 199–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2890%2990035-K
    Perdue, C.W.Dovidio, J.F., Gurtman, M.B. and Tyler, R.B. (1990). ‘Us’ and ‘them’: social categorization and the process of intergroup bias. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59: 475–486. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.59.3.475
    Pettigrew, T.F. (1986). The intergroup contact hypothesis reconsidered. In M.Hewstone and R.Brown (eds), Contact and Conflict in Intergroup Encounters (pp. 169–195). Oxford: Blackwell.
    Pettigrew, T.F. and Meertens, R.W. (1995). Subtle and blatant prejudice in western Europe. European Journal of Social Psychology, 25: 57–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420250106
    Petty, R., Harkins, S. and Williams, K. (1980). The effects of group diffusion of cognitive effort on attitudes: an information processing view. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38: 81–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.38.1.81
    Phinney, J.S. (1990). Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 108: 499–514. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.108.3.499
    Pickersgill, M.J. and Owen, A. (1992). Mood-states, recall and subjective comprehensibility of medical information in non-patient volunteers. Personality and Individual Differences, 13: 1299–1305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869%2892%2990172-L
    Platow, M.J., Harley, K., Hunter, J.A., Hanning, P., Shave, S. and O'Connell, A. (1997). Interpreting in-group-favouring allocations in the minimal group paradigm. British Journal of Social Psychology, 36: 107–117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1997.tb01121.x
    Polivy, J. (1981). On the induction of emotion in the laboratory: discrete moods or multiple affect states?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41: 803–817. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.41.4.803
    Pratto, F. and John, O.P. (1991). Automatic vigilance: the attention-grabbing power of negative social information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61: 380–391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.61.3.380
    Prentice, D.A., Miller, D.T. and Lightdale, J.R. (1994). Asymmetries in attachments to groups and to their members: distinguishing between common-identity and common-bond groups. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20: 4844–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167294205005
    Quanty, M.B., Keats, J.A. and Harkins, S. (1975). Prejudice and criteria for identification of ethnic photographs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32: 449–454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0077093
    Queller, S., Mackie, D.M. and Stroessner, S.J. (1996). Ameliorating some negative effects of positive mood: encouraging happy people to perceive intragroup variability. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 32: 361–386. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jesp.1996.0017
    Rabbie, J.M. and Horwitz, M. (1969). Arousal of ingroup-outgroup bias by a chance win or loss. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 13: 269–277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0028284
    Rabbie, J.M., Schot, J.C. and Visser, L. (1989). Social identity theory: a conceptual and empirical critique from the perspective of a behavioural interaction model. European Journal of Social Psychology, 19: 171–202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420190302
    Rabbie, J.M., Benoist, F., Oosterbaan, H. and Visser, L. (1974). Differential power and effects of expected competitive and cooperative intergroup interaction on intragroup and outgroup attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 30: 46–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0036620
    Radford, M.B., Mann, L., Ohta, Y. and Nakane, Y. (1993). Differences between Australian and Japanese students in decisional self-esteem, decisional stress, and coping styles. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 24: 284–297. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022193243002
    Rankin, R.F. and Campbell, D.T. (1955). Galvanic skin response to Negro and White experimenters. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 51: 30–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0041539
    Reicher, S.D. and Hopkins, N. (1996). Seeking influence through characterizing self-categories: an analysis of anti-abortionist rhetoric. British Journal of Social Psychology, 35: 297–311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1996.tb01099.x
    Reid, A. (1998). Validation of ISCOL: an identity specific measure of collectivism. Unpublished dissertation, Graduate School and University Center, City University of New York.
    Reid, A. and Deaux, K. (1996). Relationship between social and personal identities: segregation or integration?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71: 1084–1091. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.71.6.1084
    Riess, M., Kalle, R.J. and Tedeschi, J.T. (1981). Bogus pipeline attitude assessment, impression management, and misattribution in induced compliance settings. Journal of Social Psychology, 115: 247–258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1981.9711664
    Ring, K. (1967). Experimental social psychology: some sober questions about some frivolous values. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 3: 113–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2867%2990016-9
    Robey, K.L., Cohen, B.D. and Gara, M. (1989). Self-structure in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98: 436–442. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.98.4.436
    Robinson, W.P. (ed.) (1996). Social Groups and Identities: Developing the Legacy of Henri Tajfel. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
    Roese, N.J. and Jamieson, D.W. (1993). Twenty years of bogus pipeline research: a critical review and meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 114: 363–375. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.114.2.363
    Ros, M. and Huici, C. (1996). Comparative identity and cultural beliefs. Paper presented at the Eleventh General Meeting of EAESP, Gmunden, Austria (June).
    Ros, M., Cano, J.I. and Huici, C. (1987). Language and intergroup perceptions in Spain. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 6 (3–4): 243–259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0261927X8763007
    Ros, M., Huici, C. and Cano, J.I. (1994). Ethnolinguistic vitality and social identity: their impact on ingroup bias and social attribution. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 108: 145–166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ijsl.1994.108.145
    Rosenberg, S. (1988). Self and others: studies in social personality and autobiography. In L.Berkowitz (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 21, pp. 57–95). New York: Academic Press.
    Rosenberg, S. (1997). Multiplicity of selves. In R.D.Ashmore and L.Jussim (eds), Self and Identity: Fundamental Issues (pp. 23–45). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Rosenberg, S. and Gara, M. (1985). The multiplicity of personal identity. Review of Personality and Social Psychology, 6: 87–113.
    Rosenberg, S., Van Mechelen, I. and DeBoeck, P. (1996). A hierarchical classes model: theory and method with applications in psychology and psycho-pathology. In P.Arabie, L.J.Hubert and G.De Soete, (eds), Clustering and Classification (pp. 123–155). River Edge, NJ: World Scientific Publishing.
    Rothgerber, H. and Worchel, S. (1997). The view from below: intergroup relations from the perspective of the disadvantaged group. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73: 1191–1205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.73.6.1191
    Rubin, M. and Hewstone, M. (1998). Social identity theory's self-esteem hypothesis: a review and some suggestions for clarification. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2: 40–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr0201_3
    Ryen, A.H. and Kahn, A (1975). Effects of intergroup orientation on group attitudes and proxemic behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31: 302–310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0076283
    Sachdev, I. and Bourhis, R.Y. (1984). Minimal majorities and minorities. European Journal of Social Psychology, 14: 35–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420140104
    Sachdev, I. and Bourhis, R.Y. (1987). Status differentials and intergroup behaviour. European Journal of Social Psychology, 17: 277–293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420170304
    Sachdev, I. and Bourhis, R.Y. (1991). Power and status differentials in minority and majority group relations. European Journal of Social Psychology, 21: 1–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420210102
    Sangrador, J.L. (1981). Estereotipos de las nacionalidades y regiones de Espana [Stereotypes of nationalities and regions in Spain]. Madrid: CIS.
    Sangrador, J.L. (1996). Identidades, actitudes y estereotipos en la Espana de las autonomias [Identities, attitudes and stereotypes in Spain]. Madrid: CIS.
    Scaillet, N. and Leyens, J.-Ph. (1999). The Wason selection task: a matter of interpretation or relevance? Manuscript in preparation.
    Schmid, J. and Fiedler, K. (1996). Language and implicit attributions in the Nuremberg Trials: analyzing prosecutors’ and defense attorneys’ closing speeches. Human Communication Research, 22: 371–398. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1996.tb00372.x
    Schopler, J. and Insko, C.A. (1992). The discontinuity effect in interpersonal and intergroup relations: generality and mediation. In W.Stroebe and M.Hewstone (eds), European Review of Social Psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 121–151). Chichester: Wiley.
    Schopler, J., Insko, C.A., Graetz, K.A., Drigotas, S.M., Smith, V.A. and Dahl, K. (1993). Individual-group discontinuity: further evidence for mediation by fear and greed. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 19: 419–431. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167293194007
    Schwarz, N. (1990). Feelings as information: informational and motivational functions of affective states. In R.M.Sorrentino and E.T.Higgins (eds), Handbook of Cognition and Motivation (Vol. 2, pp. 527–561). New York: Guilford.
    Schweiger, D.M. and Walsh, J.P. (1990). Mergers and acquisitions: an interdisciplinary view. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 8: 41–107.
    Sears, D.O. (1983). The person-positivity bias. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44: 233–250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.44.2.233
    Sears, D.O. (1988). Symbolic racism. In P.A.Katz and D.A.Taylor (eds), Eliminating Racism: Profiles in Controversy (pp. 53–84). New York: Plenum Press.
    Sedikides, C. (1993). Assessment, enhancement, and verification determinants of the self-evaluation process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65: 317–338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.65.2.317
    Sedikides, C. and Skowronski, J.J. (1997). The symbolic self in evolutionary context. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 1: 80–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr0101_6
    Sellers, R.M., Smith, M.A., Shelton, J.N., Rowley, S.A.J. and Chavous, T.M. (1998). Multidimensional model of racial identity: a reconceptualization of African American racial identity. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2: 18–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr0201_2
    Seta, J.J. and Seta, C.E. (1996). Big fish in small ponds: a social hierarchy analysis of intergroup bias. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71: 1210–1221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.71.6.1210
    Sherif, M. (1936). The Psychology of Social Norms. New York: Harper.
    Sherif, M. (1966a). In Common Predicament: Social Psychology of Intergroup Conflict and Cooperation. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
    Sherif, M. (1966b). Group Conflict and Co-operation. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Sherif, M. and Sherif, C.W. (1969). Social Psychology. New York: Harper & Row.
    Sherif, M., Harvey, O.J., White, B.J., Hood, W.R. and Sherif, C.W. (1961). Intergroup Conflict and Cooperation: The Robber's Cave Experiment. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Book Exchange.
    Sherman, S.J., Chassin, L. and Presson, C. (1998). Implicit and explicit attitudes toward cigarette smoking. Paper presented at the Small Group Meeting on ‘Implicit and explicit processes in social cognition’, Mirano, Italy (June).
    Shiffrin, R. and Schneider, W. (1977). Controlled and automatic human information processing: II. Perceptual, learning, automatic attending and a general theory. Psychological Review, 84: 127–190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.127
    Sidanius, J., Pratto, F. and Mitchell, M. (1994). Ingroup identification, social dominance orientation, and differential intergroup social allocation. Journal of Social Psychology, 134: 151–167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1994.9711378
    Sigall, H. and Page, R.A. (1971). Current stereotypes: a little fading a little faking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18: 247–255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0030839
    Simmel, G. (1950). The Sociology of Georg Simmel. (K.Wolff, trans.). New York: Free Press. (Original work published 1908.)
    Simon, B., Kulla, C. and Zobel, M. (1995). On being more than just a part of the whole: regional identity and social distinctiveness. European Journal of Social Psychology, 25: 325–340. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420250306
    Sinclair, R.C. and Mark, M.M. (1995). The effects of mood state on judgmental accuracy: processing strategy as a mechanism. Cognition and Emotion, 9: 417–438. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699939508408974
    Singh, R., Yeoh, B.S.E., Lim, D.I. and Lim, K.K. (1997). Cross categorization effects in intergroup discrimination: adding versus averaging. British Journal of Social Psychology, 36: 121–138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1997.tb01123.x
    Skevington, S. (1989). A place for emotion in social identity theory. In S.Skevington and D.Baker (eds), The Social Identity of Women (pp. 40–58). London: Sage.
    Skevington, S. and Baker, D. (eds) (1989). The Social Identity of Women. London: Sage.
    Skowronski, J.J. and Carlston, D.E. (1987). Social judgment and social memory: the role of cue diagnosticity in negativity, positivity, and extremity biases. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52: 689–699. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.52.4.689
    Skowronski, J.J. and Carlston, D.E. (1989). Negativity and extremity biases in impression formation: a review of explanations. Psychological Bulletin, 105: 131–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.105.1.131
    Smith, E.R. (1993). Social identity and social emotions: toward new conceptualizations of prejudice. In D.M.Mackie and D.L.Hamilton (eds), Affect, Cognition, and Stereotyping: Interactive Processes in Group Perception (pp. 297–315). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Smith, H.J. and Tyler, T.R. (1996). Justice and power: when will justice concerns encourage the advantaged to support policies which redistribute economic resources and the disadvantaged to willingly obey the law?European Journal of Social Psychology, 26: 171–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-0992%28199603%2926:2%3C171::AID-EJSP742%3E3.0.CO;2-8
    Snider, K. and Dovidio, J.F. (1996). A Survey of the Racial Climate at Indiana State University. Institutional Research and Testing, Indiana State University, Terra Haute, IN.
    Snyder, M. (1992). Motivational foundations of behavioral confirmation. In M.P.Zanna (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 25, pp. 67–114). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Snyder, M.L., Kleck, R.E., Strenta, A. and Mentzer, S.J. (1979). Avoidance of the handicapped: an attributional ambiguity analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37: 2297–2306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.37.12.2297
    Spears, R., Doosje, B. and Ellemers, N. (1997). Self-stereotyping in the face of threats to group status and distinctiveness: the role of group identification. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23: 538–553. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167297235009
    Spears, R.Oakes, P.J.Ellemers, N.Haslam, S.A. (eds) (1997a). The Social Psychology of Stereotyping and Group Life. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Spears, R.Oakes, P.J.Ellemers, N., Haslam, S.A. (eds) (1997b). Introduction to The Social Psychology of Stereotyping and Group Life. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Spence, J.T. (1984). Gender identity and its implications for concepts of masculinity and femininity. In T.Sondregger (ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Psychology and Gender (pp. 59–95). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
    Spencer, S.J., Fein, S., Wolfe, C.T., Fong, C. and Dunn, M.A. (1998). Automatic activation of stereotypes: the role of self-image threat. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24: 1139–1152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01461672982411001
    Stangor, C., Sullivan, L.A. and Ford, T.E. (1991). Affective and cognitive determinants of prejudice. Social Cognition, 9: 359–380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/soco.1991.9.4.359
    Stangor, C., Lynch, L., Duan, C. and Glass, B. (1992). Categorization of individuals on the basis of multiple social features. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62: 207–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.62.2.207
    Stark, B. and Deaux, K. (1996). Identity and motive: an integrated theory of volunteerism. Unpublished manuscript, Graduate School and University Center, City University of New York.
    Stephan, W.G. and Stephan, C.W. (1985). Intergroup anxiety. Journal of Social Issues, 41: 157–175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1985.tb01134.x
    Stephenson, G.M. (1981). Intergroup bargaining and negotiation. In J.C.Turner and H.Giles (eds), Intergroup Behaviour (pp. 168–198). Oxford: Blackwell.
    Stroessner, S.J. and Mackie, D.M. (1993). Affect and perceived group variability: implications for stereotyping and prejudice. In D.M.Mackie and D.L.Hamilton (eds), Affect, Cognition, and Stereotyping: Interactive Processes in Group Perception (pp. 63–86). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Struch, N. and Schwartz, S.H. (1989). Intergroup aggression: its predictors and distinctness from in-group bias. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56: 364–373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.56.3.364
    Stryker, S. (1980). Symbolic Interactionism: A Social Structural Version. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin Cummings.
    Stryker, S. (1987). Identity theory: developments and extensions. In K.Yardley and T.Honess (eds), Self and Identity: Psychosocial Perspectives (pp. 89–103). New York: Wiley.
    Stryker, S. and Serpe, R. (1982). Commitment, identity salience, and role behavior. In W.Ickes and E.Knowles (eds), Personality, Roles, and Social Behavior (pp. 199–218). New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-9469-3_7
    Stryker, S.Owens, T.J., White, R.W. (eds) (in press). Self, Identity, and Social Movements. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Tajfel, H. (1969). Cognitive aspects of prejudice. Journal of Social Issues, 25: 79–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1969.tb00620.x
    Tajfel, H. (1972). La categorization sociale [Social categorization]. In S.Moscovici (ed.), Introduction à la psychologie sociale (pp. 272–302). Paris: Larousse.
    Tajfel, H. (ed.) (1978a). Differentiation between Social Groups: Studies in the Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations. London: Academic Press.
    Tajfel, H. (1978b). Social categorization, social identity and social comparison. In H.Tajfel (ed.), Differentiation between Social Groups: Studies in the Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations (pp. 61–76). London: Academic Press.
    Tajfel, H. (1981). Human Groups and Social Categories. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Tajfel, H. (ed.) (1982a). Social Identity and Intergroup Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Tajfel, H. (1982b). Instrumentality, identity and social comparisons. In H.Tajfel (ed.), Social Identity and Intergroup Relations (pp. 483–507). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Tajfel, H. (1982c). Social psychology of intergroup relations, Annual Review of Psychology, 33: 1–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.33.020182.000245
    Tajfel, H. and Turner, J.C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W.G.Austin and S.Worchel (eds), The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations (pp. 33–47). Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Tajfel, H. and Turner, J.C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In S.Worchel and W.G.Austin (eds), The Psychology of Intergroup Relations (pp. 7–24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
    Tajfel, H., Billig, M., Bundy, R.P. and Flament, C. (1971). Social categorization and intergroup behaviour. European Journal of Social Psychology, 1: 149–178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420010202
    Taylor, S.E., Fiske, S.T., Etcoff, N.L. and Ruderman, A.J. (1978). Categorical and contextual bases of person memory and stereotyping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36: 778–793. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.36.7.778
    Thibaut, J. and Kelley, H.H. (1959). The Social Psychology of Groups. New York: Wiley.
    Thoits, P.A. and Virshup, L.K. (1997). Me's and We's: forms and functions of social identities. In R.D.Ashmore and L.Jussim (eds), Self and Identity: Fundamental Issues (pp. 106–133). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Thompson, V.A. (1995). Conditional reasoning: the necessary and sufficient conditions. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49: 1–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1196-1961.49.1.1
    Törnblom, K.Y. (1988). Positive and negative allocations: a typology and a model for conflicting justice principles. In E.J.Lawler and B.Markovsky (eds), Advances in Group Processes (Vol. 5, pp. 141–168). Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Tornblom, K.Y. (1992). The social psychology of distributive justice. In K.R.Scherer (ed.), Justice. Interdisciplinary Perspectives (pp. 177–236). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Törnblom, K.Y., Mühlhausen, S.M. and Jonsson, D.R. (1991). The allocation of positive and negative outcomes. When is the equality principle fair for both? In R.Vermunt and H.Steensma (eds), Social Justice in Human Relations: Vol. 1, Societal and Psychological Origins of Justice (pp. 59–100). New York: Plenum Press.
    Triandis, H.C. (1994). Culture and Social Behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Triandis, H.C. (1995). Individualism and Collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Triandis, H.C. (1997). A cross-cultural perspective on social psychology. In C.McGarty and S.A.Haslam (eds), The Message of Social Psychology (pp. 342–354). Oxford: Blackwell.
    Triandis, H.C. and Gelfand, M.J. (1998). Converging measurement of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74: 118–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.74.1.118
    Triandis, H.C., Bontempo, R., Villareal, M.J., Asai, M. and Lucca, N. (1988). Individualism and collectivism: cross-cultural perspectives on self-ingroup relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54: 323–338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.2.323
    Triandis, H.C., McCusker, C., Betancourt, H., Iwao, S., Leung, K., Salazar, J.M., Setiadi, B., Sinha, J.B.P., Touzard, H. and Zaleski, Z. (1993). An etic-emic analysis of individualism and collectivism. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 24, 366–383. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022193243006
    Tucker, L.R. and Lewis, C. (1973). A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis. Psychometrika, 38: 1–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02291170
    Turner, J.C. (1975). Social comparison and social identity: some prospects for intergroup behaviour. European Journal of Social Psychology, 5: 5–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420050102
    Turner, J.C. (1978). Social categorization and social discrimination in the minimal group paradigm. In H.Tajfel (ed.), Differentiation between Social Groups: Studies in the Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations (pp. 101–140). London: Academic Press.
    Turner, J.C. (1981). The experimental social psychology of intergroup behaviour. In J.C.Turner and H.Giles (eds), Intergroup Behaviour (pp. 66–101). Oxford: Blackwell.
    Turner, J.C. (1982). Towards a cognitive redefinition of the social group. In H.Tajfel (ed.), Social Identity and Intergroup Relations (pp. 15–40). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Turner, J.C. (1985). Social categorization and the self-concept: a social cognitive theory of group behavior. In E.J.Lawler (ed.), Advances in Group Processes (Vol. 2, pp. 71–122). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Turner, J.C. (1987). A self-categorization theory. In J.C.Turner, M.A.Hogg, P.J.Oakes, S.D.Reicher, and M.S.Wetherell (eds), Rediscovering the Social Group: A Self-Categorization Theory (pp. 42–67). Oxford: Blackwell.
    Turner, J.C. (1991). Social Influence. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Turner, J.C. (in press). Social identity. APA/Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology. Washington and New York: Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology.
    Turner, J.C. and Brown, R. (1978). Social status, cognitive alternatives and intergroup relations. In H.Tajfel (ed.), Differentiation between Social Groups: Studies in the Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations (pp. 201–234). London: Academic Press.
    Turner, J.C. and Giles, H. (eds) (1981). Intergroup Behaviour. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Turner, J.C.Hogg, M.A.Oakes, P.J.Reicher, S.D., Wetherell, M.S. (eds) (1987). Rediscovering the Social Group: A Self-Categorization Theory. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Turner, J.C., Oakes, P.J., Haslam, S.A. and McGarty, C. (1994). Self and collective: cognition and social context. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20: 454–463. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167294205002
    Urban, L.M. and Miller, N. (1998). A theoretical analysis of crossed categorization effects: a meta-analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74: 894–908. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.74.4.894
    Vallone, R.P., Ross, L. and Lepper, M.R. (1985). The hostile media phenomenon: biased perception and perceptions of media bias in coverage of the Beirut Massacre. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49: 577–585. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.49.3.577
    Vanbeselaere, N. (1987). The effects of dichotomous and crossed social categorizations upon intergroup discrimination. European Journal of Social Psychology, 17: 143–156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420170203
    Vanbeselaere, N. (1991). The different effects of simple and crossed categorizations: a result of the category differentiation process or of differential category salience? In W.Stroebe and M.Hewstone (eds), European Review of Social Psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 247–278). Chichester: Wiley.
    Vanbeselaere, N. (1996). The impact of differentially valued overlapping categorizations upon the differentiation between positively, negatively and neutrally evaluated social groups. European Journal of Social Psychology, 26: 75–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-0992%28199601%2926:1%3C75::AID-EJSP738%3E3.0.CO;2-Q
    van Knippenberg, A. and Ellemers, N. (1990). Social identity and intergroup differentiation processes. In W.Stroebe and M.Hewstone (eds), European Review of Social Psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 137–169). Chichester: Wiley.
    Vanman, E.J., Kaplan, D.L. and Miller, N. (1995). Assessment of crossed categorization effects on intergroup bias with facial electromyography. Unpublished manuscript.
    Vanman, E.J., Paul, B.Y., Ito, T.A. and Miller, N. (1997). The modern face of prejudice and structural features that moderate the effect of cooperation on affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73: 941–959. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.73.5.941
    Van Oudenhoven, J.P., Groenewoud, J.T. and Hewstone, M. (1996). Cooperation, ethnic salience and generalization of interethnic attitudes. European Journal of Social Psychology, 26: 649–661. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-0992%28199607%2926:4%3C649::AID-EJSP780%3E3.0.CO;2-T
    Vescio, T.K., Hewstone, M., Crisp, R.J. and Rubin, M. (1999). Perceiving and responding to multiply categorizable individuals: cognitive processes and affective intergroup bias. In D.Abrams and M.A.Hogg (eds), Social Identity and Social Cognition (pp. 111–140). Oxford: Blackwell.
    Vivian, J., Brown, R. and Hewstone, M. (1994). Changing attitudes through intergroup contact: the effects of group membership salience. Unpublished manuscript.
    Vivian, JHewstone, M. and Brown, R. (1997). Intergroup contact: theoretical and empirical developments. In R.Ben-Ari and Y.Rich (eds), Enhancing Education in Heterogeneous Schools: Theory and Applications (pp. 13–46). Ramat-Gan, Israel: Bar-Ilan University Press.
    von Hippel, W., Sekaquaptewa, D. and Vargas, P. (1997). The linguistic intergroup bias as an implicit indicator of prejudice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 33: 490–509. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jesp.1997.1332
    Wann, D.L. and Branscombe, N. (1990). Die hard and fair-weather fans: effects of identification on BIRGing and CORFing tendencies. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 14: 103–117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019372359001400203
    Wann, D.L. and Branscombe, N. (1995). Influence of level of identification with a group and physiological arousal on perceived intergroup complexity. British Journal of Social Psychology, 34: 223–235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1995.tb01060.x
    Wason, P.C. (1968). Reasoning about a rule. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 20: 273–281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14640746808400161
    Waters, M. (1990). Ethnic Options: Choosing Identities in America. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Watson, D. and Clark, L.A. (1984). Negative affectivity: the disposition to experience aversive emotional states. Psychological Bulletin, 96: 465–490. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.96.3.465
    Wegner, D.M. and Bargh, J.A. (1998). Control and automaticity in social life. In D.T.Gilbert, S.T.Fiske and G.Lindzey (eds), The Handbook of Social Psychology (
    4th edn
    ; Vol. 2, pp. 446–496). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
    Weitz, S. (1972). Attitude, voice, and behavior: a repressed affect model of interracial interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 24: 14–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0033383
    Wenzel, M. (1997). Soziale Kategorisierungen im Bereich distributiver Gerechtigkeit [Social categorizations in the realm of distributive justice]. Münster: Waxmann.
    Wenzel, M. and Mummendey, A. (1996). Positive-negative asymmetry of social discrimination: a normative analysis of differential evaluations of ingroup and outgroup on positive and negative attributes. British Journal of Social Psychology, 35: 493–507. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1996.tb01110.x
    Westie, F.R. and De Fleur, M.L. (1959). Autonomic responses and their relationship to race attitudes. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58: 340–347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0047847
    Wheeler, L. (1966). Toward a theory of behavioral contagion. Psychological Review, 73: 179–192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0023023
    Wheeler, L., Koestner, R. and Driver, R.E. (1982). Related attributes in the choice of comparison others: It's there, but it isn't all there is. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 18: 489–500. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2882%2990068-3
    Wilder, D.A. (1984). Intergroup contact: the typical member and the exception to the rule. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 20: 177–194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2884%2990019-2
    Wilder, D.A. (1990). Some determinants of the persuasive power of in-groups and out-groups: organization of information and attribution of independence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59: 1202–1213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.59.6.1202
    Wilder, D.A. (1993a). Freezing intergroup evaluations: anxiety fosters resistance to counter-stereotypic information. In M.A.Hogg and D.Abrams (eds), Group Motivation (pp. 68–86). London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Wilder, D.A. (1993b). The role of anxiety in facilitating stereotypic judgment of outgroup behavior. In D.M.Mackie and D.L.Hamilton (eds), Affect, Cognition, and Stereotyping: Interactive Processes in Group Perception (pp. 87–109). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Wilder, D.A. and Shapiro, P.N. (1989a). Effects of anxiety on impression formation in a group context: an anxiety-assimilation hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 25: 481–499. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2889%2990002-4
    Wilder, D.A. and Shapiro, P.N. (1989b). Role of competition induced anxiety in limiting the beneficial impact of positive behavior by an out-group member. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56: 60–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.56.1.60
    Wilder, D.A. and Simon, A.F. (1996). Incidental and integral affect as triggers of stereotyping. In R.M.Sorrentino and E.T.Higgins (eds), Handbook of Motivation and Cognition (Vol. 3, pp. 397–419). New York: Guilford.
    Wilder, D.A. and Thompson, J.E. (1988). Assimilation and contrast effects in the judgments of groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54: 62–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.1.62
    Wittenbrink, B., Judd, C.M. and Park, B. (1997). Evidence for racial prejudice at the implicit level and its relationship with questionnaire measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72: 262–274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.72.2.262
    Worchel, S. (1998). A developmental view of the search for group identity. In S.Worchel, J.Morales, D.Paez and J.-CDeschamps (eds), Social Identity. International Perspectives. (pp. 53–74). London: Sage.
    Worchel, S. (1999). Written in Blood: Ethnic Identity and the Search for Human Harmony. New York: Worth.
    Worchel, S. and Coutant, D. (1997). The tangled web of loyalty: nationalism, patriotism, and ethnocentrism. In D.Bar-Tal and E.Staub (eds), Patriotism in the Life of Individuals and Nations (pp. 190–210). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
    Worchel, S., Andreoli, V.A. and Folger, R. (1977). Intergroup cooperation and intergroup attraction: the effect of previous interaction and outcome of combined effort. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13: 131–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1031%2877%2980006-1
    Worchel, S.Morales, J.Paez, D., Deschamps, J.-C. (eds) (1998). Social Identity. International Perspectives. London: Sage.
    Worchel, S., Rothgerber, H., Day, E., Hart, D. and Butemeyer, J. (1998). Social identity and individual productivity within groups. British Journal of Social Psychology, 37: 389–413. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8309.1998.tb01181.x
    Word, C.O., Zanna, M.P. and Cooper, J. (1974). The nonverbal mediation of self-fulfilling prophecies in interracial interaction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 10: 109–120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2874%2990059-6
    Yzerbyt, V.Y., Leyens, J.-Ph. and Bellour, F. (1995). The ingroup overexclusion effect: identity concerns in decisions about group membership. European Journal of Social Psychology, 25: 1–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420250102
    Zanna, M.P., Detweiler, R.A. and Olson, J.M. (1984). Physiological mediation of attitude maintenance, formation, and change. In W.M.Waid (ed.), Sociophysiology (pp. 163–195). New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-5202-3_7
    Zárate, M.A. and Smith, E.R. (1990). Person categorization and stereotyping. Social Cognition, 8: 161–185.

    Author Index


    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website